WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing human health

  1. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  2. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, T.; Stevenson, H.; Pieters, M.N.; Rennen, M.; Slob, W.; Hakkert, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute toward the further harmonization of human health risk assessment. It first discusses the development of a formal, harmonized set of assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed, that is, the type of

  3. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: a discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire TG; Stevenson H; Pieters MN; Rennen M; Slob W; Hakkert BC; Nederlandse organisatie voor; CSR; LEO; TNO-ITV

    1998-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute towards further harmonisation of the human health risk assessment. It discusses the development of a formal, harmonised set of default assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed. Options are presented

  4. New approaches in human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Khaled; Carlsen, Anders; Rautio, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009-2014; www.arcrisk.eu).

  5. New approaches in human health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abass

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009–2014; www.arcrisk.eu.

  6. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  7. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  8. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  9. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation Variance in Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  10. Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via consumption of some leafy vegetables obtained from four market in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... This result reflected the risk associated with exposure for the period of life expectancy considered, and the inhabitants are highly exposed to health risks ...

  11. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  12. Use of quantitative uncertainty analysis for human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, F.L.W.; Gordon, J.W.; Kelly, M.

    1994-01-01

    Current human health risk assessment method for environmental risks typically use point estimates of risk accompanied by qualitative discussions of uncertainty. Alternatively, Monte Carlo simulations may be used with distributions for input parameters to estimate the resulting risk distribution and descriptive risk percentiles. These two techniques are applied for the ingestion of 1,1=dichloroethene in ground water. The results indicate that Monte Carlo simulations provide significantly more information for risk assessment and risk management than do point estimates

  13. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal

  14. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-09-16

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated.

  15. The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

  16. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  17. Innovative human health and ecological risk assessment techniques at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, S.; Jones, K.; Goller, E.

    1993-01-01

    The open-quotes Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodologyclose quotes (HSBRAM) was developed to enhance the preparation of risk assessments supporting the Hanford site cleanup mission. This methodology satisfies a Hanford federal facility agreement and consent order (tri-party agreement) milestone and is used to evaluate the risk to human health and the environment under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The methodology was prepared by the Hanford Risk Assessment Committee (RAC) consisting of tri-party representatives: the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with associated contractors. The risk assessment guidance provided by EPA is sufficiently general to permit tailoring of specific parameters to meet the risk assessment needs of individual sites. The RAC utilized EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, (RAGS) as the cornerstone of the HSBRAM. The RAC added necessary Hanford-specific elements to construct a complete risk assessment guidance for utilization as an independent document. The HSBRAM is a living document because the RAC charter emphasizes the importance of continued methodology reevaluation. The HSBRAM also provides guidelines for the application of EPA's open-quotes Framework for Ecological Risk Assessmentclose quotes to Hanford-specific environmental baseline risk assessments by including endangered and threatened species in addition to sensitive habitats potentially associated with the Hanford site and guidance for selection of ecotoxicological data. Separate negotiations for the selection of risk parameters for each operable unit were avoided by defining parameters in the HSBRAM. There are 78 past-practice operable units at Hanford requiring risk assessments

  18. Human health risk assessment related to cyanotoxins exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Enzo; Testai, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the risk assessment associated with human exposure to cyanotoxins, secondary metabolites of an ubiquitous group of photosynthetic procariota. Cyanobacteria occur especially in eutrophic inland and coastal surface waters, where under favorable conditions they attain high densities and may form blooms and scums. Cyanotoxins can be grouped according to their biological effects into hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, and toxins with irritating potential, also acting on the gastrointestinal system. The chemical and toxicological properties of the main cyanotoxins, relevant for the evaluation of possible risks for human health, are presented. Humans may be exposed to cyanotoxins via several routes, with the oral one being by far the most important, occurring by ingesting contaminated drinking water, food, some dietary supplements, or water during recreational activities. Acute and short-term toxic effects have been associated in humans with exposure to high levels of cyanotoxins in drinking and bathing waters. However, the chronic exposure to low cyanotoxin levels remains a critical issue. This article identifies the actual risky exposure scenarios, provides toxicologically derived reference values, and discusses open issues and research needs.

  19. Comparative Human Health Impact Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Framework of Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H

    2017-07-01

    For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO 2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Methods to Quantify Uncertainty in Human Health Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aurelius, Lea

    1998-01-01

    ...) and other health professionals, such as the Bioenviroumental Engineer, to identify the appropriate use of probabilistic techniques for a site, and the methods by which probabilistic risk assessment...

  1. Application of epigenetic data in human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Ila L; McCullough, Shaun D; Hines, Ronald N; Vandenberg, John J

    2017-11-06

    Despite the many recent advances in the field of epigenetics, application of this knowledge in environmental health risk assessment has been limited. In this paper, we identify opportunities for application of epigenetic data to support health risk assessment. We consider current applications and present a vision for the future.

  2. Methodology for the assessment of human health risks associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that the aquatic environment can be polluted by contaminates that are accumulated by freshwater fish and this may pose a health risk to the ... bioaccumulation potential and health risks of analytes, sound sampling design, risk assessment procedures and performing monitoring at different scales and ...

  3. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: an unrealized opportunity for environmental health and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Wernham, Aaron

    2008-08-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice.

  4. Human Health Assessment of Alcohol To Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Kerosenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    workplace . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Jet fuels, alternative fuels, synthetic kerosene, JP-8, biobased/bio-based, toxicity/toxicology, alcohol-to-jet, toxicity...ATJ fuels alone, or in a blend with petroleum-derived JP-8, is unlikely to increase human health risks in the military workplace . Therefore, the... pregnancy rate, gestation length, or number of pups per litter. The female-only exposure did result in decreased pup weights in the highest dose group

  5. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem (±2.4) to 0.04 mrem (±0.13) and translate to less than 1 x 10 -6 detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 x 10 -6 detriments to about 1 x 10 -3 detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site

  6. Generic Assessment Criteria for human health risk assessment of potentially contaminated land in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Nathanail, Paul C

    2009-12-20

    Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) are derived using widely applicable assumptions about the characteristics and behaviour of contaminant sources, pathways and receptors. GAC provide nationally consistent guidance, thereby saving money and time. Currently, there are no human health based Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) for contaminated sites in China. Protection of human health is therefore difficult to ensure and demonstrate; and the lack of GAC makes it difficult to tell if there is potential significant risk to human health unless site-specific criteria are derived. This paper derived Chinese GAC (GAC) for five inorganic and eight organic substances for three regions in China for three land uses: urban residential without plant uptake, Chinese cultivated land, and commercial/industrial using the SNIFFER model. The SNIFFER model has been further implemented with a dermal absorption algorithm and the model default input values have been changed to reflect the Chinese exposure scenarios. It is envisaged that the modified SNIFFER model could be used to derive GAC for more contaminants, more Regions, and more land uses. Further research to enhance the reliability and acceptability of the GAC is needed in regional/national surveys in diet and working patterns.

  7. Human Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, Saemi; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the human health risks of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A. The excessive carcinogenic risks for central tendency exposure were 1.40 ? 10?5 for male and female residents in the vicinity of Industrial Complex A. The excessive cancers risk for reasonable maximum exposure were 2.88 ? 10?5 and 1.97 ? 10?5 for males and females, respectively. These values indicate that there are potential cancer risks for exposure to these concentrations. The hazard index for cen...

  8. Human health risk assessment of trichloroethylene from industrial complex a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Saemi; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the human health risks of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A. The excessive carcinogenic risks for central tendency exposure were 1.40 × 10(?5) for male and female residents in the vicinity of Industrial Complex A. The excessive cancers risk for reasonable maximum exposure were 2.88 × 10(?5) and 1.97 × 10(?5) for males and females, respectively. These values indicate that there are potential cancer risks for exposure to these concentrations. The hazard index for central tendency exposure to trichloroethylene was 1.71 for male and female residents. The hazard indexes for reasonable maximum exposure were 3.27 and 2.41 for males and females, respectively. These values were over one, which is equivalent to the threshold value. This result showed that adverse cancer and non-cancer health effects may occur and that some risk management of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A was needed.

  9. Combining environment and health information systems for the assessment of atmospheric pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Andreas N; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-08-01

    The use of emerging technologies for environmental monitoring with satellite and in-situ sensors have become essential instruments for assessing the impact of environmental pollution on human health, especially in areas that require high spatial and temporal resolution. This was until recently a rather difficult problem. Regrettably, with classical approaches the spatial resolution is frequently inadequate in reporting environmental causes and health effects in the same time scale. This work examines with new tools different levels of air-quality with sensor monitoring with the aim to associate those with severe health effects. The process established here facilitates the precise representation of human exposure with the population attributed in a fine spatial grid and taking into account environmental stressors of human exposure. These stressors can be monitored with innovative sensor units with a temporal resolution that accurately describes chronic and acute environmental burdens. The current understanding of the situation in densely populated areas can be properly analyzed, before commitments are made for reductions in total emissions as well as for assessing the effects of reduced trans-boundary fluxes. In addition, the data processed here with in-situ sensors can assist in establishing more effective regulatory policies for the protection of vulnerable population groups and the satellite monitoring instruments permit abatement strategies that are close to real-time over large geographical areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of anthropogen aerosols : influence on environment and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasny, F.

    2010-01-01

    The term aerosol describes a dispersion of liquid or solid particles in a gaseous medium, usually including particles at a size ranging from 0.001 to 100 μm. The size of an aerosol's particle is of special interest, as it influences its fate. Together with other physical properties like shape, density and mass of the particles, it defines the aerosol's possibilities of sedimentation, diffusion, dispersion, coagulation or impaction onto surfaces. As aerosols are by definition composed of a number of particles, this regime of constituent parts varies. Aerosols are well known with their common names such as dust, smoke, fume, fog, mist, spray or haze. The projects of this thesis deal with different aspects of anthropogenic aerosols. We investigated their influence on human health and environmental impact by looking at particle concentrations and size distributions of aerosols. Ultimately, we examined their fate in a human lung model to reveal a direct influence on humans. Our studies included brine inhalation at an open-air spa, exposure to ultrafine particles while driving a car through a heavy impacted environment, and the influence of aerosols on spectators while watching fireworks. In a project with the local environmental authorities we investigated the correlation of air quality, meteorological and traffic data with ultrafine particles. Resulting from our studies, we found beneficial effects of salt aerosols used for inhalation therapy, showing the positive influence in lung deposition, as well as, an effect on ultrafine particle inventory of the ambient air. Combustion aerosols and other man-made particulate matter proved to have adverse effects on human lung deposition, allowing ultrafine particles to reach deep into the human lung. This not only poses a threat to respiratory organs; particles can be translocated from the respiratory tract into the blood stream and from there to other organs, affecting the entire body. For the purpose of finding reasonable

  11. Comparison of models used for ecological risk assessment and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryti, R.T.; Gallegos, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Models are used to derive action levels for site screening, or to estimate potential ecological or human health risks posed by potentially hazardous sites. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is RCRA-regulated, the human-health screening action levels are based on hazardous constituents described in RCRA Subpart S and RESRAD-derived soil guidelines (based on 10 mRem/year) for radiological constituents. Also, an ecological risk screening model was developed for a former firing site, where the primary constituents include depleted uranium, beryllium and lead. Sites that fail the screening models are evaluated with site-specific human risk assessment (using RESRAD and other approaches) and a detailed ecological effect model (ECOTRAN). ECOTRAN is based on pharmacokinetics transport modeling within a multitrophic-level biological-growth dynamics model. ECOTRAN provides detailed temporal records of contaminant concentrations in biota, and annual averages of these body burdens are compared to equivalent site-specific runs of the RESRAD model. The results show that thoughtful interpretation of the results of these models must be applied before they can be used for evaluation of current risk posed by sites and the benefits of various remedial options. This presentation compares the concentrations of biological media in the RESRAD screening runs to the concentrations in ecological endpoints predicted by the ecological screening model. The assumptions and limitations of these screening models and the decision process where these are screening models are applied are discussed

  12. Leveraging human genetic and adverse outcome pathway (AOP) data to inform susceptibility in human health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of susceptibility differences in human health risk assessment (HHRA) has been challenged by a lack of available susceptibility and variability data after exposure to a specific environmental chemical or pharmaceutical. With the increasingly large number of available da...

  13. Reproducibility and Transparency of Omics Research - Impacts on Human Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omics technologies are becoming more widely used in toxicology, necessitating their consideration in human health hazard and risk assessment programs. Today, risk assessors in the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicologi...

  14. [Assessing the impact of the environment on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marine

    2016-05-01

    In public health, nurses are concerned with the global health of populations. A recently qualified nurse, interested in this area of health, enhanced her skills with a master's degree specialising in the links between the environment and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanotechnology and health safety--toxicity and risk assessments of nanostructured materials on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2007-09-01

    The field of nanotechnology has recently emerged as the most commercially viable technology of this century because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Man-made nanostructured materials such as fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanopowders, nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, nanofibers, quantum dots, dendrimers, nanoclusters, nanocrystals, and nanocomposites are globally produced in large quantities due to their wide potential applications, e.g., in skincare and consumer products, healthcare, electronics, photonics, biotechnology, engineering products, pharmaceuticals, drug delivery, and agriculture. Human exposure to these nanostructured materials is inevitable, as they can enter the body through the lungs or other organs via food, drink, and medicine and affect different organs and tissues such as the brain, liver, kidney, heart, colon, spleen, bone, blood, etc., and may cause cytotoxic effects, e.g., deformation and inhibition of cell growth leading to various diseases in humans and animals. Since a very wide variety of nanostructured materials exits, their interactions with biological systems and toxicity largely depend upon their properties, such as size, concentration, solubility, chemical and biological properties, and stability. The toxicity of nanostructured materials could be reduced by chemical approaches such by surface treatment, functionalization, and composite formation. This review summarizes the sources of various nanostructured materials and their human exposure, biocompatibility in relation to potential toxicological effects, risk assessment, and safety evaluation on human and animal health as well as on the environment.

  16. Human health risks analysis: assessment of health costs of energy related pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Grahn, D.; Lundy, R.T.; Brown, C.D.; Curtiss, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains a summary of research on the assessment of health costs of energy related pollutants. It includes the development of new statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases relevant to the assessment

  17. Factors for assessment of human health risk associated with remedial action at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.E.; King, C.M.; Looney, B.B.; Holmes, W.G.; Gordon, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A risk assessment strategy that is cost effective and minimized human health risks was developed for closure of hazardous waste sites at the Savannah River Plant. The strategy consists of (1) site characterization, (2) contaminant transport modeling, and (3) determination of relative merits of alternative remedial actions according to the degree of health protection they provide

  18. 76 FR 12963 - Request for Information (NOT-ES-11-007): Needs and Approaches for Assessing the Human Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (NOT-ES-11-007): Needs and Approaches for Assessing the Human Health Impacts of Exposure to Mixtures AGENCY: National Institutes of... analyzes its findings to assess potential hazards to human health from exposure to environmental substances...

  19. Thoracic and respirable particle definitions for human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James S; Gordon, Terry; Price, Owen; Asgharian, Bahman

    2013-04-10

    Particle size-selective sampling refers to the collection of particles of varying sizes that potentially reach and adversely affect specific regions of the respiratory tract. Thoracic and respirable fractions are defined as the fraction of inhaled particles capable of passing beyond the larynx and ciliated airways, respectively, during inhalation. In an attempt to afford greater protection to exposed individuals, current size-selective sampling criteria overestimate the population means of particle penetration into regions of the lower respiratory tract. The purpose of our analyses was to provide estimates of the thoracic and respirable fractions for adults and children during typical activities with both nasal and oral inhalation, that may be used in the design of experimental studies and interpretation of health effects evidence. We estimated the fraction of inhaled particles (0.5-20 μm aerodynamic diameter) penetrating beyond the larynx (based on experimental data) and ciliated airways (based on a mathematical model) for an adult male, adult female, and a 10 yr old child during typical daily activities and breathing patterns. Our estimates show less penetration of coarse particulate matter into the thoracic and gas exchange regions of the respiratory tract than current size-selective criteria. Of the parameters we evaluated, particle penetration into the lower respiratory tract was most dependent on route of breathing. For typical activity levels and breathing habits, we estimated a 50% cut-size for the thoracic fraction at an aerodynamic diameter of around 3 μm in adults and 5 μm in children, whereas current ambient and occupational criteria suggest a 50% cut-size of 10 μm. By design, current size-selective sample criteria overestimate the mass of particles generally expected to penetrate into the lower respiratory tract to provide protection for individuals who may breathe orally. We provide estimates of thoracic and respirable fractions for a variety of

  20. Final report to Halifax Harbour Cleanup Inc. on human health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This assessment evaluates the potential of the proposed Halifax Harbor primary sewage treatment plant to meet the objective of the protection and improvement of human health. The assessment was made of a plant which would include an outfall within the inner harbor and a series of outlets designed to handle high flow conditions due to storm events. The assessment focuses on the potential human health effects of microbiological pathogenic organisms, chemical elements, and chemical compounds for three principal uses of the harbor: recreational use in which people have direct contact with the water; consumption of shellfish; and consumption of lobster. The assessment includes hazard characterization, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, risk characterization, a discussion of the assumptions used and their implications, and a prediction of the sewage treatment facility performance.

  1. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Backhaus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    to enable human health risk assessments (HHRA) that focus on the role of the environment in the failure of antibiotic treatment caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop held 4-8 March 2012 in Québec, Canada, to define the scope and objectives...... of an environmental assessment of antibiotic-resistance risks to human health. We focused on key elements of environmental-resistance-development "hot spots," exposure assessment (unrelated to food), and dose response to characterize risks that may improve antibiotic-resistance management options. Discussion: Various...... novel aspects to traditional risk assessments were identified to enable an assessment of environmental antibiotic resistance. These include a) accounting for an added selective pressure on the environmental resistome that, over time, allows for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB); b...

  2. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2008-0850; FRL-8886-6] Chlorpyrifos Registration... chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document extends the comment... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This document extends the public comment period for the chlorpyrifos reregistration...

  3. Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish consumption from coastal area of Tanzania. ... The result shows that the concentration and THQ of As in all fish samples ranges from 1.173 – 2.325 which is > 1, hence signified that a daily exposure at this level are in risk of cancer during a person lifetime.

  4. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Here we present possible approaches and identify research needs to enable human health risk assessments that focus on the role the environment plays in antibiotic treatment failure of patients. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop sub-committee to define t...

  5. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization

  6. Ecological and human health sediment risk assessment for a hydrocarbon-impacted site in Lake Athabasca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, B.; Wagenaar, A.; LaPorte, J.; Misfeldt, G.; Chatwell, I.

    2009-01-01

    The operation of a public port facility near Uranium City, Saskatchewan has resulted in elevated levels of hydrocarbons in soil, groundwater and sediment. Remedial action in the uplands portion of the site was successful and a risk management approach was initiated for the aquatic portion of the site in order to resolve human health and ecological issues. Ecological risks were assessed using a sediment weight-of-evidence approach involving chemistry, toxicity, bioaccumulation and benthic community structure. Human health risks were assessed via fish consumption, water ingestion and direct contact according to Health Canada guidance. This presentation included an overview of the general risk assessment approach as well as site-specific data and findings. The primary focus was on the challenges confronted during the risk assessment process, such as the need to include alkylated PAHs as a COPC in the human health risk assessment and to evaluate ongoing propeller wash and sediment resuspension for sediment risk management, even though the facility is no longer operational.

  7. A new framework for assessing river ecosystem health with consideration of human service demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zengliang; Zuo, Qiting; Shao, Quanxi

    2018-06-01

    In order to study river health status from harmonic relationship between human and natural environment, a river health evaluation method was proposed from the aspects of ecosystem integrity and human service demand, and the understanding of river health connotation. The proposed method is based on the harmony theory and two types of river health assessment methods (the forecasting model and index evaluation). A new framework for assessing river water health was then formed from the perspective of harmony and dynamic evolution between human service demand and river ecosystem integrity. As a case study, the method and framework were applied to the Shaying River Basin, a tributary of the most polluted Huaihe River Basin in China. The health status of the river's ecosystem and its effect on the mainstream of Huaihe River were evaluated based on water ecological experiment. The results indicated that: (1) the water ecological environment in Shaying River was generally poor and showed a gradual changing pattern along the river. The river health levels were generally "medium" in the upstream but mostly "sub-disease" in the midstream and downstream, indicating that the water pollution in Shaying River were mainly concentrated in the midstream and downstream; (2) the water pollution of Shaying River had great influence on the ecosystem of Huaihe River, and the main influencing factors were TN, followed by TP and COD Mn ; (3) the natural attribute of river was transferring toward to the direction of socialization due to the increasing human activities. The stronger the human activity intervention is, the faster the transfer will be and the more river's attributes will match with human service demand. The proposed framework contributes to the research in water ecology and environment management, and the research results can serve as an important reference for basin management in Shaying River and Huaihe River. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, B.F.; Bronson, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  9. Nitrate and nitrite in the diet: how to assess their benefit and risk for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Michael; Roth, Angelika; Guth, Sabine; Diel, Patrick; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Epe, Bernd; Fürst, Peter; Heinz, Volker; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Knorr, Dietrich; de Kok, Theo; Kulling, Sabine; Lampen, Alfonso; Marko, Doris; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Rietjens, Ivonne; Stadler, Richard H; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Rudi; Steinberg, Pablo; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet and an approved food additive. It can be partially converted to nitrogen monoxide, which induces vasodilation and thereby decreases blood pressure. This effect is associated with a reduced risk regarding cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Moreover, dietary nitrate has been associated with beneficial effects in patients with gastric ulcer, renal failure, or metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicate that such beneficial health effects due to dietary nitrate may be achievable at intake levels resulting from the daily consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables. N-nitroso compounds are endogenously formed in humans. However, their relevance for human health has not been adequately explored up to now. Nitrate and nitrite are per se not carcinogenic, but under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation, it cannot be excluded that ingested nitrate and nitrite may lead to an increased cancer risk and may probably be carcinogenic to humans. In this review, the known beneficial and detrimental health effects related to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are described and the identified gaps in knowledge as well as the research needs required to perform a reliable benefit/risk assessment in terms of long-term human health consequences due to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Actual problems of environmental factors risk assessment on human health and ways to improve it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Rakhmanin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of global trends and new areas of health risk assessment and analysis methodology caused by exposure to chemicals, environmental pollutants, and the contemporary issues of national assessment methodology. Most details are considered: risk assessment evidence base, modern methods and problems of carcinogenic risk assessment, hygienic regulation based on risk assessment, the economic aspects of the methodology. Particular attention is paid to reasons of recent years perceived gaps in the Russian methodological basis of the best foreign samples. The urgent measures to improve the national risk assessment methodology are proposed, the main of which are: legislative consolidation of the basic concepts of risk assessment, a further update of the methodology and the practice of hygienic regulation on the basis of risk assessment, improving the valuation of damage to human health, the tightening of the requirements to the developed regulatory guidance documents on risk assessment, as well as to the training and retraining of personnel in the risk assessment.

  11. Comprehensive Assessment of Human Health Impacts and Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables in a LCA Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional effects from the 'use stage' of the life cycle of food products can have a substantial effect on human health; yet, they are often not considered in life cycle assessment (LCA). In this study we explore the trade-offs between environmental and nutritional health effects associated wit...... be extended to other human health impacts (e.g. water use) and used in making sustainable diets decisions.[GRAPHICS]...... diet could result in an avoided health impact of 19.0 mu DALY (respective avoided impact for vegetables: 5.25 mu DALY). Overall, adding one fruits serving to the average US diet may lead to substantial health benefits: nutrition-related avoided impact (benefit) is 50 times higher than environmental...... health impacts (Figure 2). The benefit is slightly enhanced when increased fruit intake is substituted by food associated with adverse health outcomes, such as trans-fat and red meat, with the benefit mainly linked to avoided nutritional health impact. Benefits exceed impacts even when considering...

  12. Pharmaceuticals in tap water: human health risk assessment and proposed monitoring framework in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Wei, Si; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Zhou, Bingsheng; Jiao, Liping; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan; Murphy, Margaret Burkhardt; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ ≥ 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere.

  13. Multi-Disciplinary Knowledge Synthesis for Human Health Assessment on Earth and in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G.

    We discuss methodological developments in multi-disciplinary knowledge synthesis (KS) of human health assessment. A theoretical KS framework can provide the rational means for the assimilation of various information bases (general, site-specific etc.) that are relevant to the life system of interest. KS-based techniques produce a realistic representation of the system, provide a rigorous assessment of the uncertainty sources, and generate informative health state predictions across space-time. The underlying epistemic cognition methodology is based on teleologic criteria and stochastic logic principles. The mathematics of KS involves a powerful and versatile spatiotemporal random field model that accounts rigorously for the uncertainty features of the life system and imposes no restriction on the shape of the probability distributions or the form of the predictors. KS theory is instrumental in understanding natural heterogeneities, assessing crucial human exposure correlations and laws of physical change, and explaining toxicokinetic mechanisms and dependencies in a spatiotemporal life system domain. It is hoped that a better understanding of KS fundamentals would generate multi-disciplinary models that are useful for the maintenance of human health on Earth and in Space.

  14. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Dose–Response Assessment of Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slob, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Background When chemical health hazards have been identified, probabilistic dose–response assessment (“hazard characterization”) quantifies uncertainty and/or variability in toxicity as a function of human exposure. Existing probabilistic approaches differ for different types of endpoints or modes-of-action, lacking a unifying framework. Objectives We developed a unified framework for probabilistic dose–response assessment. Methods We established a framework based on four principles: a) individual and population dose responses are distinct; b) dose–response relationships for all (including quantal) endpoints can be recast as relating to an underlying continuous measure of response at the individual level; c) for effects relevant to humans, “effect metrics” can be specified to define “toxicologically equivalent” sizes for this underlying individual response; and d) dose–response assessment requires making adjustments and accounting for uncertainty and variability. We then derived a step-by-step probabilistic approach for dose–response assessment of animal toxicology data similar to how nonprobabilistic reference doses are derived, illustrating the approach with example non-cancer and cancer datasets. Results Probabilistically derived exposure limits are based on estimating a “target human dose” (HDMI), which requires risk management–informed choices for the magnitude (M) of individual effect being protected against, the remaining incidence (I) of individuals with effects ≥ M in the population, and the percent confidence. In the example datasets, probabilistically derived 90% confidence intervals for HDMI values span a 40- to 60-fold range, where I = 1% of the population experiences ≥ M = 1%–10% effect sizes. Conclusions Although some implementation challenges remain, this unified probabilistic framework can provide substantially more complete and transparent characterization of chemical hazards and support better-informed risk

  15. Critical elements for human health risk assessment of less than lifetime exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Nijkamp, Monique M; Ter Burg, Wouter

    2016-11-01

    Less than lifetime exposure has confronted risk assessors as to how to interpret the risks for human health in case a chronic health-based limit is exceeded. Intermittent, fluctuating and peak exposures do not match with the basis of the chronic limit values possibly leading to conservative outcomes. This paper presents guidance on how to deal with human risk assessment of less than lifetime exposure. Important steps to be considered are characterization of the human exposure situation, evaluation whether the human less than lifetime exposure scenario corresponds to a non-chronic internal exposure: toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic considerations, and, finally, re-evaluation of the risk assessment. Critical elements for these steps are the mode of action, Haber's rule, and toxicokinetics (ADME) amongst others. Previous work for the endpoints non-genotoxic carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity is included in the guidance. The guidance provides a way to consider the critical elements, without setting default factors to correct for the less than lifetime exposure in risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: CSIR’S environmental human health risk assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental health risk assessment deals with risks associated with manmade and natural environmental hazards. Environmental health risk assessment provides a means of estimating the probability of adverse health effects associated with hazards...

  17. Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) for Environmental Development and Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, Alejandro; Backhaus, Thomas; Borriello, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Collignon, Peter; Coors, Anja; Finley, Rita; Gaze, William H.; Heberer, Thomas; Lawrence, John R.; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; McEwen, Scott A.; Ryan, James J.; Schönfeld, Jens; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R.; Van den Eede, Christel; Topp, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: Only recently has the environment been clearly implicated in the risk of antibiotic resistance to clinical outcome, but to date there have been few documented approaches to formally assess these risks. Objective: We examined possible approaches and sought to identify research needs to enable human health risk assessments (HHRA) that focus on the role of the environment in the failure of antibiotic treatment caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop held 4–8 March 2012 in Québec, Canada, to define the scope and objectives of an environmental assessment of antibiotic-resistance risks to human health. We focused on key elements of environmental-resistance-development “hot spots,” exposure assessment (unrelated to food), and dose response to characterize risks that may improve antibiotic-resistance management options. Discussion: Various novel aspects to traditional risk assessments were identified to enable an assessment of environmental antibiotic resistance. These include a) accounting for an added selective pressure on the environmental resistome that, over time, allows for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB); b) identifying and describing rates of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the relevant environmental “hot spot” compartments; and c) modifying traditional dose–response approaches to address doses of ARB for various health outcomes and pathways. Conclusions: We propose that environmental aspects of antibiotic-resistance development be included in the processes of any HHRA addressing ARB. Because of limited available data, a multicriteria decision analysis approach would be a useful way to undertake an HHRA of environmental antibiotic resistance that informs risk managers. Citation: Ashbolt NJ, Amézquita A, Backhaus T, Borriello P, Brandt KK, Collignon P, Coors A, Finley R, Gaze WH, Heberer T, Lawrence JR, Larsson DG, McEwen SA, Ryan JJ, Schönfeld J, Silley P, Snape JR

  18. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in wheat using different water qualities: implication for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Rehman, Sidrah; Siddique, Samra; Bashir, Humayun; Zafar, Asma; Sohail, Muhammad; Ali, Salem Alhajj; Cazzato, Eugenio; De Mastro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, the use of sewage water for irrigation has attracted the attention of arid and semi-arid countries where the availability of fresh water is poor. Despite the potential use of sewage water in crop irrigation as effective and sustainable strategy, the environmental and human risks behind this use need to be deeply investigated. In this regard, an experiment was carried out under field conditions in Nursery, University College of Agriculture Sargodha, to evaluate the possible health risks of undesirable metals in wheat grains. Wheat variety Sarang was cultivated and irrigated with different combinations of ground (GW) and sewage water (SW). The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb) and trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Fe) in wheat grains as well as in soil were determined. Moreover, the pollution load index (PLI), accumulation factor (AF), daily intake of metals (DIM), and health risk index (HRI) were calculated. Results showed that the concentration trend of heavy metals was Pbmetals, Cd concentration in wheat exceeded the permissible limits regardless water quality, whereas Pb concentration in grain was within the acceptable levels as suggested by World Health Organization, when 100 % of SW was used for irrigation. Similar observation was reported for Cd concentration in the soil when wheat was irrigated with 100 % SW. In comparison to soil, the edible part of wheat presented lower concentration of all studied metals, except for Zn which was much higher compared to the tested soil samples. The higher concentration of Zn was responsible for increasing the DIM of Zn where, in average, the highest value was reported, particularly in 75 % SW treatment. This was reflected also in HRI where the maximum value was reported for Zinc under the same treatment. Higher value of HRI for wheat cultivated on polluted soils suggested that appropriate management of cultivated area is necessary for food safety and thus for public health. The results

  19. Acid sulfate soils and human health--a Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Karin; Maley, Fiona; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-11-01

    Acid sulfate soils have been described as the "nastiest soils on earth" because of their strong acidity, increased mobility of potentially toxic elements and limited bioavailability of nutrients. They only cover a small area of the world's total problem soils, but often have significant adverse effects on agriculture, aquaculture and the environment on a local scale. Their location often coincides with high population density areas along the coasts of many developing countries. As a result, their negative impacts on ecosystems can have serious implications to those least equipped for coping with the low crop yields and reduced water quality that can result from acid sulfate soil disturbance. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment called on by the United Nations in 2000 emphasised the importance of ecosystems for human health and well-being. These include the service they provide as sources of food and water, through the control of pollution and disease, as well as for the cultural services ecosystems provide. While the problems related to agriculture, aquaculture and the environment have been the focus of many acid sulfate soil management efforts, the connection to human health has largely been ignored. This paper presents the potential health issues of acid sulfate soils, in relation to the ecosystem services identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. It is recognised that significant implications on food security and livelihood can result, as well as on community cohesiveness and the spread of vector-borne disease. However, the connection between these outcomes and acid sulfate soils is often not obvious and it is therefore argued that the impact of such soils on human well-being needs to be recognised in order to raise awareness among the public and decision makers, to in turn facilitate proper management and avoid potential human ill-health.

  20. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment

  1. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  2. Uncertainties in human health risk assessment of environmental contaminants: A review and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaomin; Liu, Yanju; Duan, Luchun; Bekele, Dawit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Addressing uncertainties in human health risk assessment is a critical issue when evaluating the effects of contaminants on public health. A range of uncertainties exist through the source-to-outcome continuum, including exposure assessment, hazard and risk characterisation. While various strategies have been applied to characterising uncertainty, classical approaches largely rely on how to maximise the available resources. Expert judgement, defaults and tools for characterising quantitative uncertainty attempt to fill the gap between data and regulation requirements. The experiences of researching 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) illustrated uncertainty sources and how to maximise available information to determine uncertainties, and thereby provide an 'adequate' protection to contaminant exposure. As regulatory requirements and recurring issues increase, the assessment of complex scenarios involving a large number of chemicals requires more sophisticated tools. Recent advances in exposure and toxicology science provide a large data set for environmental contaminants and public health. In particular, biomonitoring information, in vitro data streams and computational toxicology are the crucial factors in the NexGen risk assessment, as well as uncertainties minimisation. Although in this review we cannot yet predict how the exposure science and modern toxicology will develop in the long-term, current techniques from emerging science can be integrated to improve decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioaccessibility and human health risk assessment of lead in soil from Daye City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, F.; Xiao, M. S.; Cai, Y.; Xiong, L.; Huang, J. B.; Fu, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    Lead (Pb) in soil from 4 sampling sites of Daye City was studied. Bioaccessibilities of Pb in soil were determined by the method of simplified bioaccessible extraction test (SBET). Since traditional health risk assessment was built on the basis of metal total content, the risk may be overestimated. Modified human health risk assessment model considering bioaccessibility was built in this study. Health risk of adults and children exposure to Pb based on total contents and bioaccessible contents were evaluated. The results showed that bioaccessible content of Pb in soil was much lower than its total content, and the average bioaccessible factor (BF) was only 25.37%. The hazard indexes (HIs) for adults and children calculated by two methods were all lower than 1. It indicated that there were no no-carcinogenic risks of Pb for human in Daye. By comparing with the results, the average bioaccessible HIs for adults and children were lower than the total one, which was due to the lower hazard quotient (HQ). Proportions of non-carcinogenic risk exposure to Pb via different pathways have also changed. Particularly, the most main risk exposure pathway for adults turned from the oral ingestion to the inhalation.

  4. Human health considerations in the assessment of Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baweja, A.S.; Tracy, B.L.; Ahier, B.; Bartlett, S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1978, AECL was mandated by the government of Ontario and the federal government to find a permanent disposal solution for spent nuclear fuels. Canada opted for disposal in plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield. The Canadian concept calls for disposal in crystalline rocks at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface. The spent fuel would be contained in a canister, the canister would be emplaced in a vault containing clay-based buffer materials, and the cavity would be backfilled and sealed with natural materials. A Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel was formed in 1992 to assess the concept for disposal of the spent fuel. In this paper a brief discussion of the human health impacts of the proposed concept is presented. Our assessment is based on the information provided by AECL, namely, the main EIS document, a summary and nine other supporting documents

  5. Quantitative meta-analytic approaches for the analysis of animal toxicology and epidemiologic data in human health risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Often, human health risk assessments have relied on qualitative approaches for hazard identification to integrate evidence across multiple studies to conclude whether particular hazards exist. However, quantitative approaches for evidence integration, including the application o...

  6. Probabilistic assessment factors for human health risk assessment - A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire T; Pieters M; Rennen M; Bos P; CSR

    2001-01-01

    Dit rapport is een practische gids voor de toepassing van probabilistische verdelingen van default assessment factoren in risicobeoordelingen voor de mens. RIVM en TNO ontwikkelden het gebruik van probabilistische assessment factoren als eerste stap naar nationale en internaitonale harmonisatie.

  7. Human Health Risk Assessment: A case study application of principles in dose response assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case study application workshop will build on fundamental concepts and techniques in risk assessment presented and archived at previous TRAC meeting workshops. Practical examples from publicly available, peer reviewed risk assessments will be used as teaching aids. Course ...

  8. Environmental Modeling and Bayesian Analysis for Assessing Human Health Impacts from Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, T.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Catlett, K.

    2004-12-01

    Bayesian decision analysis provides a unified framework for coherent decision-making. Two key components of Bayesian decision analysis are probability distributions and utility functions. Calculating posterior distributions and performing decision analysis can be computationally challenging, especially for complex environmental models. In addition, probability distributions and utility functions for environmental models must be specified through expert elicitation, stakeholder consensus, or data collection, all of which have their own set of technical and political challenges. Nevertheless, a grand appeal of the Bayesian approach for environmental decision- making is the explicit treatment of uncertainty, including expert judgment. The impact of expert judgment on the environmental decision process, though integral, goes largely unassessed. Regulations and orders of the Environmental Protection Agency, Department Of Energy, and Nuclear Regulatory Agency orders require assessing the impact on human health of radioactive waste contamination over periods of up to ten thousand years. Towards this end complex environmental simulation models are used to assess "risk" to human and ecological health from migration of radioactive waste. As the computational burden of environmental modeling is continually reduced probabilistic process modeling using Monte Carlo simulation is becoming routinely used to propagate uncertainty from model inputs through model predictions. The utility of a Bayesian approach to environmental decision-making is discussed within the context of a buried radioactive waste example. This example highlights the desirability and difficulties of merging the cost of monitoring, the cost of the decision analysis, the cost and viability of clean up, and the probability of human health impacts within a rigorous decision framework.

  9. Nano-TiO₂--feasibility and challenges for human health risk assessment based on open literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Frans M; Johnston, Helinor J; Stone, Vicki; Aitken, Robert J; Hankin, Steve; Peters, Sheona; Aschberger, Karin

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at investigating feasibility and challenges associated with conducting a human health risk assessment for nano-titanium-dioxide (nano-TiO₂) based on the open literature by following an approach similar to a classical regulatory risk assessment. Gaps in the available data set, both in relation to exposures and hazard, do not allow reaching any definite conclusions that could be used for regulatory decision-making. Results show that repeated inhalation in the workplace and possibly consumer inhalation may cause risks. Also short-term inhalation following spray applications may cause risks. Main future work should focus on generating occupational and consumer inhalation exposure data, as well as toxicity data on absorption following inhalation, repeated dermal contact, and contact with damaged skin. Also relevant seems further information on possible neurotoxicity and genotoxicity/carcinogenicity, as well as establishing a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for acute inhalation of nano-TiO₂.

  10. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  11. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Occupational stress and assessment of human resources in health: from assessment to the changing process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzoni, P; Tangolo, D; Zotti, A M

    2004-01-01

    Health professionals are at risk for occupational stress, as confirmed by diverse sources including the Italian legislative decree, D.L. 626/94, the Health Promoting Hospital of the World Health Organization, and the Ottawa Charter. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitatively and qualitatively the principal sources of stress in the work environment and the resources, both individual and organizational, that health professionals feel they possess to cope with it. The instruments utilized for the first quantitative phase were: the Maslach Burn out Inventory, the Job Content Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation and Team Climate Inventory. The study population consisted of 224 subjects belonging to the nursing profession (nurses-in-charge of ward, specialized and general nurses), working in the community and in hospital. The results show medium levels of burn out, and coping strategies that are primarily oriented towards a direct solution of the stressful situation. Vision is a critical aspect, ie. a clear perception of institutional choices and goals is lacking. The administration and analysis of the questionnaires was followed by a second phase in which, by means of the focus group methodology, the results were qualitatively analyzed and the health professionals stimulated to an active and pro-positive approach in the search for solutions to the critical situations.

  13. Establishing the importance of human health risk assessment for metals and metalloids in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development, industrialisation, and urbanisation have resulted in serious contamination of soil by metals and metalloids from anthropogenic sources in many areas of the world, either directly or indirectly. Exponential urban and economic development has resulted in human populations settling in urban areas and as a result being exposed to these pollutants. Depending on the nature of the contaminant, contaminated urban soils can have a deleterious effect on the health of exposed populations and may require decontamination, recovery, remediation and restoration. Therefore, human health risk assessments in urban environments are very important. In the case of Spain, there are few studies regarding risk assessment of trace elements in urban soils, and those that exist have been derived mainly from areas potentially exposed to industrial contamination or in the vicinity of point pollution. The present study analysed Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, V and Zn soil concentrations in and around the city of Alcalá de Henares (35 km NE of Madrid). Soil samples were collected in public parks and recreation areas within the city and in an industrial area on the periphery of the city. From these results, an assessment of the health risk for the population was performed following the methodology described by the US EPA (1989). In general, it was observed that there could be a potential increased risk of developing cancer over a lifetime from exposure to arsenic (As) through ingestion of the soils studied (oral intake), as well as an increased risk of cancer due to inhalation of chromium (Cr) present in re-suspended soils from the industrial area. Our group has previously reported (Granero and Domingo, 2002; Peña-Fernández et al., 2003) that there was an increased risk of developing cancer following exposure to As in the same soils in a previous study. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the levels of contaminants in these soils, especially As and Cr

  14. A Unified Probabilistic Framework for Dose-Response Assessment of Human Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A; Slob, Wout

    2015-12-01

    When chemical health hazards have been identified, probabilistic dose-response assessment ("hazard characterization") quantifies uncertainty and/or variability in toxicity as a function of human exposure. Existing probabilistic approaches differ for different types of endpoints or modes-of-action, lacking a unifying framework. We developed a unified framework for probabilistic dose-response assessment. We established a framework based on four principles: a) individual and population dose responses are distinct; b) dose-response relationships for all (including quantal) endpoints can be recast as relating to an underlying continuous measure of response at the individual level; c) for effects relevant to humans, "effect metrics" can be specified to define "toxicologically equivalent" sizes for this underlying individual response; and d) dose-response assessment requires making adjustments and accounting for uncertainty and variability. We then derived a step-by-step probabilistic approach for dose-response assessment of animal toxicology data similar to how nonprobabilistic reference doses are derived, illustrating the approach with example non-cancer and cancer datasets. Probabilistically derived exposure limits are based on estimating a "target human dose" (HDMI), which requires risk management-informed choices for the magnitude (M) of individual effect being protected against, the remaining incidence (I) of individuals with effects ≥ M in the population, and the percent confidence. In the example datasets, probabilistically derived 90% confidence intervals for HDMI values span a 40- to 60-fold range, where I = 1% of the population experiences ≥ M = 1%-10% effect sizes. Although some implementation challenges remain, this unified probabilistic framework can provide substantially more complete and transparent characterization of chemical hazards and support better-informed risk management decisions.

  15. Vulnerability assessment of urban ecosystems driven by water resources, human health and atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Lu, Hongwei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xinshuang; He, Li

    2016-05-01

    As ecosystem management is a hotspot and urgent topic with increasing population growth and resource depletion. This paper develops an urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment method representing a new vulnerability paradigm for decision makers and environmental managers, as it's an early warning system to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes in terms of natural, human, economic and social elements. The whole idea is to decompose a complex problem into sub-problem, and analyze each sub-problem, and then aggregate all sub-problems to solve this problem. This method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators, and socio-economic elements. Decision makers can find out relevant urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitude. To test the potential of the vulnerability methodology, it has been applied to a case study area in Beijing, China, where it proved to be reliable and consistent with the Beijing City Master Plan. The results of urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment can support decision makers in evaluating the necessary of taking specific measures to preserve the quality of human health and environmental stressors for a city or multiple cities, with identifying the implications and consequences of their decisions.

  16. Characterizing pollutant emissions from mosquito repellents incenses and implications in risk assessment of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Zheng, Xinran; Stevanovic, Svetlana; Xiang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jing; Shi, Huiwen; Liu, Jing; Yu, Mingzhou; Zhu, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Mosquito-repellent incense is one of the most popular products used for dispelling mosquitos during summer in China. It releases large amounts of particulate and gaseous pollutants which constitute a potential hazard to human health. We conducted chamber experiment to characterize major pollutants from three types of mosquito-repellent incenses, further assessed the size-fractionated deposition in human respiratory system, and evaluated the indoor removing efficiency by fresh air. Results showed that the released pollutant concentrations were greater than permissible levels in regulations in GB3095-2012, as well as suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). Formaldehyde accounted for 10-20% of the total amount of pollutants. Fine particles dominated in the total particulate concentrations. Geometric standard deviation (GSD) of particle number size distributions was in the range of 1.45-1.93. Count median diameter (CMD) ranged from 100 to 500 nm. Emission rates, burning rates and emission factors of both particulate and gaseous pollutants were compared and discussed. The deposition fractions in pulmonary airway from the disc solid types reached up to 52.7% of the total deposition, and the largest deposition appeared on juvenile group. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modellings indicated air-conditioner on and windows closed was the worst case. The highest concentration was 180-200 times over the standard limit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical......The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the groundwater-surface water interaction zone. A gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of evaluating and prioritising point sources...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...

  18. CADMIUM IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS: AN INPUT TO ASSESS HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ceci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium concentrations has been evaluated in Octopus vulgaris sampled from two sites of Apulian coast (South Italy and compared with import cephalopods to estimate if maximum levels of cadmium established for these organisms by the European Commission were exceed. In all local samples mean cadmium concentrations were higher in hepatopancreas than in flesh, this is an important evaluation if consider the traditional and unusual consumption in certain population of Mediterranean region of raw and whole cephalopods. The cadmium estimated weekly intake for whole cephalopods between 2,25 and 2,84 g Kg -1 of body weight underlines the necessity to determine the real risk and implications for public health through a correct assessment of contribution made by this specie among certain consumers group to the TWI set by the EFSA. A particular attention from competent authorities to prevent human toxicity is required.

  19. Placenta Maps: In Utero Placental Health Assessment of the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haichao; Mistelbauer, Gabriel; Karimov, Alexey; Alansary, Amir; Davidson, Alice; Lloyd, David F A; Damodaram, Mellisa; Story, Lisa; Hutter, Jana; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rutherford, Mary; Preim, Bernhard; Kainz, Bernhard; Groller, M Eduard

    2017-06-01

    The human placenta is essential for the supply of the fetus. To monitor the fetal development, imaging data is acquired using (US). Although it is currently the gold-standard in fetal imaging, it might not capture certain abnormalities of the placenta. (MRI) is a safe alternative for the in utero examination while acquiring the fetus data in higher detail. Nevertheless, there is currently no established procedure for assessing the condition of the placenta and consequently the fetal health. Due to maternal respiration and inherent movements of the fetus during examination, a quantitative assessment of the placenta requires fetal motion compensation, precise placenta segmentation and a standardized visualization, which are challenging tasks. Utilizing advanced motion compensation and automatic segmentation methods to extract the highly versatile shape of the placenta, we introduce a novel visualization technique that presents the fetal and maternal side of the placenta in a standardized way. Our approach enables physicians to explore the placenta even in utero. This establishes the basis for a comparative assessment of multiple placentas to analyze possible pathologic arrangements and to support the research and understanding of this vital organ. Additionally, we propose a three-dimensional structure-aware surface slicing technique in order to explore relevant regions inside the placenta. Finally, to survey the applicability of our approach, we consulted clinical experts in prenatal diagnostics and imaging. We received mainly positive feedback, especially the applicability of our technique for research purposes was appreciated.

  20. Assessment of human resources for health programme implementation in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Poz, Mario Roberto; Sepulveda, Hernan Rodrigo; Costa Couto, Maria Helena; Godue, Charles; Padilla, Monica; Cameron, Rick; Vidaurre Franco, Thais de Andrade

    2015-04-28

    The health systems in the Americas region are characterized by fragmentation and segmentation, which constitute an important barrier to expanding coverage, achieving integrated primary health care, and reducing inefficiency and discontinuity of care. An assessment of the human resources for health (HRH) programmes that have been implemented at the country level was developed as part of the measurement of the 20 HRH regional goals for 2007-2015, adopted in 2007 by the Pan American Sanitary Conference (CSPA). The exercise was a combination of academic research and the development/application of an advocacy tool involving policy makers and stakeholders to influence the decision-making in the development, implementation, or change of HRH programmes while building evidence through a structured approach based on qualitative and quantitative information and the exchange and dissemination of best practices. This paper covers the methodological challenges, as well as a summary of the main findings of the study, which included 15 countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama in the Central America, Dominican Republic in the Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru in the Andean sub region, and Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay in the South Cone. Despite the different contexts, the results showed that the programmes evaluated faced common challenges, such as lack of political support and financial unsustainability. The evaluation process allowed the exchange and dissemination of practices, interventions, and programmes currently running in the region. A shared lesson was the importance of careful planning of the implementation of programmes and interventions. The similarities in the problems and challenges of HRH among the participating countries highlighted the need for a cooperation programme on the evaluation and assessment of implementation strategies in the Americas region.

  1. Assessment of human health risk associated with the presence of pesticides in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almas HAMID

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of pesticides in the environment is highly toxic to environment and human health. Aim of the study was determination, quantification and assessment of associated health risk due to presence of pesticide residues in chicken eggs using high pressure liquid chromatography. HPLC method was successfully employed and validated. From collected samples pesticides were extracted in presence of petroleum ether and acetonitrile. Bifenthrin and Difenoconazole residues were found in all samples with different concentration exceeding maximum residue limits (MRL of Codex Alimentarius Commission. However imidacloprid was not detected in any sample. Concentration of bifenthrin in house egg samples ranged from 0.256206 to 4.112387 mg/kg while in poultry farm samples it varied from 1.5862 to 5.80796 mg/kg. Difenoconazole was found in concentration of 0.02835 mg/kg, 1.7668 mg/kg, 3.7205 mg/kg, 21.8937 mg/kg 21.9835 mg/kg, 19.26407 mg/kg in samples collected from houses while and in poultry farm samples its detected concentration was 10.939 mg/kg, 12.3296 mg/kg, 29.3617 mg/kg, 18.6116 mg/kg, 40.0523 mg/kg and 19.2335 mg/kg. Concentrations of both pesticides Bifenthrin and Difenoconazole exceeded the MRLs (0.05 mg/kg. Health risk index surpassed 1 (the cut off value for Difenoconazole in seven samples while for Bifenthrin values were less than 1, indicating the possibility of potential medium to long term health risk associated with ingestion of contaminated eggs.

  2. Human Health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has multiple risks that contribute to the overall burden of disease (i.e. the quadruple burden of disease), which may make people more vulnerable to the health impacts from climate change. In addition, the sector is vulnerable...

  3. Assessing the Potential and Limitations of Leveraging Food Sovereignty to Improve Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Fink Shapiro, Lilly; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Food sovereignty has been defined as "the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems." Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of "ecologically sound and sustainable methods" of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda. Five domains of food sovereignty are discussed including: (1) use of agroecological management practices for food production, (2) the localization of food production and consumption, (3) promotion of social justice and equity, (4) valuation of traditional knowledge, and (5) the transformation of economic and political institutions and structures to support self-determination. We find that although there are many plausible linkages between food sovereignty and human health, the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that increasing food sovereignty yields improvements to human health is weak. We propose that a concerted effort to generate new empirical evidence on the health implications of these domains of food sovereignty is urgently needed, and suggest areas of research that may be crucial for addressing the gaps in the evidence base.

  4. Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, C.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

  5. Impacts of “metals” on human health: uncertainties in using different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Christensen, Per; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    This study looks into the uncertainties in determining the impact of “metals” emissions to human health, in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Metals are diverse substances, with different proprieties and characteristics, considered important in LCIA because of their toxicity to humans or ecosy......This study looks into the uncertainties in determining the impact of “metals” emissions to human health, in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Metals are diverse substances, with different proprieties and characteristics, considered important in LCIA because of their toxicity to humans...... be considered in an impact assessment focused on human health, and defined a list of 14 metals. We performed a contribution analysis in order to compare methods in relative terms; an approach successfully used in other studies. Various processes have been analyzed with 8 different LCIA methods in order...... to assess both how much each metal contributes to the total impact on human health, when only metal emissions are present, and how much metals in total contribute when also other toxic substances are included in the inventory of emissions. Differences between the methods are great and due...

  6. Human health impact of Salmonella contamination in imported soybean products: A semiquantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Brondsted, T.

    2006-01-01

    serotypes isolated from animal feed and/or food-producing animals based on their detection in humans; a semiquantitative ranking of serotypes by the apparent differences in their public health impact; and an estimate of the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis that can be attributed...... through the consumption of Danish pork and beef. We concluded that more than 90% of serotypes have the potential, if they occur in feedstuffs, for infecting humans via production animals or foods of animal origin....

  7. Water for human and livestock consumption in rural settings of Ethiopia: assessments of quality and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenu, Kebede; Markemann, André; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2013-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the quality and health aspects of water intended for human and livestock consumption in two rural districts of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The study involved two parts: the first consisted of a questionnaire survey and farmers' group discussions, complemented by secondary health data, and the second part determined the chemical (total dissolved solids, pH, manganese, hexa-valent chromium, fluoride) and microbiological quality of different water sources during dry and wet seasons. The result showed a lack of sustainable access to safe water in the communities. Industrial pollution and mismanagement of water sources by human and livestock was found to be a source of potential health risk. Potentially linked human health problems like malaria, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal parasites were common in the districts. Overall, 76% of the assessed water sources (n = 25) failed to comply with World Health Organization guidelines for human drinking water, for at least one assessed parameter, mostly irrespective of the season. The non-compliance was mainly attributed to Escherichia coli contamination and/or high fluoride concentration. At least 20% of the water samples were also found to be unfit for livestock consumption based on assessed chemical parameters in both dry and wet seasons. To minimize the health risk associated with mismanagement and poor quality of water sources in the area, targeted action in the protection of surface water sources should be given priority.

  8. Gene expression profiling to identify potentially relevant disease outcomes and support human health risk assessment for carbon black nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-01-07

    New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 μg Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.T. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lee, T.K.M. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, K. [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 353, Yan-an Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310031 (China); Wong, H.L. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, J.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Giesy, J.P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lo, K.K.W. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Lam, P.K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2005-07-15

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China.

  10. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q.T.; Lee, T.K.M.; Chen, K.; Wong, H.L.; Zheng, J.S.; Giesy, J.P.; Lo, K.K.W.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China

  11. Health Technology Assessments of human papillomavirus vaccinations in Europe: a survey from VENICE network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Dorléans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Venice II is a project funded in 2008 by the European centre for disease Prevention and control to collect information on the national vaccination programmes, to increase their knowledge and to know the impact of new vaccines introduced in member states (MS. In 2006-2007, two vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV were authorized in Europe.
    Methods: an online survey was carried out to investigate the decision-making process undertaken regarding the potential introduction of the HPV vaccinations into MS national immunization pro- grammes as well as to investigate the modalities of implementation of the vaccination programmes. there were specific questions about health technology assessment and reports of the countries that had carried them out were reviewed.
    Results: in 21 of the 29 MS, the national advisory body recommended to introduce HPV vaccination in their national immunization schedule and in 18 countries introduced it. only 6 countries have realized a health technology assessments (Hta report, each one with different methodology, but in all of them both vaccines show positive evaluations.
    Conclusion: from the available Hta, HPV vaccination is cost-effective under the assumption of a life- long protection. Screening programme for cervical cancer and HPV vaccination programme should be always complementary. organizational aspects need to be taken into account to improve the vaccina- tion. HPV vaccination should target girls before the debut of their sexual life. Instead HPV vaccination of boys has not been demonstrated as bringing significant epidemiological benefits and has not been shown as being cost-effective. ...

     

  12. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fernández-Cruz, M.L.; Bertelsen, U.; Renshaw, D.W.; Peltonen, K.; Anadon, A.; Feil, A.; Sanders, P.; Wester, P.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-01-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  13. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  14. Assessing health in agriculture--towards a common research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieweger, Anja; Döring, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    In agriculture and food systems, health-related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Eco-Health Linkages: Assessing the Role of Ecosystem Goods and Services on Human Health Using Causal Criteria Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives In the last decade, we saw an upsurge of studies evaluating the role of ecosystem goods and services (EGS) on human health (Eco-Health). Most of this work consists of observational research of intermediate processes and few address the full pathways from ecosystem to E...

  16. Assessing the universal health coverage target in the Sustainable Development Goals from a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2016-12-15

    The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted in September 2015, include a comprehensive health goal, "to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being at all ages." The health goal (SDG 3) has nine substantive targets and four additional targets which are identified as a means of implementation. One of these commitments, to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), has been acknowledged as central to the achievement of all of the other health targets. As defined in the SDGs, UHC includes financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services, and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all. This article evaluates the extent to which the UHC target in the SDGs conforms with the requirements of the right to health enumerated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other international human rights instruments and interpreted by international human rights bodies. It does so as a means to identify strengths and weaknesses in the framing of the UHC target that are likely to affect its implementation. While UHC as defined in the SDGs overlaps with human rights standards, there are important human rights omissions that will likely weaken the implementation and reduce the potential benefits of the UHC target. The most important of these is the failure to confer priority to providing access to health services to poor and disadvantaged communities in the process of expanding health coverage and in determining which health services to provide. Unless the furthest behind are given priority and strategies adopted to secure their participation in the development of national health plans, the SDGs, like the MDGs, are likely to leave the most disadvantaged and vulnerable communities behind.

  17. Comprehensive assessment of fruits and vegetables human health effects in a LCA context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Jolliet, O.; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    the environmental and nutritional effects of foods expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). For the environmental health assessment we consider impact categories such as global warming and particulate matter (PM) as well as chemical exposure due to pesticide residues. Global warming and PM are assessed...... following a traditional LCA approach. For the pesticide residue exposure, we use publically available health impact scores derived from toxicological studies of numerous pesticide active ingredients. For the nutritional assessment we focus on the various health outcomes considered in the global burden...... in which the substituted food items are associated with negative health effects, such as red meat and trans-fat. Overall environmental health impacts associated with this addition are substantially smaller compared to nutritional benefits in each scenario, even when considering an uncertainty factor of 400...

  18. Exposure levels, environmental fate modelling and human health risk assessment of lindane in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Kumi, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis discusses an innovative approach of combining chemical trace analysis including the use of 13 C-labelled isotopes as internal and recovery standards) with multi-media modelling for assessing health risks of Lindane which is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) and a commercial formulated insecticide also known as Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH). Samples studied were background air, human breast milk, and edible fish (tilapia and catfish). The investigations focused on the exposure of the general population. For the first time levels and seasonal variation of Lindane, α-HCH and β-HCH in background air of Lake Bosumtwi, Kwabenya and East Legon in Ghana were studied with polyurethane foam based passive air samplers. Lindane (average concentration 53 pg m -3 ) was measured in all samples with (i) gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometer operated in electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). Agricultural application and revolatilisation from soils were main primary and secondary sources of HCH releases. Levels and variation of Lindane, α-HCH and β-HCH in pooled and individual human breast milk samples collected from lactating mothers countrywide were determined using a high-resolution gas chromatography interfaced with a high-resolution gas chromatography interfaced with a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS). This constitutes the first comprehensive nationwide human breast milk study of assessing risks of HCHs for the general population of Ghana. Mothers were selected from three major cities (Accra, Kumasi and Tamale) and three rural communities (Ada, Jachie/Pramso and Tolon) representing the Southern, Middle and Northern sectors respectively. The results of the study showed that the general population of Ghana is widely exposed to HCHs although the current levels are generally low; and also suggest that the usage pattern and exposure levels of Lindane vary among the various regions in Ghana.

  19. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ M ), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  20. [Productivity and academic assessment in the Brazilian public health field: challenges for Human and Social Sciences research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    This article analyzes some challenges for knowledge output in the human and social sciences in the public health field, under the current academic assessment model in Brazil. The article focuses on the qualitative research approach in human and social sciences, analyzing its status in comparison to the other traditions vying for hegemony in the public health field, conjugating the dialogue with the literature, especially the propositions pertaining to the social fields present in the work of Pierre Bourdieu, with elements concerning the field's dynamics, including some empirical data. Challenges identified in the article include hurdles to interdisciplinary dialogue and equity in the production of knowledge, based on recognition of the founding place of human and social sciences in the public health field. The article discusses strategies to reshape the current correlation of forces among centers of knowledge in public health, especially those capable of impacting the committees and agendas that define the accumulation of symbolic and economic capital in the field.

  1. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J; Hughes, Michael F; O'Lone, Raegan B; Robison, Steven H; Schnatter, A Robert

    2013-02-01

    Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

  2. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  3. Towards a protocol for the assessment of site-specific human health risks for consumption of vegetables from contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; Dirven-van Breemen EM; Otte PF; Beelen P van; Rikken MGJ; Tuinstra J; Spijker J; Lijzen JPA; LER

    2007-01-01

    RIVM has developed an approach which allows human health risks of vegetable consumption from contaminated sites to be assessed. A tiered approach was used to guarantee the scientific basis and efficient use in practice. The underlying principle is: simple when possible and complex when necessary. If

  4. Human health risk assessment in relation to environmental pollution of two artificial freshwater lakes in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Albering, H J; Rila, J P; Moonen, E J; Hoogewerff, J A; Kleinjans, J C

    1999-01-01

    A human health risk assessment has been performed in relation to recreational activities on two artificial freshwater lakes along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. Although the discharges of contaminants into the river Meuse have been reduced in the last decades, which is reflected in decreasing concentrations of pollutants in surface water and suspended matter, the levels in sediments are more persistent. Sediments of the two freshwater lakes appear highly polluted and may pose a health ri...

  5. Assessing human health risks from pesticide use in conventional and innovative cropping systems with the BROWSE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Sabine-Karen; Kennedy, Marc C; Barriuso, Enrique; Alletto, Lionel; Justes, Eric; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Mamy, Laure

    2017-08-01

    Reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use on human health and on the environment is one of the objectives of the European Commission Directive 2009/128/EC in the quest for a sustainable use of pesticides. This Directive, developed through European national plans such as Ecophyto plan in France, promotes the introduction of innovative cropping systems relying, for example, on integrated pest management. Risk assessment for human health of the overall pesticide use in these innovative systems is required before the introduction of those systems to avoid that an innovation becomes a new problem. The objectives of this work were to assess and to compare (1) the human exposure to pesticides used in conventional and innovative cropping systems designed to reduce pesticide needs, and (2) the corresponding risks for human health. Humans (operator and residents) exposure to pesticides and risks for human health were assessed for each pesticide with the BROWSE model. Then, a method was proposed to represent the overall risk due to all pesticides used in one system. This study considers 3 conventional and 9 associated innovative cropping systems, and 116 plant protection products containing 89 different active substances (i.e. pesticides). The modelling results obtained with BROWSE showed that innovative cropping systems such as low input or no herbicide systems would reduce the risk for human health in comparison to the corresponding conventional cropping systems. On the contrary, BROWSE showed that conservation tillage system would lead to unacceptable risks in the conditions of our study, because of a high number of pesticide applications, and especially of some herbicides. For residents, the dermal absorption was the main exposure route while ingestion was found to be negligible. For operators, inhalation was also a predominant route of exposure. In general, human exposure to pesticides and human health risks were found to be correlated to the treatment frequency

  6. Risk - a symposium on the assessment and perception of risk to human health in Canada. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Bates, D.V.

    1983-04-01

    The central concern in this Symposium is with risk to human health and life. Health risk includes the possibility of deaths (mortality), either immediate or delayed, and less severe health effects due to injury and illness (morbidity). Risk is defined as the product of the magnitude and the probability so that where it may be expressed quantitatively it is stated in units of harm per unit time (e.g. deaths per year or deaths per year per million of population). The 15 papers presented at this conference discuss the measurement, analysis perception, and management of risk. Six papers judged to be in scope were indexed for INIS

  7. Assessing human resources for health: what can be learned from labour force surveys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources are an essential element of a health system's inputs, and yet there is a huge disparity among countries in how human resource policies and strategies are developed and implemented. The analysis of the impacts of services on population health and well-being attracts more interest than analysis of the situation of the workforce in this area. This article presents an international comparison of the health workforce in terms of skill mix, sociodemographics and other labour force characteristics, in order to establish an evidence base for monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Methods Profiles of the health workforce are drawn for 18 countries with developed market and transitional economies, using data from labour force and income surveys compiled by the Luxembourg Income Study between 1989 and 1997. Further descriptive analyses of the health workforce are conducted for selected countries for which more detailed occupational information was available. Results Considerable cross-national variations were observed in terms of the share of the health workforce in the total labour market, with little discernible pattern by geographical region or type of economy. Increases in the share were found among most countries for which time-trend data were available. Large gender imbalances were often seen in terms of occupational distribution and earnings. In some cases, health professionals, especially physicians, were overrepresented among the foreign-born compared to the total labour force. Conclusions While differences across countries in the profile of the health workforce can be linked to the history and role of the health sector, at the same time some common patterns emerge, notably a growing trend of health occupations in the labour market. The evidence also suggests that gender inequity in the workforce remains an important shortcoming of many health systems. Certain unexpected patterns of

  8. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. A Multilaboratory Toxicological Assessment of a Panel of 10 Engineered Nanomaterials to Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Gosens, Ilse; MacCalman, Laura

    2016-01-01

    ENPRA was one of the earlier multidisciplinary European Commission FP7-funded projects aiming to evaluate the risks associated with nanomaterial (NM) exposure on human health across pulmonary, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and developmental systems. The outputs from this project have formed...

  10. Human Resources for Health in Rural China : an Assessment of the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Recent official documents pertaining to healthcare delivery system reform in China have focused mainly on infrastructure, equipment, management, insurance and drug policies. There has been little if any attention paid to human resources for health. Given the time and resources required to train qualified primary care ...

  11. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body.

  12. A novel land use approach for assessment of human health: The relationship between urban structure types and cardiorespiratory disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réquia Júnior, Weeberb João; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-12-01

    Extensive evidence shows that in addition to lifestyle factors, environmental aspects are an important risk factor for human health. Numerous approaches have been used to estimate the relationship between environment and health. For example, the urban characteristics, especially the types of land use, are considered a potential proxy indicator to evaluate risk of disease. Although several studies have used land use variables to assess human health, none of them has used the concept of Urban Morphology by Urban Structure Types (USTs) as indicators of land use. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between USTs and cardiorespiratory disease risks in the Federal District, Brazil. Toward this end, we used a quantile regression model to estimate risk. We used 21 types of UST. Income and population density were used as covariates in our sensitivity analysis. Our analysis showed an association between cardiorespiratory diseases risk and 10 UST variables (1 related to rural area, 6 related to residential area, 1 recreational area, 1 public area and 1 commercial area). Our findings suggest that the conventional land use method may be missing important information about the effect of land use on human health. The use of USTs can be an approach to complement the conventional method. This should be of interest to policy makers in order to enhance public health policies and to create future strategies in terms of urban planning, land use and environmental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coca and poppy eradication in Colombia: environmental and human health assessment of aerially applied glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Anadón, Arturo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Cerdeira, Antonio L; Marshall, Jon; Sanin, Luz-Helena

    2007-01-01

    glyphosate use and specific human health outcomes. An epidemiology study conducted in Colombia did not show any association between time to pregnancy in humans and the use of glyphosate in eradication spraying. The mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux was not toxic to honeybees. The mixture was, however, more toxic to the alga Selenastrum, the cladoceran Daphnia magna, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout than formulated glyphosate (Roundup) alone. Studies on the use of glyphosate in agriculture and forestry have shown that direct effects on nontarget organisms other than plants are unlikely. Indirect effects on terrestrial arthropods and other wildlife may be the result of habitat alteration and environmental change brought about by the removal of plants by glyphosate. Because of the lack of residual activity, recovery of glyphosate-treated areas in Colombia is expected to be rapid because of good plant growth conditions. However, return to the conditions of tropical old-growth forest that existed before clear-cutting and burning may take hundreds of years, not from the use of glyphosate but because of the clear-cutting and burning, which are the primary cause of effects in the environment. The risk assessment concluded that glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux did not present a significant risk to human health. In the entire cycle of coca and poppy production and eradication, human health risks associated with physical injury during clear-cutting and burning and the use of pesticides for protection of the illicit crops were judged to be considerably more important than those from exposure to glyphosate. For the environment, direct risks from the use of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux to terrestrial mammals and birds were judged to be negligible. Moderate risks could occur in aquatic organisms in shallow surface waters that are oversprayed during the eradication program. However, the frequency of occurrence and extent to which this happens are unknown as data on the proximity of surface waters

  14. Assessment of the human health impact of changes in ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwood, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Although several major health effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are established, precise quantification of this effect is difficult. New Zealand has the most southerly located major human population in the world, and has a particular contribution to make to worldwide progress. However, current information on the frequency of the relevant health problems is unsatisfactory. Major developments in research in New Zealand are needed. UVR is an established causal factor for malignant melanoma, other types of skin cancer, cataracts and some other eye problems and has been implicated in some immunological effects. (author). 5 refs

  15. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  16. Human Health Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in Water: Issues and Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study identified existing issues related to quantitative pharmaceutical risk assessment (QPhRA, hereafter for pharmaceuticals in water and proposed possible solutions by analyzing methodologies and findings of different published QPhRA studies. Retrospective site-specific QPhRA studies from different parts of the world (U.S.A., United Kingdom, Europe, India, etc. were reviewed in a structured manner to understand different assumptions, outcomes obtained and issues, identified/addressed/raised by the different QPhRA studies. Till date, most of the published studies have concluded that there is no appreciable risk to human health during environmental exposures of pharmaceuticals; however, attention is still required to following identified issues: (1 Use of measured versus predicted pharmaceutical concentration, (2 Identification of pharmaceuticals-of-concern and compounds needing special considerations, (3 Use of source water versus finished drinking water-related exposure scenarios, (4 Selection of representative exposure routes, (5 Valuation of uncertainty factors, and (6 Risk assessment for mixture of chemicals. To close the existing data and methodology gaps, this study proposed possible ways to address and/or incorporation these considerations within the QPhRA framework; however, more research work is still required to address issues, such as incorporation of short-term to long-term extrapolation and mixture effects in the QPhRA framework. Specifically, this study proposed a development of a new “mixture effects-related uncertainty factor” for mixture of chemicals (i.e., mixUFcomposite, similar to an uncertainty factor of a single chemical, within the QPhRA framework. In addition to all five traditionally used uncertainty factors, this uncertainty factor is also proposed to include concentration effects due to presence of different range of concentration levels of pharmaceuticals in a mixture. However, further work is required to

  17. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2015-03-15

    Assessment of the ability of climate policies to produce desired improvements in public health through co-benefits of air pollution reduction can consume resources in both time and research funds. These resources increase significantly as the spatial resolution of models increases. In addition, the level of spatial detail available in macroeconomic models at the heart of climate policy assessments is much lower than that available in traditional human health risk modeling. It is therefore important to determine whether increasing spatial resolution considerably affects risk-based decisions; which kinds of decisions might be affected; and under what conditions they will be affected. Human health risk co-benefits from carbon emissions reductions that bring about concurrent reductions in Particulate Matter (PM10) emissions is therefore examined here at four levels of spatial resolution (Uniform Nation, Uniform Region, Uniform County/city, Health Risk Assessment) in a case study of Taiwan as one of the geographic regions of a global macroeceonomic model, with results that are representative of small, industrialized nations within that global model. A metric of human health risk mortality (YOLL, years of life lost in life expectancy) is compared under assessments ranging from a "uniform simulation" in which there is no spatial resolution of changes in ambient air concentration under a policy to a "highly spatially resolved simulation" (called here Health Risk Assessment). PM10 is chosen in this study as the indicator of air pollution for which risks are assessed due to its significance as a co-benefit of carbon emissions reductions within climate mitigation policy. For the policy examined, the four estimates of mortality in the entirety of Taiwan are 747 YOLL, 834 YOLL, 984 YOLL and 916 YOLL, under Uniform Taiwan, Uniform Region, Uniform County and Health Risk Assessment respectively; or differences of 18%, 9%, 7% if the HRA methodology is taken as the baseline. While

  18. Mining in the Alligator Rivers Region, northern Australia: Assessing potential and actual effects on ecosystem and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.A. van; Humphrey, C.L.; Martin, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to surface water contamination arising from uranium mining activities in the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) of northern Australia, and a program of research and monitoring that must assess the potential and actual effects on ecosystem and human health. The program of assessing effects on aquatic ecosystems involves a four-tiered approach including the derivation of local water quality guideline trigger values, direct toxicity assessment of mine waters prior to their release, creekside or in situ monitoring for early warning of adverse effects during mine water release, and longer-term monitoring of macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Bioaccumulation in aquatic biota is also assessed, and is an issue of importance not only to ecosystem health, but also to the health of local Aboriginal people. The aquatic animals they consume represent potential sources of radiological dose, and as a result, a major component of the program to assess potential effects on human health is the prediction of doses to Aboriginal people living downstream of mining activities. Acknowledging the assumptions and uncertainties, the calculation of concentration factors for local aquatic (and other) food sources allows the prediction of potential radiological exposure to people following hypothetical mine water releases. The approaches described form the basis of best-practice protocols that are relevant at both regional and national levels

  19. Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1993-09-01

    Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors

  20. Human health risk assessment methodology for the UMTRA Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the method used to evaluate human risks associated with ground water contamination at inactive uranium processing sites. The intent of these evaluations is to provide the public and remedial action decision-makers with information about the health risks that might be expected at each site in a manner that is easily understood. The method (1) develops probabilistic distributions for exposure variables where sufficient data exist, (2) simulates predicted exposure distributions using Monte Carlo techniques, and (3) develops toxicity ranges that reflect human data when available, animal data if human data are insufficient, regulatory levels, and uncertainties. Risk interpretation is based on comparison of the potential exposure distributions with the derived toxicity ranges. Graphic presentations are an essential element of the semiquantitative interpretation and are expected to increase understanding by the public and decision-makers

  1. Human health risk assessment: heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiza Hira Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary exposure of toxic metals is a vital concern for human health through vegetable consumption, especially in developing countries. Aim of the current study was to determine the health risk related to vegetables contamination of heavy metals by irrigated with sewage and turbine water. Irrigation water sources, soils and vegetables were analyzed for selected metals viz: Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. Heavy metals in water samples were within the permissible limits except Cd in sewage water. The concentration of heavy metals in soil and vegetables irrigated with turbine water were lower than the safe limits. In case of vegetables irrigated with sewage water, Cd was higher in soil while Pb, Cd and Cr were higher in most of the vegetables. Daily intake of metals, health risk index and Bio-concentration factor was also determined. Health risk index values for Cd, Pb and Ni were exceeded the permissible limits (European Union, 2002. Bio-concentration factor (BCF found to be maximum (16.4 mg/kg in Coriandrum sativum cultivated with sewage water. Raphanus caudatus, Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Allium sativum and Solanum tuberosum showed Health Risk Index of Cd > 1 in adults and children. Allium sativum also showed HRI of Pb > 1 in children. We conclude that the quality of vegetables irrigated with sewage water is poor and not fit for human health, evident from the high concentration of Pb, Cd and Cr. Urgent measures are required to prevent consumption and production vegetables irrigated with of sewage water in the study area.

  2. Human Exposure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  3. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Scott M.; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O?Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of ?Common Criteria? (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of th...

  4. Assessment of environmental pollution from brick kilns and their impacts on human health in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, A.K.; Iqbal, A.

    2005-01-01

    Bricks are the most essential component for expanding urbanization in Bangladesh. Brick kilns situated all over the country meet the demand of these bricks. But brick fields are causing some environmental problems too. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of energy consumption in brick fields as well as their impacts on the environment. An attempt has been made to estimate the emission of pollutants (Green house gases and non- green house gases) from brick fields to assess the impacts of the pollutants on human health of the surrounding areas. In Bangladesh, the total number of brick fields is around 6000. Brick fields use coal, wood fuel and crude a mainly for burning bricks in the kiln. Estimation reveals that in Bangladesh for the years 2003-2004, the coal required was 1800 kton while the wood fuel required was 1260 kton. Estimation also reveals that for Bangladesh the annual emission of the pollutants are 7505931.01 tons CO/sub 2/, 943.93 tons CH/sub 4/, 128.40 tons N/sub 2/O, 21763.49 tons NO/sub x/, 40777.21 tons CO, 1698.48 tons NMVOC and 176223.04 tons SO/sub 2/. CO/sub 2/ emission is the most prominent from brick burning. Estimation shows that, for the present level of CO/sub 2/ emission in Bangladesh yearly afforestation required is about 1.4 x 10/sup 9/9 m/sup 2/ area. The emission causes some health problems among both the workers and local inhabitants. The concentration persist around brick fields (200 m) is very high and is 3000 micro g/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/ and 300 micro g/m/sup 3/ for NO/sub x/ and PM-10 during winter, while for summer the concentration is 1000 micro g/m/sup 3/ and 125 micro g/m/sup 3/ respectively. From the high concentration of these pollutants people face some of the health problems. About 30% of the workers suffer from dizziness while 60% feel fatigue. The headache is the most common problem of all the workers and 75% suffer from it. Those working for many years feel fatigue more than the new comers, 55% and 3

  5. A GIS-based human health risk assessment for urban green space planning--an example from Grugliasco (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Vrscaj, Borut

    2009-11-15

    The need to develop approaches for risk-based management of soil contamination, as well as the integration of the assessment of the human health risk (HHR) due to the soil contamination in the urban planning procedures has been the subject of recent attention of scientific literature and policy makers. The spatial analysis of environmental data offers multiple advantages for studying soil contamination and HHR assessment, facilitating the decision making process. The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities and benefits of spatial implementation of a quantitative HHR assessment methodology for a planning case in a typical urban environment where the soil is contaminated. The study area is located in the city of Grugliasco a part of the Turin (Italy) metropolitan area. The soils data were derived from a site specific soil survey and the land-use data from secondary sources. In the first step the soil contamination data were geo-statistically analysed and a spatial soil contamination data risk modelling procedure designed. In order to spatially assess the HHR computer routines were developed using GIS raster tools. The risk was evaluated for several different land uses for the planned naturalistic park area. The HHR assessment indicated that the contamination of soils with heavy metals in the area is not sufficient to induce considerable health problems due to typical human behaviour within the variety of urban land uses. An exception is the possibility of direct ingestion of contaminated soil which commonly occurs in playgrounds. The HHR evaluation in a planning case in the Grugliasco Municipality confirms the suitability of the selected planning option. The construction of the naturalistic park presents one solution for reducing the impacts of soil contamination on the health of citizens. The spatial HHR evaluation using GIS techniques is a diagnostic procedure for assessing the impacts of urban soil contamination, with which one can verify planning

  6. Implementing a framework for integrating toxicokinetics into human health risk assessment for agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Claire; Hays, Sean; McCoy, Alene T; McFadden, Lisa G; Aggarwal, Manoj; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Juberg, Daland R

    2016-03-01

    A strategic and comprehensive program in which toxicokinetic (TK) measurements are made for all agrochemicals undergoing toxicity testing (both new compounds and compounds already registered for use) is described. This approach provides the data to more accurately assess the toxicokinetics of agrochemicals and their metabolites in laboratory animals and humans. Having this knowledge provides the ability to conduct more insightful toxicity studies, refine and interpret exposure assessments and reduce uncertainty in risk assessments. By developing a better understanding of TK across species, including humans via in vitro metabolism studies, any differences across species in TK can be identified early and the most relevant species can be selected for toxicity tests. It also provides the ability to identify any non-linearities in TK as a function of dose, which in turn can be used to identify a kinetically derived maximum dose (KMD) and avoid dosing inappropriately outside of the kinetic linear range. Measuring TK in key life stages also helps to identify changes in ADME parameters from in utero to adults. A robust TK database can also be used to set internal concentration based "Reference Concentrations" and Biomonitoring Equivalents (BE), and support selection of Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF). All of these factors support the reduction of uncertainty throughout the entire risk assessment process. This paper outlines how a TK research strategy can be integrated into new agrochemical toxicity testing programs, together with a proposed Framework for future use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environment and Human Health: The Challenge of Uncertainty in Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Stewart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High quality and accurate environmental investigations and analysis are essential to any assessment of contamination and to the decision-making process thereafter. Remediation decisions may be focused by health outcomes, whether already present or a predicted risk. The variability inherent in environmental media and analysis can be quantified statistically; uncertainty in models can be reduced by additional research; deep uncertainty exists when environmental or biomedical processes are not understood, or agreed upon, or remain uncharacterized. Deep uncertainty is common where health and environment interact. Determinants of health operate from the individual’s genes to the international level; often several levels act synergistically. We show this in detail for lead (Pb. Pathways, exposure, dose and response also vary, modifying certainty. Multi-disciplinary approaches, built on high-quality environmental investigations, enable the management of complex and uncertain situations. High quality, accurate environmental investigations into pollution issues remain the cornerstone of understanding attributable health outcomes and developing appropriate responses and remediation. However, they are not sufficient on their own, needing careful integration with the wider contexts and stakeholder agendas, without which any response to the environmental assessment may very well founder. Such approaches may benefit more people than any other strategy.

  8. Human health risk assessment screening approach for evaluating contaminants at source control and integrator operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, P.D.; White, R.K.; Purucker, S.T.; Redfearn, A.

    1992-10-01

    A more streamlined approach is proposed for executing the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Process. This approach recognizes the uncertainties associated with the process, particularly regarding the derivation of human health risk estimates. The approach is tailored for early identification of sites and contaminants of immediate concern, early remediation of such sites, and early identification of low-risk sites that can be eliminated from further investigations. The purpose is to hasten the clean-up process and do so in a cost-effective manner

  9. The Human Resources for Health Effort Index: a tool to assess and inform Strategic Health Workforce Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Alfredo L; Deussom, Rachel; Burlew, Randi; Gilroy, Kate; Nelson, David

    2017-07-19

    Despite its importance, the field of human resources for health (HRH) has lagged in developing methods to measure its status and progress in low- and middle-income countries suffering a workforce crisis. Measures of professional health worker densities and distribution are purely numerical, unreliable, and do not represent the full spectrum of workers providing health services. To provide more information on the multi-dimensional characteristics of human resources for health, in 2013-2014, the global USAID-funded CapacityPlus project, led by IntraHealth International, developed and tested a 79-item HRH Effort Index modeled after the widely used Family Planning Effort Index. The index includes seven recognized HRH dimensions: Leadership and Advocacy; Policy and Governance; Finance; Education and Training; Recruitment, Distribution, and Retention; Human Resources Management; and Monitoring, Evaluation, and Information Systems. Each item is scored from 1 to 10 and scores are averaged with equal weights for each dimension and overall. The questionnaire is applied to knowledgeable informants from public, nongovernmental organization, and private sectors in each country. A pilot test among 49 respondents in Kenya and Nigeria provided useful information to improve, combine, and streamline questions. CapacityPlus applied the revised 50-item questionnaire in 2015 in Burkina Faso, Dominican Republic, Ghana, and Mali, among 92 respondents. Additionally, the index was applied subnationally in the Dominican Republic (16 respondents) and in a consensus-building meeting in Mali (43 respondents) after the national application. The results revealed a range of scores between 3.7 and 6.2 across dimensions, for overall scores between 4.8 and 5.5. Dimensions with lower scores included Recruitment, Distribution, and Retention, while Leadership and Advocacy had higher scores. The tool proved to be well understood and provided key qualitative information on the health workforce to assist

  10. Relevance and reliability of experimental data in human health risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenhäuser, Johanna; Kneuer, Carsten; Marx-Stoelting, Philip; Niemann, Lars; Schubert, Jens; Stein, Bernd; Solecki, Roland

    2017-08-01

    Evaluation of data relevance, reliability and contribution to uncertainty is crucial in regulatory health risk assessment if robust conclusions are to be drawn. Whether a specific study is used as key study, as additional information or not accepted depends in part on the criteria according to which its relevance and reliability are judged. In addition to GLP-compliant regulatory studies following OECD Test Guidelines, data from peer-reviewed scientific literature have to be evaluated in regulatory risk assessment of pesticide active substances. Publications should be taken into account if they are of acceptable relevance and reliability. Their contribution to the overall weight of evidence is influenced by factors including test organism, study design and statistical methods, as well as test item identification, documentation and reporting of results. Various reports make recommendations for improving the quality of risk assessments and different criteria catalogues have been published to support evaluation of data relevance and reliability. Their intention was to guide transparent decision making on the integration of the respective information into the regulatory process. This article describes an approach to assess the relevance and reliability of experimental data from guideline-compliant studies as well as from non-guideline studies published in the scientific literature in the specific context of uncertainty and risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Groundwater chemistry and human health risk assessment in the mining region of East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Umesh Kumar; Ramanathan, A L; Subramanian, V

    2018-08-01

    Groundwater chemistry of mining region of East Singhbhum district having complex contaminant sources were investigated based on heavy metals loads and other hydrochemical constituents. This study aimed to identify the degree of heavy metals exposure and their potential health risk to local population. The results of hydrochemical analysis showed that Na + , K + , and Ca 2+ ions are the dominant cations in the groundwater, while HCO 3 - , F - and Cl - ions dominate the anionic part of the groundwater. The weathering process was considered the dominant factor to determine the major ionic composition in the study area. Compositional analysis for heavy metal has identified that groundwater of the study area is contaminated by Cd, Pb and Cr elements. Source of these metals have been identified as an anthropogenic inputs from mining activities and mineral processing units. Health risk analysis of individual heavy metal for chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) was found in the order of Cr > As > Cd > Pb which is indicating high health risk for the population. In addition, Hazard Index (HI) analysis for heavy metals was found significantly high (>1) which is considered as a threat for human population because they have the tendency to accumulate in the body and cause variety of diseases like kidney problem, dysfunction of liver and renal cortex as well as cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitatively Plotting the Human Face for Multivariate Data Visualisation Illustrated by Health Assessments Using Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe a new data visualisation system by plotting the human face to observe the comprehensive effects of multivariate data. Methods. The Graphics Device Interface (GDI+ in the Visual Studio.NET development platform was used to write a program that enables facial image parameters to be recorded, such as cropping and rotation, and can generate a new facial image according to Z values from sets of normal data (Z>3 was still counted as 3. The measured clinical laboratory parameters related to health status were obtained from senile people, glaucoma patients, and fatty liver patients to illustrate the facial data visualisation system. Results. When the eyes, nose, and mouth were rotated around their own axes at the same angle, the deformation effects were similar. The deformation effects for any abnormality of the eyes, nose, or mouth should be slightly higher than those for simultaneous abnormalities. The facial changes in the populations with different health statuses were significant compared with a control population. Conclusions. The comprehensive effects of multivariate may not equal the sum of each variable. The 3Z facial data visualisation system can effectively distinguish people with poor health status from healthy people.

  13. Endocrine effects of chemicals: aspects of hazard identification and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas

    2013-12-16

    Hazard and risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine activity is hotly debated due to claimed non-monotonous dose-response curves in the low-dose region. In hazard identification a clear definition of "endocrine disruptors" (EDs) is required; this should be based on the WHO/IPCS definition of EDs and on adverse effects demonstrated in intact animals or humans. Therefore, endocrine effects are a mode of action potentially resulting in adverse effects; any classification should not be based on a mode of action, but on adverse effects. In addition, when relying on adverse effects, most effects reported in the low-dose region will not qualify for hazard identification since most have little relation to an adverse effect. Non-monotonous dose-response curves that had been postulated from limited, exploratory studies could also not be reproduced in targeted studies with elaborate quality assurance. Therefore, regulatory agencies or advisory bodies continue to apply the safety-factor method or the concept of "margin-of-exposure" based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) in the risk assessment of chemicals with weak hormonal activity. Consistent with this approach, tolerable levels regarding human exposure have been defined for such chemicals. To conclusively support non-monotonous dose-response curves, targeted experiments with a sufficient number of animals, determination of adverse endpoints, adequate statistics and quality control would be required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health and Human Rights in Chin State, Western Burma: A Population-Based Assessment Using Multistaged Household Cluster Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K.; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C.; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar) is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. Methods and Findings Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%–94.1%) reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project) definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. Conclusions Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21346799

  15. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen.

  16. Human health and wellbeing in environmental impact assessment in New South Wales, Australia: Auditing health impacts within environmental assessments of major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Patrick J.; Harris, Elizabeth; Thompson, Susan; Harris-Roxas, Ben; Kemp, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Internationally the inclusion of health within environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been shown to be limited. While Australian EIA documentation has not been studied empirically to date, deficiencies in practice have been documented. This research developed an audit tool to undertake a qualitative descriptive analysis of 22 Major Project EAs in New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that health and wellbeing impacts were not considered explicitly. They were, however, included indirectly in the identification of traditional public health exposures associated with the physical environment and to a lesser extent the inclusion of social and economic impacts. However, no health data was used to inform any of the assessments, there was no reference to causal pathways between exposures or determinants and physical or mental health effects, and there was no inclusion of the differential distribution of exposures or health impacts on different populations. The results add conceptually and practically to the long standing integration debate, showing that health is in a position to add value to the EIA process as an explicit part of standard environmental, social and economic considerations. However, to overcome the consistently documented barriers to integrating health in EIA, capacity must be developed amongst EIA professionals, led by the health sector, to progress health related knowledge and tools.

  17. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 1: Human Health Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niladri Basu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors’ recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere.

  18. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 1: Human Health Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N.; Neitzel, Richard L.; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors’ recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere. PMID:25985314

  19. Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana--part 1: human health review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Clarke, Edith; Green, Allyson; Calys-Tagoe, Benedict; Chan, Laurie; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Fobil, Julius; Long, Rachel N; Neitzel, Richard L; Obiri, Samuel; Odei, Eric; Ovadje, Lauretta; Quansah, Reginald; Rajaee, Mozhgon; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-05-13

    This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors' recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere.

  20. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  1. Human health impacts for renewable energy scenarios from the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Mireille; Gschwind, Benoit; Blanc, Isabelle; Ranchin, Thierry; Cofala, Janusz; Fuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports impact results from running the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA) related to human health for different scenarios in Europe. The scenarios were prepared within the EnerGEO project. The idea of this European project is to determine how low carbon scenarios, and in particular scenarios with a high share of renewable energy, affect concentrations of air pollutants and as a consequence affect human health. PM 2.5 concentrations were estimated with the IIASA Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model on a time horizon up to the year 2050 for different scenarios. We analyse here the estimation of the Loss of Life Expectancy due to PM 2.5 concentrations for the Baseline scenario taken as a reference and the Maximum renewable power scenario. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of human health risk of reported soil levels of metals and radionuclides in Port Hope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Risk assessment methods are applied to the question of health implications of contaminated soil in the Port Hope area. Soil-related as well as other pathways of exposure are considered. Exposures to the reported levels of uranium, antimony, chromium, copper, nickel, cadmium, cobalt, selenium, and zinc in Port Hope soils are not expected to result in adverse health consequences. Oral exposure to arsenic in soil at the reported levels is estimated to result in incremental cancer risk levels in the negligible range (10 -5 ). Estimated exposures also fall well below suggested toxic thresholds for arsenic. For the two small areas within the >50 μg/g isopleth, assessment of exposure is difficult without more definitive data on soil concentrations in these zones. Contamination of soils with lead is overall quite limited. In general, the reported soil levels of lead are not anticipated to pose a hazard. The site with the highest concentrations of lead is located on the west bank of the Ganaraska River, a popular fishing area. Depending on the level and extent of contamination, as well as degree of contact with the site, potential exposures could exceed tolerable intakes for children. Exposures to the radionuclides Ra(226), Pb(210), and U(238) in soil at the reported levels are estimated to fall well within recommended population limits

  3. Human health risk assessment in relation to environmental pollution of two artificial freshwater lakes in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albering, H J; Rila, J P; Moonen, E J; Hoogewerff, J A; Kleinjans, J C

    1999-01-01

    A human health risk assessment has been performed in relation to recreational activities on two artificial freshwater lakes along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. Although the discharges of contaminants into the river Meuse have been reduced in the last decades, which is reflected in decreasing concentrations of pollutants in surface water and suspended matter, the levels in sediments are more persistent. Sediments of the two freshwater lakes appear highly polluted and may pose a health risk in relation to recreational activities. To quantify health risks for carcinogenic (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as well as noncarcinogenic compounds (e.g., heavy metals), an exposure assessment model was used. First, we used a standard model that solely uses data on sediment pollution as the input parameter, which is the standard procedure in sediment quality assessments in The Netherlands. The highest intake appeared to be associated with the consumption of contaminated fish and resulted in a health risk for Pb and Zn (hazard index exceeded 1). For the other heavy metals and for benzo(a)pyrene, the total averaged exposure levels were below levels of concern. Secondly, input data for a more location-specific calculation procedure were provided via analyses of samples from sediment, surface water, and suspended matter. When these data (concentrations in surface water) were taken into account, the risk due to consumption of contaminated fish decreased by more than two orders of magnitude and appeared to be negligible. In both exposure assessments, many assumptions were made that contribute to a major degree to the uncertainty of this risk assessment. However, this health risk evaluation is useful as a screening methodology for assessing the urgency of sediment remediation actions.

  4. Assessment of human resources for health using cross-national comparison of facility surveys in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health facility assessments are being increasingly used to measure and monitor indicators of health workforce performance, but the global evidence base remains weak. Partly this is due to the wide variability in assessment methods and tools, hampering comparability across and within countries and over time. The World Health Organization coordinated a series of facility-based surveys using a common approach in six countries: Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. The objectives were twofold: to inform the development and monitoring of human resources for health (HRH policy within the countries; and to test and validate the use of standardized facility-based human resources assessment tools across different contexts. Methods The survey methodology drew on harmonized questionnaires and guidelines for data collection and processing. In accordance with the survey's dual objectives, this paper presents both descriptive statistics on a number of policy-relevant indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HRH as well as a qualitative assessment of the usefulness of the data collection tool for comparative analyses. Results The findings revealed a large diversity in both the organization of health services delivery and, in particular, the distribution and activities of facility-based health workers across the sampled countries. At the same time, some commonalities were observed, including the importance of nursing and midwifery personnel in the skill mix and the greater tendency of physicians to engage in dual practice. While the use of standardized questionnaires offered the advantage of enhancing cross-national comparability of the results, some limitations were noted, especially in relation to the categories used for occupations and qualifications that did not necessarily conform to the country situation. Conclusion With increasing experience in health facility assessments for HRH monitoring comes

  5. Air Quality Effects on Human Health and Approaches for Its Assessment through Microfluidic Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Frank; Gao, Xinghua; Virzonis, Darius; Damiati, Samar; Schneider, Marlon R; Kodzius, Rimantas

    2017-09-27

    Air quality depends on the various gases and particles present in it. Both natural phenomena and human activities affect the cleanliness of air. In the last decade, many countries experienced an unprecedented industrial growth, resulting in changing air quality values, and correspondingly, affecting our life quality. Air quality can be accessed by employing microchips that qualitatively and quantitatively determine the present gases and dust particles. The so-called particular matter 2.5 (PM2.5) values are of high importance, as such small particles can penetrate the human lung barrier and enter the blood system. There are cancer cases related to many air pollutants, and especially to PM2.5, contributing to exploding costs within the healthcare system. We focus on various current and potential future air pollutants, and propose solutions on how to protect our health against such dangerous substances. Recent developments in the Organ-on-Chip (OoC) technology can be used to study air pollution as well. OoC allows determination of pollutant toxicity and speeds up the development of novel pharmaceutical drugs.

  6. Air Quality Effects on Human Health and Approaches for Its Assessment through Microfluidic Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schulze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air quality depends on the various gases and particles present in it. Both natural phenomena and human activities affect the cleanliness of air. In the last decade, many countries experienced an unprecedented industrial growth, resulting in changing air quality values, and correspondingly, affecting our life quality. Air quality can be accessed by employing microchips that qualitatively and quantitatively determine the present gases and dust particles. The so-called particular matter 2.5 (PM2.5 values are of high importance, as such small particles can penetrate the human lung barrier and enter the blood system. There are cancer cases related to many air pollutants, and especially to PM2.5, contributing to exploding costs within the healthcare system. We focus on various current and potential future air pollutants, and propose solutions on how to protect our health against such dangerous substances. Recent developments in the Organ-on-Chip (OoC technology can be used to study air pollution as well. OoC allows determination of pollutant toxicity and speeds up the development of novel pharmaceutical drugs.

  7. Emerging arboviruses in Quebec, Canada: assessing public health risk by serology in humans, horses and pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J P; Michel, P; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Dibernardo, A; Ogden, N H; Fortin, A; Arsenault, J

    2017-10-01

    Periodic outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and to a lesser extent, California serogroup viruses (CSGV), have been reported in parts of Canada in the last decade. This study was designed to provide a broad assessment of arboviral activity in Quebec, Canada, by conducting serological surveys for these arboviruses in 196 horses, 1442 dogs and 485 humans. Sera were screened by a competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and positive samples confirmed by plaque reduction neutralisation tests. The percentage of seropositive samples was 83·7%, 16·5%, 7·1% in horses, 18·8%, 0·6%, 0% in humans, 11·7%, 3·1%, 0% in adult dogs and 2·9%, 0·3%, 0% in juvenile dogs for CSGV, WNV and EEEV, respectively. Serological results in horses and dogs appeared to provide a meaningful assessment of risk to public health posed by multiple arboviruses.

  8. A GIS framework for the assessment of tick impact on human health in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, Agustin; Venzal, José M

    2007-05-01

    A framework to evaluate the impact of ticks on human health under various scenarios of climate change is proposed. The purpose is not to provide a comprehensive plan (e.g. the economic impact of ticks on human society is not included), instead we wish to describe a series of indices that would be helpful by obtaining homogeneous comparisons of impact and vulnerability exerted by ticks in different regions, countries or continents, using normalized sets of population, vegetation, climate and physical attributes of the territory. Three tick species, i.e. Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Hyalomma marginatum, have been traced over the territory of Spain to further explain the computation of these indices. The discussion is based on tick habitat suitability, used as a measure of the abiotic (climate) fitness of the habitat for the species in question, and the sensitivity of each tick species to the rate of change of habitat suitability with respect to climate change. The impact is the rate of change in habitat suitability weighted with a fuzzy logic function evaluating the total number of people in an area, percent of rural population and accessibility of the geographical divisions (expressed as hexagons with a 10 km radius) used in the study. The different climate scenarios evaluated in relation to ticks show that the north-western part of Spain would suffer the greatest impact in case the mean temperature would increase, while the Mediterranean region would suffer the highest impact if temperatures decreased. Vulnerability, based on the sanitary structure of the territory and on the impact on human activities due to the change in tick distribution and abundance, is proposed as a measure of adaptation of society to these climate scenarios. The cost is evaluated as a function of land use and tick habitat suitability in a buffer zone surrounding each geographic division. All indices proposed have been obtained by search of common and/or publicly

  9. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe F Greatorex

    Full Text Available Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and

  10. Wildlife Trade and Human Health in Lao PDR: An Assessment of the Zoonotic Disease Risk in Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhalath, Sinpakone; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Fine, Amanda E.; Weisman, Wendy; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Theppangna, Watthana; Keatts, Lucy; Gilbert, Martin; Karesh, William B.; Hansel, Troy; Zimicki, Susan; O’Rourke, Kathleen; Joly, Damien O.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of emerging infectious diseases can be linked to wildlife sources, most pathogen spillover events to people could likely be avoided if transmission was better understood and practices adjusted to mitigate risk. Wildlife trade can facilitate zoonotic disease transmission and represents a threat to human health and economies in Asia, highlighted by the 2003 SARS coronavirus outbreak, where a Chinese wildlife market facilitated pathogen transmission. Additionally, wildlife trade poses a serious threat to biodiversity. Therefore, the combined impacts of Asian wildlife trade, sometimes termed bush meat trade, on public health and biodiversity need assessing. From 2010 to 2013, observational data were collected in Lao PDR from markets selling wildlife, including information on volume, form, species and price of wildlife; market biosafety and visitor origin. The potential for traded wildlife to host zoonotic diseases that pose a serious threat to human health was then evaluated at seven markets identified as having high volumes of trade. At the seven markets, during 21 observational surveys, 1,937 alive or fresh dead mammals (approximately 1,009 kg) were observed for sale, including mammals from 12 taxonomic families previously documented to be capable of hosting 36 zoonotic pathogens. In these seven markets, the combination of high wildlife volumes, high risk taxa for zoonoses and poor biosafety increases the potential for pathogen presence and transmission. To examine the potential conservation impact of trade in markets, we assessed the status of 33,752 animals observed during 375 visits to 93 markets, under the Lao PDR Wildlife and Aquatic Law. We observed 6,452 animals listed by Lao PDR as near extinct or threatened with extinction. The combined risks of wildlife trade in Lao PDR to human health and biodiversity highlight the need for a multi-sector approach to effectively protect public health, economic interests and biodiversity. PMID:27008628

  11. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  12. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  13. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended.

  14. Human health risk assessment of lead pollution in atmospheric deposition in Baoshan District, Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jun; Shi, Guitao; Sun, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan

    2011-12-01

    The lead (Pb) content in atmospheric deposition was determined at 42 sampling sites in Baoshan District of Shanghai, China. Based on exposure and dose-response assessments, the health risk caused by Pb exposure in atmospheric deposition was investigated. The results indicated that Pb was significantly accumulated in atmospheric deposition. The spatial distribution of Pb was mapped by geostatistical analysis, and the results showed that pollution hotspots were present at traffic and industrial zones. Ingestion was the main route of Pb exposure in both adults and children. For children the risk value was above 1, whereas it was below 1 for the adult group. Therefore, children belong to the high-risk group for Pb exposure from atmospheric deposition in the observed area of Shanghai, China.

  15. Human Health Risks Assessment Associated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Soil from Different Contaminated Areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Ochoa Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Orta-García, Sandra T; Varela-Silva, José A

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have documented environmental contamination by PCBs in soil from different areas in Mexico (industrial, mining, and urban sites). However, the real significance of that soil contamination has not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a human health risk assessment (Monte Carlos simulation) to evaluate the probable toxic effects of soils contaminated with PCBs on children in four sites in Mexico. A high non-carcinogenic risk (total nHQ = 1.1E+01; if nHQ ≥1, hazardous health effects cannot be ruled out) was found in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. Moreover, the total CR (cancer risk) found in Alpuyeca, Morelos is of concern (total CR = 5.1E-03), being that a cut-point of 1.0E-06 has been suggested as a safe level for cancer risk. Taking into consideration the data shown in this research, we conclude that a strategy to protect human health is necessary for the assessed sites.

  16. Land use and air quality in urban environments: Human health risk assessment due to inhalation of airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, A C; Amarillo, A C; Carreras, H A; González, C M

    2018-02-01

    Particle matter (PM) and its associated compounds are a serious problem for urban air quality and a threat to human health. In the present study, we assessed the intraurban variation of PM, and characterized the human health risk associated to the inhalation of particles measured on PM filters, considering different land use areas in the urban area of Cordoba city (Argentina) and different age groups. To assess the intraurban variation of PM, a biomonitoring network of T. capillaris was established in 15 sampling sites with different land use and the bioaccumulation of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was quantified. After that, particles were collected by instrumental monitors placed at the most representative sampling sites of each land use category and an inhalation risk was calculated. A remarkable intraurban difference in the heavy metals content measured in the biomonitors was observed, in relation with the sampling site land use. The higher content was detected at industrial areas as well as in sites with intense vehicular traffic. Mean PM 10 levels exceeded the standard suggested by the U.S. EPA in all land use areas, except for the downtown. Hazard Index values were below EPA's safe limit in all land use areas and in the different age groups. In contrast, the carcinogenic risk analysis showed that all urban areas exceeded the acceptable limit (1 × 10 -6 ), while the industrial sampling sites and the elder group presented a carcinogenic risk higher that the unacceptable limit. These findings validate the use of T. capillaris to assess intraurban air quality and also show there is an important intraurban variation in human health risk associated to different land use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of ecological and human health risks of metals in urban road dust based on geochemical fractionation and potential bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Ayomi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2018-09-01

    Metals are one of the primary pollutants in the urban environment that pose adverse ecological and human health impacts. Therefore, the accurate quantification of the risk posed by metals is essential for developing effective risk management strategies to safeguard the urban environment. This study assessed the ecological and human health risks of six metals, commonly present in road dust by improving the original risk indices based on their potential bioavailability characteristics. The bioavailability of metals was determined by considering their distribution between the different geochemical phases of exchangeable, reducible, oxidisable and residual. The results of the modified risk analysis indicated that the road dust poses a low ecological risk in most of the study sites. According to the present situation, the non-cancer risk of individual metals for both, children and adults followed the decreasing trend of Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd. This study also found that depending on the particle size ranges, the potential of multiple metals being able to cause non-cancer health risk was low at most study sites. In terms of cancer health risk, Cr present at most of the study sites was found to be within the cancer threshold limit, even though the Cr content and the bioavailable fractions were relatively low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Micropollutants in groundwater from septic systems: Transformations, transport mechanisms, and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Wilson, P Chris; Williams, Clinton F

    2017-10-15

    Septic systems may contribute micropollutants to shallow groundwater and surface water. We constructed two in situ conventional drainfields (drip dispersal and gravel trench) and an advanced drainfield of septic systems to investigate the fate and transport of micropollutants to shallow groundwater. Unsaturated soil-water and groundwater samples were collected, over 32 sampling events (January 2013 to June 2014), from the drainfields (0.31-1.07 m deep) and piezometers (3.1-3.4 m deep). In addition to soil-water and groundwater, effluent samples collected from the septic tank were also analyzed for 20 selected micropollutants, including wastewater markers, hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), a plasticizer, and their transformation products. The removal efficiencies of micropollutants from septic tank effluent to groundwater were similar among three septic systems and were 51-89% for sucralose and 53->99% for other micropollutants. Even with high removal rates within the drainfields, six PPCPs and sucralose with concentrations ranging from septic systems to ecosystem and human health is warranted for the long-term sustainability of septic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure to toxicants in soil and bottom ash deposits in Agbogbloshie, Ghana: human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, S; Ansa-Asare, O D; Mohammed, S; Darko, H F; Dartey, A G

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of e-waste using informal or crude techniques poses serious health risk not only to the workers but also to the environment as whole. It is against this background that this paper sought to measure health risk faced by informal e-waste workers from exposure to toxicants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc and cobalt via oral and dermal contact with bottom ash and soil. Using random sampling techniques, 3 separate sites each (where burning and manual dismantling of e-wastes are usually carried) were identified, and a total of 402 samples were collected. The samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical analysis prescribed by the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Sn, Zn and Co in bottom ash samples from location ASH1 are 5388 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Pb), 2.39 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cd), 42 ± 0.05 mg/kg (Cr), 7940 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cu), 20 ± 0.07 mg/kg (As), 225 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Sn), 276 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Zn) and 123 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Co), while concentrations of the aforementioned toxicants in soil samples at location ASG1 are as follows: 1685 ± 0.14 mg/kg (Pb), 26.89 ± 0.30 mg/kg (Cd), 36.86 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Cr), 1427 ± 0.08 mg/kg (Cu), 1622 ± 0.12 mg/kg (As), 234 ± 0.25 mg/kg (Sn), 783 ± 0.31 mg/kg (Zn) and 135 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Co); used as input parameters in assessing health risk faced by workers. The results of cancer health risk faced by e-waste workers due to accidental ingestion of As in bottom ash at ASH1 is 4.3 × 10 -3 (CTE) and 6.5 × 10 -2 (RME), i.e. approximately 4 out of 1000 e-waste workers are likely to suffer from cancer-related diseases via central tendency exposure (CTE parameters), and 7 out of every 100 e-waste worker is also likely to suffer from cancer cases by reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters, respectively. The cancer health risk results for the other sampling sites were found to have exceeded the acceptable

  20. Overview of Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster provides an overview of three key lines of ongoing work at EPA/ORD/NCEA-CIN: Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs), Alternative Methods in Human Health Risk Assessment, and the RapidTox Dashboard collaboration.

  1. Hazardous waste transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement -- human health endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Lazaro, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation, a quantitative methodology for assessing the risk associated with the transportation of hazardous waste (HW) is proposed. The focus is on identifying air concentrations of HW that correspond to specific human health endpoints

  2. Linkages between human health and ocean health: a participatory climate change vulnerability assessment for marine mammal harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadamus, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous residents of Alaska's Bering Strait Region depend, both culturally and nutritionally, on ice seal and walrus harvests. Currently, climate change and resultant increases in marine industrial development threaten these species and the cultures that depend on them. To document: (a) local descriptions of the importance of marine mammal hunting; (b) traditional methods for determining if harvested marine mammals are safe to consume; and (c) marine mammal outcomes that would have adverse effects on community health, the perceived causes of these outcomes, strategies for preventing these outcomes and community adaptations to outcomes that cannot be mitigated. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 82 indigenous hunters and elders from the Bering Strait region. Standard qualitative analysis was conducted on interview transcripts, which were coded for both inductive and deductive codes. Responses describing marine mammal food safety and importance are presented using inductively generated categories. Responses describing negative marine mammal outcomes are presented in a vulnerability framework, which links human health outcomes to marine conditions. Project participants perceived that shipping noise and pollution, as well as marine mammal food source depletion by industrial fishing, posed the greatest threats to marine mammal hunting traditions. Proposed adaptations primarily fell into 2 categories: (a) greater tribal influence over marine policy; and (b) documentation of traditional knowledge for local use. This paper presents 1 example of documenting traditional knowledge as an adaptation strategy: traditional methods for determining if marine mammal food is safe to eat. Participant recommendations indicate that 1 strategy to promote rural Alaskan adaptation to climate change is to better incorporate local knowledge and values into decision-making processes. Participant interest in documenting traditional knowledge for local use also

  3. Trends in Surface Level Ozone Observations from Human-health Relevant Metrics: Results from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Doherty, R. M.; Malley, C.; Cooper, O. R.; Pinto, J. P.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant formed in the atmosphere from precursor species (NOx, VOCs, CH4, CO) that is detrimental to human health and ecosystems. The global Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) initiative has assembled a global database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world. This talk will present results from the assessment focused on those indicators most relevant to human health. Specifically, the trends in ozone, comparing different time periods and patterns across regions and among metrics will be addressed. In addition, the fraction of population exposed to high ozone levels and how this has changed between 2000 and 2014 will also be discussed. The core time period analyzed for trends was 2000-2014, selected to include a greater number of sites in East Asia. Negative trends were most commonly observed at many US and some European sites, whereas many sites in East Asia showed positive trends, while sites in Japan showed more of a mix of positive and negative trends. More than half of the sites showed a common direction and significance in the trends for all five human-health relevant metrics. The peak ozone metrics indicate a reduction in exposure to peak levels of ozone related to photochemical episodes in Europe and the US. A considerable number of European countries and states within the US have shown a decrease in population-weighted ozone over time. The 2000-2014 results will be augmented and compared to the trend analysis for additional time periods that cover a greater number of years, but by necessity are based on fewer sites. Trends are found to be statistically significant at a larger fraction of sites with longer time series, compared to the shorter (2000-2014) time series.

  4. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2018-02-01

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo ) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  5. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A; Euling, Susan Y; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P

    2013-09-15

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA)--i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on "augmentation" of weight of evidence--using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards "integration" of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for "expansion" of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual "reorientation" of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A., E-mail: chiu.weihsueh@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 20460 (United States); Euling, Susan Y.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) — i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on “augmentation” of weight of evidence — using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards “integration” of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for “expansion” of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual “reorientation” of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes.

  7. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Euling, Susan Y.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) — i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on “augmentation” of weight of evidence — using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards “integration” of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for “expansion” of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual “reorientation” of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes

  8. Zimbabwe's Human Resources for health Information System (ZHRIS)-an assessment in the context of establishing a global standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Keith P; Zuber, Alexandra; Simbini, Tungamirirai; Bangani, Zwashe; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh S

    2017-04-01

    There have been numerous global calls to action to utilize human resources information systems (HRIS) to improve the availability and quality of data for strengthening the regulation and deployment of health workers. However, with no normative guidance in existence, the development of HRIS has been inconsistent and lacking in standardization, hindering the availability and use of data for health workforce planning and decision making (Riley et al., 2012). CDC and WHO partnered with the Ministry of Health in several countries to conduct HRIS functional requirements analyses and establish a Minimum Data Set (MDS) of elements essential for a global standard HRIS. As a next step, CDC advanced a study to examine the alignment of one of the HRIS it supports (in Zimbabwe) against this MDS. For this study, we created a new data collection and analysis tool to assess the extent to which Zimbabwe's CDC-supported HRIS was aligned with the WHO MDS. We performed systematic "gap analyses" in order to make prioritized recommendations for addressing the gaps, with the aim of improving the availability and quality of data on Zimbabwe's health workforce. The majority of the data elements outlined in the WHO MDS were present in the ZHRIS databases, though they were found to be missing various applicable elements. The lack of certain elements could impede functions such as health worker credential verification or equitable in-service training allocation. While the HRIS MDS treats all elements equally, our assessment revealed that not all the elements have equal significance when it comes to data utilization. Further, some of the HRIS MDS elements exceeded the current needs of regulatory bodies and the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) in Zimbabwe. The preliminary findings of this study helped inspire the development of a more recent HRH Registry MDS subset, which is a shorter list of priority data elements recommended as a global standard for HRIS. The field-tested assessment

  9. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day ozone distribution and trends relevant to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L. Fleming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the present-day global and regional distributions (2010–2014 and trends (2000–2014 for five ozone metrics relevant for short-term and long-term human exposure. These metrics, calculated by the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report, are: 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone (4MDA8; number of days with MDA8 > 70 ppb (NDGT70, SOMO35 (annual Sum of Ozone Means Over 35 ppb and two seasonally averaged metrics (3MMDA1; AVGMDA8. These metrics were explored at ozone monitoring sites worldwide, which were classified as urban or non-urban based on population and nighttime lights data. Present-day distributions of 4MDA8 and NDGT70, determined predominantly by peak values, are similar with highest levels in western North America, southern Europe and East Asia. For the other three metrics, distributions are similar with North–South gradients more prominent across Europe and Japan. Between 2000 and 2014, significant negative trends in 4MDA8 and NDGT70 occur at most US and some European sites. In contrast, significant positive trends are found at many sites in South Korea and Hong Kong, with mixed trends across Japan. The other three metrics have similar, negative trends for many non-urban North American and some European and Japanese sites, and positive trends across much of East Asia. Globally, metrics at many sites exhibit non-significant trends. At 59% of all sites there is a common direction and significance in the trend across all five metrics, whilst 4MDA8 and NDGT70 have a common trend at ~80% of all sites. Sensitivity analysis shows AVGMDA8 trends differ with averaging period (warm season or annual. Trends are unchanged at many sites when a 1995–2014 period is used; although fewer sites exhibit non-significant trends. Over the longer period 1970–2014, most Japanese sites exhibit positive 4MDA8/SOMO35 trends. Insufficient data exist to characterize ozone trends for the rest of Asia and other world regions.

  10. Methodology and parameters for assessing human health effects for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Marter, W.L.; Looney, B.B.; Pickett, J.B.

    1987-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the components of risk assessment and presents the technical basis for application of the risk evaluation process to the principal pollutants at SRP: radionuclides, toxic chemicals, and carcinogenic compounds. An extensive technical data base from the fields of radiation health physics, toxicology, and environmental sciences is required to accomplish this task. The origin and meaning of this data base is summarized for each class of contaminant and parameter values provided for use in numerical analysis of risk. The process of risk assessment is associated with uncertainties, a fact which is frequently stated in the technical literature addressing this subject. A review of risk assessment uncertainties and the limitations of predictive risk assessment are summarized. Risk estimators for each class of contaminants at the SRP have been tabulated for radionuclides, toxic chemicals, and carcinogens from the technical literature. Estimation of human health risk is not an additive process for radiation effects and chemical carcinogenesis since their respective dosimetric models are distinctly different even though the induction of cancer is reported to be the common end result. It is recommended in this report that risk estimation for radionuclides and chemical carcinogens should be tabulated separately and this recommendation has been applied in all environmental information documentation published by the Savannah River Laboratory. Impacts due to toxic chemicals in the biosphere should also be estimated as a separate entity since toxic chemical risk estimators are uniquely different and do not reflect the probability of a detrimental health effect. 23 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Ecosystems and human well-being: health synthesis : a report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hales, Simon; Corvalan, Carlos; McMichael, Anthony (Tony) J

    2005-01-01

    ... 36 4 What actions are required to address the health consequences of ecosystem change? 4.1 Reducing vulnerability 4.2 The Millennium Development Goals 38 38 39 5 How can priorities be established for actions to address the health consequences of ecosystem change? 5.1 What considerations are important when setting priorities and what...

  12. Integrating human and environmental health in antibiotic risk assessment: A critical analysis of protection goals, species sensitivity and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Gareth; Gunnarsson, Lina; Snape, Jason; Tyler, Charles R

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are vital in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases but when released into the environment they may impact non-target organisms that perform vital ecosystem services and enhance antimicrobial resistance development with significant consequences for human health. We evaluate whether the current environmental risk assessment regulatory guidance is protective of antibiotic impacts on the environment, protective of antimicrobial resistance, and propose science-based protection goals for antibiotic manufacturing discharges. A review and meta-analysis was conducted of aquatic ecotoxicity data for antibiotics and for minimum selective concentration data derived from clinically relevant bacteria. Relative species sensitivity was investigated applying general linear models, and predicted no effect concentrations were generated for toxicity to aquatic organisms and compared with predicted no effect concentrations for resistance development. Prokaryotes were most sensitive to antibiotics but the range of sensitivities spanned up to several orders of magnitude. We show reliance on one species of (cyano)bacteria and the 'activated sludge respiration inhibition test' is not sufficient to set protection levels for the environment. Individually, neither traditional aquatic predicted no effect concentrations nor predicted no effect concentrations suggested to safeguard for antimicrobial resistance, protect against environmental or human health effects (via antimicrobial resistance development). Including data from clinically relevant bacteria and also more species of environmentally relevant bacteria in the regulatory framework would help in defining safe discharge concentrations for antibiotics for patient use and manufacturing that would protect environmental and human health. It would also support ending unnecessary testing on metazoan species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments

  14. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  15. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  16. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  17. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  18. Assessment of ecological and human health risks of heavy metal contamination in agriculture soils disturbed by pipeline construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-02-28

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  19. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW, which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  20. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  1. Pollution level and human health risk assessment of some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Nantong of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Li Yi; Lili Shi; Deyang Kong; Daoji Cai; Donghua Wang; Zhengjun Shan

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption is one of the key exposure routes of humans to contaminants.This article evaluated the residue levels of 51 pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected fish and food items which were commonly consumed in the Nantong area of Jiangsu Province,Southeast China.The 51 pesticides and 16 PCBs were analyzed by highly sensitive gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).The results showed that organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs),hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs),hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex and other pesticides including chlorpyrifos,pyrethroid pesticides,metolachlor,pyridaben and trifluralin were frequently detected in the samples,which was consistent with the accumulation level and characteristics of these toxic chemicals in human adipose tissue of people living in Nantong.Meanwhile,correlation of the residue level of toxic chemicals with their physical chemical properties and historic use pattern in Nantong area was observed.Combined with dietary survey results at the same sampling locations,human health risk assessment of ingestion through the dietary route was performed.The results suggested that the non-cancer risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in the Nantong area,however,the cancer risks from lifetime dietary exposure to DDTs and HCB have exceeded the acceptable levels.

  2. Ecological, groundwater, and human health risk assessment in a mining region of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Francisco; Mendoza, Alfredo; Cuadra, Steven; Barmen, Gerhard; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bengtsson, Göran

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the relative risk from mercury exposure to stream biota, groundwater, and humans in the Río Artiguas (Sucio) river basin, Nicaragua, where local gold mining occurs. A hazard quotient was used as a common exchange rate in probabilistic estimations of exposure and effects by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The endpoint for stream organisms was the lethal no-observed-effect concentration (NOECs), for groundwater the WHO guideline and the inhibitory Hg concentrations in bacteria (IC), and for humans the tolerable daily intake (TDI) and the benchmark dose level with an uncertainty factor of 10 (BMDLs(0.1)). Macroinvertebrates and fish in the contaminated river are faced with a higher risk to suffer from exposure to Hg than humans eating contaminated fish and bacteria living in the groundwater. The river sediment is the most hazardous source for the macroinvertebrates, and macroinvertebrates make up the highest risk for fish. The distribution of body concentrations of Hg in fish in the mining areas of the basin may exceed the distribution of endpoint values with close to 100% probability. Similarly, the Hg concentration in cord blood of humans feeding on fish from the river was predicted to exceed the BMDLs(0.1) with about 10% probability. Most of the risk to the groundwater quality is confined to the vicinity of the gold refining plants and along the river, with a probability of about 20% to exceed the guideline value.

  3. Nitrate and nitrite in the diet: How to assess their benefit and risk for human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habermeyer, M.; Roth, A.; Guth, S.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet and an approved food additive. It can be partially converted to nitrogen monoxide, which induces vasodilation and thereby decreases blood pressure. This effect is associated with a reduced risk regarding cardiovascular disease, myocardial

  4. Essential and toxic heavy metals in cereals and agricultural products marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Fattahi, Nazir; Sharafi, Kiomars; Khamotian, Razieh; Atafar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Levels of some essential and toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, zinc and copper in cereals and agricultural products obtained from the markets in Kermanshah city, west Iran, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average concentrations for lead and cadmium in some cereals were higher than the maximum levels set by the Codex Alimentarius. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating cereals and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. In combination with recent cereal consumption data, the EWIs of heavy metals were calculated for the Kermanshah population. EWI data for the studied metals through cereal consumption were lower than the PTWI values. Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu levels in all samples analysed were within the ranges reported for similar cereals from various parts of the world.

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. Methods. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, arsenic (As, manganese (Mn, and antimony (Sb concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Results. Local soil contamination was observed, with mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, and As of 0.472, 193.133, 36.793, and 89.029 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, Mn, and As in brown rice were 0.103, 0.131, 5.175, 6.007, and 0.524 mg/kg, respectively. Daily intakes of Cd, As, Sb, Pb, and Mn through brown rice consumption were estimated to be 0.011, 0.0002, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0003 mg/(kg/day, respectively. The combined hazard index for the five heavy metals was 22.5917, and the total cancer risk was 0.1773. Cd contributed most significantly to cancer risk, accounting for approximately 99.77% of this risk. Conclusions. The results show that potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks exist for local inhabitants and that regular monitoring of pollution to protect human health is urgently required.

  6. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Zhu, Tingping; Li, Mengtong; He, Jieyi; Huang, Ruixue

    2017-01-01

    Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb) concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Local soil contamination was observed, with mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, and As of 0.472, 193.133, 36.793, and 89.029 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, Mn, and As in brown rice were 0.103, 0.131, 5.175, 6.007, and 0.524 mg/kg, respectively. Daily intakes of Cd, As, Sb, Pb, and Mn through brown rice consumption were estimated to be 0.011, 0.0002, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0003 mg/(kg/day), respectively. The combined hazard index for the five heavy metals was 22.5917, and the total cancer risk was 0.1773. Cd contributed most significantly to cancer risk, accounting for approximately 99.77% of this risk. The results show that potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks exist for local inhabitants and that regular monitoring of pollution to protect human health is urgently required.

  7. Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempah, Crentsil Kofi; Ewusi, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Gold mining has increased the prevalence and occurrence of heavy metals contamination at the Earth's surface and is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. This study investigated the impact of gold mine on heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) pollution and evaluated the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of polluted groundwater, agricultural soils, and vegetable crops grown at three community farms surrounding the mine at Obuasi municipality of Ghana. The results showed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Mn higher than the allowable drinking water standards. The vegetable samples analyzed showed high accumulation of As and Ni above the normal value. Bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals were significantly higher for vegetables grown in the Sanso soils. Estimated average daily intake and hazard quotient for As in drinking water as well as As, Pb, and Hg in vegetable samples exceeded permissible limit. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk levels were found in vegetable samples analyzed for As, Pb, and Hg. An unacceptable cancer risk was found via drinking of groundwater, in consumption of vegetables, and in soil. The hazard index for vegetables was higher than 1, indicating very high health risk to heavy metals contamination through consumption of vegetables grown around the sampling sites. The results recommend the need for regular monitoring of groundwater and food crops to protect consumers' health.

  8. Integrating toxicogenomics into human health risk assessment: lessons learned from the benzo[a]pyrene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Moffat, Ivy D; Labib, Sarah; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Kuo, Byron; Buick, Julie K; Lemieux, France; Malik, Amal I; Halappanavar, Sabina; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-01-01

    The use of short-term toxicogenomic tests to predict cancer (or other health effects) offers considerable advantages relative to traditional toxicity testing methods. The advantages include increased throughput, increased mechanistic data, and significantly reduced costs. However, precisely how toxicogenomics data can be used to support human health risk assessment (RA) is unclear. In a companion paper ( Moffat et al. 2014 ), we present a case study evaluating the utility of toxicogenomics in the RA of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a known human carcinogen. The case study is meant as a proof-of-principle exercise using a well-established mode of action (MOA) that impacts multiple tissues, which should provide a best case example. We found that toxicogenomics provided rich mechanistic data applicable to hazard identification, dose-response analysis, and quantitative RA of BaP. Based on this work, here we share some useful lessons for both research and RA, and outline our perspective on how toxicogenomics can benefit RA in the short- and long-term. Specifically, we focus on (1) obtaining biologically relevant data that are readily suitable for establishing an MOA for toxicants, (2) examining the human relevance of an MOA from animal testing, and (3) proposing appropriate quantitative values for RA. We describe our envisioned strategy on how toxicogenomics can become a tool in RA, especially when anchored to other short-term toxicity tests (apical endpoints) to increase confidence in the proposed MOA, and emphasize the need for additional studies on other MOAs to define the best practices in the application of toxicogenomics in RA.

  9. Developing a health and human rights training program for french speaking Africa: lessons learned, from needs assessment to a pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Klohn, Axel Max; Zesiger, Véronique; Freigburghaus, Franziska; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele

    2009-08-24

    The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy.The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test the feasibility of a training program through a pilot test. Ultimately the project aims to implement a health and human rights training program most appropriate to the African context. Needs assessment was done according to four approaches: Revue of available data on health and human rights in the targeted countries; Country visits by one of the authors meeting key institutions; Focus group discussions with key-informants in each country; A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals and human rights activists.Pilot training program: an interactive e-learning pilot program was developed integrating training needs expressed by partner institutions and potential trainees. Needs assessment showed high public health and human rights challenges that the target countries have to face. It also showed precise demands of partner institutions in regard to a health and human rights training program. It further allowed defining training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future students as well as specific training contents.A pilot program allowed testing the motivation of students, the feasibility of an interactive educational approach and identifying potential difficulties. In combining various approaches our study was able to show that training needs concentrate around tools allowing the identification of basic human rights violations in the health system, the analysis of their causes and coordinated responses through specific intervention projects.

  10. Developing a health and human rights training program for french speaking Africa: lessons learned, from needs assessment to a pilot program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freigburghaus Franziska

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy. The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test the feasibility of a training program through a pilot test. Ultimately the project aims to implement a health and human rights training program most appropriate to the African context. Methods Needs assessment was done according to four approaches: Revue of available data on health and human rights in the targeted countries; Country visits by one of the authors meeting key institutions; Focus group discussions with key-informants in each country; A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals and human rights activists. Pilot training program: an interactive e-learning pilot program was developed integrating training needs expressed by partner institutions and potential trainees. Results Needs assessment showed high public health and human rights challenges that the target countries have to face. It also showed precise demands of partner institutions in regard to a health and human rights training program. It further allowed defining training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future students as well as specific training contents. A pilot program allowed testing the motivation of students, the feasibility of an interactive educational approach and identifying potential difficulties. Conclusion In combining various approaches our study was able to show that training needs concentrate around tools allowing the identification of basic human rights violations in the health system, the analysis of their causes and

  11. An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study (Final Report, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study. This report outlines an approach to evaluate genomic data for use in risk assessment and a case study to ...

  12. Availability, quality and relevance of toxicogenomics data for human health risk assessment: A scoping review of the literature on trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Julien; Pagé-Larivière, Florence; Sirard, Marc-André; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Levallois, Patrick; Campagna, Céline

    2018-03-05

    Human health risk assessment (HHRA) must be adapted to the challenges of the 21st century, and the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is among the changes that regulatory agencies worldwide are trying to implement. However, the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is still limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications as potential barriers to their use in HHRA. We conducted a scoping review of available toxicogenomics literature, using trihalomethanes as a case study. Four bibliographic databases (including the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database) were assessed. An evaluation table was developed to characterise quality and relevance of studies included on the basis of criteria proposed in the literature. Studies were selected and analysed by two independent reviewers. Only nine studies, published between 1997 and 2015, were included in the analysis. Based on the selected criteria, critical methodological details were often missing; in fact, only three out of nine studies were considered to be of adequate quality for HHRA. No studies met more than three (out of seven) criteria of relevance to HHRA (e.g. adequate number of doses and sample size, etc.). This first scoping review of toxicogenomics publications on trihalomethanes shows that low availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications presents potential barriers to their use in HHRA. Improved reporting of methodological details and study design is needed in the future so that toxicogenomics studies can be appropriately assessed regarding their quality and value for HHRA.

  13. Health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals in the ambient air PM10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Alavi, Nadali; Geravandi, Sahar; Idani, Esmaeil; Behrooz, Hamid Reza Adeli; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alamdari, Farzaneh Aslanpour; Dobaradaran, Sina; Farhadi, Majid; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metals (HM) are one of the main components of urban air pollution. Today, megacities and industrial regions in southwest of Iran are frequently suffering from severe haze episodes, which essentially caused by PM10-bound heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the ambient air PM10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. In this study, we estimated healthy people from the following scenarios: (S3) residential site; (S2) high-traffic site; (S1) industrial site in Ahvaz metropolitan during autumn and winter. In the current study, high-volume air samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters were used to sampling and measurements of heavy metal concentration. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was utilized for detection of heavy metal concentration (ng m-3). Also, an estimate of the amount of health risk assessment (hazard index) of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn of heavy metal exposure to participants was used. Result of this study showed that the residential and industrial areas had the lowest and the highest level of heavy metal. Based on the result of this study, average levels of heavy metal in industrial, high-traffic, and residential areas in autumn and winter were 31.48, 30.89, and 23.21 μg m-3 and 42.60, 37.70, and 40.07 μg m-3, respectively. Based on the result of this study, the highest and the lowest concentration of heavy metal had in the industrial and residential areas. Zn and Pb were the most abundant elements among the studied PM10-bound heavy metals, followed by Cr and Ni. The carcinogenic risks of Cr, Pb, and the integral HQ of metals in PM10 for children and adults via inhalation and dermal exposures exceeded 1 × 10-4 in three areas. Also, based on the result of this study, the values of hazard index (HI) of HM exposure in different areas were significantly higher than standard. The health risks attributed to HM should be further

  14. Health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals in the ambient air PM10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Alavi, Nadali; Geravandi, Sahar; Idani, Esmaeil; Behrooz, Hamid Reza Adeli; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alamdari, Farzaneh Aslanpour; Dobaradaran, Sina; Farhadi, Majid; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad

    2018-06-01

    Heavy metals (HM) are one of the main components of urban air pollution. Today, megacities and industrial regions in southwest of Iran are frequently suffering from severe haze episodes, which essentially caused by PM 10 -bound heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the ambient air PM 10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. In this study, we estimated healthy people from the following scenarios: (S3) residential site; (S2) high-traffic site; (S1) industrial site in Ahvaz metropolitan during autumn and winter. In the current study, high-volume air samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters were used to sampling and measurements of heavy metal concentration. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was utilized for detection of heavy metal concentration (ng m -3 ). Also, an estimate of the amount of health risk assessment (hazard index) of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn of heavy metal exposure to participants was used. Result of this study showed that the residential and industrial areas had the lowest and the highest level of heavy metal. Based on the result of this study, average levels of heavy metal in industrial, high-traffic, and residential areas in autumn and winter were 31.48, 30.89, and 23.21 μg m -3 and 42.60, 37.70, and 40.07 μg m -3 , respectively. Based on the result of this study, the highest and the lowest concentration of heavy metal had in the industrial and residential areas. Zn and Pb were the most abundant elements among the studied PM 10 -bound heavy metals, followed by Cr and Ni. The carcinogenic risks of Cr, Pb, and the integral HQ of metals in PM 10 for children and adults via inhalation and dermal exposures exceeded 1 × 10 -4 in three areas. Also, based on the result of this study, the values of hazard index (HI) of HM exposure in different areas were significantly higher than standard. The health risks attributed to HM should

  15. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  16. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, James C; Towler, George; Thorne, Michael C; Norris, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source–pathway–receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  17. Assessment of heavy metals and estimation of human health risk in Tilapia fish from Naik lake of Nagpur, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Giripunje, M.D.; Fulke, A.B.; Meshram, P.U.

    /g dw respectively. These levels were above the maximum permissible limits of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organisation (WHO). The results confirmed that tilapia fish from Naik lake are not safe for human consumption. Further...

  18. Documents for Recommended Toxicity Equivalency Factors for Human Health Risk Assessments of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) updated approach for evaluating the human health risks from exposures to environmental media containing dioxin-like compounds (DLCs).

  19. Seaweed and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  20. Environmental and human health assessment of life cycle of nanoTiO2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Martina; Bondioli, Federica; Montecchi, Rita; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria

    2017-01-15

    Recently, there has been a rise in the interest in nanotechnology due to its enormous potential for the development of new products and applications with higher performance and new functionalities. However, while nanotechnology might revolutionize a number of industrial and consumer sectors, there are uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding toxicological effects of this emerging science. The goal of this research concerns the implementation into Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of preliminary frameworks developed to evaluate human toxicity and exposure factors related to the potential nanoparticle releases that could occur during the life cycle steps of a functionalized building material. The present LCA case study examines the ecodesign of nanoTiO 2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile production. The aim of this investigation is to manufacture new eco-friendly products in order to protect human health and ecosystem quality and to offer the market, materials with higher technological properties obtained by the addition of specific nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An initial assessment of the impact of Australian aerosols on surface ultraviolet radiation and implications for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, C Y; Mills, F P

    2010-01-01

    Aerosols can have significant influence on surface radiation, and the intense surface ultraviolet radiation Australia experiences contributes to Australia's high incidence rates for related human diseases. Aerosol properties, such as total column aerosol optical depth, have been measured over several years for varying lengths of time at sites across Australia using sunphotometers. Statistical analysis of the average daily aerosol optical depth over sites near Alice Springs, Canberra, Darwin, and Perth provides one measure of the annual atmospheric loading of aerosols over these sites. The sunphotometers used at these sites do not make measurements in the UV-B spectral region and have only one channel in the UV-A spectral region, the regions of most interest for assessing human health impact. Consequently, model calculations using standard aerosol types have been used to make an initial estimate of the impact of the aerosols found over these four sites on surface ultraviolet radiation. The aerosol loading is at times sufficient to significantly reduce the surface ultraviolet radiation, but few such days occur each year. The annual average effect of aerosols on surface ultraviolet radiation, thus, appears to be small compared to lifestyle factors, such as clothing and use of sunscreen.

  2. Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Various Environmental Media, Crops and Human Hair from a Mining Affected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushuang Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to trace metals in various media is of great concern for people living in known pollution sources, such as mining and industrial activities. Health risk assessment and human hair analysis can provide important information for local environmental management. Information on distribution characteristics of trace metals in soil, water, sediment, air, local crops, and human hair from a typical mining area in southern China was collected. Results show there exists severely trace metal contamination in soil, sediment, and air. Arsenic and Pb contents in the local children’s hair are higher than the upper reference values, and the accumulation of residents’ hair trace metals shows great correlation with the ingestion and inhalation pathways. Arsenic contributes 52.27% and 58.51% to the total non-cancer risk of adults and children, respectively. The cancer risk of Cd in adults and children are 4.66 and 3.22 times higher than the safe level, respectively. Ingestion exposure pathway of trace metals largely contributes to the total non-cancer and cancer effect. The metals As, Cd, and Pb are major risk sources and pollutants that should be given priority for management, and ingestion pathway exposure to trace metals through soil and crops should be controlled.

  3. Human Health Risk Assessment of 16 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils of Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Erika; Richards, Sean; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Dixon, Robert P; Johnson, Kevin A

    2012-11-01

    South Chattanooga has been home to foundries, coke furnaces, chemical, wood preserving, tanning and textile plants for over 100 years. Most of the industries were in place before any significant development of residential property in the area. During the 1950s and 1960s, however, the government purchased inexpensive property and constructed public housing projects in South Chattanooga. Many neighborhoods that surround the Chattanooga Creek were previous dumping grounds for industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprised the largest component of the dumping and airborne industrial emissions. To address the human exposure to these PAHs, a broad study of South Chattanooga soil contaminant concentrations was conducted on 20 sites across the city. Sixteen priority pollutant PAHs were quantified at two depths (0-10cm and 10-20cm) and compared against reference site soils, as well as to soils from industrially-impacted areas in Germany, China, and the US. From these data, the probability that people would encounter levels exceeding EPA Residential Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRG) was calculated. Results indicate that South Chattanooga soils have relatively high concentrations of total PAHs, specifically Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). These high concentrations of B[a]P were somewhat ubiquitous in South Chattanooga. Indeed, there is a high probability (88%) of encountering soil in South Chattanooga that exceeds the EPA PRG for B[a]P. However, there is a low probability (15%) of encountering a site with ∑PAHs exceeding EPA PRG guidelines.

  4. Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2014-03-01

    A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25μgL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5μgL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25μgL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for Σ6 PCB). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Health Risk Assessment Simulations in a Distributed Environment for Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    During the launch of a rocket under prevailing weather conditions, commanders at Cape Canaveral Air Force station evaluate the possibility of whether wind blown toxic emissions might reach civilian and military personnel in the near by area. In our model, we focused mainly on Hydrogen chloride (HCL), Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Nitric acid (HNO3), which are non-carcinogenic chemicals as per United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) classification. We have used the hazard quotient model to estimate the number of people at risk. It is based on the number of people with exposure above a reference exposure level that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. The risk to the exposed population is calculated by multiplying the individual risk and the number in exposed population. The risk values are compared against the acceptable risk values and GO or NO-go situation is decided based on risk values for the Shuttle launch. The entire model is simulated over the web and different scenaria can be generated which allows management to choose an optimum decision.

  6. Updated Human Health Risk Analyses for Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has revised the human health hazard assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos.

  7. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lorelei; Bharadwaj, Lalita; McLeod, Lianne; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-07-28

    Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural.

  8. Assessment of human health risk associated with methylmercury in the imported fish marketed in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Gandara, Fabio; Herrera-Herrera, Claudia; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Marrugo-Negrete, José; Díez, Sergi

    2018-08-01

    The decline in marine and freshwaters catches in recent years in Colombia has led to a change in dietary habits, with an increase in the purchase and consumption of imported fish. This is of particular concern as fish are sometimes caught in mercury-contaminated waters, and are subsequently sold canned or uncanned. In addition, canned tuna has received little attention as it is widely assumed that concentrations are low. In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated in three imported fish species marketed in Colombia, Prochilodus lineatus, Prochilodus reticulatus, and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, plus four brands of canned tuna and one of sardines. One brand of tuna showed the highest mean concentrations of THg (0.543 ± 0.237 μg/g, wet weight, ww) and MeHg (0.518 ± 0.337 μg/g ww), while concentrations in P. hypophthalmus were approximately 30 times lower (≈0.02 µg/g ww). The estimated weekly intake (EWI) in children was above the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of MeHg established by the Joint FAO/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, 1.6 μg/kg body weight (bw) per week, for all the canned tuna brands. Values for adults were below PTWI, whereas for women of childbearing age, values were above PTWI only for brand D of canned tuna. The estimate of the potential risk indicated that MeHg levels in canned tuna can generate negative effects in vulnerable groups, while the EWI of fresh fish did not pose a threat to the general population. Therefore, establishing strategies to address the high consumption of canned tuna, and continuous monitoring to control commercial food, are recommended to decrease Hg exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioaccessibility of metals and human health risk assessment in community urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M; De Miguel, E; Ortega, M F; Mingot, J

    2015-09-01

    Pseudo-total (i.e. aqua regia extractable) and gastric-bioaccessible (i.e. glycine+HCl extractable) concentrations of Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in a total of 48 samples collected from six community urban gardens of different characteristics in the city of Madrid (Spain). Calcium carbonate appears to be the soil property that determines the bioaccessibility of a majority of those elements, and the lack of influence of organic matter, pH and texture can be explained by their low levels in the samples (organic matter) or their narrow range of variation (pH and texture). A conservative risk assessment with bioaccessible concentrations in two scenarios, i.e. adult urban farmers and children playing in urban gardens, revealed acceptable levels of risk, but with large differences between urban gardens depending on their history of land use and their proximity to busy areas in the city center. Only in a worst-case scenario in which children who use urban gardens as recreational areas also eat the produce grown in them would the risk exceed the limits of acceptability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxic metals in cigarettes and human health risk assessment associated with inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nsikak U; Anake, Winifred U; Adedapo, Adebusayo E; Fred-Ahmadu, Omowunmi H; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O

    2017-11-08

    This study evaluated the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 10 branded cigarettes commonly consumed in Nigeria. Chemical sequential extraction method and pseudo-total metal digestion procedure were used for extraction of metals from filler tobacco and filter samples. Samples were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The filler tobacco of cigarettes had Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the ranges of 5.90-7.94, 18.26-34.94, 192.61-3494.05, 44.67-297.69, 17.21-74.78, and 47.02-167.31 μg/cigarette, respectively. The minimum and maximum concentrations in the filter samples were 8.67-12.34 μg/g of Cd, 1.77-36.48 μg/g of Cu, 1.83-15.27 μg/g of Fe, 3.82-7.44 μg/g of Mn, 4.09-13.78 μg/g of Pb, and 30.07-46.70 μg/g of Zn. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the filler tobacco samples were consistently higher than those obtained for the cigarette filters except for Cd. Toxic metals were largely found in the most labile chemical fractions. Moderate to very high risks are found associated with potential exposure to Cd and Pb. The carcinogenic risks posed by Cd and Pb ranged between 1.87E-02 and 2.52E-02, 1.05E-03 and 4.76E-03, respectively, while the non-carcinogenic risk estimates for Cd and Pb were greater than 1.0 (HI > 1). Toxic metals in cigarette may have significant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects associated with inhalation exposure. Continuous monitoring and regulations of the ingredients of imported and locally produced tobacco products are advocated.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  12. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  13. A population-based assessment of women's mental health and attitudes toward women's human rights in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amowitz, Lynn L; Heisler, Michele; Iacopino, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    To assess the health status of Afghan women and attitudes of these women and their male relatives during the period of Taliban rule toward women's rights and community development needs in Afghanistan. In household residences in two regions in Afghanistan (one Taliban controlled and the other not under the Taliban) and a refugee camp and repatriation center in Pakistan, structured interviews were conducted among a random sample of women and men exposed to Taliban policy and women living in a non-Taliban controlled area (724 Afghan women and 553 male relatives). Major depression was far more prevalent among women exposed to Taliban policies (73%-78%) than among women living in a non-Taliban controlled area (28%). Sixty-five percent of women living in a Taliban-controlled area and 73% of women in Pakistan exposed to Taliban policies expressed suicidal ideation at the time of the study, compared with 18% of those in a non-Taliban controlled area. More than 90% of both women and men expressed support for equal work and educational opportunities, free expression, protection of women's rights, participation of women in government, and the inclusion of women's human rights concerns in peace talks. A majority of both women and men believed that guaranteeing civil and political rights (69%) and meeting basic needs (90%) were important for the health and development of their communities. In Afghanistan under the Taliban, policies restricting women's rights were not the product of years of tradition or of social and economic deprivation. Instead, they were man-made policies as easily and swiftly revoked as they were instituted. Depression rates among women in Afghanistan, especially in Taliban-controlled areas, were extraordinarily high. Current efforts to rebuild Afghanistan must address these high rates of depression and other mental health problems to ensure women's full participation in development.

  14. Assessment of the Effects of Economic Sanctions on Iranians' Right to Health by Using Human Rights Impact Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabisaghi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-20

    Over the years, economic sanctions have contributed to violation of right to health in target countries. Iran has been under comprehensive unilateral economic sanctions by groups of countries (not United Nations [UN]) in recent years. They have been intensified from 2012 because of international community's uncertainty about peaceful purpose of Iran's nuclear program and inadequacy of trust-building actions of this country. This review aimed to identify the humanitarian effects of the sanctions on the right of Iranians to health and the obligations of Iran and international community about it. To assess economic sanction policies and identify violated rights and the obligations of states according to international human rights laws, in this study, Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA) tool is used. Applying this tool requires collection of evidences regarding the situation of rights. To provide such evidence, a systematic review of literature which involved 55 papers retrieved from the web-based databases and official webpages of Iran's government and UN' health and human rights committees and organizations was done. All articles about the consequences of economic sanctions related to nuclear activities of Iran on welfare and health of Iranians published from January 2012 till February 2017 in English and Persian languages were included. Search terms were economic sanctions, embargoes, Iran, welfare, health and medicine. Additional studies were identified by cross checking the reference lists of accessed articles. All selected papers were abstracted and entered into a matrix describing study design and findings, and categorized into a framework of themes reflecting the areas covered (health and its determinants). According to HRIA framework, related obligations of Iran and other states about adverse effects of the sanctions on Iranians' right to health were extracted. The sanctions on Iran caused a fall of country's revenues, devaluation of national currency, and

  15. Assessment of the Effects of Economic Sanctions on Iranians’ Right to Health by Using Human Rights Impact Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabisaghi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over the years, economic sanctions have contributed to violation of right to health in target countries. Iran has been under comprehensive unilateral economic sanctions by groups of countries (not United Nations [UN]) in recent years. They have been intensified from 2012 because of international community’s uncertainty about peaceful purpose of Iran’s nuclear program and inadequacy of trust-building actions of this country. This review aimed to identify the humanitarian effects of the sanctions on the right of Iranians to health and the obligations of Iran and international community about it. Methods: To assess economic sanction policies and identify violated rights and the obligations of states according to international human rights laws, in this study, Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA) tool is used. Applying this tool requires collection of evidences regarding the situation of rights. To provide such evidence, a systematic review of literature which involved 55 papers retrieved from the web-based databases and official webpages of Iran’s government and UN’ health and human rights committees and organizations was done. All articles about the consequences of economic sanctions related to nuclear activities of Iran on welfare and health of Iranians published from January 2012 till February 2017 in English and Persian languages were included. Search terms were economic sanctions, embargoes, Iran, welfare, health and medicine. Additional studies were identified by cross checking the reference lists of accessed articles. All selected papers were abstracted and entered into a matrix describing study design and findings, and categorized into a framework of themes reflecting the areas covered (health and its determinants). According to HRIA framework, related obligations of Iran and other states about adverse effects of the sanctions on Iranians’ right to health were extracted. Results: The sanctions on Iran caused a fall of country

  16. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingmei; Song, Qiujin; Tang, Yu; Li, Wanlu; Xu, Jianming; Wu, Jianjun; Wang, Fan; Brookes, Philip Charles

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable fields near villages in China are suffering increasing heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agriculture, traffic, mining and Chinese typical local private family-sized industry. 268 vegetable samples which included rape, celery, cabbages, carrots, asparagus lettuces, cowpeas, tomatoes and cayenne pepper and their corresponding soils in three economically developed areas of Zhejiang Province, China were collected, and the concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As) in all the samples were determined. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were employed to explore the potential health hazards of heavy metals in soils growing vegetables. Results showed that heavy metal contaminations in investigated vegetables and corresponding soils were significant. Pollution levels varied with metals and vegetable types. The highest mean soil concentrations of heavy metals were 70.36 mg kg −1 Pb, 47.49 mg kg −1 Cr, 13.51 mg kg −1 As, 0.73 mg kg −1 for Cd and 0.67 mg kg −1 Hg, respectively, while the metal concentrations in vegetables and corresponding soils were poorly correlated. The health risk assessment results indicated that diet dominated the exposure pathways, so heavy metals in soil samples might cause potential harm through food-chain transfer. The total non-cancer and cancer risk results indicated that the investigated arable fields near industrial and waste mining sites were unsuitable for growing leaf and root vegetables in view of the risk of elevated intakes of heavy metals adversely affecting food safety for local residents. Chromium and Pb were the primary heavy metals posing non-cancer risks while Cd caused the greatest cancer risk. It was concluded that more effective controls should be focused on Cd and Cr to reduce pollution in this study area. - Highlights: • Flourishing private economy caused increasing heavy metal damages.

  17. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingmei; Song, Qiujin; Tang, Yu; Li, Wanlu [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Jianming, E-mail: jmxu@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wu, Jianjun, E-mail: wujianjun@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Fan [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Brookes, Philip Charles [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Vegetable fields near villages in China are suffering increasing heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agriculture, traffic, mining and Chinese typical local private family-sized industry. 268 vegetable samples which included rape, celery, cabbages, carrots, asparagus lettuces, cowpeas, tomatoes and cayenne pepper and their corresponding soils in three economically developed areas of Zhejiang Province, China were collected, and the concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As) in all the samples were determined. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were employed to explore the potential health hazards of heavy metals in soils growing vegetables. Results showed that heavy metal contaminations in investigated vegetables and corresponding soils were significant. Pollution levels varied with metals and vegetable types. The highest mean soil concentrations of heavy metals were 70.36 mg kg{sup −1} Pb, 47.49 mg kg{sup −1} Cr, 13.51 mg kg{sup −1} As, 0.73 mg kg{sup −1} for Cd and 0.67 mg kg{sup −1} Hg, respectively, while the metal concentrations in vegetables and corresponding soils were poorly correlated. The health risk assessment results indicated that diet dominated the exposure pathways, so heavy metals in soil samples might cause potential harm through food-chain transfer. The total non-cancer and cancer risk results indicated that the investigated arable fields near industrial and waste mining sites were unsuitable for growing leaf and root vegetables in view of the risk of elevated intakes of heavy metals adversely affecting food safety for local residents. Chromium and Pb were the primary heavy metals posing non-cancer risks while Cd caused the greatest cancer risk. It was concluded that more effective controls should be focused on Cd and Cr to reduce pollution in this study area. - Highlights: • Flourishing private economy caused increasing

  18. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  19. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10"−"7 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 4.24 × 10"−"4) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. - Highlights: • VOCs with various polarities were screened in typical water sources of China. • Ecological, human health and olfactory assessments were simultaneously performed. • The risk assessments were used to identify the major hazards by VOCs. • The detected VOCs posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks. • Odor problems occurred extensively in source water of China. - Detected VOCs with various polarities caused odor problems and posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks in drinking water sources in China.

  20. Potential human health risks from metals and As via Odontesthes bonariensis consumption and ecological risk assessments in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monferran, Magdalena V; Garnero, Paola Lorena; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Bistoni, María de los Angeles

    2016-07-01

    The concentration of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb and As was analyzed in water, sediment, and muscle of Odontesthes bonariensis from the eutrophic San Roque Lake (Córdoba-Argentina). The monitoring campaign was performed during the wet, dry and intermediate season. The concentration of Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Al and Cd in water exceeded the limits considered as hazardous for aquatic life. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediment, intermediate concentrations, in fish muscle, and the lowest in water, with the exception of Cr, Zn, As and Hg, which were the highest in fish muscle. Potential ecological risk analysis of heavy metal concentrations in sediment indicated that the San Roque Lake posed a low ecological risk in all sampling periods. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and carcinogenic risk (CR) for individual metals showed that As in muscle was particularly hazardous, posing a potential risk for fishermen and the general population during all sampling periods. Hg poses a potential risk for fishermen only in the intermediate season. It is important to highlight that none of these two elements exceeded the limits considered as hazardous for aquatic life in water and sediment. This result proves the importance of performing measurements of contaminants, in both abiotic and biotic compartments, to assess the quality of food resources. These results suggest that the consumption of this fish species from this reservoir is not completely safe for human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentration of some heavy metals in rice types available in Shiraz market and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mahmood; Vazirzadeh, Arya; Kazemi, Robabeh; Zaheri, Farnaz

    2015-05-15

    This investigation was conducted to survey the levels of some heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and cobalt in domestic cultivated and imported rice sold on the Shiraz - Iran markets. The potential human health risk assessment was conducted by considering estimated weekly intake (EWI) of toxic metals from eating rice and compared calculated values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The mean values for lead and cadmium in domestic cultivated and imported rice were considerably higher than allowable limits set by FAO/WHO. In combination of recent rice consumption data, the estimated weekly intakes of toxic element were calculated for Iranian population. EWI for cadmium, nickel, chromium through imported and domestic cultivated rice consumption was lower than the PTWI. The EWI for lead were considerably higher than other measured toxic metals. The highest mean level of EWI for lead was observed in some imported rice samples (25.76 μg/kg body weight). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kongerslev Thorning

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. Objective: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Results: The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. Conclusion: The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most

  3. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised controlled trials, on dairy intake and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, and all-cause mortality. The most recent evidence suggested that intake of milk and dairy products was associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss during energy restriction. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent. Finally, consumption of milk and dairy products was not associated with all-cause mortality. Calcium-fortified plant-based drinks have been included as an alternative to dairy products in the nutrition recommendations in several countries. However, nutritionally, cow's milk and plant-based drinks are completely different foods, and an evidence-based conclusion on the health value of the plant-based drinks requires more studies in humans. The totality of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases, whereas very few adverse effects have

  4. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  5. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  6. Risk assessment of human health from exposure to the discharged ballast water after full-scale electrolysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nahui; Wang, Yidan; Xue, Junzeng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Liang; Wu, Huixian; Hu, Kefeng

    2016-06-01

    The presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) releasing from ballast water management systems (BWMS) can cause a possible adverse effects on humans. The objectives of this study were to compute the Derived No Effect Levels (DNELs) for different exposure scenarios and to compare these levels with the exposure levels from the measured DBPs in treated ballast water. The risk assessment showed that when using animal toxicity data, all the DNELs values were approximately 10(3)-10(12) times higher than the exposure levels of occupational and general public exposure scenarios, indicating the level of risk was low (risk characterization ratios (RCRs) < 1). However, when using human data, the RCRs were higher than 1 for dichlorobromomethane and trichloromethane, indicating that the risk of adverse effects on human were significant. This implies that there are apparent discrepancies between risk characterization from animal and human data, which may affect the overall results. We therefore recommend that when appropriate, human data should be used in risk assessment as much as possible, although human data are very limited. Moreover, more appropriate assessment factors can be considered to be employed in estimating the DNELs for human when the animal data is selected as the dose descriptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  8. Human health risk assessment of chloroxylenol in liquid hand soap and dishwashing soap used by consumers and health-care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Lisa J; Rodricks, Joseph D; Turnbull, Duncan; DeLeo, Paul C; Nash, J Frank; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio; Carlson, Pete A

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative human risk assessment of chloroxylenol was conducted for liquid hand and dishwashing soap products used by consumers and health-care workers. The toxicological data for chloroxylenol indicate lack of genotoxicity, no evidence of carcinogenicity, and minimal systemic toxicity. No observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) were established from chronic toxicity studies, specifically a carcinogenicity study that found no cancer excess (18 mg/kg-day) and studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity (100 mg/kg-day). Exposure to chloroxylenol for adults and children was estimated for two types of rinse-off cleaning products, one liquid hand soap, and two dishwashing products. The identified NOAELs were used together with exposure estimates to derive margin of exposure (MOE) estimates for chloroxylenol (i.e., estimates of exposure over NOAELs). These estimates were designed with conservative assumptions and likely overestimate exposure and risk (i.e., highest frequency, 100% dermal penetration). The resulting MOEs ranged from 178 to over 100, 000, 000 indicating negligibly small potential for harm related to consumer or health-care worker exposure to chloroxylenol in liquid soaps used in dish washing and hand washing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Promoting Health Literacy through the Health Education Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Eva; Hudson, Nancy; Deal, Tami B.; Pateman, Beth; Middleton, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Council of Chief State School Officers' State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards Health Education Assessment Project (SCASS-HEAP) allows states to pool financial and human resources to develop effective ready-to-use health education assessment resources through a collaborative process. The purpose of this article is…

  10. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with pollution ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. The ...

  11. Assessing the human health impacts of exposure to disinfection by-products--a critical review of concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, James; Rushton, Lesley; Briggs, David J; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the public health implications of chemical contamination of drinking water is important for societies and their decision-makers. The possible population health impacts associated with exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) are of particular interest due to their potential carcinogenicity and their widespread occurrence as a result of treatments employed to control waterborne infectious disease. We searched the literature for studies that have attempted quantitatively to assess population health impacts and health risks associated with exposure to DBPs in drinking water. We summarised and evaluated these assessments in terms of their objectives, methods, treatment of uncertainties, and interpretation and communication of results. In total we identified 40 studies matching our search criteria. The vast majority of studies presented estimates of generic cancer and non-cancer risks based on toxicological data and methods that were designed with regulatory, health-protective purposes in mind, and therefore presented imprecise and biased estimates of health impacts. Many studies insufficiently addressed the numerous challenges to DBP risk assessment, failing to evaluate the evidence for a causal relationship, not appropriately addressing the complex nature of DBP occurrence as a mixture of chemicals, not adequately characterising exposure in space and time, not defining specific health outcomes, not accounting for characteristics of target populations, and not balancing potential risks of DBPs against the health benefits related with drinking water disinfection. Uncertainties were often poorly explained or insufficiently accounted for, and important limitations of data and methods frequently not discussed. Grave conceptual and methodological limitations in study design, as well as erroneous use of available dose-response data, seriously impede the extent to which many of these assessments contribute to understanding the public health implications of

  12. Human health risk assessment via drinking water pathway due to metal contamination in the groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 30 sampling sites throughout the Subarnarekha River Basin for source apportionment and risk assessment studies. The concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, V and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant spatial variation with some of the metals like As, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se exceeding the drinking water standards at some locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) outcome of four factors that together explained 84.99 % of the variance with >1 initial eigenvalue indicated that both innate and anthropogenic activities are contributing factors as source of metal in groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) and cancer risk by ingestion for adult and child, and it was indicated that Mn was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. The carcinogenic risk of As for adult and child was within the acceptable cancer risk value of 1 × 10(-4). The largest contributors to chronic risks were Mn, Co and As. Considering the geometric mean concentration of metals, the hazard index (HI) for adult was above unity. Considering all the locations, the HI varied from 0.18 to 11.34 and 0.15 to 9.71 for adult and child, respectively, suggesting that the metals posed hazard by oral intake considering the drinking water pathway.

  13. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan, E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Martinez Bueno, Maria J., E-mail: mjbueno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, Ana, E-mail: aaguera@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R., E-mail: amadeo@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  14. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Martinez Bueno, Maria J.; Agueera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  15. Updated methods for assessing the impacts of nearby gas drilling and production on neighborhood air quality and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P; Erickson, Matthew; Wijesinghe, Asanga; Neish, Brad; Williams, Jeff; Colvin, John

    2016-02-01

    An explosive growth in natural gas production within the last decade has fueled concern over the public health impacts of air pollutant emissions from oil and gas sites in the Barnett and Eagle Ford shale regions of Texas. Commonly acknowledged sources of uncertainty are the lack of sustained monitoring of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with gas mining, poor quantification of their emissions, and inability to correlate health symptoms with specific emission events. These uncertainties are best addressed not by conventional monitoring and modeling technology, but by increasingly available advanced techniques for real-time mobile monitoring, microscale modeling and source attribution, and real-time broadcasting of air quality and human health data over the World Wide Web. The combination of contemporary scientific and social media approaches can be used to develop a strategy to detect and quantify emission events from oil and gas facilities, alert nearby residents of these events, and collect associated human health data, all in real time or near-real time. The various technical elements of this strategy are demonstrated based on the results of past, current, and planned future monitoring studies in the Barnett and Eagle Ford shale regions. Resources should not be invested in expanding the conventional air quality monitoring network in the vicinity of oil and gas exploration and production sites. Rather, more contemporary monitoring and data analysis techniques should take the place of older methods to better protect the health of nearby residents and maintain the integrity of the surrounding environment.

  16. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine; Soedamah-muthu, Sabita S.; Givens, Ian; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat.
    Objective: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta-analyses of

  17. Ecosystem and human health assessment to define environmental management strategies: The case of long-term human impacts on an Arctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, T I; Voinov, A A; Megorsky, V V; Gashkina, N A; Kudriavtseva, L P; Vandish, O I; Sharov, A N; Sharova, Yu; Koroleva, I N

    2006-10-01

    There are rich deposits of mineral and fossil natural resources in the Arctic, which make this region very attractive for extracting industries. Their operations have immediate and vast consequences for ecological systems, which are particularly vulnerable in this region. We are developing a management strategy for Arctic watersheds impacted by industrial production. The case study is Lake Imandra watershed (Murmansk oblast, Russia) that has exceptionally high levels of economic development and large numbers of people living there. We track the impacts of toxic pollution on ecosystem health and then--human health. Three periods are identified: (a) natural, pre-industrial state; (b) disturbed, under rapid economic development; and (c) partial recovery, during recent economic meltdown. The ecosystem is shown to transform into a qualitatively new state, which is still different from the original natural state, even after toxic loadings have substantially decreased. Fish disease where analyzed to produce and integral evaluation of ecosystem health. Accumulation of heavy metals in fish is correlated with etiology of many diseases. Dose-effect relationships are between integral water quality indices and ecosystem health indicators clearly demonstrates that existing water quality standards adopted in Russia are inadequate for Arctic regions. Health was also poor for people drinking water from the Lake. Transport of heavy metals from drinking water, into human organs, and their effect on liver and kidney diseases shows the close connection between ecosystem and human health. A management system is outlined that is based on feedback from indices of ecosystem and human health and control over economic production and/or the amount of toxic loading produced. We argue that prospects for implementation of such a system are quite bleak at this time, and that more likely we will see a continued depopulation of these Northern regions.

  18. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R.; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. - Highlights: • Trace metals in wild marine fish from the Persian Gulf were investigated. • Metal concentrations descended in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni > Cd > . • The Cd and Pb may be potential risk to human. • No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption.

  19. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in chil...... health risks resulting from human consumption....... in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based...... on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential...

  20. Assessing the Impact of a Human Rights-Based Approach across a Spectrum of Change for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rebekah; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Hinton, Rachel; Jensen, Steven L B; Magar, Veronica; Bustreo, Flavia

    2015-12-10

    Global momentum around women's, children's, and adolescents' health, coupled with the ambitious and equalizing agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), has exposed a tension between the need for comprehensive, multi-actor, rights-based approaches that seek to "close the gaps" and a growing economic and political imperative to demonstrate efficiency, effectiveness, and returns on specific investments. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a framework to measure "results" in a way that offers a more nuanced understanding of the impact of human rights-based approaches and their complexity, as well as their contextual, multi-sectoral, and evolving nature. We argue that the impact of human rights-based approaches is best measured across a spectrum of change-at the individual, programmatic, structural, and societal levels. Such an analysis would allow for more accurate assessments of the cumulative effect of these changes. The paper also underscores the long-overdue need to better define the parameters of a human rights-based approach to health. This is an important part of the research agenda on human rights and health in the context of the SDGs and the Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health, and amid calls for better measurement and greater accountability for resources, results, and rights at all levels. While this paper focuses on women's, children's, and adolescents' health, the proposed framework can apply as readily to other areas of health and provides a new frame of reference for assessing the impact of human rights-based approaches. Copyright © 2015 Thomas, Kuruvilla, Hinton, Jensen, Magar, Bustreo. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  1. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  2. Health needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A Bani

    2008-01-01

    The findings of the assessment of the health needs of Jazan presented in this review could be utilized as a baseline and reference information for policy formulation, subsequent planning and cost effective intervention programs. It could also be utilized for the curriculum development or review for a community oriented medical schools.

  3. Risk assessment for human health and terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution near regional radioactive waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G. V.; Katkova, M. N.; Shoshina, R. R.; Synzynys, B. I.

    2017-01-01

    An impact of the radioactive waste storage facility at the regional population was assessed under supervision of IAEA. It was made in accordance with the methodology for assessment of doses and risks to human storage using different scenarios of radionuclides releases into the environment. The following scenarios were considered: leakage of fluid, resuspension of dust, fire, flooding. Thy evaluation of radiation doses received and the risks to the human showed that the risk has been acceptable for all scenarios. An approach for an ecological risk assessment for terrestrial ecosystem is presented as five modules: selection of the ecosystem-receptor of radiation effects; determination of reference species of living organisms and their survival indices; the critical load as an absorbed dose rate is calculated from the dependence between the absorbed Sr-90 radiation dose rate and the coefficient of radioactive strontium accumulation in mollusc shells; the critical dose; risk is assessed from a part of the ecosystem territory with increased mollusc loading; uncertainties appeared at each stage of risk assessment are characterized. The risk of exposure to the repository on the ecosystem should be characterized as unacceptable.

  4. Risk assessment for human health and terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution near regional radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrentyeva, G V; Katkova, M N; Shoshina, R R; Synzynys, B I

    2017-01-01

    An impact of the radioactive waste storage facility at the regional population was assessed under supervision of IAEA. It was made in accordance with the methodology for assessment of doses and risks to human storage using different scenarios of radionuclides releases into the environment. The following scenarios were considered: leakage of fluid, resuspension of dust, fire, flooding. Thy evaluation of radiation doses received and the risks to the human showed that the risk has been acceptable for all scenarios. An approach for an ecological risk assessment for terrestrial ecosystem is presented as five modules: selection of the ecosystem-receptor of radiation effects; determination of reference species of living organisms and their survival indices; the critical load as an absorbed dose rate is calculated from the dependence between the absorbed Sr-90 radiation dose rate and the coefficient of radioactive strontium accumulation in mollusc shells; the critical dose; risk is assessed from a part of the ecosystem territory with increased mollusc loading; uncertainties appeared at each stage of risk assessment are characterized. The risk of exposure to the repository on the ecosystem should be characterized as unacceptable. (paper)

  5. Toxoplasmosis and Toxocariasis: An Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Comorbidity and Health-Care Costs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Rafferty, Ellen; Schwandt, Michael; Zeng, Wu; Farag, Marwa; Jenkins, Emily J

    2016-07-06

    Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are zoonotic parasites with potentially severe long-term consequences for those infected. We estimated incidence and investigated distribution, risk factors, and costs associated with these parasites by examining hospital discharge abstracts submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information (2002-2011). Annual incidence of serious toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis was 0.257 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.254-0.260) and 0.010 (95% CI: 0.007-0.014) cases per 100,000 persons, respectively. Median annual health-care costs per serious case of congenital, adult-acquired, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated toxoplasmosis were $1,971, $763, and $5,744, respectively, with an overall cost of C$1,686,860 annually (2015 Canadian dollars). However, the total economic burden of toxoplasmosis is likely much higher than these direct health-care cost estimates. HIV was reported as a comorbidity in 40% of toxoplasmosis cases and accounted for over half of direct health-care costs associated with clinical toxoplasmosis. A One Health approach, integrating physician and veterinary input, is recommended for increasing public awareness and decreasing the economic burden of these preventable zoonoses. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yu; Zhu, Tingping; Li, Mengtong; He, Jieyi; Huang, Ruixue

    2017-01-01

    Background. Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. Methods. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb) concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Results. Local soil contaminati...

  7. Strategy utilized for assessing baseline risks to human health from K-65 and metal oxide residues stored at the Fernald Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.E.; Janke, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site in southwestern Ohio. The 425-hectare site consists of a former 55-hectare Production Area, an adjacent Waste Storage Area and various support facilities. From 1952 until 1989, the FEMP processed uranium into metallic open-quotes feedclose quotes materials for other DOE facilities in the nation's defense program. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the FEMP site is currently listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). To facilitate an expeditious cleanup effort, environmental issues associated with site cleanup are being managed under five operable units. This paper summarizes the risk assessment strategy employed to determine baseline human health risks associated with K-65 and metal oxide residues currently stored in Operable Unit 4. The K-65 and metal oxide residues were generated during the 1950s as a result of the extraction of uranium from uranium-bearing ores and concentrates. These residues are currently stored within Operable Unit 4 in concrete silos. Silos I and 2 contain approximately 6,120 cubic meters [m 3 ] (8,005 cubic yards [yd 3 ]) of K-65 residues, while silos 3 contains approximately 3890 m 3 (5,080 yd 3 ) of cold metal oxides. These concrete silos are beyond their design life and require remedial action. The risk assessment conducted for Operable Unit 4 constitutes the first detailed human health risk assessment to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the CERCLA clean-up effort at the FEMP Site. This paper discusses the FEMP's use of a Risk Information Quality Objective process in concert with the traditional risk assessment approach to determine baseline risk to human health and the environment posed by Operable Unit 4. A summary of the baseline risks to human health is also presented

  8. Strategy utilized for assessing baseline risks to human health from K-65 and metal oxide residues stored at the Fernald Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E. [FERMCO, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Janke, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site in southwestern Ohio. The 425-hectare site consists of a former 55-hectare Production Area, an adjacent Waste Storage Area and various support facilities. From 1952 until 1989, the FEMP processed uranium into metallic {open_quotes}feed{close_quotes} materials for other DOE facilities in the nation`s defense program. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the FEMP site is currently listed on the National Priorities List (NPL). To facilitate an expeditious cleanup effort, environmental issues associated with site cleanup are being managed under five operable units. This paper summarizes the risk assessment strategy employed to determine baseline human health risks associated with K-65 and metal oxide residues currently stored in Operable Unit 4. The K-65 and metal oxide residues were generated during the 1950s as a result of the extraction of uranium from uranium-bearing ores and concentrates. These residues are currently stored within Operable Unit 4 in concrete silos. Silos I and 2 contain approximately 6,120 cubic meters [m{sup 3}] (8,005 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of K-65 residues, while silos 3 contains approximately 3890 m{sup 3} (5,080 yd{sup 3}) of cold metal oxides. These concrete silos are beyond their design life and require remedial action. The risk assessment conducted for Operable Unit 4 constitutes the first detailed human health risk assessment to be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the CERCLA clean-up effort at the FEMP Site. This paper discusses the FEMP`s use of a Risk Information Quality Objective process in concert with the traditional risk assessment approach to determine baseline risk to human health and the environment posed by Operable Unit 4. A summary of the baseline risks to human health is also presented.

  9. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99´10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34´10–6 in 2004, which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1´10–6–1´10–4 but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control.

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment of a landfill based on volatile organic compounds emission, immission and soil gas concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martí, Vicenç; Jubany, Irene; Pérez, Consol; Rubio, Xavier; De Pablo, Joan; Giménez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • VOCs were quantified as emission fluxes, immission and soil–gas levels. • HHRA was performed with these measurements and admissible risk was obtained. • VOCs that contributed more to risk indexes were chlorinated aliphatics hydrocarbons. • The methodology approach can be applied to other landfills with potential risk. - Abstract: A Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) was required for a closed landfill located in Cerdanyola del Vallès (Barcelona, Spain). The HHRA had two objectives, to evaluate the present risk of the identified receptors in the area and to safely develop the future urban planning of the area, therefore 3 scenarios for the current situation and 4 for the future situation were developed. After reviewing the existing data and exploring the needs of information, the assessment in this study was focused on the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) fluxes from the subsoil (emission from the landfill at 5 points), concentrations of VOCs in the air (immission in 4 urban sites) and concentration of VOCs in soil–gas (measurements at 5 m below ground surface outside the landfill at 8 sites). Around 70 VOCs were analyzed by using multi-sorbent tubes and Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography (TD–GC–MS). The VOCs that were detected and quantified include alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, halocarbons, aldehydes, esters, terpenoids, ethers and some nitrogenated and sulfur compounds, furans and carboxylic acids. Specific mercury flux measurements were performed in a hot spot by using carulite tubes, that were also analyzed by using Thermal Decomposition, Amalgamation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results showed average values of volatile emission fluxes ranging from non-detected to 331 μg m −2 day −1 (dichlorodifluoromethane). In the case of immission, the concentration of VOCs measured in the air of populated area surrounding the landfill ranged values from non-detected to 42.0 μg m −3

  11. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Cordoba, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Hebe A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail: hcarreras@com.uncor.edu; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Pignata, Maria L. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal, IMBIV/CONICET-UNC, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016GCA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-01-15

    The evaluation of metal contents in the environment is of vital importance for the assessment of human exposure. Thus the species Usnea amblyoclada, Ramalina celastri and Tillandsia capillaris were tested as bioaccumulators of transition metals in the urban area of Cordoba city, Argentina. The level of metals on biomonitors was compared to that of total deposition samples. All three species discriminated zones within the urban area of Cordoba city with different pollution levels; they revealed high levels of Zn in the downtown area and confirmed high levels of some transition metals in an industrial area. The correlation analysis revealed that the lichen R. celastri had the highest correlation rates with total deposition samples, suggesting it is a valuable biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. A significant relationship was also observed between respiratory diseases in children and the contents of metal accumulated in R. celastri and T. capillaris, indicating their usefulness when assessing human exposure to metals. - Metal accumulation in epiphytes is correlated with human respiratory diseases.

  12. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, Hebe A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Pignata, Maria L.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of metal contents in the environment is of vital importance for the assessment of human exposure. Thus the species Usnea amblyoclada, Ramalina celastri and Tillandsia capillaris were tested as bioaccumulators of transition metals in the urban area of Cordoba city, Argentina. The level of metals on biomonitors was compared to that of total deposition samples. All three species discriminated zones within the urban area of Cordoba city with different pollution levels; they revealed high levels of Zn in the downtown area and confirmed high levels of some transition metals in an industrial area. The correlation analysis revealed that the lichen R. celastri had the highest correlation rates with total deposition samples, suggesting it is a valuable biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. A significant relationship was also observed between respiratory diseases in children and the contents of metal accumulated in R. celastri and T. capillaris, indicating their usefulness when assessing human exposure to metals. - Metal accumulation in epiphytes is correlated with human respiratory diseases

  13. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: Study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navoni, J.A.; De Pietri, D.; Olmos, V.; Gimenez, C.; Bovi Mitre, G.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10 −5 and 2,1·10 −2 . An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. - Highlights: • Risk assessment (RA) to As using deterministic procedures • Integration of RA through deterministic procedures with GIS tools • Analysis of the time-space behavior of the risk area • Analysis of As effect outcomes through HI • Broaden the scopes of deterministic approaches

  14. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: Study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navoni, J.A., E-mail: jnavoni@ffyb.uba.ar [Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); De Pietri, D., E-mail: depietrid@hotmail.com [Dirección Nacional de Determinantes de la Salud e Investigación, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Av. 9 de Julio 1925, C1073ABA Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Olmos, V. [Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gimenez, C. [Cátedra Química Analítica I, Universidad Nacional del Chaco Austral. Cmte., Fernández 755 (3700), Pres. Roque Sáenz Peña, Chaco (Argentina); Bovi Mitre, G. [Grupo INQA (Investigación Química Aplicada) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, Alberdi 47, piso 1, San Salvador de Jujuy, Jujuy CP 4600 (Argentina); and others

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10{sup −5} and 2,1·10{sup −2}. An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. - Highlights: • Risk assessment (RA) to As using deterministic procedures • Integration of RA through deterministic procedures with GIS tools • Analysis of the time-space behavior of the risk area • Analysis of As effect outcomes through HI • Broaden the scopes of deterministic approaches.

  15. Agroecosystem health assessment in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kazem vafabakhsh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroecosystem Health investigating requires a holistic approach based on its biophysical, socio-economic and human community dimensions. In order to assess Agroecosystem Health in Mahhad, this research was conducted for the period of 1982 to 2002. The assessment necessitates the selection of indicators which represent various aspects of the agroecosystem. The purpose of this study was to establish a conceptual framework that facilitates the assessment of Agroecosyetem Health. The first step was to develop a set of indicators. Data on structural, functional, and organizational indicators were collected from official documents and statistics and also questionnaires. Results showed that from 1982 to 1997 Health Index (HI decreased and the lowest HI was in 1997 and after that trend of HI was improved. Sensitivity analysis showed that functional criteria had the highest correlation with HI. To improve the HI in short term, the most effective parameters would be functional indices such as chemicals, water use efficiency, soil degradation, machinery costs, and education indices. The index of people’s concern on environmental issues showed that 69% are concerned about the environment. This could be a good reason for the governmental and non-governmental organizations to focus on environmental health and try to improve the level of HI. The index of government’s financial support to agricultural section has decreased from 1982 to 1997.

  16. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential.

  17. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters from the southern coast of Korea: assessment of potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Yoo, Hyun Duk; Kim, Poong Ho; Yoon, Ho Dong; Park, Young Cheol; Lee, Tae Seek; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Lee, Hee Jung; Ha, Kwang Soo; Shim, Kil Bo; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-06-01

    From 2009 to 2013, 80 oyster and 16 seawater samples were collected from the southern coast of Korea, including designated shellfish growing areas for export. The concentrations and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were determined, and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazards towards human consumption. The cadmium (Cd) concentration in oysters was the highest of three hazardous metals, including Cd, lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), however, below the standards set by various countries. The metal bioaccumulation ratio in oysters was relatively high for zinc and Cd but low for Hg, Pb, arsenic, and chromium. The estimated dietary intakes of all heavy metals for oysters accounted for 0.02%-17.75% of provisional tolerable daily intake. The hazard index for all samples was far oysters do not pose an appreciable hazard to humans for the metal pollutants of study.

  18. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartjes, Frank A.; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  19. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  20. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsanda Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd, by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS cabbage (40.84% and calcareous soil (CS cabbage (21.54% was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66% than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%. Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2 stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702. Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1 which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

  1. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  2. Assessment of the Space Weather Effect on Human Health in the Arctic Zone Using the Example of Tiksi Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena A. Strekalovskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the space weather effect on the well-being and health of people with cardiovascular pathology in Arctic conditions, we carried out the processing and analysis of space weather parameters and the electronic database of patients with cardiovascular diseases at the Central District Hospital in Tiksi settlement (the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (RS(Y. Patients visited the polyclinic or requested an ambulance because their health had deteriorated. As a result of our research, we found some conjunctions of trends in the change in geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-index and the number of patients' visits to medical institutions for arterial hypertension (AH in 2015, 2016 and 2017. It can therefore be concluded that geomagnetic disturbances have an impact on the cardiovascular system of a person living at high latitudes.

  3. Extrapolation in human health hazard characterization: a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, B.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    A classical deterministic risk assessment often uses conservative, worst-case assumptions to estimate the possible health risk in humans. When such an assessment shows an unacceptable human health risk, a more realistic risk assessment may be needed to estimate the actual health impact in the

  4. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoni, J A; De Pietri, D; Olmos, V; Gimenez, C; Bovi Mitre, G; de Titto, E; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10(-5) and 2,1·10(-2). An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  6. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustsson, Anna L.M., E-mail: anna.augustsson@lnu.se [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Hogmalm, K. Johan [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Filipsson, Monika E.M. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination.

  7. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustsson, Anna L.M.; Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E.; Hogmalm, K. Johan; Filipsson, Monika E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination

  8. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQtotals ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10(-7) ≤ RQtotals ≤ 4.24 × 10(-4)) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Introduction to radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This introductory chapter presents an overview of topics that are examined throughout the book. There are brief discussions on basic scientific notation, epidemiology, risk assessment, and the use of assumptions and approximations in scientific research. The book presents evidence that ionizing radiation causes a variety of human health hazards. The health hazards evaluated in detail are cancer and chromosomal damage

  10. Environmental contaminants, ecosystems and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W.; Brenner, F.J. [eds.] [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    The authors cover a variety of concerns regarding the adverse impacts of contaminants on ecosystems and human health. The twelve chapters in the first section of the text address the impact of contaminants on ecosystem function, and ten of the remaining twenty-two chapters are devoted to the effects of contaminants on human health. Part three presents eight case studies in humans, while the final four chapters provide the reader with an assessment of environmental problems and analyses. Two chapters, on the health effects of power plant generated air pollution and on black lung disease, have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  11. Effects of artificial light at night on human health: A literature review of observational and experimental studies applied to exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, YongMin; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Lee, Byeo Ri; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jaewook

    2015-01-01

    It has frequently been reported that exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) may cause negative health effects, such as breast cancer, circadian phase disruption and sleep disorders. Here, we reviewed the literature assessing the effects of human exposure to ALAN in order to list the health effects of various aspects of ALAN. Several electronic databases were searched for articles, published through August 2014, related to assessing the effects of exposure to ALAN on human health; these also included the details of experiments on such exposure. A total of 85 articles were included in the review. Several observational studies showed that outdoor ALAN levels are a risk factor for breast cancer and reported that indoor light intensity and individual lighting habits were relevant to this risk. Exposure to artificial bright light during the nighttime suppresses melatonin secretion, increases sleep onset latency (SOL) and increases alertness. Circadian misalignment caused by chronic ALAN exposure may have negative effects on the psychological, cardiovascular and/or metabolic functions. ALAN also causes circadian phase disruption, which increases with longer duration of exposure and with exposure later in the evening. It has also been reported that shorter wavelengths of light preferentially disturb melatonin secretion and cause circadian phase shifts, even if the light is not bright. This literature review may be helpful to understand the health effects of ALAN exposure and suggests that it is necessary to consider various characteristics of artificial light, beyond mere intensity.

  12. Overview of human health in the Arctic: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn; Adlard, Bryan; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the key conclusions, knowledge gaps and key recommendations based on the recent 2015 Arctic human health assessment under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. This assessment was based primarily on data from human health monitoring and research studies and peer-reviewed literature published since the last assessment in 2009.

  13. AMBI indices and multivariate approach to assess the ecological health of Vellar-Coleroon estuarine system undergoing various human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigamani, Sivaraj; Perumal, Murugesan; Arumugam, Silambarasan; Preetha Mini Jose, H M; Veeraiyan, Bharathidasan

    2015-11-15

    Estuaries receive a considerable amount of pollutants from various sources. Presently an attempt has been made to assess whether the aquaculture discharges and dredging activities alter the ecological conditions of Vellar-Coleroon estuarine complex. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) established a framework for the protection of marine waters. In this commission, a variety of indices were used, among them, AMBI (AZTI Marine Biotic Index) indices along with multivariate statistical approach is unique, to assess the ecological status by using macrobenthic communities. Keeping this in view, stations VE-1 and VE-4 in Vellar; CE-6 and CE-7 in Coleroon estuaries showed moderately disturbed with the AMBI values ranging between 3.45 and 3.72. The above said stations were situated near the shrimp farm discharge point and sites of dredging activities. The present study proves that various statistical and biotic indices have great potential in assessing the nature of the ecosystem undergoing various human pressures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human rights approach to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Fiona

    2002-04-01

    Adopting human rights approach to health carries many benefits, because it emphasizes the equality of all persons and their inherent right to health as the foundation of the health care system. It also argues that promotion and protection of health are fundamentally important social goals, focuses particularly on the needs of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable communities, balances individual needs with the common good, and so forth. However, it also raises some practical issues, such as organization of interdisciplinary education and work, and different use of the language, which often goes unacknowledged. The relationship between human rights and health is a reciprocal one, and can be beneficial or harmful. For the relationship to be beneficial and successful, the differences between human rights and public health approach to health, centered around the perspective taking, attitudes, and abilities of health professionals, need to be acknowledged and reconciled, and the need for interdisciplinarity adequately fulfilled.

  15. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  16. Selenium and hazardous elements distribution in plant-soil-water system and human health risk assessment of Lower Cambrian, Southern Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Luo, Kunli; Ni, Runxiang; Hussain, Rahib

    2018-03-01

    The natural selenium poisoning due to toxic Se levels in food chain had been observed in humans and animals in Lower Cambrian outcrop areas in Southern Shaanxi, China. To find out the distribution pattern of selenium and other hazardous elements in the plant, soil and water of Lower Cambrian in Southern Shaanxi, China, and their possible potential health risk, a total of 30 elements were analyzed and the health risk assessment of 18 elements was calculated. Results showed that the soil, plant and natural water of Lower Cambrian all had relatively high Se levels. In Lower Cambrian, the soil was enriched with Se, As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, Ga, Cd and Cr (1.68 food intake was the major pathway. For minimizing potential health risk, the local inhabitants should use the mix-imported food with local growing foods.

  17. Groundwater contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon due to diesel spill from a telecom base station in a Nigerian City: assessment of human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu Cornelius; Ochonogor, Alfred

    2018-03-26

    Diesel pollution of groundwater poses great threat to public health, mainly as a result of the constituent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the human health risk exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel contaminated groundwater used by several families at Ring Road, Jos, Nigeria (as caused by diesel spill from a telecom base station) was assessed. Prior to the groundwater being treated, the residents were using the water after scooping off the visible diesel sheen for purposes of cooking, washing, and bathing. Until this study, it is not clear whether the groundwater contamination had resulted in sub-chronic exposure of the residents using the water to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the extent of the PAHs posing a health risk. The diesel contaminated groundwater and uncontaminated nearby groundwater (control) were collected and analyzed for PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dosage of the dermal and oral ingestion entry routes of PAHs was determined. The estimation of the non-carcinogenic health risk was via hazard quotients (HQ) and the associated hazard index (HI), while the estimation of the carcinogenic health risk was via lifetime cancer risks (LCR) and the associated risk index (RI). Obtained results indicate that the exposure of the residents to the PAHs may have made them susceptible to the risk of non-carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)pyrene and the carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene.

  18. Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raben, Anne; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    , particularly stroke. Furthermore, the evidence suggested a beneficial effect of milk and dairy intake on bone mineral density but no association with risk of bone fracture. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer...... of available scientific evidence supports that intake of milk and dairy products contribute to meet nutrient recommendations, and may protect against the most prevalent chronic diseases, whereas very few adverse effects have been reported.......BACKGROUND: There is scepticism about health effects of dairy products in the public, which is reflected in an increasing intake of plant-based drinks, for example, from soy, rice, almond, or oat. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to assess the scientific evidence mainly from meta...

  19. Wilderness, biodiversity, and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Dustin; Keri A. Schwab; Kelly S. Bricker

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates how wilderness, biodiversity, and human health are intertwined. Proceeding from the assumption that humankind is part of, rather than apart from, nature, health is re-imagined as a dynamic relationship that can best be conceived in broad ecological terms. Health, from an ecological perspective, is a measure of the wellness of the individual and...

  20. Global Ozone Distribution relevant to Human Health: Metrics and present day levels from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; Doherty, R. M.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Cooper, O. R.; Malley, C.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Pinto, J. P.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M. G.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Using stations from the TOAR surface ozone database, this study quantifies present-day global and regional distributions of five ozone metrics relevant for both short-term and long-term human exposure. These metrics were explored at ozone monitoring sites globally, and re-classified for this project as urban or non-urban using population densities and night-time lights. National surface ozone limit values are usually related to an annual number of exceedances of daily maximum 8-hour running mean (MDA8), with many countries not even having any ozone limit values. A discussion and comparison of exceedances in the different ozone metrics, their locations and the seasonality of exceedances provides clues as to the regions that potentially have more serious ozone health implications. Present day ozone levels (2010-2014) have been compared globally and show definite geographical differences (see Figure showing the annual 4th highest MDA8 for present day ozone for all non-urban stations). Higher ozone levels are seen in western compared to eastern US, and between southern and northern Europe, and generally higher levels in east Asia. The metrics reflective of peak concentrations show highest values in western North America, southern Europe and East Asia. A number of the metrics show similar distributions of North-South gradients, most prominent across Europe and Japan. The interquartile range of the regional ozone metrics was largest in East Asia, higher for urban stations in Asia but higher for non-urban stations in Europe and North America. With over 3000 monitoring stations included in this analysis and despite the higher densities of monitoring stations in Europe, north America and East Asia, this study provides the most comprehensive global picture to date of surface ozone levels in terms of health-relevant metrics.

  1. A new perspective on human health risk assessment: Development of a time dependent methodology and the effect of varying exposure durations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siirila, Erica R.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new Time Dependent Risk Assessment (TDRA) that stochastically considers how joint uncertainty and inter-individual variability (JUV) associated with human health risk change as a function of time. In contrast to traditional, time independent assessments of risk, this new formulation relays information on when the risk occurs, how long the duration of risk is, and how risk changes with time. Because the true exposure duration (ED) is often uncertain in a risk assessment, we also investigate how varying the magnitude of fixed size durations (ranging between 5 and 70 years) of this parameter affects the distribution of risk in both the time independent and dependent methodologies. To illustrate this new formulation and to investigate these mechanisms for sensitivity, an example of arsenic contaminated groundwater is used in conjunction with two scenarios of different environmental concentration signals resulting from rate dependencies in geochemical reactions. Cancer risk is computed and compared using environmental concentration ensembles modeled with sorption as 1) a linear equilibrium assumption (LEA) and 2) first order kinetics (Kin). Results show that the information attained in the new time dependent methodology reveals how the uncertainty in other time-dependent processes in the risk assessment may influence the uncertainty in risk. We also show that individual susceptibility also affects how risk changes in time, information that would otherwise be lost in the traditional, time independent methodology. These results are especially pertinent for forecasting risk in time, and for risk managers who are assessing the uncertainty of risk. - Highlights: ► A human health, Time Dependent Risk Assessment (TDRA) methodology is presented. ► TDRA relays information on the magnitude, duration, and fluxes of risk in time. ► Kinetic and equilibrium concentration signals show sensitivity in TDRA results. ► In the TDRA results, individual susceptibility

  2. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in snappers (Lutjanus) fish from the Navachiste Lagoon complex, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Galván, Ingrid Alejandra; Rodríguez-Meza, Durga Guadalupe; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-08-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in fillets of Lutjanus colorado, L. argentiventris, and L. novemfasciatus. Fillet samples were collected bimonthly from February 2012 to February 2013. OCPs average concentrations do not differ significantly according to size, weight, or season, nor do they relate with the physico-chemical parameters of the sea water. The highest concentration and most frequently encountered OCPs were endosulfan sulfate, δ-HCH, and heptachlor epoxide, which indicates their use in the recent past and confirms their persistence. Average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, and ∑heptachlor in samples were above cancer MRLs according to data from monthly consumed portions. HCHs and heptachlor are listed in Appendix III of the Rotterdam Convention of chemicals placed on a prior informed consent procedure for import and export purposes; they are considered illegal in Mexico. The OCPs concentrations above cancer MRLs in Lutjanus spp. turn its frequent consumption into a human health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human health risk assessment of lead from mining activities at semi-arid locations in the context of total lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Gasparon, Massimo; Ng, Jack; Noller, Barry

    2013-12-01

    Lead from historical mining and mineral processing activities may pose potential human health risks if materials with high concentrations of bioavailable lead minerals are released to the environment. Since the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization withdrew the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of lead in 2011, an alternative method was required for lead exposure assessment. This study evaluated the potential lead hazard to young children (0-7 years) from a historical mining location at a semi-arid area using the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model, with selected site-specific input data. This study assessed lead exposure via the inhalation pathway for children living in a location affected by lead mining activities and with specific reference to semi-arid conditions and made comparison with the ingestion pathway by using the physiologically based extraction test for gastro-intestinal simulation. Sensitivity analysis for major IEUBK input parameters was conducted. Three groups of input parameters were classified according to the results of predicted blood concentrations. The modelled lead absorption attributed to the inhalation route was lower than 2 % (mean ± SE, 0.9 % ± 0.1 %) of all lead intake routes and was demonstrated as a less significant exposure pathway to children's blood, compared with ingestion. Whilst dermal exposure was negligible, diet and ingestion of soil and dust were the dominant parameters in terms of children's blood lead prediction. The exposure assessment identified the changing role of dietary intake when house lead loadings varied. Recommendations were also made to conduct comprehensive site-specific human health risk assessment in future studies of lead exposure under a semi-arid climate.

  4. Human reliability assessment and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Lucas, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) is used within Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to identify the human errors (both omission and commission) which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. There exist a variey of HRA techniques and the selection of an appropriate one is often difficult. This paper reviews a number of available HRA techniques and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. The techniques reviewed include: decompositional methods, time-reliability curves and systematic expert judgement techniques. (orig.)

  5. Human health risk assessment database, "the NHSRC toxicity value database": supporting the risk assessment process at US EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudgal, Chandrika J; Garrahan, Kevin; Brady-Roberts, Eletha; Gavrelis, Naida; Arbogast, Michelle; Dun, Sarah

    2008-11-15

    The toxicity value database of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center has been in development since 2004. The toxicity value database includes a compilation of agent property, toxicity, dose-response, and health effects data for 96 agents: 84 chemical and radiological agents and 12 biotoxins. The database is populated with multiple toxicity benchmark values and agent property information from secondary sources, with web links to the secondary sources, where available. A selected set of primary literature citations and associated dose-response data are also included. The toxicity value database offers a powerful means to quickly and efficiently gather pertinent toxicity and dose-response data for a number of agents that are of concern to the nation's security. This database, in conjunction with other tools, will play an important role in understanding human health risks, and will provide a means for risk assessors and managers to make quick and informed decisions on the potential health risks and determine appropriate responses (e.g., cleanup) to agent release. A final, stand alone MS ACESSS working version of the toxicity value database was completed in November, 2007.

  6. Human health risk assessment database, 'the NHSRC toxicity value database': Supporting the risk assessment process at US EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudgal, Chandrika J.; Garrahan, Kevin; Brady-Roberts, Eletha; Gavrelis, Naida; Arbogast, Michelle; Dun, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity value database of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center has been in development since 2004. The toxicity value database includes a compilation of agent property, toxicity, dose-response, and health effects data for 96 agents: 84 chemical and radiological agents and 12 biotoxins. The database is populated with multiple toxicity benchmark values and agent property information from secondary sources, with web links to the secondary sources, where available. A selected set of primary literature citations and associated dose-response data are also included. The toxicity value database offers a powerful means to quickly and efficiently gather pertinent toxicity and dose-response data for a number of agents that are of concern to the nation's security. This database, in conjunction with other tools, will play an important role in understanding human health risks, and will provide a means for risk assessors and managers to make quick and informed decisions on the potential health risks and determine appropriate responses (e.g., cleanup) to agent release. A final, stand alone MS ACESSS working version of the toxicity value database was completed in November, 2007

  7. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  8. A methodology of the assessment of environmental and human health risks from amine emissions from post combustion CO2 capture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korre, Anna; Manzoor, Saba; Simperler, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Post combustion CO2 capture (PCCC) technology in power plants using amines as solvent for CO2 capture, is one of the reduction technologies employed to combat escalating levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, amine solvents used for capturing CO2 produce negative emissions such as, nitrosamines and nitramines, which are suspected to be potent carcinogens. It is therefore essential to assess the atmospheric fate of these amine emissions in the atmosphere by studying their atmospheric chemistry, dispersion and transport pathways away from the source and deposition in the environment, so as to be able to assess accurately the risk posed to human health and the natural environment. An important knowledge gap until recently has been the consideration of the atmospheric chemistry of these amine emissions simultaneously with dispersion and deposition studies so as to perform reliable human health and environmental risk assessments. The authors have developed a methodology to assess the distribution of such emissions away from a post-combustion facility by studying the atmospheric chemistry of monoethanolamine, the most commonly used solvent for CO2 capture, and those of the resulting degradation amines, methylamine and dimethylamine. This was coupled with dispersion modeling calculations (Manzoor, et al., 2014; Manzoor et al,2015). Rate coefficients describing the entire atmospheric chemistry schemes of the amines studied were evaluated employing quantum chemical theoretical and kinetic modeling calculations. These coefficients were used to solve the advection-dispersion-chemical equation using an atmospheric dispersion model, ADMS 5. This methodology is applicable to any size of a power plant and at any geographical location. In this paper, the humman health risk assessment is integrated in the modelling study. The methodology is demonstrated on a case study on the UK's largest capture pilot plant, Ferrybridge CCPilot 100+, to estimate the dispersion, chemical

  9. Screening and human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products in Dutch surface waters and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, Cindy M; Kooij, Pascal J F; de Voogt, Pim; ter Laak, Thomas L

    2012-06-15

    Numerous studies describe the presence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle, while their transformation products are usually not included. In the current study 17 common pharmaceuticals and 9 transformation products were monitored in the Dutch waters, including surface waters, pre-treated surface waters, river bank filtrates, two groundwater samples affected by surface water and drinking waters. In these samples, 12 pharmaceuticals and 7 transformation products were present. Concentrations were generally highest in surface waters, intermediate in treated surface waters and river bank filtrates and lowest or not detected in produced drinking water. However, the concentrations of phenazone and its environmental transformation product AMPH were significantly higher in river bank filtrates, which is likely due to historical contamination. Fairly constant ratios were observed between concentrations of transformation products and parent pharmaceuticals. This might enable prediction of concentrations of transformation products from concentrations of parent pharmaceuticals. The toxicological relevance of the observed pharmaceuticals and transformation products was assessed by deriving (i) a substance specific provisional guideline value (pGLV) and (ii) a group pGLV for groups of related compounds were under the assumption of additivity of effects within each group. A substantial margin exists between the maximum summed concentrations of these compounds present in different water types and the derived (group) pGLVs. Based on the results of this limited screening campaign no adverse health effects of the studied compounds are expected in (sources of) drinking water in the Netherlands. The presence of transformation products with similar pharmacological activities and concentration levels as their parents illustrates the relevance of monitoring transformation products, and including these in risk assessment. More thorough monitoring yielding information on statistical

  10. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles and internal organs of Korean cephalopods and crustaceans: risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Shim, Kil Bo; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-12-01

    Samples of seven species of cephalopods and crustaceans were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury (Hg) using a direct Hg analyzer and for the metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distributions of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs, and whole tissues were determined, and a risk assessment was conducted to provide information concerning consumer safety. The heavy metals accumulated to higher levels (P octopus (relatively large cephalopods), red snow crab, and snow crab exceeded the European Union limits. The estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb, and Hg for each part of all species accounted for 1.73 to 130.57%, 0.03 to 0.39%, and 0.93 to 1.67%, respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives; the highest values were found in internal organs. The hazard index (HI) is recognized as a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. Because of the high HI (>1.0) of the internal organs of cephalopods and the maximum HI for whole tissue of 0.424, consumers eating internal organs or whole tissues of cephalopods could be at risk of high heavy metal exposure. Therefore, the internal organs of relatively large cephalopods and crabs (except blue crab) are unfit for consumption. However, consumption of flesh after removing internal organs is a suitable approach for decreasing exposure to harmful metals.

  11. Health and human rights in eastern Myanmar after the political transition: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kaur Parmar

    Full Text Available Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published.Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV. Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition was 11.3% (8.0-14.7. A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5 and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0. 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5 experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2. Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5.This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.

  12. Health and human rights in eastern Myanmar after the political transition: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen Kaur; Barina, Charlene C; Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Otterness, Conrad; Mhote, Pue P; Htoo, Saw Nay; Kyaw, Saw Win; Lwin, Nai Aye; Maung, Cynthia; Moo, Naw Merry; Oo, Eh Kalu Shwe; Reh, Daniel; Mon, Nai Chay; Singh, Nakul; Goyal, Ravi; Richards, Adam K

    2015-01-01

    Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published. Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV). Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition) was 11.3% (8.0-14.7). A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5) and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0). 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5) experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2). Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5). This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.

  13. Human health risk assessment based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and simple bioaccessibility extraction test of toxic metals in urban street dust of Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Yu

    Full Text Available The potential ecological and human health risk related with urban street dust from urban areas of Tianjin, China was quantitatively analyzed using the method of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP and simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET. In the study, Hakason index, Nemerow index (P, the hazard index (HI and the cancer risk index (RI were calculated to assess the potential risk. The sequence of potential ecological risk based on Hakason index was arsenic (As > cadmium (Cd > lead (Pb > copper (Cu > chromium (Cr, in particular, As and Cd were regarded as high polluted metals. While the results of extraction of TCLP were assessed using P, the sequence was As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu, which mean that As and Pb should be low polluted, and Cd, Cr and Cu would barely not polluted. For human health, total carcinogenic risk for children and adults was 2.01 × 10(-3 and 1.05 × 10(-3, respectively. This could be considered to be intolerable in urban street dust exposure. The sequence in the hazard quotient (HQ of each element was As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The HI value of these toxic metals in urban street dust for children and adults was 5.88 × 10(-1 and 2.80 × 10(-1, respectively. According to the characters of chemistry, mobility, and bioavailability of metals in urban street dust, we estimated the hazards on the environment and human health, which will help us to get more reasonable information for risk management of metals in urban environment.

  14. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  15. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. © 2014 AWHONN.

  16. Life cycle and human health risk assessments as tools for decision making in the design and implementation of nanofiltration in drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, G; Clarens, F; Martínez-Lladó, X; Jubany, I; V Martí; Rovira, M

    2014-01-01

    A combined methodology using life cycle assessment (LCA) and human health risk assessment (HHR) is proposed in order to select the percentage of water in drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) that should be nanofiltered (NF). The methodological approach presented here takes into account environmental and social benefit criteria evaluating the implementation of new processes into conventional ones. The inclusion of NF process improves drinking water quality, reduces HHR but, in turn, increases environmental impacts as a result of energy and material demand. Results from this study lead to balance the increase of the impact in various environmental categories with the reduction in human health risk as a consequence of the respective drinking water production and consumption. From an environmental point of view, the inclusion of NF and recommended pretreatments to produce 43% of the final drinking water means that the environmental impact is nearly doubled in comparison with conventional plant in impact categories severely related with electricity production, like climate change. On the other hand, the carcinogenic risk (HHR) associated to trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) decreases with the increase in NF percentage use. Results show a reduction of one order of magnitude for the carcinogenic risk index when 100% of drinking water is produced by NF. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumana, Harcharan Singh; Sharma, Ramesh Chandra; Beniwal, Vikas; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-09

    : Air pollution has been a matter of great concern globally because of the associated health risks to individuals. The situation is getting worse in developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and more importantly the rapidly growing population posing a threat to human life in the form of pulmonary, cardiovascular, carcinogenic or asthmatic diseases by accumulating toxic pollutants, harmful gases, metals, hydrocarbons etc. The present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of ambient air pollutants and their human health risks like respiratory ailments, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer using a Retrospective Approach of Bart Ostra. The parameters PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 were monitored at all selected study sites monitored through a high volume sampler (APM 451 Envirotech, Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India). Retrospective Approach was used for assessment of risk factors and disease burden of respiratory and cardiopulmonary health problems. Environmental burden of disease showed that the problem of health related to air pollution is a main concern particularly in the growing cities of India. High to critical level of air pollution including PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 was observed in all seasons at traffic intersections and commercial sites. The respiratory infections (25% incidence in population exposed to indoor smoke problems) and a prevalence of asthma/COPD (4.4%) in households exposed to high vehicular pollution along with signs of coronary artery/heart disease and/or hypertension and cancers (37.9-52.2%), were reported requiring preventive measures. The study reflects a great concern for the mankind with the need of having streamline ways to limit air pollution and emphasize upon efficiently determining the risk of illness upon exposure to air pollution.

  18. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, John E., E-mail: john.weinstein@citadel.edu [Department of Biology, The Citadel, Charleston, SC (United States); Crawford, Kevin D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Garner, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Pendleton, SC (United States); Flemming, Alan J. [South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units ({Sigma}ESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the {Sigma}ESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  19. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, John E.; Crawford, Kevin D.; Garner, Thomas R.; Flemming, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units (ΣESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the ΣESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  20. Hazard assessment of metals in invasive fish species of the Yamuna River, India in relation to bioaccumulation factor and exposure concentration for human health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul K; Srivastava, Sharad C; Verma, Pankaj; Ansari, Abubakar; Verma, Ambrish

    2014-06-01

    Monitoring of heavy metals was conducted in the Yamuna River considering bioaccumulation factor, exposure concentration, and human health implications which showed contamination levels of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) and their dispersion patterns along the river. Largest concentration of Pb in river water was 392 μg L(-1); Cu was 392 μg L(-1) at the extreme downstream, Allahabad and Ni was 146 μg L(-1) at midstream, Agra. Largest concentration of Cu was 617 μg kg(-1), Ni 1,621 μg kg(-1) at midstream while Pb was 1,214 μg kg(-1) at Allahabad in surface sediment. The bioconcentration of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cr was observed where the largest accumulation of Pb was 2.29 μg kg(-1) in Oreochromis niloticus and 1.55 μg kg(-1) in Cyprinus carpio invaded at Allahabad while largest concentration of Ni was 174 μg kg(-1) in O. niloticus and 124 μg kg(-1) in C. carpio in the midstream of the river. The calculated values of hazard index (HI) for Pb was found more than one which indicated human health concern. Carcinogenic risk value for Ni was again high i.e., 17.02 × 10(-4) which was larger than all other metals studied. The results of this study indicated bioconcentration in fish due to their exposures to heavy metals from different routes which had human health risk implications. Thus, regular environmental monitoring of heavy metal contamination in fish is advocated for assessing food safety since health risk may be associated with the consumption of fish contaminated through exposure to a degraded environment.

  1. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  2. Screening and human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products in Dutch surface waters and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongh, Cindy M. de; Kooij, Pascal J.F.; Voogt, Pim de; Laak, Thomas L. ter

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies describe the presence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle, while their transformation products are usually not included. In the current study 17 common pharmaceuticals and 9 transformation products were monitored in the Dutch waters, including surface waters, pre-treated surface waters, river bank filtrates, two groundwater samples affected by surface water and drinking waters. In these samples, 12 pharmaceuticals and 7 transformation products were present. Concentrations were generally highest in surface waters, intermediate in treated surface waters and river bank filtrates and lowest or not detected in produced drinking water. However, the concentrations of phenazone and its environmental transformation product AMPH were significantly higher in river bank filtrates, which is likely due to historical contamination. Fairly constant ratios were observed between concentrations of transformation products and parent pharmaceuticals. This might enable prediction of concentrations of transformation products from concentrations of parent pharmaceuticals. The toxicological relevance of the observed pharmaceuticals and transformation products was assessed by deriving (i) a substance specific provisional guideline value (pGLV) and (ii) a group pGLV for groups of related compounds were under the assumption of additivity of effects within each group. A substantial margin exists between the maximum summed concentrations of these compounds present in different water types and the derived (group) pGLVs. Based on the results of this limited screening campaign no adverse health effects of the studied compounds are expected in (sources of) drinking water in the Netherlands. The presence of transformation products with similar pharmacological activities and concentration levels as their parents illustrates the relevance of monitoring transformation products, and including these in risk assessment. More thorough monitoring yielding information on statistical

  3. A human health risk assessment of rare earth elements in soil and vegetables from a mining area in Fujian Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Zhibiao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yonghe

    2013-10-01

    Contaminated food through dietary intake has become the main potential risk impacts on human health. This study investigated concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, vegetables, human hair and blood, and assessed human health risk through vegetables consumption in the vicinity of a large-scale mining area located in Hetian Town of Changting County, Fujian Province, Southeast China. The results of the study included the following mean concentrations for total and bio-available REEs of 242.92 ± 68.98 (135.85-327.56)μg g(-1) and 118.59 ± 38.49 (57.89-158.96)μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in agricultural soil, respectively, and total REEs of 3.58 ± 5.28 (0.07-64.42)μg g(-1) dw in vegetable samples. Concentrations of total REEs in blood and hair collected from the local residents ranged from 424.76 to 1274.80 μg L(-1) with an average of 689.74 ± 254.25 μg L(-1) and from 0.06 to 1.59 μg g(-1) with an average of 0.48 ± 0.59 μg g(-1) of the study, respectively. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between REEs in blood and corresponding soil samples (R(2)=0.6556, p0.05). Mean concentrations of REEs of 2.85 (0.59-10.24)μg L(-1) in well water from the local households was 53-fold than that in the drinking water of Fuzhou city (0.054 μg L(-1)). The health risk assessment indicated that vegetable consumption would not result in exceeding the safe values of estimate daily intake (EDI) REEs (100-110 μg kg(-1)d(-1)) for adults and children, but attention should be paid to monitoring human beings health in such rare earth mining areas due to long-term exposure to high dose REEs from food consumptions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 1770 - An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... qualitative aspects of the risk assessment because of the type of genomic data available for DBP. It is... Assessment (NCEA) within EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD). Toxicogenomics is the application of... exploratory methods for analyzing genomic data for application to risk assessment and some preliminary results...

  5. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Obiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As, 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd, 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg, respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE and reasonable maximum exposure (RME parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd, 1.45 (Pb, 4.60 (Hg and 1.98 (As; while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  6. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-18

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  7. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Armah, Frederick A.; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  8. Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in plant tissue due to biosolids and manure amendments, and wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Sibley, P K

    2015-02-01

    Amending soil with biosolids or livestock manure provides essential nutrients in agriculture. Irrigation with wastewater allows for agriculture in regions where water resources are limited. However, biosolids, manure and wastewater have all been shown to contain pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Studies have shown that PPCPs can accumulate in the tissues of plants but the risk that accumulated residues may pose to humans via consumption of edible portions is not well documented. This study reviewed the literature for studies that reported residues of PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants grown in biosolids- or manure-amended soils or irrigated with wastewater. These residues were used to determine the estimated daily intake of PPCPs for an adult and toddler. Estimated daily intake values were compared to acceptable daily intakes to determine whether PPCPs in plant tissue pose a hazard to human health. For all three amendment practices, the majority of reported residues resulted in hazard quotients plants to concentrations of PPCPs that would not be considered relevant based on concentrations reported in biosolids and manure or unrealistic methods of exposure, which lead to artificially elevated plant residues. Our assessment indicates that the majority of individual PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants due to biosolids or manure amendment or wastewater irrigation represent a de minimis risk to human health. Assuming additivity, the mixture of PPCPs could potentially present a hazard. Further work needs to be done to assess the risk of the mixture of PPCPs that may be present in edible tissue of plants grown under these three amendment practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence resistance on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Harits, M.; Bahtiar, Yusuf; Achdan, M. Syahdani; Sunarno, .

    2010-05-01

    Health is an important part of human life. Every person in this world want healthy body, in other words free of any disease. When seeing the pattern of human life today is high activity, always eat instant foods and lack of exercise makes a very bad human health from year to year. Therefore, there is need for the health revolution that can keep human health in order to remain in the condition is always healthy. Eat healthy foods four plus five perfect diligent exercise is the real solution to maintain health. In addition also advisable to always check each month to the doctor so that our health can be controlled. Most people underestimate it, especially the routine checks once a month to the doctor, therefore I created a simple research that aims to get people to mengonytrol health at any time without having to check into the doctor. By utilizing the resistance in the human body's health so we can be controlled. By using a simple tool to measure human resistance by using the concept of the bridge. Bridge circuit used to convert impedance variations into voltage variations. One advantage of this circuit is the voltage produced can vary around 0. This means strengthening can be used to raise the voltage level so as sensitivity to variations in impedance also increases. Another application is the impedance measurement accuracy. The bridge is the simplest and most widely used is the Wheatstone bridge circuit. This circuit is used for signal conditioning applications where a sensor can change the resistance value when the process variable is changed.

  10. Impacts on human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available .12 Noise pathway exposures 12-33 12.12.1 Worker 12-33 12.12.2 Community 12-34 12.13 Direct physical contact (traffic or machine injury) 12-34 12.13.1 Worker 12-34 12.13.2 Community 12-34 12.14 Dermal exposure to chemicals 12-34 12.14.1 Worker 12..., with air, water, noise, direct contact resulting from traffic or machine injuries, and dermal contact were considered. These were considered separately for workers and community members. The four scenarios were found to yield health risks as ranging from...

  11. Organochlorine pesticides across the tributaries of River Ravi, Pakistan: Human health risk assessment through dermal exposure, ecological risks, source fingerprints and spatio-temporal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Mujtaba; Sadef, Yumna; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2018-03-15

    This study monitored the human health risks through dermal exposure, hazardous risks to ecological integrity, contamination levels, spatio-temporal distribution, and congener specific analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across River Ravi and its three northern tributaries (Nullah Bein, Nullah Basanter and Nullah Deg). The residual levels of OCPs isomers were screened for water (n=54) and surface sediment (n=54) samples from twenty seven sampling sites in two alternate seasons (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon). The ∑OCPs concentrations ranged from 13.61 to 1992.18ng/g dry weight and 12.89 to 128.16ng/L with predominance of β-endosulfan and p,p'-DDT in sediment and water matrixes, respectively. Distribution pattern revealed significantly higher concentrations in upstream and midstream, suggesting considerable transboundary OCPs pollution. Calculated ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT, (DDE+DDD)/∑DDTs and cis/trans-chlordane for water and sediments identified the fresh addition of lindane, technical DDTs and chlordane in the study area. Risk quotient (RQ) based ecological risk was found to be >1 at all studied streams during both seasons and elucidates higher risks for endosulfan (α-endosulfan) and endrin. Human health risk assessment indicated absence of hazardous (non-carcinogenic) risk through bathing in studied streams; as the hazard index values ranged from 1.09E-05 to 2.48E-02 (acceptable limit; ecological risk and carcinogenic human health risk had emphasized an immediate elimination of ongoing OCPs addition in the studied area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Human Health Assessment to Phthalate Acid Esters (PAEs and Potential Probability Prediction by Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter EEM-FRI Fluorescence in Erlong Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meichen Ji

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phthalate acid esters (PAEs are suspected to cause wide environmental pollution and have adverse effects on human health. Three priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP, diethyl phthalate (DEP, and dibutyl phthalate (DBP, were determined in 45 water samples from the largest drinking water source in Jilin Province. Chromophoric-dissolved organic matter (CDOM, which are composed of complex compounds and are a proxy for water quality, can be monitored using a fluorometer. This study attempted to understand the correlations of the CDOM fluorescence regional integration (FRI components with PAEs and CDOM characteristics under seasonal and spatial variations in the Erlong Lake. The characteristics of the CDOM absorption parameters in different water samples showed a higher aromatic content and molecular weight in October because of increased terrestrial inputs. The Σ3PAEs concentrations ranged from 0.231 mg L−1 to 0.435 mg L−1 in water, and DEP contributed to more than 90% of the Σ3PAEs. The FRI method identified five fluorescence components: one tyrosine-like (R1, one tryptophan-like (R2, one fulvic-like (R3, one microbial protein-like (R4, and one humic-like (R5 component. However, significant relationships exist between DEP and R3 (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001, R4 (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.001, and R5 (R2 = 0.58, p < 0.001. Quantifying the relationship between CDOM and PAEs was highly significant, because the results will simplify the componential analysis of pollutants from a spatiotemporal perspective as compared to traditional chemical measurements. The human health risk assessment results revealed no human health risk (HQ < 1 in the Erlong Lake basin.

  13. Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Impact of Human Factors on Nondestructive Evaluation and Sensor Degradation on Structural Health Monitoring (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldrin, John C; Medina, Enrique A; Allwine, Daniel A; Qadeer Ahmed, Mohammed; Fisher, Joseph; Knopp, Jeremy S; Lindgren, Eric A

    2006-01-01

    .... Quantitative studies are presented evaluating the effects of variations in probability of detection associated with human factors, plus in-situ sensor degradation on life cycle measures such as cost...

  14. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  15. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Rafi Chaudhary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary

  16. A new perspective on human health risk assessment: Development of a time dependent methodology and the effect of varying exposure durations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siirila, Erica R., E-mail: esiirila@mymail.mines.edu [Hydrologic Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Maxwell, Reed M., E-mail: rmaxwell@mines.edu [Hydrologic Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Integrated Groundwater Modeling Center (IGWMC), Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present a new Time Dependent Risk Assessment (TDRA) that stochastically considers how joint uncertainty and inter-individual variability (JUV) associated with human health risk change as a function of time. In contrast to traditional, time independent assessments of risk, this new formulation relays information on when the risk occurs, how long the duration of risk is, and how risk changes with time. Because the true exposure duration (ED) is often uncertain in a risk assessment, we also investigate how varying the magnitude of fixed size durations (ranging between 5 and 70 years) of this parameter affects the distribution of risk in both the time independent and dependent methodologies. To illustrate this new formulation and to investigate these mechanisms for sensitivity, an example of arsenic contaminated groundwater is used in conjunction with two scenarios of different environmental concentration signals resulting from rate dependencies in geochemical reactions. Cancer risk is computed and compared using environmental concentration ensembles modeled with sorption as 1) a linear equilibrium assumption (LEA) and 2) first order kinetics (Kin). Results show that the information attained in the new time dependent methodology reveals how the uncertainty in other time-dependent processes in the risk assessment may influence the uncertainty in risk. We also show that individual susceptibility also affects how risk changes in time, information that would otherwise be lost in the traditional, time independent methodology. These results are especially pertinent for forecasting risk in time, and for risk managers who are assessing the uncertainty of risk. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A human health, Time Dependent Risk Assessment (TDRA) methodology is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TDRA relays information on the magnitude, duration, and fluxes of risk in time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetic and equilibrium concentration signals show

  17. Human reliability assessment in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) is conducted on the unspoken premise that 'human error' is a meaningful concept and that it can be associated with individual actions. The basis for this assumption it found in the origin of HRA, as a necessary extension of PSA to account for the impact of failures emanating from human actions. Although it was natural to model HRA on PSA, a large number of studies have shown that the premises are wrong, specifically that human and technological functions cannot be decomposed in the same manner. The general experience from accident studies also indicates that action failures are a function of the context, and that it is the variability of the context rather than the 'human error probability' that is the much sought for signal. Accepting this will have significant consequences for the way in which HRA, and ultimately also PSA, should be pursued

  18. Potential Health Risk Assessment of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn for Human Population via Consumption of Commercial Spices; a Case Study of Hamedan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhanardakani S.* PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Spices are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the taste of food as well as affecting the digestion and metabolism. Along with that, they may also contain some substances as heavy metals, which have harmful effects on the body. The aim of present study was to assess the potential health risk of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn contents of cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods: 18 industrially packaged and weighted spice samples (cardamom, curry powder and turmeric belonging to 6 famous brands were bought from different supermarkets of Hamedan City, Iran, in 2015. The human health risks posed by chronic exposure to the heavy metals were assessed by computing the average daily intake of metal. The health risk index (HRI for the local population through the consumption of spice was assessed using DIM/RfD formula. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, DMS post-hoc, Tukey HSD and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests. Findings: Cr was detected in spice samples in 0.08-1.67mg/kg, Cu 0.05-1.28mg/kg, Fe 1.04-6.89mg/kg and Zn 0.40-2.25mg/kg. The mean concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn were lower than MPL. The DIM values for the examined spice samples were below the recommended values. Conclusion: The levels of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn are less than the MPL in cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran.

  19. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification......This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  20. Environmental levels of PCDD/Fs and metals around a cement plant in Catalonia, Spain, before and after alternative fuel implementation. Assessment of human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí, E-mail: marti.nadal@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, José L. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn, and the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans were determined in samples of soil, vegetation, and air, collected in the vicinity of a cement plant (Catalonia, Spain), before (January 2011 and July 2011) and after (January 2012 and June 2013) alternative fuel partial substitution (fossil fuels by sewage sludge). Seven sampling points were selected at different directions and distances to the facility including two background sampling points. The results were used to assess the health risk assessment for the population living near the facility. Only few significant differences were found before and after alternative fuel partial substitution (Mn in soils and Cd in vegetation). Non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety threshold (HQ < 1), while carcinogenic risks were below 10{sup −5}, or exceeding slightly that value, always in the range considered as assumable (10{sup −6}–10{sup −4}). - Highlights: • The environmental impact of a cement plant using alternative fuel was monitored. • No significant differences in most pollutants were noted after the fuel change. • Traffic has a notable influence on the environmental levels of PCDD/Fs and metals. • Human health risks were below safety thresholds regardless of the used fuel.

  1. Ecological and human health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil of a municipal solid waste dump in Uyo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihedioha, J N; Ukoha, P O; Ekere, N R

    2017-06-01

    The study assessed the levels of some heavy metals in soils in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste dumpsite with a view to providing information on the extent of contamination, ecological risk of metals in the soils and human health risk to the residents in Uyo. Soil samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons and analyzed for metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni and Fe) using atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals (mg/kg) at the dumpsite in rainy season were Pb (9.90), Zn (137), Ni (12.56), Cr (3.60), Cd (9.05) and Mn (94.00), while in dry season, the concentrations were Pb (11.80), Zn (146), Ni (11.82), Cr (4.05), Cd (12.20) and Mn (91.20). The concentrations of metals in the studied sites were higher than that of the control site (P contamination than adult.

  2. A note on the relevance of human population genetic variation and molecular epidemiology to assessing radiation health risk for space travellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackley, M.E.; Curry, J.; Glickman, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the relevance to space medicine of studies concerning human genetic variation and consequent variable disease susceptibility or sensitivity between individuals. The size of astronaut and cosmonaut populations is both presently and cumulatively small, and despite the launch of the International Space Station, unlikely to increase by orders of magnitude within the foreseeable future. In addition, astronauts-cosmonauts constitute unrepresentative samples of their national populations. While the context of exposure for the astronaut-cosmonaut group is one unlikely to be replicated elsewhere than in space, aspects of specific exposures may be simulated by events such as occupational radiation exposure or radiation therapy. Hence, population-based studies of genetic susceptibility or sensitivity to disease, especially where it is precipitated by events that may simulate consequences of the space environment, likely will prove of value in assessing long-term health risks

  3. Use of an integrated human health/ecological risk assessment to develop a long-term groundwater/site management plan for a sour gas facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, S.M.; Shaw, R.D.; McClymont, G.; Nadeau, S.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated human health and ecological risk assessment was used to quantify the level of risk associated with the off-site movement of contaminants via groundwater and soils at a medium-sized gas processing facility in southern Alberta. The study incorporated three key aspects: (1) integration; (2) consultation; and, (3) pro-active remedial actions. Integration was complete, beginning with the Problem Formulation stage and progressing through Risk Characterization and Risk Management. This integration was reflected in a multidisciplinary team of hydrogeologists, biologists and human health specialists. Several lessons emerged from the integrated approach: (1) spending 2/3 of the time and resources on Problem Formulation prevented later problems; (2) the different perspectives provided by the various specialists helped reveal the relative importance of pathways and ecological receptors (3) clear, consistent screening procedures for contaminants of concern and receptors were very effective with stakeholders; (4) exposure scenarios that incorporated common-sense situations (although still conservative) contributed to the credibility of the risk analysis; and, (5) an innovative combination of toxicity testing and chemical analysis helped delineate the boundaries of the potentially contaminated area for both human and ecological receptors in a cost effective manner. Consultation included directly affected parties, regulatory personnel and community members. The consultation extended through the project, with key ''buy-in'' points during Problem Formulation and Risk Characterization/Management. Pro-active remedial action included the removal of contaminant sources in the 1980's, a pump-and-treat system and extensive monitoring. These actions showed commitment and set the stage for credible risk-based mitigation and long-term monitoring

  4. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  5. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  6. Plastic and Human Health: A Micro Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Kelly, Frank J

    2017-06-20

    Microplastics are a pollutant of environmental concern. Their presence in food destined for human consumption and in air samples has been reported. Thus, microplastic exposure via diet or inhalation could occur, the human health effects of which are unknown. The current review article draws upon cross-disciplinary scientific literature to discuss and evaluate the potential human health impacts of microplastics and outlines urgent areas for future research. Key literature up to September 2016 relating to accumulation, particle toxicity, and chemical and microbial contaminants was critically examined. Although microplastics and human health is an emerging field, complementary existing fields indicate potential particle, chemical and microbial hazards. If inhaled or ingested, microplastics may accumulate and exert localized particle toxicity by inducing or enhancing an immune response. Chemical toxicity could occur due to the localized leaching of component monomers, endogenous additives, and adsorbed environmental pollutants. Chronic exposure is anticipated to be of greater concern due to the accumulative effect that could occur. This is expected to be dose-dependent, and a robust evidence-base of exposure levels is currently lacking. Although there is potential for microplastics to impact human health, assessing current exposure levels and burdens is key. This information will guide future research into the potential mechanisms of toxicity and hence therein possible health effects.

  7. EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT -- POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES, NORMAL VARIABILITY AND STATISTICAL ISSUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ILSI Research Foundation/Risk Science Institute convened an expert working group to assess the lessons learned from the implementation of the EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Guideline and provide guidance for future use. The group prepared manuscripts in five areas: public ...

  8. Introducing Health Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, L N; Gulis, G; Lehto, J

    2007-01-01

    health status of the population. There was a lack of multi-intersectoral knowledge, co-operation and function between sectors and actors. Enablers on the other hand were the membership of international organizations which called for new solutions, and the strong political commitment and belief...... used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute...

  9. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions of the Ombuds......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......, ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...

  10. Where Public Health Meets Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, Karusa; Sawicki, Olga; Smith, Sally; Brion, Sophie; Sharma, Aditi; Mworeko, Lilian; Iovita, Alexandrina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a process for validation of the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT) of HIV and syphilis by countries. For the first time in such a process for the validation of disease elimination, WHO introduced norms and approaches that are grounded in human rights, gender equality, and community engagement. This human rights-based validation process can serve as a key opportunity to enhance accountability for human rights protection by evaluating EMTCT programs against human rights norms and standards, including in relation to gender equality and by ensuring the provision of discrimination-free quality services. The rights-based validation process also involves the assessment of participation of affected communities in EMTCT program development, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. It brings awareness to the types of human rights abuses and inequalities faced by women living with, at risk of, or affected by HIV and syphilis, and commits governments to eliminate those barriers. This process demonstrates the importance and feasibility of integrating human rights, gender, and community into key public health interventions in a manner that improves health outcomes, legitimizes the participation of affected communities, and advances the human rights of women living with HIV. PMID:29302179

  11. Climate change and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the earth's climate, stemming from the greenhouse effect, are highly likely to damage human health. As well as the disruptions to food and fresh water supplies, there is the prospect of major diseases flourishing in warmer conditions, in addition the decrease in the ozone layer is causing an increased incidence of skin cancer

  12. Health effects assessment summary tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is an excellent pointer system to identify current literature or changes in assessment criteria for many chemicals of interest to Superfund. It was prepared for Superfund use by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (ECAO-Cin) in EPA's Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. Chemicals considered are those for which Health Effects Assessment Documents, Health and Environmental Effects Profiles, Health Assessment Documents or Air Quality Criteria Documents have been prepared by ECAO. Radionuclides considered are those believed to be most common at Superfund sites. Tables summarize reference doses (RfDs) for toxicity from subchronic and chronic inhalation, oral exposure, slope factors and unit risk values for carcinogenicity based on lifetime inhalation and oral exposure, and radionuclide carcinogenicity

  13. Health Impact Assessment: Linking Public Health to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.

  14. Health impact assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  15. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency,...... findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries.......Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency......, with special responsibility in providing assessments to underpin national policies in screening. External evaluations enhanced the rapid growth. In the Finnish environment, decision making on health technologies is extremely decentralized, so Finohta has developed some practical tools for implementing HTA...

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. To address this growing threat, the Interagency Group on Climate Change and Human Health (CCHHG), a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP), has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of the USGCRP’s National Climate Assessment (NCA) and as called for under the President’s Climate Action Plan. The authors of this assessment have compiled and assessed current research on human health impacts of climate change and summarized the current “state of the science” for a number of key impact areas. This assessment provides a comprehensive update to the most recent detailed technical assessment for the health impacts of climate change, 2008 Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6 (SAP 4.6) Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems (CCSP 2008). It also updates and builds upon the health chapter of the third NCA (Melillo et al. 2014). The lead and coordinating Federal agencies for the USGCRP Climate and Health Assessment are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute of Health (NIH), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Available at https://health2016.globalchange.gov/ The interagency U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of their National C

  17. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  18. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  19. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  20. Human health risk assessment of atrazine in water and soil in selected municipalities in Ashanti and Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, F. A.

    2013-06-01

    Atrazine, one of the triazine herbicides, helps control the growth of weeds through inhibition of photosynthetic reactions. It is used extensively because it is economical and effective in reducing crop losses due to weed interference. It has gained much attention because of its frequent detection in surface and groundwater supplies. Even though most countries have banned the usage of atrazine due to health risk and associated environmental contamination, its is still used in Ghana. Knowledge of levels of Atrazine in the environment is essential for the protection of human health and the environment. The main objective of the study is to do a health risk assessment to show the implications of atrazine levels on human population. This is aimed at informing policy makers in pesticide management, especially Atrazine, and also to assist in protecting water resources. The study areas were maize farms in Dormaa, Sunyani and Nkoranza Districts all in the Brong Ahafo Regions as well as Offinso District in Ashanti Region, where a lot of atrazine has been used in maize production over the past ten years. Thirty-six water samples and twelve soil samples were collected in December 2011 from surface and groundwater distributed in the study areas. The herbicide was extracted from the samples using sonication and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). There were no detectable concentrations of Atrazine in some water bodies however others ranged from 0.004µg/L to 0.105µg/L. The highest mean value occurred at Dandwe River with mean concentration of 0.076±0.023µg/L. The streams have concentrations between 0.033µg/L and 0.111µg/L with an average of 0.071µg/L. Out of the three streams sampled. two streams showed the presence of Atrazine with averages of 0.089µg/L and 0.053µg/L. Most of the hand dug wells did not contain Atrazine above the limit of determination of 0.001µg/L. It was only in the Sunyani 1 area that the wells recorded an average of 0.004µg

  1. Assessment of arsenic content in soil, rice grains and groundwater and associated health risks in human population from Ropar wetland, India, and its vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Inderpreet; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, potential health risks posed to human population from Ropar wetland and its vicinity, by consumption of inorganic arsenic (i-As) via arsenic contaminated rice grains and groundwater, were assessed. Total arsenic (t-As) in soil and rice grains were found in the range of 0.06-0.11 mg/kg and 0.03-0.33 mg/kg, respectively, on dry weight basis. Total arsenic in groundwater was in the range of 2.31-15.91 μg/L. i-As was calculated from t-As using relevant conversion factors. Rice plants were found to be arsenic accumulators as bioconcentration factor (BCF) was observed to be >1 in 75% of rice grain samples. Further, correlation analysis revealed that arsenic accumulation in rice grains decreased with increase in the electrical conductivity of soil. One-way ANOVA, cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that both geogenic and anthropogenic sources affected t-As in soil and groundwater. Hazard index and total cancer risk estimated for individuals from the study area were above the USEPA limits of 1.00 and 1.00 × 10 -6 , respectively. Kruskal-Wallis H test indicated that groundwater intake posed significantly higher health risk than rice grain consumption (χ 2 (1) = 17.280, p = 0.00003).

  2. Micronucleus assay for human peripheral blood lymphocytes as a biomarker of individual sensitivity to assessing radiation health risk in different population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.-M.; Jeon, H.-J.; Lee, Y.-S.; Lee, S.-J.; Jin, Y.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kim, T.-W.; Cho, C.-K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Our studies were to evaluate micronucleus (MN) assay for human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) as a biomarker of individual sensitivity to assessing radiation health risk in different population in Korea. Further studied are carried out to provide evidence for the existence of individual variations in age-dependent responses. For the MN assay, HPBLs were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8Gy 60 Co γ-rays. Spontaneous frequencies not only vary greatly between individuals, but also working or living areas because of the groups with different lifestyle living in different ecological situation and the reaction to radiation exposure. It was shown that the increased level of spontaneous cell with MN was observed with increased age. The relationship between radiosensitivity and the increased spontaneous level of MN may be in inverse proportion. Age and gender are the most important demographic variables impact on MN index with MN frequencies in female being greater than those in male by a factor of depending on the age group. For both sexes, MN frequency was significantly and positively correlated with age. The main lifestyle factors influencing the MN index in subjects are significantly and positively correlated with smoking in measuring the spontaneous frequencies of micronuclei. The described results show that the genetic damaged rate like MN index in human populations is correlated significantly with age, sex and lifestyle factors. So far, it is evident that with regard to the application of MN assay all future studies to evaluate radiation health risks in different population have to take into account the influence of age, gender, and lifestyle. The results suggested that the MN assay have a high potential to ensure appropriate quality control and standard documentation protocol which can be used to monitor a large population exposed to radiation epidemiologically. We conclude that the determination of individual radiosensitivity with MN assay is

  3. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zdu@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, Jian [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing [Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB{sub 7}, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected 24 fish species with more than

  4. Risk–benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Frøyland, Livar

    2012-01-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk–benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB 7 , arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80–100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk–benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: ► We collected 24 fish species with more than 400 individual samples

  5. Assessment of impact of urbanisation on background radiation exposure and human health risk estimation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, M S M; Ramli, A T; Hassan, W M S W; Lee, M H; Izham, A; Said, M N; Wagiran, H; Heryanshah, A

    2017-07-01

    Kuala Lumpur has been undergoing rapid urbanisation process, mainly in infrastructure development. The opening of new township and residential in former tin mining areas, particularly in the heavy mineral- or tin-bearing alluvial soil in Kuala Lumpur, is a contentious subject in land-use regulation. Construction practices, i.e. reclamation and dredging in these areas are potential to enhance the radioactivity levels of soil and subsequently, increase the existing background gamma radiation levels. This situation is worsened with the utilisation of tin tailings as construction materials apart from unavoidable soil pollutions due to naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction materials, e.g. granitic aggregate, cement and red clay brick. This study was conducted to assess the urbanisation impacts on background gamma radiation in Kuala Lumpur. The study found that the mean value of measured dose rate was 251±6nGyh -1 (156-392nGyh -1 ) and 4 times higher than the world average value. High radioactivity levels of 238 U (95±12Bqkg -1 ), 232 Th (191±23Bqkg -1 ,) and 40 K (727±130Bqkg -1 ) in soil were identified as the major source of high radiation exposure. Based on statistical ANOVA, t-test, and analyses of cumulative probability distribution, this study has statistically verified the dose enhancements in the background radiation. The effective dose was estimated to be 0.31±0.01mSvy -1 per man. The recommended ICRP reference level (1-20mSvy -1 ) is applicable to the involved existing exposure situation in this study. The estimated effective dose in this study is lower than the ICRP reference level and too low to cause deterministic radiation effects. Nevertheless based on estimations of lifetime radiation exposure risks, this study found that there was small probability for individual in Kuala Lumpur being diagnosed with cancer and dying of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological assessment of neonicotinoids imidacloprid and its major metabolites for potentially human health using globular proteins as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Peng, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The assessment of biological activities of imidacloprid and its two major metabolites, namely 6-chloronicotinic acid and 2-imidazolidone for nontarget organism, by employing essentially functional biomacromolecules, albumin and hemoglobin as a potentially model with the use of circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, extrinsic 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence as well as molecular modeling is the theme of this work. By dint of CD spectra and synchronous fluorescence, it was clear that the orderly weak interactions between amino acid residues within globular proteins were disturbed by imidacloprid, and this event led to marginally alterations or self-regulations of protein conformation so as to lodge imidacloprid more tightly. Both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence suggested that the fluorescence of Trp residues in proteins was quenched after the presence of imidacloprid, corresponding to noncovalent protein-imidacloprid complexes formation and, the reaction belongs to moderate association (K=1.888/1.614×10(4)M(-1) for albumin/hemoglobin-imidacloprid, respectively), hydrogen bonds and π stacking performed a vital role in stabilizing the complexes, as derived from thermodynamic analysis and molecular modeling. With the aid of hydrophobic ANS experiments, subdomain IIA and α1β2 interface of albumin and hemoglobin, respectively, were found to be preserved high-affinity for imidacloprid. These results ties in with the subsequently molecular modeling laying imidacloprid in the Sudlow's site I and close to Trp-213 residue on albumin, while settling down B/Trp-37 residue nearby in hemoglobin, and these conclusions further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation. But, at the same time, several crucial noncovalent bonds came from other amino acid residues, e.g. Arg-194 and Arg-198 (albumin) and B/Arg-40, B/Asp-99 and B/Asn-102 (hemoglobin) cannot be ignored completely. Based on the comparative studies of

  7. Signatures of vehicular emissions and human health risk assessment of road dust in selected roads of Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukure, A.S.

    2009-06-01

    Street dust samples were collected from Mallam Junction-Weija road, John Teye-Pokuase road, Tema Motorway (near Ashiaman overhead) and Tetteh Quarshie interchange in Accra. The samples were segregated into grain sizes between 250μm-100μm and less than 100μm. Energy dispersive X-ray florescence technique was used to determine the elemental compositions. In all twenty (20) elements were identified: K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. The results show significant concentration levels of K, Ca, Ti Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Cr in all the samples. Ultra violet visible spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentrations of SO 4 2- and NO 3 - . Enrichment factors calculated for the elements show high enrichment of Pb, V, Zn, Cu, Zr, Cr, Br and Pb from the sample sites. There was no indication of significant anthropogenic contribution of manganese (Mn) which gave enrichment factor values in the range of 0.57- 1.00 in the road dust. The average SO 4 2- and NO 3 - concentration ranged between 17.69mg/kg-28.86mg/kg and 14.76mg/kg-23.70mg/kg respectively. The principal component analysis was used to identify sources and their contributions. The sources identified were natural crust, brake wear, tyre wear and vehicle exhaust emission. The results show high levels of vehicle non-exhaust emission than vehicular exhaust emission. A risk assessment of selected heavy metal contaminants from all sites indicate that Pb which is the most toxic among the elements gave Hazard Index (H-I) value in the range of 0.14 - 0.62 which is less than the safe level of one (1). It was also observed that ingestion pathway which gave HI value in the range of 1.1- 2.3 showed the highest risk of exposure. Tetteh Quarshie Interchange gave the highest cumulative risk exposure. (au)

  8. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette ae...

  9. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA ANCA RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of human exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI, an aromatic compound, may be dangerous for human health. Diisocyanates have wide industrial use in the fabrication of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, elastomers, and coatings such as paints and varnishes. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapor; exposure to TDI vapors is well documented to increase asthma risk. The study focused on the exposure of workers and nearby populations to toluene diisocyanate in a Polyurethane Foam Factory located in Baia Mare, Romania. Workplace air measurements were performed in different departments of the plant, after sampling either in fixed points or as personal monitoring. Sampling in four different locations of Baia Mare town was carried out, - during and after the foaming process. TDI sampling was performed on silica cartridge followed by GC-MS analysis. TDI concentration at workplace was lower than 0,035 mg/m³, which represents the permissible exposure limit, while in the city the TDI concentration had shown values below 0,20 μg/m³. Health assessment of a group of 49 workers was based on questionnaire interview, determination of TDI antibodies and lung function tests. Data collected until this stage do not show any negative effects of TDI on the employees health. Since this plant had only recently begun operating, continuous workplace and ambient air TDI monitoring, along with workers health surveillance, is deemed necessary.

  11. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Resources Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Assessment of weight and health risk involves using ... risk for developing obesity-associated diseases or conditions. Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along ...

  12. Dependent Human Error Probability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the dependence between dynamic operator actions modeled in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) PRA and estimate the associated impact on Core damage frequency (CDF). This assessment was done improve HEP dependencies implementation inside existing PRA. All of the dynamic operator actions modeled in the NPP PRA are included in this assessment. Determining the level of HEP dependence and the associated influence on CDF are the major steps of this assessment. A decision on how to apply the results, i.e., should permanent HEP model changes be made, is based on the resulting relative CDF increase. Some CDF increase was selected as a threshold based on the NPP base CDF value and acceptance guidelines from the Regulatory Guide 1.174. HEP dependence resulting in a CDF increase of > 5E-07 would be considered potential candidates for specific incorporation into the baseline model. The approach used to judge the level of dependence between operator actions is based on dependency level categories and conditional probabilities developed in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications NUREG/CR-1278. To simplify the process, NUREG/CR-1278 identifies five levels of dependence: ZD (zero dependence), LD (low dependence), MD (moderate dependence), HD (high dependence), and CD (complete dependence). NUREG/CR-1278 also identifies several qualitative factors that could be involved in determining the level of dependence. Based on the NUREG/CR-1278 information, Time, Function, and Spatial attributes were judged to be the most important considerations when determining the level of dependence between operator actions within an accident sequence. These attributes were used to develop qualitative criteria (rules) that were used to judge the level of dependence (CD, HD, MD, LD, ZD) between the operator actions. After the level of dependence between the various HEPs is judged, quantitative values associated with the

  13. Using exterior building surface films to assess human exposure and health risks from PCDD/Fs in New York City, USA, after the World Trade Center attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra

    2005-12-09

    Concentrations of tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in exterior window films from Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City (NYC), USA, 6 weeks after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 11 September 2001. High concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners (P(2378)CDD/Fs) were observed, at levels up to 6600 pg-TEQ g(-1) nearest the WTC site. An equilibrium partitioning model was developed to reconstruct total gas + particle-phase atmospheric concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs at each site. The reconstructed atmospheric and window film concentrations were subsequently used in a preliminary human health risk assessment to estimate the potential cancer and non-cancer risks posed to residents of lower Manhattan from these contaminants over the 6 week exposure period between the WTC attacks and sampling dates. Residents of lower Manhattan appear to have a slightly elevated cancer risk (up to 1.6% increase over background) and increased P(2378)CDD/F body burden (up to 8.0% increase over background) because of above-background exposure to high concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs produced from the WTC attacks during the short period between 11 September 2001, and window film sampling 6 weeks later.

  14. Human Health Risk Assessment and Safety Threshold of Harmful Trace Elements in the Soil Environment of the Wulantuga Open-Cast Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples were collected from a large-scale open-cast coal mine area in Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, beryllium (Be and nickel (Ni in soil samples were detected using novel collision/reaction cell technology (CCT with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; collectively ICP-CCT-MS after closed-vessel microwave digestion. Human health risk from As, Cd, Be and Ni was assessed via three exposure pathways—inhalation, skin contact and soil particle ingestion. The comprehensive carcinogenic risk from As in Wulantuga open-cast coal mine soil is 6.29–87.70-times the acceptable risk, and the highest total hazard quotient of As in soils in this area can reach 4.53-times acceptable risk levels. The carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient of Cd, Be and Ni are acceptable. The main exposure route of As from open-cast coal mine soils is soil particle ingestion, accounting for 76.64% of the total carcinogenic risk. Considering different control values for each exposure pathway, the minimum control value (1.59 mg/kg could be selected as the strict reference safety threshold for As in the soil environment of coal-chemical industry areas. However, acceptable levels of carcinogenic risk are not unanimous; thus, the safety threshold identified here, calculated under a 1.00 × 10−6 acceptable carcinogenic risk level, needs further consideration.

  15. Temporal trend in the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted in a big tire landfill fire in Spain: Risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2018-02-23

    In May 2016, a big fire occurred in an illegal landfill placed in Seseña (Toledo, Spain), where between 70,000 and 90,000 tons of tires had been accumulated during years. Just after the fire, and because of the increase of airborne PAHs, we found that cancer risks for the population living in the neighborhood of the landfill were 3-5 times higher than for the rest of inhabitants of Seseña. Some months after our initial (June 2016) study, two sampling campaigns (December 2016 and May 2017) were performed to assess the temporal trends of the environmental levels of PAHs, as well as to reassure that these chemicals did not pose any risk for the human health of Seseña inhabitants. In soils, the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs (December 2016), as well as the sum of the seven carcinogenic PAHs, showed values between 8.5 and 94.7 ng g -1 and between 1.0 and 42.3 ng g -1 , respectively. In May 2017, a significant decrease (between 4 and 38 times) in the levels of PAHs in air was observed, with total concentrations ranging between 3.49 and 5.06 ng m -3 . One year after the fire, the cancer risk at different zones of Seseña was similar, being lower than that found in June 2016, and negligible according to national and international agencies.

  16. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  17. Depleted Uranium and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Armando; Gerosa, Clara; Fanni, Daniela; Floris, Giuseppe; Eyken, Peter V; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Nurchi, Valeria M

    2018-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is generally considered an emerging pollutant, first extensively introduced into environment in the early nineties in Iraq, during the military operation called "Desert Storm". DU has been hypothesized to represent a hazardous element both for soldiers exposed as well as for the inhabitants of the polluted areas in the war zones. In this review, the possible consequences on human health of DU released in the environment are critically analyzed. In the first part, the chemical properties of DU and the principal civil and military uses are summarized. A concise analysis of the mechanisms underlying absorption, blood transport, tissue distribution and excretion of DU in the human body is the subject of the second part of this article. The following sections deal with pathological condition putatively associated with overexposure to DU. Developmental and birth defects, the Persian Gulf syndrome, and kidney diseases that have been associated to DU are the arguments treated in the third section. Finally, data regarding DU exposure and cancer insurgence will be critically analyzed, including leukemia/lymphoma, lung cancer, uterine cervix cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer and testicular cancer. The aim of the authors is to give a contribution to the debate on DU and its effects on human health and disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Solar radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan; Brekke, Paal; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Joerg; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B

    2011-01-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  19. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  20. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  1. An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Glenn W.; Vermeire, Theo; Munns, Wayne R.; Sekizawa, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The worldHealth Organization's (WHO's) International Program for Chemical Safety has developed a framework for performing risk assessments that integrate the assessment of risks to human health and risks to nonhuman organisms and ecosystems. The WHO's framework recognizes that stakeholders and risk managers have their own processes that are parallel to the scientific process of risk assessment and may interact with the risk assessment at various points, depending on the context. Integration of health and ecology provides consistent expressions of assessment results, incorporates the interdependence of humans and the environment, uses sentinel organisms, and improves the efficiency and quality of assessments relative to independent human health and ecological risk assessments. The advantage of the framework to toxicologists lies in the opportunity to use understanding of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics to inform the integrated assessment of all exposed species

  2. Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oysters After the Wu Yi San Oil Spill in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-07-01

    After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m 3 of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months. Highly elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at most of the spill affected sites. Four days after the spill, the levels of PAHs in oysters increased dramatically to 627-81,000 ng/g, the average of which was 20 times higher than those found before the spill (321-4040 ng/g). The level of PAHs in these oysters increased until 10 days after the spill and then decreased. Due to the strong tidal current and easterly winter winds, the eastern part of the Bay-the Namhae region-was heavily contaminated compared with other regions. The accumulation and depuration of spilled oil in oyster corresponded with the duration and intensity of the cleanup activities, which is the first field observation in oil spill cases. Human health risk assessments showed that benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations exceeded levels of concern in the highly contaminated sites, even 60 days after the spill.

  3. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2007-10-01

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as 'high explosives' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the onsite test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling

  4. Physiotherapy students’ mental health assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gesouli-Voltyraki –E.; Charisi E.; Papastergiou D.; Κostopoulou S.; Borou A.; Alverti V.; Avlakiotis K.; Spanos S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Educational environment has a serious impact on students’ mental health. Few data are available on mental health of Physiotherapy students. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the mental heath of students in a tertiary Physiotherapy Department during the 3rd years of studies. Material and methods: 80 males and females physiotherapy students of the 5th and 6th semester of a tertiary Physiotherapy Department filled in the GHQ-28 questionnaire. Comparisons between groups w...

  5. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  6. Knowledge in health technology assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2011-01-01

    Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on designing and delivering services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient aspects of health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Only a few HTA agencies use and invest in scientific methods...... to generate knowledge and evidence about the patient aspects of a given technology. This raises questions about how knowledge is produced in HTA reports and what kind of knowledge is considered relevant. This article uses a Danish HTA on patient education from 2009 as empirical material for a critical...

  7. Energy production and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.R.; Brown, C.D.; Dixon-Davis, D.K.; Grahn, D.; Ludy, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: development and evaluation of socioeconomic and demographic factors; and quantitative aspects of the impacts of energy-related effluents on human health. Environmental effects of electric power generation by gas, oil, coal, nuclear energy, and water were studied at 15 sites. A system of general demographic models was developed for projecting number of deaths and population size by sex, age, and cause of death through time for any defined initial population and set of vital rates

  8. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  9. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  10. Human Health Screening and Public Health Significance of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010 – 2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue may also be appropriate. Finally, new toxicological data suggests that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which may warrant a more robust assessment of this information. This paper provides a screening-level human health risk assessment using the margin of exposure of exposure approach, of contaminants of emerging concern detected in drinking water. As far as we are a

  11. Assessment of risk to human health from simultaneous exposure to multiple contaminants in an artisanal gold mine in Serra Pelada, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edna Santos; Texeira, Renato Alves; da Costa, Hercília Samara Cardoso; Oliveira, Fábio Júnior; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; Fernandes, Antonio Rodrigues

    2017-01-15

    Contamination of soil, water and plants caused by gold mining is of great societal concern because of the risk of environmental pollution and risk to human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk to human health from ingestion of As, Ba, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Ni present in soil, sterile and mineralized waste, and water and plants at a gold mine in Serra Pelada, Pará, Brazil. Samples of soil, sterile and mineralized waste, water and plants were collected around an artisanal gold mine located in Serra Pelada. The mean concentrations of potentially toxic elements in the soil were higher than the soil quality reference values as defined in the legislation, which may be attributeable to past mining activities. Water from the area close to the mine exhibited As, Ba and Pb concentrations exceeding the reference values established by the World Health Organization, deemed unfit for human consumption. Plants exhibited high Pb concentrations, representing a food safety risk to the population. The mean hazard index (HI) values were below the acceptable limit (1.0) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, although the highest HI values observed for adults and children were higher than the respective acceptable limits. Environmental contamination and risk to human health were heterogeneous in the surroundings of the mine. Mitigation strategies need to be adopted to decrease the risks of contamination to the environment and to the local population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Human resources for health in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKee, Martin; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; Nolte, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    ... systems in the field of personnel. The authors also identify which strategies are most likely to lead to the optimal management of health professionals in the future. Human Resources for Health in Europe is key reading for health policymakers and postgraduates taking courses in health services management, health policy and health economics. It is also ...

  13. HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

  14. Source and chemical species characterization of PM10 and human health risk assessment of semi-urban, urban and industrial areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Suraj; Rabha, Rumi; Chowdhury, Mallika; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-09-01

    Levels of particulate matter of size ten micron (PM 10 ) in outdoor air, potential PM 10 -bound seven metals - manganese, zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, nickel and cobalt - and twelve water-soluble organic and inorganic ionic components - fluoride, acetate, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, oxalate, sodium, potassium and calcium - were investigated during two different season. Atmospheric PM 10 samples were collected concurrently from three different sites, i.e., Durgapur (Industrial), Berhampore (Urban) and Bolpur (Semi-urban), West Bengal, India, during summer (April-June 2014) and winter (December 2014-February 2015). Average PM 10 levels were found to be in the range of 189.58-219.96 μg/m 3 at the semi-urban site, 293.41-324.27 μg/m 3 at the urban site and 316.93-344.69 μg/m 3 at the industrial site during summer and winter season respectively. Data on metals and water soluble ions were analyzed statistically (Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis) for their source identification and apportionment in the study areas. Principle component analysis models, from three different sites, identified four different factors which share common sources, viz., soil & road re-suspension, motor vehicle and traffic, waste dumping, biomass aerosols, and construction. The pollution load and health risk assessments of selected metals were undertaken in three different sites, within children and adults of the study areas, and were found to be within the safe range. Furthermore, an attempt has also been made to provide basic information on pollution, their sources and exposure pathways for humans in the vicinity of semi-urban, urban and industrial regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Probabilistic human health risk assessment of degradation-related chemical mixtures in heterogeneous aquifers: Risk statistics, hot spots, and preferential channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2015-06-01

    The increasing presence of toxic chemicals released in the subsurface has led to a rapid growth of social concerns and the need to develop and employ models that can predict the impact of groundwater contamination on human health risk under uncertainty. Monitored natural attenuation is a common remediation action in many contamination cases. However, natural attenuation can lead to the production of daughter species of distinct toxicity that may pose challenges in pollution management strategies. The actual threat that these contaminants pose to human health depends on the interplay between the complex structure of the geological media and the toxicity of each pollutant byproduct. This work addresses human health risk for chemical mixtures resulting from the sequential degradation of a contaminant (such as a chlorinated solvent) under uncertainty through high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations. We systematically investigate the interaction between aquifer heterogeneity, flow connectivity, contaminant injection model, and chemical toxicity in the probabilistic characterization of health risk. We illustrate how chemical-specific travel times control the regime of the expected risk and its corresponding uncertainties. Results indicate conditions where preferential flow paths can favor the reduction of the overall risk of the chemical mixture. The overall human risk response to aquifer connectivity is shown to be nontrivial for multispecies transport. This nontriviality is a result of the interaction between aquifer heterogeneity and chemical toxicity. To quantify the joint effect of connectivity and toxicity in health risk, we propose a toxicity-based Damköhler number. Furthermore, we provide a statistical characterization in terms of low-order moments and the probability density function of the individual and total risks.

  16. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  17. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  18. Potential human health risks from toxic metals via mangrove snail consumption and their ecological risk assessments in the habitat sediment from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan Hee; Yap, Chee Kong

    2015-09-01

    Samples of mangrove snails Nerita lineata and surface sediments were collected from nine geographical sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the concentrations of eight metals. For the soft tissues, the ranges of metal concentrations (μg g(-1) dry weight (dw)) were 3.49-9.02 for As, 0.69-6.25 for Cd, 6.33-25.82 for Cu, 0.71-6.53 for Cr, 221-1285 for Fe, 1.03-50.47 for Pb, and 102.7-130.7 for Zn while Hg as 4.00-64.0 μg kg(-1) dw(-1). For sediments, the ranges were 21.81-59.49 for As, 1.11-2.00 for Cd, 5.59-28.71 for Cu, 18.93-62.91 for Cr, 12973-48916 for Fe, 25.36-172.57 for Pb, and 29.35-130.34 for Zn while for Hg as 2.66-312 μg kg(-1) dw(-1). To determine the ecological risks on the surface habitat sediments, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the geochemical indices, and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were used. Based on the SQGs, all the metals investigated were most unlikely to cause any adverse effects. Based on geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor, the sediments were also not polluted by the studied metals. The PERI values based on As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb and Zn in this study were found as 'low ecological risk'. In order to assess the potential health risks, the estimated daily intakes (EDI) of snails were found to be all lower than the RfD guidelines for all metals, except for Pb in some sites investigated. Furthermore, the calculated target hazard quotients (THQ) were found to be less than 1. However, the calculated total target hazard quotients (TTHQ) from all sites were found to be more than 1 for high level consumers except KPPuteh. Therefore, moderate amount of intake is advisable to avoid human health risks to the consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Human Exposure to ENMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; van Tongeren, Martie

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is hampered, among other factors, by the difficulty to differentiate ENM from other nanomaterials (incidental to processes or naturally occurring) and the lack of a single metric that can be used for health risk assessment. It is important that the exposure assessment is carried out throughout the entire life-cycle as releases can occur at the different stages of the product life-cycle, from the synthesis, manufacture of the nano-enable product (occupational exposure) to the professional and consumer use of nano-enabled product (consumer exposure) and at the end of life.Occupational exposure surveys should follow a tiered approach, increasing in complexity in terms of instruments used and sampling strategy applied with higher tiers in order tailor the exposure assessment to the specific materials used and workplace exposure scenarios and to reduce uncertainty in assessment of exposure. Assessment of consumer exposure and of releases from end-of-life processes currently relies on release testing of nano-enabled products in laboratory settings.

  20. Human Exposure Assessment for Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Hu, Li-Wen; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of human exposure to air pollution is a fundamental part of the more general process of health risk assessment. The measurement methods for exposure assessment now include personal exposure monitoring, indoor-outdoor sampling, mobile monitoring, and exposure assessment modeling (such as proximity models, interpolation model, air dispersion models, and land-use regression (LUR) models). Among these methods, personal exposure measurement is considered to be the most accurate method of pollutant exposure assessment until now, since it can better quantify observed differences and better reflect exposure among smaller groups of people at ground level. And since the great differences of geographical environment, source distribution, pollution characteristics, economic conditions, and living habits, there is a wide range of differences between indoor, outdoor, and individual air pollution exposure in different regions of China. In general, the indoor particles in most Chinese families comprise infiltrated outdoor particles, particles generated indoors, and a few secondary organic aerosol particles, and in most cases, outdoor particle pollution concentrations are a major contributor to indoor concentrations in China. Furthermore, since the time, energy, and expense are limited, it is difficult to measure the concentration of pollutants for each individual. In recent years, obtaining the concentration of air pollutants by using a variety of exposure assessment models is becoming a main method which could solve the problem of the increasing number of individuals in epidemiology studies.

  1. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Including the temporal change in PM{sub 2.5} concentration in the assessment of human health impact: Illustration with renewable energy scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwind, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gschwind@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Lefevre, Mireille, E-mail: mireille.lefevre@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Blanc, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.blanc@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Ranchin, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.ranchin@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Wyrwa, Artur, E-mail: awyrwa@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Drebszok, Kamila [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Cofala, Janusz, E-mail: cofala@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Fuss, Sabine, E-mail: fuss@mcc-berlin.net [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Torgauer Str. 12-15, 10829 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    This article proposes a new method to assess the health impact of populations exposed to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during their whole lifetime, which is suitable for comparative analysis of energy scenarios. The method takes into account the variation of particle concentrations over time as well as the evolution of population cohorts. Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050: the Baseline (BL) and the Low Carbon, Maximum Renewable Power (LC-MRP). These pathways were combined with three sets of assumptions about emission control measures: Current Legislation (CLE), Fixed Emission Factors (FEFs), and the Maximum Technically Feasible Reductions (MTFRs). Analysis was carried out for 45 European countries. Average PM{sub 2.5} concentration over Europe in the LC-MRP/CLE scenario is reduced by 58% compared with the BL/FEF case. Health impacts (expressed in days of loss of life expectancy) decrease by 21%. For the LC-MRP/MTFR scenario the average PM{sub 2.5} concentration is reduced by 85% and the health impact by 34%. The methodology was developed within the framework of the EU's FP7 EnerGEO project and was implemented in the Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA). The Platform enables performing health impact assessments for various energy scenarios. - Highlights: • A new method to assess health impact of PM{sub 2.5} for energy scenarios is proposed. • An algorithm to compute Loss of Life Expectancy attributable to exposure to PM{sub 2.5} is depicted. • Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050. • Integrating the temporal evolution of PM{sub 2.5} is of great interest for assessing the potential impacts of energy scenarios.

  3. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  4. Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA): transforming the way we assess health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela R D; Dotson, G Scott; Maier, Andrew

    2012-10-16

    Human health risk assessments continue to evolve and now focus on the need for cumulative risk assessment (CRA). CRA involves assessing the combined risk from coexposure to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors for varying health effects. CRAs are broader in scope than traditional chemical risk assessments because they allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of the interaction between different stressors and their combined impact on human health. Future directions of CRA include greater emphasis on local-level community-based assessments; integrating environmental, occupational, community, and individual risk factors; and identifying and implementing common frameworks and risk metrics for incorporating multiple stressors.

  5. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risks in the Soil-Plant-Human System in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Jia, Xiaolin; Hu, Jie; Xu, Dongyun; Xia, Fang; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) contamination and accumulation is a serious problem around the world due to the toxicity, abundant sources, non-biodegradable properties, and accumulative behaviour of HMs. The degree of soil HM contamination in China, especially in the Yangtze River Delta, is prominent. In this study, 1822 pairs of soil and crop samples at corresponding locations were collected from the southern Yangtze River Delta of China, and the contents of Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, Cu, Hg, and Pb were measured. The single pollution index in soil (SPI) and Nemerow composite pollution index (NCPI) were used to assess the degree of HM pollution in soil, and the crop pollution index (CPI) was used to explore the degree of HM accumulation in crops. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was used to investigate the translocation of heavy metals in the soil-crop system. The health risks caused by HMs were calculated based on the model released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The SPIs of all elements were at the unpolluted level. The mean NCPI was at the alert level. The mean CPIs were in the following decreasing order: Ni (1.007) > Cr (0.483) > Zn (0.335) > Cd (0.314) > As (0.232) > Cu (0.187) > Hg (0.118) > Pb (0.105). Only the mean content of Ni in the crops exceeded the national standard value. The standard exceeding rates were used to represent the percentage of samples whose heavy metal content is higher than the corresponding national standard values. The standard exceeding rates of Cu, Hg, and Cd in soil were significantly higher than corresponding values in crops. Meanwhile, the standard exceeding rates of Ni, As, and Cr in crops were significantly higher than corresponding values in soil. The chronic daily intake (CDI) of children (13.8 × 10−3) was the largest among three age groups, followed by adults (6.998 × 10−4) and seniors (5.488 × 10−4). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of all crops followed the order Cd (0.249) > Zn (0.133) > As (0.076) > Cu (0.064) > Ni

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risks in the Soil-Plant-Human System in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Jia, Xiaolin; Hu, Jie; Xu, Dongyun; Xia, Fang; Li, Yan

    2017-09-10

    Heavy metal (HM) contamination and accumulation is a serious problem around the world due to the toxicity, abundant sources, non-biodegradable properties, and accumulative behaviour of HMs. The degree of soil HM contamination in China, especially in the Yangtze River Delta, is prominent. In this study, 1822 pairs of soil and crop samples at corresponding locations were collected from the southern Yangtze River Delta of China, and the contents of Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, Cu, Hg, and Pb were measured. The single pollution index in soil (SPI) and Nemerow composite pollution index (NCPI) were used to assess the degree of HM pollution in soil, and the crop pollution index (CPI) was used to explore the degree of HM accumulation in crops. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was used to investigate the translocation of heavy metals in the soil-crop system. The health risks caused by HMs were calculated based on the model released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The SPIs of all elements were at the unpolluted level. The mean NCPI was at the alert level. The mean CPIs were in the following decreasing order: Ni (1.007) > Cr (0.483) > Zn (0.335) > Cd (0.314) > As (0.232) > Cu (0.187) > Hg (0.118) > Pb (0.105). Only the mean content of Ni in the crops exceeded the national standard value. The standard exceeding rates were used to represent the percentage of samples whose heavy metal content is higher than the corresponding national standard values. The standard exceeding rates of Cu, Hg, and Cd in soil were significantly higher than corresponding values in crops. Meanwhile, the standard exceeding rates of Ni, As, and Cr in crops were significantly higher than corresponding values in soil. The chronic daily intake (CDI) of children (13.8 × 10 -3 ) was the largest among three age groups, followed by adults (6.998 × 10 -4 ) and seniors (5.488 × 10 -4 ). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of all crops followed the order Cd (0.249) > Zn (0.133) > As (0.076) > Cu (0.064) > Ni

  7. Human intrusion: issues concerning its assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, P.D.; Smith, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The potential significance of human intrusion in the performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories has been increasingly recognized in recent years. It is however an area of assessment in which subjective judgments dominate. This paper identifies some of the issues involved. These include regulatory criteria, scenario development, probability assignment, consequence assessment and measures to mitigate human intrusion

  8. Assessment of human health risk related to metals by the use of biomonitors in the province of Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Hebe A; Wannaz, Eduardo D; Pignata, María L

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of metal contents in the environment is of vital importance for the assessment of human exposure. Thus the species Usnea amblyoclada, Ramalina celastri and Tillandsia capillaris were tested as bioaccumulators of transition metals in the urban area of Córdoba city, Argentina. The level of metals on biomonitors was compared to that of total deposition samples. All three species discriminated zones within the urban area of Córdoba city with different pollution levels; they revealed high levels of Zn in the downtown area and confirmed high levels of some transition metals in an industrial area. The correlation analysis revealed that the lichen R. celastri had the highest correlation rates with total deposition samples, suggesting it is a valuable biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. A significant relationship was also observed between respiratory diseases in children and the contents of metal accumulated in R. celastri and T. capillaris, indicating their usefulness when assessing human exposure to metals.

  9. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  10. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  11. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  12. An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM10 capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Sinnett, Danielle; Peachey, Christopher; Chalabi, Zaid; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fletcher, Tony; Leonardi, Giovanni; Grundy, Chris; Azapagic, Adisa; Hutchings, Tony R.

    2009-01-01

    The role of vegetation in mitigating the effects of PM 10 pollution has been highlighted as one potential benefit of urban greenspace. An integrated modelling approach is presented which utilises air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM 10 concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, using a 10 x 10 km area of East London Green Grid (ELGG) as a case study. The corresponding health benefits, in terms of premature mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, as a result of the reduced exposure of the local population are also modelled. PM 10 capture from the scenario comprising 75% grassland, 20% sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and 5% Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was estimated to be 90.41 t yr -1 , equating to 0.009 t ha -1 yr -1 over the whole study area. The human health modelling estimated that 2 deaths and 2 hospital admissions would be averted per year. - A combination of models can be used to estimate particulate matter concentrations before and after greenspace establishment and the resulting benefits to human health.

  13. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.

    2011-01-01

    contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...... into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [ health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could...... medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed...

  14. Assessing elders using the functional health pattern assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyea, S; Matzo, M

    1989-01-01

    The impact of older Americans on the health care system requires we increase our students' awareness of their unique needs. The authors discuss strategies to develop skills using Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment for assessing older clients.

  15. Assessment of heavy metals contamination and human health risk in shrimp collected from different farms and rivers at Khulna-Satkhira region, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sarkar

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to assess the heavy metals contamination and health risk in Shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus monodon collected from Khulna-Satkhira region in Bangladesh. The results showed that the Pb concentrations (0.52–1.16 mg/kg in all shrimp samples of farms were higher than the recommended limit. The Cd levels (0.05–0.13 mg/kg in all samples and Cr levels in all farms except tissue content at Satkhira farm were higher than the permissible limits. The individual concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cr between shrimp tissue and shell in all rivers and farms were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Target hazard quotient (THQ and hazard index (HI were estimated to assess the non-carcinogenic health risks. Shrimp samples from all locations under the current study were found to be safe for consumption, the possibility of health risk associated with non-carcinogenic effect is very low for continuous consumption for 30 years. Keywords: Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Shrimp, Health hazard, Noncarcinogenic risk

  16. Operational human performance reliability assessment (OHPRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Swanson, P.J.; Connelly, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Operational Human Performance Reliability Assessment (OHPRA) is an approach for assessing human performance that is being developed in response to demands from modern process industries for practical and effective tools to assess and improve human performance, and therefore overall system performance and safety. The single most distinguishing feature of the approach is that is defines human performance in open-quotes operationalclose quotes terms. OHPRA is focused not on generation of human error probabilities, but on practical analysis of human performance to aid management in (1) identifying open-quotes fixableclose quotes problems and (2) providing input on the importance and nature of potential improvements. Development of the model in progress uses a unique approach for eliciting expert strategies for assessing performance. A PC-based model incorporating this expertise is planned. A preliminary version of the approach has already been used successfully to identify practical human performance problems in reactor and chemical process plant operations

  17. What is Health Impact Assessment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA was disseminated by World Health Organization (WHO European Region in Gothenburg consensus paper in 1999. In this consensus, HIA is defined as ‘a combination of procedures, methods and tools by which a policy, program or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of population and the distribution of those effects within the population’. HIA was accepted as a goal for 4th phase of healthy city projects between 2003- 2008. HIA is a new process for our country and especially municipal boroughs, local authorities interest with it. There is no legal base for HIA in our country. EIA practices conducted since 1993 showed us that, environmental and public health was postponed. Functional and decisive implementation of HAI depends on legal basis and national acceptance. If legal basis is supplied, society must take care about it, work for strict application and have to put a crimp in going back. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 689-694

  18. Health technology assessment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Frenk, Julio

    2009-07-01

    The history of health technology assessment (HTA) in Mexico is examined, starting with the efforts to incorporate this topic into the policy agenda and culminating with the recent creation of a specialized public agency. Information was gathered through a bibliographic search and interviews with actors involved in HTA in Mexico. HTA efforts were developed in Mexico since the mid-1980s with the participation both of academics and of policy makers, a relationship that eventually led to the creation of the Center for Technological Excellence within the Ministry of Health. Institutionalization of HTA in resource-constrained settings requires the development of a critical mass of researchers involved in this field, the implementation of information efforts, and the establishment of strong relationships between HTA experts and policy makers.

  19. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  20. Geosciences help to protect human health: estimation of the adsorbed radiation doses while flight journeys, as important step to radiation risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Anatolii; Shabatura, Olexandr

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of the adsorbed radiation dose while flight journeys is a complex problem, which should be solved to get correct evaluation of equivalent effective doses and radiation risk assessment. Direct measurements of the adsorbed dose in the aircrafts during regional flights (3-10 hours) has shown that the radiation in the plane may increase 10-15 times (to 2-4 mSv/h) compared to the values on the surface of the Earth (0.2-0.5 mSv/h). Results of instrumental research confirmed by the other investigations. It is a fact that adsorbed doses per year while flight journeys are less than doses from medical tests. However, while flight journeys passengers get the same doses as nuclear power plant staff, people in zones of natural radiation anomalies and so should be evaluated. According to the authors' research, flight journeys are safe enough, when solar activity is normal and if we fly under altitude of 18 km (as usual, while intercontinental flights). Most of people travel by plane not so often, but if flight is lasting in dangerous periods of solar activity (powerful solar winds and magnetic field storms), passengers and flight crew can adsorb great amount of radiation doses. People, who spend more than 500 hours in flight journeys (pilots, business oriented persons', government representatives, etc.) get amount of radiation, which can negatively influence on health and provoke diseases, such as cancer. Authors consider that problem actual and researches are still going on. It is revealed, that radiation can be calculated, using special equations. Great part of radiation depends on very variable outer-space component and less variable solar. Accurate calculations of doses will be possible, when we will take into account all features of radiation distribution (time, season of year and exact time of the day, duration of flight), technical features of aircraft and logistics of flight (altitude, latitude). Results of first attempts of radiation doses modelling confirmed

  1. Assessing the joint impact of DNAPL source-zone behavior and degradation products on the probabilistic characterization of human health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2016-02-01

    The release of industrial contaminants into the subsurface has led to a rapid degradation of groundwater resources. Contamination caused by Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) is particularly severe owing to their limited solubility, slow dissolution and in many cases high toxicity. A greater insight into how the DNAPL source zone behavior and the contaminant release towards the aquifer impact human health risk is crucial for an appropriate risk management. Risk analysis is further complicated by the uncertainty in aquifer properties and contaminant conditions. This study focuses on the impact of the DNAPL release mode on the human health risk propagation along the aquifer under uncertain conditions. Contaminant concentrations released from the source zone are described using a screening approach with a set of parameters representing several scenarios of DNAPL architecture. The uncertainty in the hydraulic properties is systematically accounted for by high-resolution Monte Carlo simulations. We simulate the release and the transport of the chlorinated solvent perchloroethylene and its carcinogenic degradation products in randomly heterogeneous porous media. The human health risk posed by the chemical mixture of these contaminants is characterized by the low-order statistics and the probability density function of common risk metrics. We show that the zone of high risk (hot spot) is independent of the DNAPL mass release mode, and that the risk amplitude is mostly controlled by heterogeneities and by the source zone architecture. The risk is lower and less uncertain when the source zone is formed mostly by ganglia than by pools. We also illustrate how the source zone efficiency (intensity of the water flux crossing the source zone) affects the risk posed by an exposure to the chemical mixture. Results display that high source zone efficiencies are counter-intuitively beneficial, decreasing the risk because of a reduction in the time available for the production

  2. Mercury contamination in Khramulia (Capoeta capoeta) from the Cheshme Kile and Zarrin Gol Rivers in Iran and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvandi, Hassan; Sari, Abbas Esmaili; Aliabadian, Mansour

    2014-10-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in muscle tissue of Khramulia (Capoeta capoeta) captured in the Cheshme Kile and Zarrin Gol Rivers, Iran. In Cheshme Kile River, 49 fish samples were collected. The mean total mercury concentration in the muscles of C. capoeta from this area was 249 ng g(-1) dw. In Zarrin Gol River, where 62 fish samples were collected, the total mercury in muscles averaged 164 ng g(-1) dw. A significant difference was found between means of mercury in the rivers (p rivers had mean mercury concentrations below the maximum allowable limits for mercury set by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, Standardization Administration of China and Environmental Protection Agency. The results of this study indicate that the values of hazard target quotient and estimated weekly intake are low and represent a negligible risk for human health.

  3. Health and human rights in eastern Myanmar prior to political transition: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen K; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Smith, Linda S; Htoo, Saw Nay; Laeng, Sai; Lwin, Aye; Mahn, Mahn; Maung, Cynthia; Reh, Daniel; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Lee, Thomas; Richards, Adam K

    2014-05-05

    Myanmar/Burma has received increased development and humanitarian assistance since the election in November 2010. Monitoring the impact of foreign assistance and economic development on health and human rights requires knowledge of pre-election conditions. From October 2008-January 2009, community-based organizations conducted household surveys using three-stage cluster sampling in Shan, Kayin, Bago, Kayah, Mon and Tanintharyi areas of Myanmar. Data was collected from 5,592 heads of household on household demographics, reproductive health, diarrhea, births, deaths, malaria, and acute malnutrition of children 6-59 months and women aged 15-49 years. A human rights focused survey module evaluated human rights violations (HRVs) experienced by household members during the previous year. Estimated infant and under-five rates were 77 (95% CI 56 to 98) and 139 (95% CI 107 to 171) deaths per 1,000 live births; and the crude mortality rate was 13 (95% CI 11 to 15) deaths per thousand persons. The leading respondent-reported cause of death was malaria, followed by acute respiratory infection and diarrhea, causing 21.2% (95% CI 16.5 to 25.8), 16.6% (95% CI 11.8 to 21.4), and 12.3% (95% CI 8.7 to 15.8), respectively. Over a third of households suffered at least one human rights violation in the preceding year (36.2%; 30.7 to 41.7). Household exposure to forced labor increased risk of death among infants (rate ratio (RR) = 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4) and children under five (RR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.6). The proportion of children suffering from moderate to severe acute malnutrition was higher among households that were displaced (prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.3; 95% CI 1.9 to 5.6). Prior to the 2010 election, populations of eastern Myanmar experienced high rates of disease and death and high rates of HRVs. These population-based data provide a baseline that can be used to monitor national and international efforts to improve the health and human rights situation in the

  4. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Monitoring, Human Health Risk Assessment and Optimized Management for Typical Pollutants in Indoor Air from Random Families of University Staff, Wuhan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyao Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 31 workers at a university were randomly selected for indoor environmental monitoring in Wuhan. Two indicators, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC, and using 139 monitoring points, monitored the indoor environment (including home and workplace as well as the interior space of the main furniture. This study carried out the environmental quality assessment for TVOC based on the dB index method and the health risk assessment of indoor formaldehyde for the university staff receptors and, then focused on health risk in home environment to carry out detailed environmental health management. The results showed that TVOC in the three types of home spaces exceeded about 80% of the national standard. The excessive formaldehyde ratios for kitchens (79%, bedrooms (77% and living rooms (74% were calculated. Formaldehyde health risks all exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency, (USEPA acceptable risk threshold. The formaldehyde concentrations in workplaces were about 0.03 mg·m−3. While the risk contribution of the home environment to the total average health risk (0.0014, whether male and female is about 96%. For the adapted and unadapted persons, 90% and 55% of the monitoring points were located within the long-term tolerable range of TVOC decibel application, respectively. Long-term exposure to such an environment can lead to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS. On the other hand, through comparison of the concentration of pollutants in the interior spaces of furniture and home spaces, it was determined tentatively that the pollutants were mainly concentrated in rarely used furniture. In summary, the air pollution in the studied homes of university staff was much serious than that in workplaces, which showed a need to manage TVOC and formaldehyde pollution by the three means: the purchase of green products, removal of internal pollution from furniture, and creating a good indoor volatile diffusion

  6. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  7. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R.; Cottrill, Bruce; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  8. Representing Knowledge: Assessment of Creativity in Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemits, Birut Irena

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, assessment for university students in the humanities has been in an essay format, but this has changed extensively in the last decade. Assessments now may entail auditory and visual presentations, films, mind-maps, and other modes of communication. These formats are outside the established conventions of humanities and may be…

  9. Assessment of heavy metals contamination and human health risk in shrimp collected from different farms and rivers at Khulna-Satkhira region, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, T; Alam, M Masihul; Parvin, N; Fardous, Z; Chowdhury, Alamgir Z; Hossain, S; Haque, M E; Biswas, N

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the heavy metals contamination and health risk in Shrimp ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus monodon ) collected from Khulna-Satkhira region in Bangladesh. The results showed that the Pb concentrations (0.52-1.16 mg/kg) in all shrimp samples of farms were higher than the recommended limit. The Cd levels (0.05-0.13 mg/kg) in all samples and Cr levels in all farms except tissue content at Satkhira farm were higher than the permissible limits. The individual concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cr between shrimp tissue and shell in all rivers and farms were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) were estimated to assess the non-carcinogenic health risks. Shrimp samples from all locations under the current study were found to be safe for consumption, the possibility of health risk associated with non-carcinogenic effect is very low for continuous consumption for 30 years.

  10. Assessment of the thermal environment effects on human comfort and health for the development of novel air conditioning system in tropical regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookchaiya, Thammanoon; Monyakul, Veerapol; Thepa, Sirichai [Division of Energy Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    This research shows the result of a brainstorming by medical experts in the first ranking university medical school and hospital of Thailand. It was based on Delphi technique. The objective of this research was to study both direct and indirect effects of humidity and temperature on human health in air-conditioned buildings in Thailand. Afterwards, the result was used to design and develop split type air conditioner (conventional air conditioner) which could control relative humidity and temperature with precision air conditioning system to comply with the climate and the suitability of the people living in Thailand building. The result of operation with precision inverter air conditioning system showed that the temperature inside the room changed from the default value around {+-}0.2 C (Case 1) and around {+-}0.35 C (Case 2) and it could control relative humidity as a desired condition between 50-60% (both cases) which was the appropriate range for Thai climate. Moreover, energy consumption of precision inverter air conditioning system was still less than conventional air conditioning system for about 7.5%. This research could provide people living in Thailand air conditioned building with human thermal comfort and health. (author)

  11. How Health Humanities Will Save the Life of the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, the humanities have been shrinking in number of students, percent of faculty, and in number of degrees awarded. Humanities students also earn lower salaries than their STEM-prepared peers. At the same time, the health humanities have been in ascendance over the last fifteen years. The number of majors, minors and certificates has increased 266% in that time frame, attracting large numbers of students and preparing future patients, lay caregivers, and health care providers to interact with a complicated and dehumanized medical system. In 1982, British philosopher and educator Stephen Toulmin declared that medicine saved philosophy from irrelevance and possibly extinction. I propose that the health humanities can serve a similar function to stave off the decline of the broader humanities. The health humanities can (1) model an applied approach for the broader humanities to attract student interest; (2) develop students' capacity for critical reading, writing and reflection about health and medicine in society, practice, and their own lives and (3) inoculate all students against the influence of medicine, whether through preparing pre-health students to navigate the hidden medical curriculum or preparing future patients to navigate the health care system.

  12. Human exposure assessment to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    In modern societies, humans may be exposed to a wide spectrum of environmental chemicals. Although the health significance of this exposure for many chemicals is unknown, studies to investigate the prevalence of exposure are warranted because of the chemicals' potential harmful health effects, as often indicated in animal studies. Three tools have been used to assess exposure: exposure history/questionnaire information, environmental monitoring, and biomonitoring (i.e. measuring concentrations of the chemicals, their metabolites, or their adducts in human specimens). We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure assessment using phthalates, bisphenol A and other environmental phenols, and perfluorinated chemicals as examples. We discuss some factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. The use of biomonitoring in human risk assessment is not discussed.

  13. Implementation of the Zuluaga-Raysmith (Z-R) model for assessment of perceived basic human needs in home health clients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, B H

    2000-01-01

    The Zuluaga-Raysmith (Z-R) model is a conceptual framework that incorporates accepted concepts of universal basic human needs developed by Maslow, yet removes the hierarchical nature of these. The Z-R model recognizes the existence of a health-illness continuum and accepts that an entity (individual, family, aggregate, or community) may move freely in the direction of greater health and self-actualization or towards illness and premature death. The Z-R model identifies 10 basic needs and recognizes that a perceived deficit in any one of these needs can adversely affect the level of wellness of the entity being considered. This exploratory and descriptive study used 11 nurses as interviewers. Subjects consisted of a convenience sample of homebound clients of a home health agency in a metropolitan city, and selected caregivers (n = 27). A modified functional wellness inventory (developed in 1993 by Louvenia Carter) was used with several open-ended questions, which together related to the 10 needs of the Z-R model. Reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.84. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, using means, percentages, and frequencies. Open-ended questions were grouped according to content and ranked in order of frequency. The five most pressing needs of this small sample were income; physical health; opportunity to make a contribution; mobility; and mental, emotional, social, and spiritual health (MESSH). Nurses unanimously reported that use of the instrument and the Z-R model helped them to focus on the total person, identify strengths in their clients, identify perceived needs deficits, and therefore, with the client, facilitate the preparation of a timely and cost-effective interdisciplinary plan of care to help the entity to move to a higher level of wellness despite the presence of chronic disease, disability, or impending death. These findings suggested that further research is warranted to explore the use of the Z-R model. A

  14. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  15. Maternal health and human rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (2004)1 versus 807 per ... and mental health'. Malawi ratified the ... are gender discrimination, poverty, lack of education, an inadequate health .... Have relevant laws, policies and strategies been put in place ... State should seek support from, and continue to work in close.

  16. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  17. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  18. [Electrical field exposure and human health. Risk assessment and problems relative to bureaucratic procedures and to the role of instituitional organizations in control and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappasonni, I; Petrelli, F; Pellegrini, M G; Nacciarriti, L; Bernardini, C; Cocchioni, M

    2000-01-01

    After closely analyzing the phenomenon regarding the immense increase and diffusion of equipment which generates low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields, the AA emphasize both the methodological and interpretive difficulties of assessing the effects produced on public health. They maintain the need to exercise caution in determining the tolerable limits of exposure, and in particular long-term ones. Finally, after analyzing the bureaucratic procedure which led to the formulation of Decree No. 381 of 1998, they express the hope that the various Regions will set themselves high-quality objectives when promulgating the necessary legislation, so as to minimize the risk factor.

  19. Chemical-based risk assessment and in vitro models of human health effects induced by organic pollutants in soils from the Olona valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it; Colombo, Andrea; Amodei, Giorgia; Cantù, Stefano; Teoldi, Federico; Cambria, Felice; Rotella, Giuseppe; Natolino, Fabrizio; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    Risk assessment of soils is usually based on chemical measurements and assuming accidental soil ingestion and evaluating induced toxic and carcinogenic effects. Recently biological tools have been coupled to chemical-based risk assessment since they integrate the biological effects of all xenobiotics in soils. We employed integrated monitoring of soils based on chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro models in the highly urbanized semirural area of the Olona Valley in northern Italy. Chemical characterization of the soils indicated low levels of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants such as PAHs, PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB and human risk assessment did not give any significant alerts. HepG2 and BALB/c 3T3 cells were used as a model for the human liver and as a tool for the evaluation of carcinogenic potential. Cells were treated with soil extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the MTS assay, LDH release and morphological transformation were selected as endpoints for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Soil EOMs induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth at low doses and cytotoxicity after exposure to higher doses. This might be the result of block of cell cycle progression to repair DNA damage caused by oxidative stress; if this DNA damage cannot be repaired, cells die. No significant inductions of foci were recorded after exposure to EOMs. These results indicate that, although the extracts contain compounds with proven carcinogenic potential, the levels of these pollutants in the analyzed soils were too low to induce carcinogenesis in our experimental conditions. In this proposed case study, HepG2 cells were found an appropriate tool to assess the potential harm caused by the ingestion of contaminated soil as they were able to detect differences in the toxicity of soil EOMs. Moreover, the cell transformation assay strengthened the combined approach giving useful information on carcinogenic potential of mixtures. Highlights: • A combined approach for risk

  20. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Assessment of utilization of maternal health care provisions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of utilization of maternal health care provisions in Orumba North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. ... care facilities (52%). This study therefore, recommends equipping modern health care facilities with both human and material resources to enhance their performance. Also, periodic training of ...

  2. Assessment of the concentrations of U and Th in PM2.5 from Mexico City and their potential human health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Garcia, Carmen Grisel; Solis-Rosales, Corina; Rafael Chavez-Lomeli, Efrain

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the first studies in small particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry to measure the activity concentrations of isotopic uranium ( 234 , 235 and 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) in these fine particulates, to know their origin and their impact on human health in Mexico City. A different isotopic composition from the natural uranium composition was found. The 235 U/ 238 U atom ratio values are considered as low enrichment uranium, around 2% of 235 U enrichment. Both 235 U/ 238 U and 234 U/ 238 U ratios suggested anthropological rather natural source is impacting the composition of uranium in PM 2.5 . (author)

  3. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W; Mullany, Luke C; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  4. Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Jagdeep; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a carcinogenic metalloid that enters food chain through food and water and poses health risk to living beings. It is important to assess the As status in the environment and risks associated with it. Hence, a risk assessment study was conducted across Ropar wetland, Punjab, India and its environs in pre-monsoon season of 2013, to estimate the risk posed to adults and children via daily consumption of As contaminated groundwater and wheat grains. Arsenic concentrations determined in groundwater, soil and wheat grain samples using atomic absorption spectrometer ranged from 2.90 to 10.56 μg L(-1), 0.06 to 0.12 mg kg(-1) and 0.03 to 0.21 mg kg(-1), respectively. Arsenic in wheat grains showed significant negative correlation with phosphate content in soil indicating a competitive uptake of arsenate and phosphate ions by plants. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggested that both natural and anthropogenic factors contribute to variation in As content and other variables studied in soil and groundwater samples. Total cancer risk and hazard index were higher than the USEPA safety limits of 1.00 × 10(-6) and 1, respectively, for both adults and children indicating a high risk of cancer and other health disorders. Consumption of As contaminated wheat grains was found to pose higher risk of cancer and non-cancer health disorders as compared to intake of As contaminated groundwater by both adults and children. Moreover, children were found to be more prone to cancer and other heath disorders due to As exposure via wheat grains and groundwater as compared to adults.

  5. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  7. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site. 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, Brooke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-26

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of applicant site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991 and 2010. They are being updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  8. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site 2017 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-25

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of relatively small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991, 2008, 2010, and 2016 and are being concurred with or updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk, and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  9. Assessment of the potential human health risks from exposure to complex substances in accordance with REACH requirements. "White spirit" as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Richard H; Tibaldi, Rosalie; Adenuga, Moyinoluwa D; Carrillo, Juan-Carlos; Margary, Alison

    2018-02-01

    The European chemical control regulation (REACH) requires that data on physical/chemical, toxicological and environmental hazards be compiled. Additionally, REACH requires formal assessments to ensure that substances can be safely used for their intended purposes. For health hazard assessments, reference values (Derived No Effect levels, DNELs) are calculated from toxicology data and compared to estimated exposure levels. If the ratio of the predicted exposure level to the DNEL, i.e. the Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR), is less than 1, the risk is considered controlled; otherwise, additional Risk Management Measures (RMM) must be applied. These requirements pose particular challenges for complex substances. Herein, "white spirit", a complex hydrocarbon solvent, is used as an example to illustrate how these procedures were applied. Hydrocarbon solvents were divided into categories of similar substances. Representative substances were identified for DNEL determinations. Adjustment factors were applied to the no effect levels to calculate the DNELs. Exposure assessments utilized a standardized set of generic exposure scenarios (GES) which incorporated exposure predictions for solvent handling activities. Computer-based tools were developed to automate RCR calculations and identify appropriate RMMs, allowing consistent communications to users via safety data sheets. Copyright © 2017 ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles. All of these questions are important in trying to understand human health impacts. More information on climate change, soils, and human health issues can be found in Brevik (2012). References Brevik, E.C. 2012. Climate change, soils, and human health. In: E.C. Brevik and L. Burgess (Eds). Soils and human health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. in press. IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. pp. 1-18. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds). Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  11. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  12. Human factors in safety assessment. Safety culture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang; Wang Yiqun; Huang Weigang

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the present conditions and problems in enterprises safety assessment, and introduces the characteristics and effects of safety culture. The authors think that safety culture must be used as a 'soul' to form the pattern of modern safety management. Furthermore, they propose that the human safety and synthetic safety management assessment in a system should be changed into safety culture assessment. Finally, the assessment indicators are discussed

  13. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  14. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  15. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  16. Interdependence, Human Rights and Global Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, A M

    2015-12-01

    The connection between health and human rights continues to play a prominent role within global health law. In particular, a number of theorists rely on the claim that there is a relation of interdependence between health and human rights. The nature and extent of this relation, however, is rarely defined, developed or defended in a conceptually robust way. This paper seeks to explore the source, scope and strength of this putative relation and what role it might play in developing a global health law framework.

  17. 77 FR 56202 - Notification of an External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Meeting for the Draft Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making AGENCY: U.S... panel of experts to review the draft document, Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform... for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making will be held on October 9, 2012, from 9:00...

  18. Dietary seaweed and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlee, Iain; Fairclough, Andrew; Hall, Anna; Paxman, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed as an ingredient is growing in popularity largely due to its perceived health-giving properties supported by findings from epidemiological studies.\\ud Increased seaweed consumption has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases however there is a paucity of evidence for health benefits derived from robust randomised controlled trials (RCT). Emerging data from short-term RCT\\ud involving seaweed isolates are promising. Further investigation of seaweed as a wholefood ingredient is ...

  19. Approaches to health assessment related to housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2006-01-01

    This research had the purpose of providing more information about possible approaches and indicators to measure indoor health in relation to housing. In researches related with health and some Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) databases, the model used for health assessment is the Impact Pathway Analysis

  20. Assessing Health Professional Education: Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    "Assessing Health Professional Education" is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore assessment of health professional education. At the event, Forum members shared personal experiences and learned from patients, students, educators, and…

  1. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  2. Humans vs Hardware: The Unique World of NASA Human System Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, W.; Havenhill, M.; Overton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spaceflight risks to crew health and performance is a crucial aspect of preparing for exploration missions in the future. The research activities of the Human Research Program (HRP) provide substantial evidence to support most risk reduction work. The Human System Risk Board (HSRB), acting on behalf of the Office of Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), assesses these risks and assigns likelihood and consequence ratings to track progress. Unfortunately, many traditional approaches in risk assessment such as those used in the engineering aspects of spaceflight are difficult to apply to human system risks. This presentation discusses the unique aspects of risk assessment from the human system risk perspective and how these limitations are accommodated and addressed in order to ensure that reasonable inputs are provided to support the OCHMO's overall risk posture for manned exploration missions.

  3. Climate change and human health: a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate.

  4. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  5. Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth) ... Your proposal should demonstrate an understanding of the ... demonstrated ability to work independently, and strong written and oral communications skills are ...

  6. Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health Problem in Tropical ... Historical events were described from its first record in Ethiopia in 1905. ... information on patterns of distribution and relation of transmission to seasons and ...

  7. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffery R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the purpose, potential members and participants of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC). Included in the overview is a brief description of the administration and current activities of the NHHPC.

  8. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    than assessing a present situation. As part of this process, however, methods applied in risk assessment are used. Risk assessment typically characterises relation of a well-defined risk factor to a well-defined health outcome. Within HIA usually several individual risk assessments are needed...... of the causal chain from the proposal through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The stepwise analysis, systematic prioritization and consideration of horizontal interactions between the causal pathways make it feasible to use widely recognized risk assessment methods in the HIA......The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used...

  9. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of DDT and its metabolites in free-range and commercial chicken products from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L A; Ikenaka, Y; Yohannes, Y B; van Vuren, J J; Wepener, V; Smit, N J; Darwish, W S; Nakayama, S M M; Mizukawa, H; Ishizuka, M

    2017-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11), were collected and analysed. Of the free-range chicken meat samples, 94% (45/48) contained DDTs (ΣDDTs median 6.1 ng/g wet weight [ww], maximum 79.1 ng/g ww). Chicken egg contents were also contaminated (ΣDDTs in free-range eggs median 9544 ng/g ww, maximum 96.666 ng/g ww; and in commercial eggs median 1.3 ng/g ww, maximum 4.6 ng/g ww). The predominant DDT congener detected was p,p'-DDE in both free-range meat (>63%) and eggs (>66%), followed by p,p'-DDT and then p,p'-DDD. Based on estimated daily intake values, calculated human risk ratio (carcinogenic) values were >1 for DDTs detected in both free-range chicken products. Consumption of free-range eggs poses a particularly high health risk.

  10. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers