WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing household solid

  1. An evaluation of alternative household solid waste treatment practices using life cycle inventory assessment mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Waste disposal is an important part of the life cycle of a product and is associated with environmental burdens like any other life-cycle stages. In this study, an integrated assessment for solid waste treatment practices, especially household solid waste, was undertaken to evaluate the impact contribution of household solid waste treatment alternatives towards the sustainable development by using Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method. A case study has been investigated under various possible scenarios, such as (1) landfill without landfill gas recovery, (2) landfill with landfill gas recovery and flaring, (3) landfill with landfill gas recovery and electric generation, (4) composting, and (5) incineration. The evaluation utilized the Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method for multiple assessments based on various aspects, such as greenhouse gas emission/reduction, energy generation/consumption, economic benefit, investment and operating cost, and land use burden. The results showed that incineration was the most efficient alternative for greenhouse gas emission reduction, economic benefit, energy recovery, and land use reduction, although it was identified as the most expensive for investment and operating cost, while composting scenario was also an efficient alternative with quite economic benefit, low investment and operating cost, and high reduction of land use, although it was identified as existing greenhouse gas emission and no energy generation. Furthermore, the aim of this study was also to establish localized assessment methods that waste management agencies, environmental engineers, and environmental policy decision makers can use to quantify and compare the contribution to the impacts from different waste treatment options.

  2. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Minh Giang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and composting from various management scenarios. In oder to use Tier 2 model of IPCC 2006 for GHG estimation from landfills, an analysis on current household solid waste management system of the city was obtained by using material flow analysis approach. A case study in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam was carried out in this research. As a result, there was a reduced of over 70% of the amount of CH4 emissions and  up to 53% of total GHG saving (CO2-eq from avoiding organic waste to landfill. In addition, applying an energy recovery from LFG system to available landfills would lead to aproximately 75% of GHG saved compare to current emission of waste sector.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16Citation: Giang, H.M.,Luong, N.D., and Huong, L.T.M.2013. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies. . Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16

  3. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  4. Households Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Households Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Solid Waste Management: The Case of Mekelle City, Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... Ethiopia, to assess the current municipal sanitary fees and the willingness to pay (WTP) of residents for improved urban waste management, and suggest mechanisms for ...

  5. pollution from household use of solid fuels in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of respiratory ill health in. South African children and adults in 2000 from exposure to indoor air pollution associated with household use of solid fuels. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment. (CRA) methodology was followed. The South African Census. 2001 was ...

  6. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of households where separation of solid waste was practiced was 24.6%; the 75.4% incorrect practice was associated with carelessness, socialization style and long distances to the ...

  7. Household Solid Waste Disposal in Public Housing Estates in Awka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on household solid waste disposal in the public housing estates in Awka, Anambra State. The study identified solid waste disposal methods from the households in AHOCOL, Udoka, Iyiagu and Real Housing Estates with an intention to make proposals for better solid waste disposal.

  8. Households' willingness to pay for improved solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main factors determining households' willingness to pay for improved solid waste management (collection and disposal) are the posted price of the service, age, educational level, household size and household's monthly expenditure. The willingness to pay elasticity coefficients are generally inelastic and low.

  9. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  10. ATTITUDES AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCING SOLID WASTE GENERATION: A HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Donald J.; Mauger, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of household decision-makers and an analysis of their garbage was used to suggest factors affecting the weight of household contributions to municipal solid waste. Iterative regression was used to build a model from the data that is hypothesized to explain garbage weight. Food expenditure, environmental attitude, consumption of soft drinks in plastic bottles, and cats in the household were significant for all households. Self-sufficiency and energy-conscious behavioral scales also af...

  11. Solid-waste management practices of households in Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Eileen C

    2008-10-01

    The experiences and practices of household waste management of people in a barangay (village) in Manila, Philippines are documented. The data were gathered through an interview with household members using open-ended questions. Interviews were also conducted with garbage collectors as well as scavengers. Results showed that the households generated an average of 3.2 kg of solid waste per day, or 0.50 kg/capita/day. The types of wastes commonly generated are food/kitchen wastes, papers, PET bottles, metals, and cans, boxes/cartons, glass bottles, cellophane/plastics, and yard/garden wastes. The respondents segregate their wastes into PET bottles, glass bottles, and other waste (mixed wastes). No respondents perform composting. It is worth noting, however, that burning of waste is not done by the respondents. The households rely on garbage collection by the government. Collection is done twice daily, except Sundays, and household members bring their garbage when the garbage truck arrives. However, there are those who dump their garbage in nondesignated pick-up points, usually in a corner of the street. The dumped garbage becomes a breeding ground for disease-causing organisms. Some household respondents said that it is possible that the dumping in certain areas caused the dengue fever suffered by some of their family members. Mothers and household helpers are responsible for household waste management. Scavengers generally look for recyclable items in the dumped garbage. All of them said that it is their only source of income, which is generally not enough for their meals. They are also aware that their work affects their health. Most of the respondents said that garbage collection and disposal is the responsibility of the government. The results of the study showed that RA 9003, also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, is not fully implemented in Metro Manila.

  12. Problems and Prospects in Management of Solid Household Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Ivantsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reasons of low level of involvement of secondary resources in commercial use in the Russian Federation are studied. It is revealed that the existing system for the treatment of household solid waste in the region is an inseparable waste collection, transport for disposal or temporary placement of waste, which in most cases act as places of long-term storage. The absence of a process for sorting and separation of useful component leads to an increase in the amount of waste and spent funds for the disposal of solid waste. It is noted that the main tasks and perspective directions of development of system of management in the sphere of household solid waste management for Volgograd agglomeration are as follows: maximum use of separate collection of solid household waste to obtain secondary resources and the reduction of the volume of disposed waste; use of the latest technologies for processing solid waste into secondary materials that will allow returning them to the components in the production cycle; remediation of closed landfills and the elimination of illegal dumping, which will reduce the area they occupy and their negative impact on the environment; the optimal operation of the existing solid waste landfills based on subsequent reclamation; and the collection of secondary raw materials; construction waste sorting facilities for processing of solid waste and enterprises for processing of secondary raw materials. The primary objective in the management of solid waste for the near future is to optimize their collection and disposal (at a constant long-term strategy for the transition from the field of disposal of solid waste their industrial processing.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  14. Assessment of expenditure on food among urban households and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed expenditure on food among urban households in Benue State of Nigeria. This was done with the view to assess household food expenditure and its implications for food security status of the households; identify and assess determinants that influence household food demand; and analyze the ...

  15. Informal Collection of Household Solid Waste in Three Towns of Anambra State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbu Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of urban solid waste implies the collection, transfer, treatment recycle, reuse and disposal of such waste. Collection of urban household solid waste traditionally rests with government agencies designated with such responsibility. Solid waste collection begins from storage at the household level to the final treatment or disposal point and represents the most important aspect of urban solid waste management. Little has however been written on urban household solid waste collection in Nigeria. Using empirical data from three urban areas of Anambra State, Nigeria, the paper examines the place of informal private solid waste collectors in household solid waste collection. The ANOVA technique is used to test the null hypothesis that the sample means of the distance to designated community/street solid waste collection containers in the residential neighbourhoods of the three towns are equal. We conclude on household patronage of informal private solid waste collectors as against government provided community/street collection containers in the areas studied.

  16. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

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    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  17. An Assessment of Household Solid Waste Disposal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plate 1shows the waste disposed of in the vicinity. Stanley/Andrew/Dania/Sani. 51. Food. Paper. Old Clothes. & Fabrics. Plastics. Others. Type of Waste. 40. 35. 30 .... 2 shows that 61.26% of the respondents perceived that wastes have high potential for farm manure, while 18.02% has potential for recycling. Also 9.91% has.

  18. examination of household solid waste management in nadowli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... waste from households. Zoomlion Ghana Ltd. engages scavengers in waste sorting at landfill and open dump sites. Households are also encouraged to sort out some specified wastes. The wastes are classified into plastics, foods, metals and glass for the purpose of recycling (See also Kale-Dery, 2014).

  19. The potential of household solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal District, Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmadewanthi, I. D. A. A.; Kurniawati, S.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid population growth affects the amount of waste generated. Sukomanunggal Subdistrict is the densest area in West Surabaya which has a population of 100,602 inhabitants with a total area of 11.2 km2. The population growth significantly affects the problem of limited land for landfill facilities (final processing sites). According to the prevailing regulations, solid waste management solutions include the solid waste reduction and management. This study aims to determine the potential reduction of household solid waste at the sources. Household solid waste samplings were performed for eight consecutive days. The samples were then analyzed to obtain the generation rate, density, and composition so that the household solid waste reduction potential for the next 20 years could be devised. Results of the analysis showed that the value of waste is 0.27 kg/person/day, while the total household solid waste generation amounted to 27,162.58 kg/day or 187.70 m3/day. Concerning the technical aspects, the current solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has reached 2.1% through the application of waste bank, composting, and scavenging activities at the dumping sites by the garbage collectors. In the year of 2036, the potential reduction of household solid waste in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has been estimated to reach 28.0%.

  20. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  1. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  2. Household Willingness to Pay for solid Waste Disposal Services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Solid waste management has become inevitable in the global developmental processes. Thus, the sustainability of funds to manage solid waste is paramount, and it is contingent on the willingness of people to pay for improved solid waste disposal services. The paper, therefore, examined the factors that influence the ...

  3. The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solomon, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely

  4. Feasibility basis for use of new solid household waste processing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertakova, Y. V.; Zvyagintsev, G. L.; Babich, T. N.; Polozhentseva, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    Economic efficiency assessment of innovative organizational project of solid household waste processing enterprise (SHW) is given. A distinctive feature of this project is new mining and chemical technology use of waste depolymerization. The proved feature is fuel-resource production in portion modules of tubular type. They are patented and approved under laboratory conditions. The main ways of SHW processing in the world including Russia are described. Advantages and disadvantages are revealed. Comparative analysis is carried out. Technology prioritization is a result of this analysis. During organization of such enterprise, it was proved that not only SHW processing is a result of its functioning. The other result is environmentally friendly production using secondary raw materials. These products can be sold and can have bring income. Main investment and current expenses necessary for the offered project implementation are defined. This allows making economic assessment of innovative enterprise efficiency.

  5. PEOPLE'S PERCEPTION ON HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Longe ، O. O. Longe ، E. F. Ukpebor

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The current work examined the structure of household waste management system, collection and disposal within the context of a wider research on integrated solid waste management in households. A sample of 30 households from eleven selected residential areas with a focus group of 60 respondents in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria was used. The selected residential areas were divided into high, middle and low socio-economic strata. The research examined a range of environmental behaviours, attitude and perception of respondents on household solid waste management. The results established waste management behaviours among the respondents on solid waste management system, services, patronage of services and cost recovery methods. Public opinion and perception on solid waste management system is characterized with irregularity and inefficient collection system; with poor monitoring of the private waste service providers by the local authority. Willingness to pay for waste management services provided by the private service providers, the Private Sector Participation operators is higher among the middle and high income socio-economic groups than in the low income group. However, with the application of sustainable environmental education greater success ratio could be achieved. Level of patronage of solid waste management services is high across the three socio-economic groups but patronage is shared among the two operating service providers (formal and informal. The Private Sector Participation has the highest patronage level with 64.6% severity index while the informal sector (Cart pushers have only 48.7% severity index both percentages translate to the agreed and neutral perception opinion ranges respectively. The paper advocates for improved solid waste management system through proper monitoring of the services of the Private Sector Participation operators by the Local Government Area for improved service efficiency. Finally the

  6. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  7. Urban Households' Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Disposal Services in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadson Awunyo-Vitor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste management within Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly area continues to be a major challenge for the municipal assembly and one of the key issues is its financial constraints. This study was undertaken to examine households' willingness to pay for improved solid waste management services. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select six hundred respondents for the study. Logistic regression model was used to establish the determinants of willingness to pay for solid waste management whilst the Tobit model was used to evaluate the factors influencing the amount of money the households are willing to pay for improved solid waste management. The logistic model shows that income, age, number of children, quantity of waste generated, and education have significant effects on the willingness to pay, while the amount of money the households are willing to pay was influenced by their income, quantity of waste generated, education, house ownership, and number of children. Thus, the assembly can increase waste collection fees between GHC 3 and GHC 5.00. This would lead to improvement in the waste management within the metropolis. However, the additional charge should take into consideration location and income levels.

  8. Estimating Household Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong

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    Trang Pham Thi Thuy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the household willingness to pay (WTP for improved solid waste management in Thu Dau Mot city, Binh Duong by using Dichotomons choice Contingent Valuation Method. A questionnaire was designed to draw a sample of 330 respondents for the study. The results show that mean household willingness to pay for solid waste management system in Thu Dau Mot is about 24 thousand VND/ month/ household, higher than the current fee (20 thousand VND month/ household.The paper used a logistic regression to establish the factor affecting to the household willingness to pay for solid waste management system. The logit results show that those with a higher income and more educated is willing to pay more for improvement in management of their solid waste. Also, more environmental aware the person the more they are willing to pay. Moreover, females are less likely to give a positive response to WTP compare to male.

  9. An assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and their implications on sustainable forest management in the Buea Municipality of the South West Region of Cameroon. The study was carried out in the months of May- September 2005 and November-April 2006. The study made use of the ...

  10. Assessment of rural households' objectives for gathering non-timber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed rural households' objectives for gathering non-timber forest products in Kogi State, Nigeria, with specific focus on identifying some species of non-timber forest products present in the area, identifying reasons why they engaged in the gathering of the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) as well as ...

  11. Assessment of farm households' vulnerability to climate change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change is currently an emerging problem in Nigeria. The Niger Delta region presents some vulnerability due to activities of some oil companies. This study provides an assessment of farm households' perception of climate change and vulnerability in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The data were obtained form ...

  12. Municipal household solid waste fee based on an increasing block pricing model in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhujie; Wu, Yunga; Zhuang, Jun

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to design an increasing block pricing model to estimate the waste fee with the consideration of the goals and principles of municipal household solid waste pricing. The increasing block pricing model is based on the main consideration of the per capita disposable income of urban residents, household consumption expenditure, production rate of waste disposal industry, and inflation rate. The empirical analysis is based on survey data of 5000 households in Beijing, China. The results indicate that the current uniform price of waste disposal is set too high for low-income people, and waste fees to the household disposable income or total household spending ratio are too low for the medium- and high-income families. An increasing block pricing model can prevent this kind of situation, and not only solve the problem of lack of funds, but also enhance the residents' awareness of environmental protection. A comparative study based on the grey system model is made by having a preliminary forecast for the waste emissions reduction effect of the pay-as-you-throw programme in the next 5 years of Beijing, China. The results show that the effect of the pay-as-you-throw programme is not only to promote the energy conservation and emissions reduction, but also giving a further improvement of the environmental quality.

  13. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS....... The optimum PH range for hydrogen production in this system was in the range from 5 to 5.5. The short hydraulic retention time (2 days) applied in the first stage was enough to separate acidogenesis from methanogenesis. No additional control for preventing methanogenesis in the first stage was necessary...

  14. Qualitative Analysis of Fourteen White Solids and Two Mixtures Using Household Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Allen, Deedee; Solomon, Sally; Brook, Bryan; Ciraolo, Justine; Daly, Shawn; Jackson, Leia

    2001-11-01

    This is a revised and expanded version of a previously published qualitative analysis scheme for the identification of 11 white solids using materials readily available in drugstores, supermarkets, or variety stores. Phenolphthalein has been eliminated because the FDA banned its use in over-the-counter laxatives; instead, tests for pH are conducted using red cabbage indicator. Once commonly used by diabetics to test urine, copper reduction tablets are no longer widely available and are replaced by a mixture of ingredients. Three white solids and two types of mixtures, commercial antacid tablets and baking powder, have been added to the scheme. All procedures can be done with the simplest of equipment. Amounts of solids are measured volumetrically and heat is supplied by contact with hot tap water. The use of household chemicals reduces waste disposal problems while making the experiment suitable for a laboratory exercise in a distance-learning course. This experiment can be adapted for many levels of instruction. In middle school only the safer tests should be included; honors general chemistry students can be asked to design an analysis scheme for the 14 household chemicals.

  15. The impact of household cooking and heating with solid fuels on ambient PM2.5 in peri-urban Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiawen; Zimmermann Jin, Anna; Chafe, Zoë A.; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Yu, Tao; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Haixi; Liu, Guangqing; Smith, Kirk R.

    2017-09-01

    Household cooking and space heating with biomass and coal have adverse impacts on both indoor and outdoor air quality and are associated with a significant health burden. Though household heating with biomass and coal is common in northern China, the contribution of space heating to ambient air pollution is not well studied. We investigated the impact of space heating on ambient air pollution in a village 40 km southwest of central Beijing during the winter heating season, from January to March 2013. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured continuously at rooftop sites in the village during two winter months in 2013. The use of coal- and biomass-burning cookstoves and space heating devices was measured over time with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) in 33 households and was coupled with fuel consumption data from household surveys to estimate hourly household PM2.5 emissions from cooking and space heating over the same period. We developed a multivariate linear regression model to assess the relationship between household PM2.5 emissions and the hourly average ambient PM2.5 concentration, and a time series autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression model to account for autocorrelation. During the heating season, the average hourly ambient PM2.5 concentration was 139 ± 107 μg/m3 (mean ± SD) with strong autocorrelation in hourly concentration. The average primary PM2.5 emission per hour from village household space heating was 0.736 ± 0.138 kg/hour. The linear multivariate regression model indicated that during the heating season - after adjusting for meteorological effects - 39% (95% CI: 26%, 54%) of hourly averaged ambient PM2.5 was associated with household space heating emissions from the previous hour. Our study suggests that a comprehensive pollution control strategy for northern China, including Beijing, should address uncontrolled emissions from household solid fuel combustion in surrounding areas, particularly

  16. Assessing household health expenditure with Box-Cox censoring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaze, Jean-Paul

    2005-09-01

    In order to assess the combined presence of zero expenditures and a heavily skewed distribution of positive expenditures, the Box-Cox transformation with location parameter is used to define a set of models generalising the standard Tobit, Heckman selection and double-hurdle models. Extended flexibility with respect to previous specifications is introduced, notably regarding negative transformation parameters, which may prove necessary for medical expenditures, and corner-solution outcomes. An illustration is provided by the analysis of household health expenditure in Switzerland. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Improvement of public administration in the sphere of solid household waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Krynychna

    2017-08-01

    Positive trends in the sphere of state regulation of the waste management system can be seen in recent years, but Ukraine has not created the appropriate legal and regulatory framework yet that would gradually reach the requirements of the European legislation. Conclusions of the research. The enshrined regulations of national rules on disposal and solid waste management are currently not implemented fully. This calls for the improvement of enforcement practice on this issue, as well as the introduction of amendments and additions to existing legal acts. It is necessary to develop an effective state program that would include a complex of state measures for the creation of specialized enterprises for sorting and processing of solid waste in Ukraine, to conduct a series of educational actions among citizens. Ukrainian legislation on the effective solution of the problem of solid household waste management should be based on national characteristics and positive experience of relevant European legislation in this sphere. And the attraction of foreign investments in the waste recycling industry will definitely contribute to the improvement of the ecological situation in Ukraine.

  18. Research on Factors Influencing Municipal Household Solid Waste Separate Collection: Bayesian Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujie Chu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Municipal household solid waste (MHSW has become a serious problem in China over the course of the last two decades, resulting in significant side effects to the environment. Therefore, effective management of MHSW has attracted wide attention from both researchers and practitioners. Separate collection, the first and crucial step to solve the MHSW problem, however, has not been thoroughly studied to date. An empirical survey has been conducted among 387 households in Harbin, China in this study. We use Bayesian Belief Networks model to determine the influencing factors on separate collection. Four types of factors are identified, including political, economic, social cultural and technological based on the PEST (political, economic, social and technological analytical method. In addition, we further analyze the influential power of different factors, based on the network structure and probability changes obtained by Netica software. Results indicate that technological dimension has the greatest impact on MHSW separate collection, followed by the political dimension and economic dimension; social cultural dimension impacts MHSW the least.

  19. Innovative Household Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Vialetto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed, and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost.This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systemand heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... which is a function of the electricity and heat demand of the user, and allows different operation strategies to be considered. The proposal is to maximize the efficiency of the system and to make it profitable, even though technologies with a high purchase cost are considered.Simulations of the system...

  20. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawei; Liu, Dapeng; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2006-06-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H(2)/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH(4)/g VS added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. pH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was in the range from 5 to 5.5. The short hydraulic retention time (2 days) applied in the first stage was enough to separate acidogenesis from methanogenesis. No additional control for preventing methanogenesis in the first stage was necessary. Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase.

  1. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...... to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure...... in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where...

  2. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where......Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...... to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure...

  3. Comparison of vermicompost characteristics produced from sewage sludge of wood and paper industry and household solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouei, A I; Yousefi, Z; Khosravi, T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of produced compost from the sludge of wastewater treatment plant using earthworms and compare it with the vermicompost produced from household solid waste. In the current study, three treatments with the same conditions in terms of organic wastes type were prepared to produce vermicompost from household solid waste and sewage sludges using earthworms. The standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical parameters in the different produced vermicomposts. The mean of C/N in the household solid waste, raw biological and chemical sludges was 32, 22.5, and 26.5, respectively. These levels were 16.5, 14.5, and 15 in the vermicomposts. The mean of nitrogen and phosphorus percentages in the vermicompost of solid waste, biological and chemical sludges was 2.2%, 2.6%, 2.3% and 0.72%, 0.54%, and 0.56%, respectively. The mean percentages of organic matters in the initial substrates and vermicomposts of solid waste, biological and chemical sludges were 97.2%, 90%, 80.5% and 65.8%, 67.8% and 63% respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in all vermicomposts. The EC levels in solid waste, biological and chemical sludges were 1459, 1041, and 1487 μs/cm, respectively. These levels were 544, 385 and 635 μs/cm in the produced compost. Eisenia fetida can convert household solid waste, and biological and chemical sludges produced from wastewater treatment plant into a high-quality and acceptable compost.

  4. Assessment of Solid Waste Management Strategies in Camarines Norte, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina C. Azuelo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 or RA 9003 mandates the local government units to take initiatives in managing their daunting problems on ecological solid waste disposal. Consequently, compliance of Camarines Norte, Philippines on this mandate needs assessment to determine the existing solid waste management (SWM strategies, the effectiveness and the possibility of adoption in each municipality. This study utilized the descriptive method using questionnaire as the main tool supplemented by interview. Results showed that the existing SWM strategies with the highest percentages of existence in the twelve (12 municipalities were provision of number of trucks in transporting solid wastes and knowledge on waste segregation conducted at every household/establishment. Varying levels were observed. However, high level of effectiveness is still required for significant impact, seeing that from the six areas assessed only four municipalities were identified to have more and highly effective SWM strategies. Generally, only availability of technology for composting was considered more effective and can be adopted in all municipalities. Better solid waste management may be fully attained through the involvement, political will and commitment of the implementers in the implementation of politically passed resolutions and undertaking of their initiatives that will stimulate active participation of the community. All these measures may bring change in health and environment in the province.

  5. Assessment of Food Security Situation of Tiv Farming households in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of food security situation shows that majority (64.1%) of these households were food secured. This could be because those strategies for ensuring food security is working for majority of the families. Also on the strategies put in place to ensure households' food security were the use of high yielding crop ...

  6. Assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in Ikeja, Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household cooking energy accounts for a major part of the total energy consumed in Nigeria. Factors affecting the choice of Household energy utilized for cooking and the type preferred in Ikeja area of Lagos state were investigated in this study. Data were obtained through oral interview and administration of structured ...

  7. Assessment of Household Management of the Mentally Ill in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    A model of household holistic coping strategies was recommended. Keywords: Household coping strategies, Expressed Emotions,. Mentally ill people, Nigeria. Introduction. This study is aimed at ... stigma from the environment because of the mentally ill members in the house. Expressed emotion reflects an interaction of ...

  8. Community based assessment on household management of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From those households with latrine the habit of hand-washing after defecation was reported to be only about 5.1%. The habit of hand washing after defecation is significantly associated with the educational status of the respondents (P<0.01) Conclusion: in the study community household management of waste is in poor ...

  9. Community based assessment on household management of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 36.4% households had latrines and almost all were simple unsanitary traditional pits. From those households with latrine the habit of hand-washing after defecation was reported to be only about 5.1%. The habit of hand washing after defecation is significantly associated with the educational status of the respondents ...

  10. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    household expenditure on the various energy types/sources for the study area was evaluated at about. 10496640 FRS CFA (US$ 20993). ... the household income expenditure patterns and domestic energy demands (Kantai 2002). .... Molyko II, which is a student residential area, was observed to depend solely on electrical ...

  11. An empirical model for prediction of household solid waste generation rate - A case study of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the quantity of household solid waste generation is very much essential for effective management of municipal solid waste (MSW). In actual practice, modelling methods are often found useful for precise prediction of MSW generation rate. In this study, two models have been proposed that established the relationships between the household solid waste generation rate and the socioeconomic parameters, such as household size, total family income, education, occupation and fuel used in the kitchen. Multiple linear regression technique was applied to develop the two models, one for the prediction of biodegradable MSW generation rate and the other for non-biodegradable MSW generation rate for individual households of the city Dhanbad, India. The results of the two models showed that the coefficient of determinations (R2) were 0.782 for biodegradable waste generation rate and 0.676 for non-biodegradable waste generation rate using the selected independent variables. The accuracy tests of the developed models showed convincing results, as the predicted values were very close to the observed values. Validation of the developed models with a new set of data indicated a good fit for actual prediction purpose with predicted R2 values of 0.76 and 0.64 for biodegradable and non-biodegradable MSW generation rate respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior.

  13. Household solid waste generation rate and physical composition analysis: case of Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis in the western region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Atta Nyankson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, one of the rapidly expanding cities of Ghana has been facing serious problems with solid waste management. This is mainly due to the lack of available information about the types and quantity of solid waste generation in the area. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of household solid waste generation and its composition in the aforesaid city. The methodology and procedures for this study were derived from the Standard Test Method for Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed MSW (ASTM D 5231-92. All samples were hand sorted into 6 waste categories (paper, plastic, organics, metals, glass, and other waste. The study revealed that by weight, organic wastes constitutes the largest proportion of household solid waste (38% followed by 19% plastics, 7% papers, 4% metals, 4% glass and 28% other wastes (comprising of sand, stones, ash, inert substances. The rate of daily waste generation per capita in the low, middle and high income households were 0.27±0.19, 0.4±0.19 and 0.58±0.24 kg/cap/day, respectively. The study revealed that there is no waste treatment or recovery facility established within the metropolis hence no significant waste recovery and reuse activities exist. The study showed that more than 38 % of the waste generated in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis is decomposable organic matter that can be re-used through composting as well as 34% of the waste having recycling potential thereby considerably mitigating the solid waste problem. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12644 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 221-235

  14. Assessing the Impact of Credit Constraints on Farm Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of descriptive statistics indicate that the lack of collateral, the loan terms conditions, the credit technology, the higher level of agricultural risks, the high interest rates and the low returns on farming activities explain the limited access to credit by farmers. The results of logit model show that household social capital, ...

  15. assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in ikeja, lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EYERE

    in Northern Nigeria”, Energy for Sustainable. Development, ISSN: 0975-08265, 1996, pp.42-45. [20] Fawehinmi, A.S. and Oyerinde, O.U. “Household. Energy in Nigeria: The Challenge of Pricing and. Poverty in Fuel Switching”, Journal of Energy. Development, vol. 27, 2002, Pp.277–284. [21] Yaqub, J.O., Olateju, A.O. and ...

  16. Assessment of Household Management of the Mentally Ill in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The procedure was using trained research assistants who hail from the zones, to administer the person-to-person interview or conduct a focus group discussion in the zone's lingua franca. The multi-dimensional scaling analysis using simple percentages had findings to show that household members harbour significant ...

  17. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    household expenditure on the various energy types/sources for the study area was evaluated at about. 10496640 FRS ... steady rise in pressure on them from the .... Fossil fuel. Saw Dust. SD. Cooking. Heating. Saw Mills (forest trees). Cooking Gas (Liquefied. Natural Gas). CG. Cooking. Fossil fuel. Charcoal. CH. Cooking.

  18. Assessment of Household Management of the Mentally Ill in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    attitudes of household members when talking about a behaviourally disturbed family member. Aspects of EE include (a) ... exposed to the disturbed behaviour of the relative with mental illness or stigma from the environment ..... concept, financial and economic empowerment (See Figure 2). Table 1: Social Characteristics of ...

  19. Assessing the Factors Influencing Women Attainment of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collection was facilitated by the use of structured questionnaire, designed and validated for the purpose. ... In like manner access to credit as well as access to extension services were also positively related to the achievement of household food security and were significant at 1% and 10% levels respectively.

  20. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  1. Putting solid household waste to sustainable use: a case study in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia da Silva; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto

    2012-12-01

    The management of solid residues has, in recent decades, been a source of concern for public administrators the world over. Experiments in the sustainable use of such residues are highly relevant in social and environmental terms, stimulating widespread interest and debate, with considerable research going into sustainability projects. In many areas, however, adequate public funding for sustainable-use projects is hard to come by. One of the major reasons for this is that public authorities, particularly in times of financial constraints, are reluctant to invest in undertakings in which the economic returns are difficult to quantify. Official scrutiny of the expenditures of public authorities is also normally heavily influenced by cost-benefit analyses. The specific objective of this article is to show that putting solid domestic residue (household solid waste) to sustainable use is capable of generating economic returns, as well as environmental benefits for society as a whole. These economic returns can be set out in financial statements, which may, in turn, be used to justify expenditures by public authorities on sustainable-use projects and as a basis for further investment in such incentives. We drew on the findings of existing research into sustainable use, undertaken by the Municipal Urban Cleaning Company in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to establish a conceptual framework for setting out the economic results of the collection of household solid waste.

  2. Municipal household solid waste collection strategies in an African megacity: analysis of public private partnership performance in Lagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliu, Ibrahim Rotimi; Adeyemi, Oluwagbemiga Ezekiel; Adebayo, Adeolu

    2014-09-01

    Managing municipal solid waste is a pervasive urban problem globally. While several strategies have been applied for efficient municipal solid waste management in developing economies, their performance level has not been critically investigated. Among these strategies, the public private partnership has widest appeal. This study examines the performance of public private partnership in household solid waste collection in Lagos, Nigeria. We collected primary data using a municipal solid waste survey in three residential density areas of Lagos megacity. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Two indexes of service performance, namely the service reliability index and operational quality index, were created to produce evidence on public private partnership performance in municipal solid waste collection in Lagos. Results show that the average amount of household solid waste generation per week ranges between 22.75 kg in the medium residential density area and 30.39 kg in the high residential density region of the city. The estimated per capita waste generated in Lagos Megacity is 0.95 kg day(-1). Regression models indicate that the public private partnership performance is significantly influenced by economic status, affordability, flexibility, consistency, cleanliness, coverage and accessibility, as well as number of waste collection vehicles, vehicle maintenance, capacity, trip rate, frequency, number of personnel and quality of personnel. Findings from this study reveal that Lagos residents have strong positive perception of public private partnership as a waste collection policy framework. The study has important policy and practical implications for urban waste management, public health and sustainability in developing economies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Our Breaths We Take: Outdoor Air Quality, Health, and Climate Change Consequences of Household Heating and Cooking with Solid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoe Anna

    Worldwide, nearly 3 billion people--40% of the global population--burn wood, coal, and other solid fuels every day to cook their food; this number is even larger when including those who heat their homes with solid fuels as well. Exposure to pollution from heating and cooking fires causes about 3 million deaths each year, making it one of the biggest environmental health problems the world faces. The harm from this smoke is not restricted to those who breathe it, however: it contains gases and particles that contribute to global climate change as well. Chapter 2 shows that household cooking with solid fuels caused an estimated 12% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 worldwide in 2010. Exposure to this air pollution caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally in the same year. In Chapter 3 I demonstrate that household heating with solid fuels caused an estimated 21% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 in 2010 in Central Europe, 13% in Eastern Europe, 12% in Western Europe, and 8% in North America. Exposure to this air pollution results caused approximately 60,000 premature deaths in Europe, and nearly 10,000 deaths in North America, as well as an estimated 1.0 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Europe and 160,000 DALYs in North America. Chapter 4 addresses drivers of household wood combustion pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the sector is the largest source of PM 2.5 and regulators recently introduced amendments to wood burning rules for the airshed. Fireplaces are the source of the vast majority (84%) of PM 2.5 from residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area, despite their use primarily as an aesthetic or recreational combustion activity. By evaluating hypothetical fuel and combustion device changeouts, I find that replacing fireplaces with gas would yield significant health and economic benefits. Specifically, retrofitting frequently used fireplaces (300,000 units

  4. Assessing the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami on households: a modified domestic assets index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlikatti, Sudha; Peacock, Walter Gillis; Prater, Carla S; Grover, Himanshu; Sekar, Arul S Gnana

    2010-07-01

    This paper offers a potential measurement solution for assessing disaster impacts and subsequent recovery at the household level by using a modified domestic assets index (MDAI) approach. Assessment of the utility of the domestic assets index first proposed by Bates, Killian and Peacock (1984) has been confined to earthquake areas in the Americas and southern Europe. This paper modifies and extends the approach to the Indian sub-continent and to coastal surge hazards utilizing data collected from 1,000 households impacted by the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) in the Nagapattinam district of south-eastern India. The analyses suggest that the MDAI scale is a reliable and valid measure of household living conditions and is useful in assessing disaster impacts and tracking recovery efforts over time. It can facilitate longitudinal studies, encourage cross-cultural, cross-national comparisons of disaster impacts and inform national and international donors of the itemized monetary losses from disasters at the household level.

  5. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives. The analysis of this study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The findings of this study revealed that the present system of MSWM in Gondar town entirely relied on the municipality which provided the full range of waste collection transportation and disposal service. But the provision of this service is not kept in pace with the town solid waste generation. Based on the findings of this study the town households dominantly produced biodegradable solid wastes with generation rate of 0.21kgpersonday. This made the daily total solid waste generation of households to be 8140Kg. Together with other four solid waste sources the total daily solid waste generation of the town is about 11660 kg. So that MSWM of the town is found in very low status and spatial coverage. This poor status of MSWM is also intensified by three critical factors i.e poor institutional structure and capacity of Sanitation and beautification limited participation and contribution of stakeholders and poor households solid waste management practices. This study concluded that there should be sustainable solid waste management systems reuse recycle composting and incineration through awareness creation and training improvement of SB institutional structure and capacity and implementation of integrated MSWM approach which recognizes and comprises all stakeholders in the town.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. V. Vu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required.

  7. Status of Household Solid Waste and People’s Perception on its Management at Sitakunda Upazila, Chittagong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Juwel Rana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban household solid waste (HSW is well-known, but has little knowledge about the rural areas and sub-cities. The quest of the study was to investigate current HSW management system and people’s attitude towards it’s at Sitakunda Upazila. The study was conducted through a semi-structured questionnaire survey by interviewing 150 households from 3 different socioeconomic groups. The results showed that on an average each household generated 1.26 kg/day wastes which stands at 0.24 kg/person/day in the study area. However, HSW generation is positively correlated with family size (rxy=0.991, p˂0.05, average age of family members (rxy=0.455, p˂0.01, and monthly earnings (rxy=0.999, p˂0.01 of the households. Amidst the various categories of wastes, vegetable and food wastes (VFWs were identified as the highest value 68.4%. In contrast, 24.6% of the generated wastes were recyclable and 75.4% non-recyclable; 82.1% organic and 17.9% inorganic. A large percentage of sampled households opined that present HSW management involves merely partial collection that is also irregular in urban areas but absent in rural areas. Unfair HSW collection was noticed by 58.7% and partial source segregation is also rare 14%. Besides, 42.7% people were found to dispose their daily generated wastes by open dumping and 25.3% nearby lagoon. A large number of people were dissatisfied 68% and only 6.7% were satisfied with the existing HSW management system. In addition, most of the people encountered bad odor problems by 28.7% and wastes spread on roadside by 38%. Significant quantity of recyclable wastes was noticed to collect from households by hawkers/scraps in the study area and very few household were found to use VFWs with cow-dung to generate biogas.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 58-75

  8. Should Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) be used for nutritional assessment and planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne; Ruel, Marie; Carriquiry, Alicia

    2012-09-01

    Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are routinely conducted in several countries on nationally representative samples, often on a regular basis. The HCES have been considered as a potential alternative to more expensive surveys of individuals'food intakes for use in nutritional assessment and in planning programs such as food fortification. HCES gather information on household food availability (purchased, produced, or received as gifts) and use over a given period of time, often the past week or month. To discuss the potential usefulness of HCES consumption data for nutritional assessment and planning for populations of households and individuals within the households. There are several limitations to the HCES, most notably the difficulty of estimating the intrahousehold allocation of foods and therefore of quantifying the actual food intake of individual household members. Another concern is the lack of information on the variability of consumption over time, making it difficult to estimate the distribution of usual consumption, and thus the prevalence of nutrient inadequacies or excesses. Other potential limitations might be addressed by improvements to the HCES questionnaires, such as including information on foods that are available but not consumed and those that are consumed outside the home. Research is needed to better understand both the strengths and the weaknesses of the HCES data when used to assess and plan intakes at the household and individual levels.

  9. Particulate matter chemical component concentrations and sources in settings of household solid fuel use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, M H; Schauer, J J; Carter, E M; Baumgartner, J

    2017-11-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution derives from combustion and non-combustion sources and consists of various chemical species that may differentially impact human health and climate. Previous reviews of PM chemical component concentrations and sources focus on high-income urban settings, which likely differ from the low- and middle-income settings where solid fuel (ie, coal, biomass) is commonly burned for cooking and heating. We aimed to summarize the concentrations of PM chemical components and their contributing sources in settings where solid fuel is burned. We searched the literature for studies that reported PM component concentrations from homes, personal exposures, and direct stove emissions under uncontrolled, real-world conditions. We calculated weighted mean daily concentrations for select PM components and compared sources of PM determined by source apportionment. Our search criteria yielded 48 studies conducted in 12 countries. Weighted mean daily cooking area concentrations of elemental carbon, organic carbon, and benzo(a)pyrene were 18.8 μg m-3 , 74.0 μg m-3 , and 155 ng m-3 , respectively. Solid fuel combustion explained 29%-48% of principal component/factor analysis variance and 41%-87% of PM mass determined by positive matrix factorization. Multiple indoor and outdoor sources impacted PM concentrations and composition in these settings, including solid fuel burning, mobile emissions, dust, and solid waste burning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...... of delivering hot water for the household and returning the coldest fluid back to SOFC heat recovery heat-exchanger. A model of the SOFC system is developed to determine the energy required to meet the hourly average electric load of the residence. The model evaluates the amount of heat generated and the amount...... of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...

  11. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to indoor pollutant concentrations is receiving increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We address this issue by incorporating an indoor compartment into the USEtox model, as well as by providing recommended parameter values for households in four different regions of t...

  12. Proxy measures of household food consumption for food security assessment and surveillance: comparison of the household dietary diversity and food consumption scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Berardo, A.; Papavero, C.; Horjus, P.; Ballard, T.; Dop, M.C.; Delbaere, J.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the household dietary diversity score and the food consumption score, two indicators used for food security assessment and surveillance, and compare their performance in food security assessments in three countries. Design Cross-sectional cluster sampling design

  13. Proxy measures of household food consumption for food security assessment and surveillance: comparison of the household dietary diversity and food consumption scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gina; Berardo, Andrea; Papavero, Cinzia; Horjus, Peter; Ballard, Terri; Dop, MarieClaude; Delbaere, Jan; Brouwer, Inge D

    2010-12-01

    To provide an overview of the household dietary diversity score and the food consumption score, two indicators used for food security assessment and surveillance, and compare their performance in food security assessments in three countries. Cross-sectional cluster sampling design using an interview-administered structured questionnaire on household food security, including household-level food group consumption measured over 1 d and 7 d. Survey data are from Burkina Faso, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and northern Uganda. Households in Burkina Faso (n 3640), Lao PDR (n 3913) and northern Uganda (n 1956). Spearman's correlation coefficients between the scores were 0·73 in Burkina Faso, 0·65 in Lao PDR and 0·53 in northern Uganda. Prevalence-adjusted kappa coefficients showed substantial strength of agreement in two countries. The proportion of agreement between the two scores ranged from 85 % in Lao PDR to 65 % in northern Uganda. Dietary profiles based on food group consumption using score tertiles were comparable. Rankings of the most food-insecure areas within a country corresponded well in northern Uganda and Burkina Faso but not in Lao PDR. Both indicators showed moderate correlations with other proxy measures of food security. The comparative study highlights the similarities and differences between the food consumption and household dietary diversity scores. Similar classification of the most food-insecure areas within sub-national levels was obtained. The choice of indicator for food security assessment and surveillance will vary depending on user needs.

  14. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural–urban framework in the future. PMID:21987631

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  16. Three-Loop Automatic of Control System the Landfill of Household Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, T. G.; Kostarev, S. N.

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of models of governance ground municipal solid waste (MSW). Considered a distributed circuit (spatio-temporal) ground control model. Developed a dynamic model of multicontour control landfill. Adjustable parameters are defined (the ratio of CH4 CO2 emission/fluxes, concentrations of heavy metals ions) and control (purging array, irrigation, adding reagents). Based on laboratory studies carried out with the analysis of equity flows and procedures developed by the transferring matrix that takes into account the relationship control loops. A system of differential equations in the frequency and time domains. Given the numerical approaches solving systems of differential equations in finite differential form.

  17. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS.

  18. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  19. Assessment of traditional and improved stove use on household air pollution and personal exposures in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Fuyuen; Christensen, Bryan; Sircar, Kanta; Naeher, Luke; Bruce, Nigel; Pennise, David; Lozier, Matthew; Pilishvili, Tamara; Loo Farrar, Jennifer; Stanistreet, Debbi; Nyagol, Ronald; Muoki, Justus; de Beer, Lindsey; Sage, Michael; Kapil, Vikas

    2017-02-01

    Over 40% of the world's population relies on solid fuels for heating and cooking. Use of improved biomass cookstoves (ICS) has the potential to reduce household air pollution (HAP). As part of an evaluation to identify ICS for use in Kenya, we collected indoor air and personal air samples to assess differences between traditional cookstoves (TCS) and ICS. We conducted a cross-over study in 2012 in two Kenyan villages; up to six different ICS were installed in 45 households during six two-week periods. Forty-eight hour kitchen measurements of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were collected for the TCS and ICS. Concurrent personal CO measurements were conducted on the mother and one child in each household. We performed descriptive analysis and compared paired measurements between baseline (TCS only) and each ICS. The geometric mean of 48-hour baseline PM 2.5 and CO concentrations in the kitchen was 586μg/m 3 (95% CI: 460, 747) and 4.9ppm (95% CI: 4.3, 5.5), respectively. For each ICS, the geometric mean kitchen air pollutant concentration was lower than the TCS: median reductions were 38.8% (95% CI: 29.5, 45.2) for PM 2.5 and 27.1% (95% CI: 17.4, 40.3) for CO, with statistically significant relationships for four ICS. We also observed a reduction in personal exposures to CO with ICS use. We observed a reduction in mean 48-hour PM 2.5 and CO concentrations compared to the TCS; however, concentrations for both pollutants were still consistently higher than WHO air quality guidelines. Our findings illustrate that ICS tested in real-world settings can reduce exposures to HAP, but implementation of cleaner fuels and related stove technologies may also be necessary to optimize public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China: A Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural household biogas (RHB systems are at a crossroads in China, yet there has been a lack of holistic evaluation of their energy and climate (greenhouse gas mitigation efficiency under typical operating conditions. We combined data from monitoring projects and questionnaire surveys across hundreds of households from two typical Chinese villages within a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA framework to assess net GHG (greenhouse gas mitigation by RHB systems operated in different contexts. We modelled biogas production, measured biogas losses and used survey data from biogas and non-biogas households to derive empirical RHB system substitution rates for energy and fertilizers. Our results indicate that poorly designed and operated RHB systems in northern regions of China may in fact increase farm household GHG emissions by an average of 2668 kg CO2-eq· year−1, compared with a net mitigation effect of 6336 kg CO2-eq per household and year in southern regions. Manure treatment (104 and 8513 kg CO2-eq mitigation and biogas leakage (-533 and -2489 kg CO2-eq emission are the two most important factors affecting net GHG mitigation by RHB systems in northern and southern China, respectively. In contrast, construction (−173 and −305 kg CO2-eq emission, energy substitution (−522 emission and 653 kg·CO2-eq mitigation and nutrient substitution (−1544 and −37 kg CO2-eq emission made small contributions across the studied systems. In fact, survey data indicated that biogas households had higher energy and fertilizer use, implying no net substitution effect. Low biogas yields in the cold northern climate and poor maintenance services were cited as major reasons for RHB abandonment by farmers. We conclude that the design and management of RHB systems needs to be revised and better adapted to local climate (e.g., digester insulation and household energy demand (biogas storage and micro power generators to avoid discharge of unburned biogas

  1. Determination of isothiazolinone preservatives in cosmetics and household products by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Dagnac, Thierry; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria

    2012-12-28

    In this work, the development of a new efficient methodology applying, for the first time, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of sensitizer isothiazolinone biocides in cosmetics and household products - 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BzI) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI) - is described. The main factors affecting the MSPD extraction procedure, the dispersive phase and the elution solvent, are assessed and optimized through a multicategorical experimental design, using a real cosmetic sample. The most suitable extraction conditions comprise the use of 2g of florisil as dispersive phase and 5 mL of methanol as elution solvent. Subsequently, the extract is readily analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS without any further clean-up or concentration steps. Method performance was evaluated demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9980) and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) at the low nanogram per gram level, which are well below the required limits for UE regulation compliance. Satisfactory recoveries above 80%, except for MI (mean values close to 60%), were obtained. In all cases, the method precision (% RSD) was lower than 7%, making this low cost extraction method reliable for routine control. The validated methodology was finally applied to the analysis of a wide variety of cosmetics and household products. Most of the real samples analyzed have been shown to comply with the current European Cosmetic Regulation, although the results obtained for some rinse-off cosmetics (e.g. baby care products) revealed high isothiazolinone content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the household availability of oral rehydration salt in rural Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadugu, Swetha Bindu; Mosime, Botsang; Masupe, Tiny; Habte, Dereje

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea contributed for 17.6% of under-five deaths in Botswana. Oral rehydration salt (ORS) therapy has been the cornerstone in the control of morbidity and mortality secondary to diarrheal diseases. The study was aimed at assessing the household availability of ORS following the nationwide campaign of availing ORS at household level. A cross sectional community based study was conducted in August 2012. EPI random walk method was used to identify households. Data was collected using interviewers' administered structured questionnaire. SPSS software was used in data entry and analysis. Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) was available in 50.8% of the households with under-five children. Information on ORS is well disseminated whereas only three-fourth of informed participants had adequate knowledge of ORS preparation. The sources of information were predominantly the Child Welfare Clinic (88.8%). Being grandmother as a care taker was a negative predictor of household availability of ORS (AOR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.69) while respondents who are knowledgeable about ORS preparation were more likely to have ORS available at home (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.10-3.34). The campaign has brought a significant coverage in terms of availability of ORS. The health education and community sensitization efforts need to go beyond health facilities via other means like the media and community based approaches. Approaches aimed at improving the knowledge of care takers on the importance of ORS, its preparation, correct use and restocking are of paramount importance. Availing community based outlet for ORS is an alternative to enhance accessibility.

  3. 'Oorja' in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 "Oorja" stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of "agricultural waste" to make

  4. Voluntary approaches to solid waste management in small towns: a case study of community involvement in household hazardous waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Legleu, Tye; Vasut, Laura; Brandon, Kelly; Shelden, Greg

    2014-06-01

    An enormous amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated as part of municipal solid waste. This scenario presents problems during disposal, including endangering human health and the environment if improperly disposed. This article examines current HHW recycling efforts in Hammond, Louisiana, with the following objectives: (a) analyze factors and attitudes that motivate residents to participate in the program; (b) quantify various types of HHW; and (c) analyze the e-waste stream in the HHW. Residents and city officials who were surveyed and interviewed cited that commitment shown by local authorities and passion to protect the environment and human health were part of their active participation in the program. An awareness program has played a key role in the success of the program. A legislation specific to e-waste is encouraged. While knowledge and information on laws and permit application processes and the promotion of greener products are encouraged, provision of storage or collection facilities and communal transportation will further motivate more residents to participate in the recycling program.

  5. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  6. Assessment of iodine concentration in dietary salt at household level in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zahidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following WHO recommendations, Morocco adopted in 1995 the universal salt iodization (USI as a strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency disorders. In 2009, the standard salt iodine concentration was adjusted to 15–40 mg/kg. The success of USI for the control of iodine deficiency disorders requires an evaluation of iodine concentration in salt prior to assessing the iodine nutritional status of a population. Methods In our study we refer to the anterior studies that were made in Morocco in 1993 and 1998. 178 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using spot-testing kits. The iodometric titration method was used to analyze accurately the concentration of iodine in the 178 household salt samples. An empiric polling method was adopted, using a non-probability sampling method; across the different twelve regions in the country. Results The median and interquartile range iodine concentration in salt was 2.9 mg/kg (IQR: 2.4-3.7. The results show that only 25 % of households use iodized salt. The recommended iodine concentration in salt of 15–40 mg/kg was met only in 4.5 % of salt samples. The bulk salt is used by 8 % of households. All samples of this bulk salt were found in rural areas. According to nonparametric appropriate tests used, there is no significant difference in iodine concentrations between regions, between urban and rural areas and between packaged and bulk salt. Conclusions Two decades since introducing legislation on Universal Salt Iodization, our survey shows that generalization of iodized salt is far from being reached. In 2015, only a quarter of Moroccan households use the iodized salt and only 4.5 % of salt is in conformity with regulations. The use of bulk salt by households in rural areas constitutes a major obstacle to the success of USI. The National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program can only be achieved if an internal follow-up and a control of external quality of

  7. Assessment of iodine concentration in dietary salt at household level in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidi, Ahmed; Zahidi, Meriem; Taoufik, Jamal

    2016-05-20

    Following WHO recommendations, Morocco adopted in 1995 the universal salt iodization (USI) as a strategy to prevent and control iodine deficiency disorders. In 2009, the standard salt iodine concentration was adjusted to 15-40 mg/kg. The success of USI for the control of iodine deficiency disorders requires an evaluation of iodine concentration in salt prior to assessing the iodine nutritional status of a population. In our study we refer to the anterior studies that were made in Morocco in 1993 and 1998. 178 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using spot-testing kits. The iodometric titration method was used to analyze accurately the concentration of iodine in the 178 household salt samples. An empiric polling method was adopted, using a non-probability sampling method; across the different twelve regions in the country. The median and interquartile range iodine concentration in salt was 2.9 mg/kg (IQR: 2.4-3.7). The results show that only 25 % of households use iodized salt. The recommended iodine concentration in salt of 15-40 mg/kg was met only in 4.5 % of salt samples. The bulk salt is used by 8 % of households. All samples of this bulk salt were found in rural areas. According to nonparametric appropriate tests used, there is no significant difference in iodine concentrations between regions, between urban and rural areas and between packaged and bulk salt. Two decades since introducing legislation on Universal Salt Iodization, our survey shows that generalization of iodized salt is far from being reached. In 2015, only a quarter of Moroccan households use the iodized salt and only 4.5 % of salt is in conformity with regulations. The use of bulk salt by households in rural areas constitutes a major obstacle to the success of USI. The National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program can only be achieved if an internal follow-up and a control of external quality of program is put in place.

  8. Validation of the food access survey tool to assess household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Muzi; Gross, Alden L; West, Keith P

    2015-09-07

    Perception-based Likert scale are commonly used to assess household food insecurity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and external construct validity of the 9-item Food Access Survey Tool (FAST) in a population-based randomized controlled trial. Participating women (n = 11,992) were asked to recall the frequencies of nine food insecurity experiences over the past 6 months on a 5-point Likert scale. The Rasch partial credit model was used to study the item category severity and differential item functioning (DIF) by literacy status, respondents' age, land ownership and household sizes. Principal component analysis (PCA), non-parametric methods, and cumulative ordinal logistic regression models were applied to examine the Rasch model assumptions, namely unidimensionality, monotonicity and measurement invariance (non-DIF). All items demonstrated good model fit with acceptable values of fit statistics (infit). PCA as well as other indices (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85, scalability coefficient = 0.48) indicated that all items fit in a single statistical dimension. The ordered responses of nine items displayed monotonic increasing item category severity as expected theoretically. All nine items were flagged with statistically significant DIF between key demographic-and socioeconomic subgroups (p < 0.001); however, none of the detected DIF was considered practically significant given small effect sizes (variance explained by group membership and interaction term < 1%). The total summed score over the polytomous FAST was inversely associated with household wealth, dietary diversity score and maternal body mass index, demonstrating external construct validity. The polytomous FAST is internally and externally valid tool to measure household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh. Validation of this type of studies are recommended for similar Likert food insecurity scales.

  9. Assessment of the Conditions for Linking Microfinance to Household Biodigester Construction in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandararot, K.; Dannet, L.

    2006-10-15

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the conditions for helping households finance the construction of a biodigester. A micro-credit programme for biodigester users was jointly designed by the National Biodigester Programme (NBP), Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO) and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). By using in-depth interviews, a household survey and a desk study, it was determined that the demand for biodigester market was significant, with 96.5% of the studied households possessing the capacity to operate a biodigester. The research for demand for micro-credit showed that households were indeed in need of a financial aid (84%) but the majority was unwilling to borrow credit due to fear of inability to repay it. The ones willing to borrow demanded a credit size of 400,000-1,200,000 riels. The MFIs contacted (ACLEDA, Amret, CEB, Prasac, HURREDO) were interested in lending a micro-credit to biodigester users but were also concerned for the credit as it was for consumption and not production. It appeared that credit conditions desired by potential biodigester users were overall in line with MFIs offered conditions, but an interest rate gap was also in place. Some of the extensive suggestions on how to alleviate the problem offered in the report place FMO in the centre of operations as a possible guarantor of default loans, among other duties. The challenges likely to arise because of a roll-out strategy (linking potential biodigester users with micro-credit), as well plausible solutions are presented as well.

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Solids Waste Pond in Katenguenha, Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Inocêncio Bau-Satula; Mayda Ulloa-Carcasés; Juelmo Gola-Cahimba

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of solid wastes in the Katenguenha dump site is a serious environmental issue in the locality of Huambo (Angola). The objective of this work is to assess the environmental impact caused by solid waste deposition. The integrated relevant criteria method was used to identify and evaluate the environmental impact. The results indicated that the solid waste dump site has a negative impact on all environmental aspects (physical, biological and social). They are category II environment i...

  11. Evaluating Sustainability of Household Consumption Using DEA to Assess Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Line Block; Jensen, Trine Susanne; Wier, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We assess environmental performance across product types and across household types in order to evaluate environmental pressure from human activities. To so do, we combine family budget statistics, input-output tables, energy and material flow matrices, various types of emissions and environmental...... type. We find that the environmental performance of each family type changes considerably across environmental effect types. The analysis of the overall environmental performance scores shows that families living in urban flats, especially the young and elderly families, have the most environmentally...

  12. DIFFERENTIATION OF SELF-ASSESSMENT AND OBJECTIVE INEQUALITIES IN THE LEVEL OF CONSUMPTION OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Hanusik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the issues of self-assessment of inequalities in standards of living in rural areas in Poland. The goal of the research is to identify the differentiation of subjective assessments of the standard of living made by rural households. Subjective feelings of the surveyed households were compared with selected objective characteristics of their material situation. The most representative indicator of the households’ financial situation there was an assumed level of consumer spending. A comparative analysis of the self assessment was conducted, the consumer spending and the selected characteristics of households belonging to various socio-economic groups. The econometric analysis showed that there is a strong relationship between self-assessment of economic situation and the level of consumer spending of households. It should be emphasized, that there is a significant impact of the reference group (there was a socio-economic group on the households self-assessment. In the study, econometrical and statistical analysis were used. The study was based primarily on the source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted in the year 2013 by the GUS (Central Statistical Office in Poland.

  13. Spatio-temporal measurement of indoor particulate matter concentrations using a wireless network of low-cost sensors in households using solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sameer; Li, Jiayu; Pandey, Apoorva; Pervez, Shamsh; Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-01-01

    Many households use solid fuels for cooking and heating purposes. There is currently a knowledge gap in our understanding of the variations in indoor air quality throughout the household as most of the studies focus on the areas in the close proximity of the cookstove. A low-cost wireless particulate matter (PM) sensor network was developed and deployed in households in Raipur, India to establish the spatio-temporal variation of PM concentrations. The data from multiple sensors were acquired in real-time with a wireless system. Data collected from the sensors agreed well (R 2 =0.713) with the reference data collected from a commercially available instrument. Low spatial variability was observed within the kitchen due to its small size and poor ventilation - a common feature of most rural Indian kitchens. Due to insufficient ventilation from open doors and windows, high PM concentrations similar to those found in the kitchen were also found in the adjoining rooms. The same household showed significantly different post-extinguished cookstove PM concentration decay rates (0.26mg/m 3 -min and 0.87mg/m 3 -min) on different days, owing to varying natural air exchange rates (7.68m 3 /min and 37.40m 3 /min). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Household food availability in Pelotas, Brazil: An approach to assess the obesogenic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Gonçalves Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify household food availability according to socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil to determine household food availability in the 30 days that preceded the interview. Availability was considered high when food was "always" or "usually" available at home. The independent variables were: age and education level of the household head, number of household members, presence of children or adolescents, National Wealth Score, and family income. RESULTS: Data were collected from 1,555 households. A high availability of fruits and vegetables (80% was more prevalent than that of soft drinks, processed meats, and sweets (40%. Whole grains and frozen foods were never available in half of the households. High-sugar and high-fat foods were positively related and fruits and whole grains were negatively related to the presence of children or adolescents in the household. National Wealth Score, family income, and age and education level of the household head were associated with household food availability. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors and demographic characteristics were associated with household food availability. High household availability of fruits and vegetables, together with sweets, processed meats, and soft drinks suggests the complex eating practices of a household, impairing classifying the environment as obesogenic.

  15. Hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) of CO2 emission with management alternatives for household food wastes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Rokuta; Nansai, Keisuke; Fujii, Minoru; Hashimoto, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we conducted a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate reductions in CO(2) emissions by food waste biogasification of household food wastes in Japan. Two alternative scenarios were examined. In one alternative (Ref), all combustible municipal solid wastes (MSWs), including food waste, are incinerated. In the other (Bio), food waste is biogasified, while the other combustible wastes are incinerated. An inventory analysis of energy and material flow in the MSW management system was conducted. Subsequently, the inventory data were summarized into an input-output format, and a make-use input-output framework was applied. Furthermore, a production equilibrium model was established using a matrix representing the input- output relationship of energy and materials among the processes and sectors. Several levels of power generation efficiency from incineration were applied as a sensitivity analysis. The hybrid LCA indicated that the difference between the Bio and Ref scenarios, from the perspective of CO( 2) emissions, is relatively small. However, a 13-14% reduction of CO(2) emissions of the total waste management sector in Japan may be achieved by improving the efficiency of power generation from incineration from 10% to 25%.

  16. Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, B; Pereg, D; Watkinson, E; Maguire, J S; Bissonnette, L; Gingras, S; Rouja, P; Bergeron, M G; Dewailly, E

    2008-06-01

    Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda. The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. Governmental officers visited the selected household (n = 102) to collect water samples and administer a short questionnaire about the tank characteristics, the residents' habits in terms of water use, and general information on the water collecting system and its maintenance. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods (membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit). Results from the 2 methods were highly correlated and showed that approximately 90% of the samples analysed were contaminated with total coliforms in concentrations exceeding 10 CFU/100 mL, and approximately 66% of samples showed contamination with E. coli. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination.

  17. Life cycle assessments of energy from solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Johansson, Jessica; Lind, Per; Moberg, Aasa [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology/Natural Resoruces Management Inst.]|[Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Defence Analysis

    2000-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste based on a life-cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment. The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems.

  18. Evaluating sustainability of household consumption - using DEA to assess environmental performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wier, Mette; Christoffersen, Line Block; Jensen, Trine S.

    2005-01-01

    effects indices for various effect types (e.g. a global warming potential index, an ozone depletion potential index, etc). Subsequently, using DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis), we use these weighted environmental effects indices to form one environ-mental performance score for each family type and product......We assess environmental performance across product types and across household types in order to evaluate environmental pressure from human activities. To so do, we combine family budget statistics, input-output tables, energy and material flow matrices, various types of emissions and environmental...... type. We find that the environmental performance of each family type changes considerably across environmental effect types. The analysis of the overall environmental performance scores shows that families living in urban flats, especially the young and elderly families, have the most environmentally...

  19. Health and human rights in Chin State, Western Burma: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sollom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  20. Health and Human Rights in Chin State, Western Burma: A Population-Based Assessment Using Multistaged Household Cluster Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K.; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C.; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar) is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. Methods and Findings Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%–94.1%) reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project) definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. Conclusions Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21346799

  1. Product carbon footprint assessment supporting the green supply chain construction in household appliance manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Sun, Liang; Guo, Huiting

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain carbon emission is one of the factors considered in the green supply chain management. A method was designed to support the green supply chain measures based on the carbon footprint assessment for products. A research for 3 typical household appliances carbon footprint assessment was conducted to explore using product carbon footprint assessment method to guide the green supply chain management of the manufacturers. The result could reflect the differences directions on green supply chain management of manufacturers of washing machine, air conditioner and microwave, respectively That is, the washing machine manufacturer should pay attention to the low carbon activities in upstream suppliers in highest priority, and also the promotion of product energy efficiency. The air conditioner manufacturer should pay attention to the product energy efficiency increasing in highest priority, and the improvement of refrigerant to decrease its GWP. And the microwave manufacture could only focus on the energy efficiency increasing because it contributes most of the carbon emission to its carbon footprint. Besides, the representativeness of product and the applicability of the method were also discussed. As the manufacturer could master the technical information on raw material and components of its products to conduct the product carbon footprint assessment, this method could help the manufacturer to identify the effective green supply chain measures in the preliminary stage.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  3. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Debris Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Kristin; Kanner, Howard; Yu, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident revealed a fundamental problem of the Space Shuttle Program regarding debris. Prior to the tragedy, the Space Shuttle requirement stated that no debris should be liberated that would jeopardize the flight crew and/or mission success. When the accident investigation determined that a large piece of foam debris was the primary cause of the loss of the shuttle and crew, it became apparent that the risk and scope of - damage that could be caused by certain types of debris, especially - ice and foam, were not fully understood. There was no clear understanding of the materials that could become debris, the path the debris might take during flight, the structures the debris might impact or the damage the impact might cause. In addition to supporting the primary NASA and USA goal of returning the Space Shuttle to flight by understanding the SRB debris environment and capability to withstand that environment, the SRB debris assessment project was divided into four primary tasks that were required to be completed to support the RTF goal. These tasks were (1) debris environment definition, (2) impact testing, (3) model correlation and (4) hardware evaluation. Additionally, the project aligned with USA's corporate goals of safety, customer satisfaction, professional development and fiscal accountability.

  4. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  5. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  6. Excipient Usage Technical Risk Assessment for Generic Solid Dose Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Babu Pazhayattil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an assessment methodology for solid dose generic small molecule drug products. It addresses the ‘usage of the excipient’ portion of the trinomial by utilizing the systematic approach of Risk Identification, Risk Analysis and Risk Evaluation as per ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management outlined for developing risk control strategies. The assessment and maintenance of excipient risk profile is essential to minimize any potential risk associated to excipients impacting patients.

  7. Assessing changes in the UK pet cat and dog populations: numbers and household ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J K; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Roberts, M A; Browne, W J

    2015-09-12

    The main aim of this study was to replicate methodology used to estimate the size of the UK pet cat and dog populations in 2006 and the proportion of households owning cats/dogs in 2007, to produce updated data to compare trends in ownership and population sizes. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect telephone interview data from 3155 households in the UK. 2011 UK human census data were used to predict the size of the cat and dog populations owned by households in the UK in 2011. Of the households, 23 per cent (714/3155) owned one or more cats and 30 per cent (940/3155) owned one or more dogs. There was some overlap in pet ownership with 7 per cent (210/3155) of households owning both one or more cats and one or more dogs. There was a small but significant decrease in the proportion of households that owned one or more cats in 2011 compared with 2007, with no change in the proportion owning dogs. However, overall, the total number of cats and dogs that were estimated to be owned by UK households did not change significantly between 2006 and 2011. The estimated size (and 95% CIs) of the pet cat and dog populations in the UK in 2011 was 10,114,764 cats (9,138,603-11,090,924) and 11,599,824 dogs (10,708,070-12,491,578).

  8. Sustainable Livelihood Approach For Assessing Household Adoption To Eviction Mau Forest Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadeya Akundabweni Juniour

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that there is a challenge in protecting both natural resources and livelihoods simultaneously. However little is known when considering the number of livelihoods strategies affected by the effect of conservation methods. This paper seeks to investigate the outcome of sustainable livelihood diversification by considering the number of strategies affected by eviction on households neighboring the boundaries of the Mau forest in Kenya. It is well understood that double sustainability is achieved when environmental protection of biodiversity is attained and the livelihood of households affected focuses on a pro-poor strategy at the same time. The study employs the Negative Binomial Regression and ANOVA to estimate the effect of being a victim of eviction on the number of alternative livelihood strategies. The results indicate a significant difference in diversification between households that were victims of eviction from non victims. Significantly evicted households dominantly engage in low income earning agricultural activities. The findings suggest that evicted households diversify but depend on forests and agricultural activities as a coping mechanism towards eviction. This information is important to policy makers in assisting to achieve double sustainability by looking at forest eviction conversation and household livelihood adoption needs.

  9. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Darling

    Full Text Available Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  10. Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  11. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce household air pollution and/or improve health in homes using solid fuel in low-and-middle income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Reginald; Semple, Sean; Ochieng, Caroline A; Juvekar, Sanjar; Armah, Frederick Ato; Luginaah, Isaac; Emina, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Cookstove intervention programs have been increasing over the past two (2) decades in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) across the globe. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions on household air pollution concentrations, personal exposure concentrations and health outcomes. The primary objective was to determine if household air pollution (HAP) interventions were associated with improved indoor air quality (IAQ) in households in LMICs. Given the potential impact of HAP interventions on health, a secondary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of HAP interventions to improve health in populations receiving these interventions. OVID Medline, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS and PubMED were searched from their inception until December 2015 with no restrictions on study design. The WHO Global database of household air pollution measurements and Members' archives were also reviewed together with the reference lists of identified reviews and relevant articles. We considered randomized controlled trials, or non-randomized control trials, or before-and-after studies; original studies; studies conducted in a LMIC (based on the United Nations Human Development Report released in March 2013 (World Bank, 2013); interventions that were explicitly aimed at improving IAQ and/or health from solid fuel use; studies published in a peer-reviewed journal or student theses or reports; studies that reported on outcomes which was indicative of IAQ or/and health. There was no restriction on the type of comparator (e.g. household receiving plancha vs. household using traditional cookstove) used in the intervention study. Five review authors independently used pre-designed data collection forms to extract information from the original studies and assessed risk of bias using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). We computed standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was computed using the Q and

  12. Elevated blood pressure and household solid fuel use in premenopausal women: Analysis of 12 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 10 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arku, Raphael E; Ezzati, Majid; Baumgartner, Jill; Fink, Günther; Zhou, Bin; Hystad, Perry; Brauer, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Approximately three billion people are exposed to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel cookstoves. Studies from single settings have linked HAP with elevated blood pressure (BP), but no evidence exists from multi-country analyses. Using nationally representative and internationally comparable data, we examined the association between solid fuel use and BP in 77,605 largely premenopausal women (aged 15-49) from ten resource-poor countries. We obtained data on systolic and diastolic BP, self-reported primary cooking fuel, health and socio-demographic characteristics from 12 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Benin, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Namibia, and Peru. We estimated associations between history of fuel use [solid fuel (coal or biomass) versus clean fuel (electricity or gas)] with systolic and diastolic BP and hypertension using a meta-analytical approach. Overall, the country-level mean systolic and diastolic BP were 117 (range: 111-127) and 74 (71-83) mmHg, respectively. The country-level mean age of the women was 30.8 years (range: 28.4-32.9). The prevalence of solid fuel use was 46.0% (range: 4.1-95.8). In adjusted, pooled analyses, primary use of solid fuel was associated with 0.58mmHg higher systolic BP (95% CI: 0.23, 0.93) as compared to primary use of clean fuel. The pooled estimates for diastolic BP and pulse pressure were also positive, but the confidence intervals contained zero. The pooled odds of hypertension was [OR = 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.16)], an effect that was driven by rural participants for whom solid fuel use was associated with a 16% greater odds of hypertension [OR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35)]. Cooking with solid fuels was associated with small increases in BP and odds of hypertension. Use of cleaner fuels like gas or electricity may reduce cardiovascular risk in developing countries, particularly among rural residents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...... to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches...

  14. Assessing Cost-effectiveness of Green Infrastructures in response to Large Storm Events at Household Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Liu, X.; Zhan, W.

    2015-12-01

    Green infrastructures (GI) are becoming more important for urban stormwater control worldwide. However, relatively few studies focus on researching the specific designs of GI at household scale. This study assesses the hydrological performance and cost-effectiveness of different GI designs, namely green roofs, bioretention systems and porous pavements. It aims to generate generic insights by comparing the optimal designs of each GI in 2-year and 50-year storms of Hong Kong, China and Seattle, US. EPA SWMM is first used to simulate the hydrologic performance, in particular, the peak runoff reduction of thousands of GI designs. Then, life cycle costs of the designs are computed and their effectiveness, in terms of peak runoff reduction percentage per thousand dollars, is compared. The peak runoff reduction increases almost linearly with costs for green roofs. However, for bioretention systems and porous pavements, peak runoff reduction only increases significantly with costs in the mid values. For achieving the same peak runoff reduction percentage, the optimal soil depth of green roofs increases with the design storm, while surface area does not change significantly. On the other hand, for bioretention systems and porous pavements, the optimal surface area increases with the design storm, while thickness does not change significantly. In general, the cost effectiveness of porous pavements is highest, followed by bioretention systems and then green roofs. The cost effectiveness is higher for a smaller storm, and is thus higher for 2-year storm than 50-year storm, and is also higher for Seattle when compared to Hong Kong. This study allows us to better understand the hydrological performance and cost-effectiveness of different GI designs. It facilitates the implementation of optimal choice and design of each specific GI for stormwater mitigation.

  15. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  16. Assessment of Emergency Preparedness of Households in Israel for War--Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodas, Moran; Siman-Tov, Maya; Kreitler, Shulamith; Peleg, Kobi

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, many efforts have been made, both globally and locally, to enhance household preparedness for emergencies. In the State of Israel in particular, substantial investment has been made throughout the years in preparing the population for one of the major threats to the civilian population--a rapidly deteriorating regional conflict that involves high-trajectory weapons (ie, rocket and missile fire) launched at the home front. The purpose of this study was to examine the current preparedness level of the Israeli public for this threat and determine the correlates of such preparedness with known factors. A telephone-based, random sampling of 503 households representative of the Israeli population was carried out during October 2013. The questionnaire examined the level of household preparedness as well as attitudes towards threat perception, responsibility, willingness to search for information, and sense of preparedness. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the level of preparedness in the general population and to find correlates to this preparedness in attitudes and demographic variables. More than half of the sample reported complying with 50% or fewer of the actions recommended by the Israeli Home Front Command. Having an increased sense of preparedness and willingness to search for related information were positively correlated with actual household preparedness, and the latter was also found to be the most predictive variable of household preparedness. Although the overall household preparedness reported is mediocre, the level of preparedness found in this study suggests better preparedness of the population in Israel for its primary threat. The findings suggest that in order to promote preparedness of the Israeli public for war, emphasis should be put on increasing the public demand for information and encouraging people to evaluate their sense of preparedness.

  17. Low-cost Economic and Environmental Performance Assessment of Farm Households Systems: Application to Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Verhagen, A.; Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ruben, R.; Dixon, J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The farm household system (FHS) is one of the main entry points for interventions for rural development. To identify appropriate interventions, it is necessary to assess a priori potential impacts of these interventions on the livelihoods and environment of rural households. This study presents an

  18. Low-cost economic and environmental performance assessment of farm households systems: Application to mixed crop-livestock systems in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Verhagen, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.H.; Ruben, R.; Dixon, J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The farm household system (FHS) is one of the main entry points for interventions for rural development. To identify appropriate interventions, it is necessary to assess a priori potential impacts of these interventions on the livelihoods and environment of rural households. This study presents an

  19. ‘Oorja’ in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C.; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 “Oorja” stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of “agricultural waste” to

  20. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-04-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (products. Our findings suggest the recycling of old electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of drinking water quality and rural household water treatment in Balaka District, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkwate, Raphael C.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Wanda, Elijah M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Access to drinking water from unsafe sources is widespread amongst communities in rural areas such as Balaka District in Malawi. This situation puts many individuals and communities at risk of waterborne diseases despite some households adopting household water treatment to improve the quality of the water. However, there still remains data gaps regarding the quality of drinking water from such sources and the household water treatment methods used to improve public health. This study was, therefore, conducted to help bridge the knowledge gap by evaluating drinking water quality and adoption rate of household water treatment and storage (HWTS) practices in Nkaya, Balaka District. Water samples were collected from eleven systematically selected sites and analyzed for physico-chemical and microbiological parameters: pH, TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, F-, Cl-, NO3-, Na, K, Fe, Faecal Coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococcus (FS) bacteria using standard methods. The mean results were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) (MS 733:2005) to ascertain the water quality for drinking purposes. A total of 204 randomly selected households were interviewed to determine their access to drinking water, water quality perception and HWTS among others. The majority of households (72%, n = 83) in Njerenje accessed water from shallow wells and rivers whilst in Phimbi boreholes were commonly used. Several households (>95%, n = 204) were observed to be practicing HWST techniques by boiling or chlorination and water storage in closed containers. The levels of pH (7.10-7.64), F- (0.89-1.46 mg/L), Cl- (5.45-89.84 mg/L), NO3- (0-0.16 mg/L), Na (20-490 mg/L), K (2.40-14 mg/L) and Fe (0.10-0.40 mg/L) for most sites were within the standard limits. The EC (358-2220 μS/cm), turbidity (0.54-14.60 NTU), FC (0-56 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-120 cfu/100 mL) - mainly in shallow wells, were found to be above the WHO and MBS water quality

  2. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  3. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  4. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request...... that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab...... is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...

  5. Using Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey (HCES) data to assess dietary intake in relation to the nutrition transition: a case study from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dop, Marie Claude; Pereira, Clodomir; Mistura, Lorenza; Martinez, Claudio; Cardoso, Edith

    2012-09-01

    Few surveys of food and nutrient intakes are conducted at the individual level in low- and middle-income countries, whereas Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are regularly carried out to monitor economic conditions. Because of the paucity of individual-level data, there is interest in using HCES to aid in the design of food and nutrition policies. Data from the 2001/02 HCES from Cape Verde were used to assess household dietary intakes in the context of the country's nutrition transition. The survey included weighed measurements of household food intake and measurements of the weight and height of all household members. Households were classified as "underweight" if they had at least one underweight member, "overweight" if they had at least one overweight member, and "dual burden" if they had at least one underweight and one overweight member. The proportion of households classified as underweight, overweight, and dual burden was 18%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Household food and nutrient intakes were higher in the overweight households (particularly protein, vitamin A, and calcium) and lower in the underweight households, while there was no clear pattern of intakes in the dual burden group. Overweight households consumed more animal food groups than other households. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low in all groups. The HCES data for Cape Verde were useful for assessing the extent of the nutrition transition and characterizing dietary intakes by anthropometric classification. Analysis of nutrient and food intakes showed that ensuring sufficient energy availability is no longer the most important issue for Cape Verde, but that ensuring dietary quality is equally crucial, in particular increasing access to fruits and vegetables.

  6. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Gichunge; Shawn Somerset; Neil Harris

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availabili...

  7. An assessment of boiling as a method of household water treatment in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Luke; MacDonald, Morgan C

    2014-12-01

    This article scrutinizes the boiling of water in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. Boiling, as it is commonly practiced, improves water quality, but its full potential is not being realized. Thus, the objective is to refine the method in practice, promote acceptability, and foster the scalability of boiling and household water treatment (HWT) writ large. The study is based on bacteriological samples from 300 households and 80 public standposts, 14 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 74 household interviews. Collectively, the data fashion both an empirical and ethnographic understanding of boiling. The rate and efficacy of boiling, barriers to and caveats of its adoption, and recommendations for augmenting its practice are detailed. While boiling is scientifically proven to eliminate bacteria, data demonstrate that pragmatics inhibit their total destruction. Furthermore, data and the literature indicate that a range of cultural, economic, and ancillary health factors challenge the uptake of boiling. Fieldwork and resultant knowledge arrive at strategies for overcoming these impediments. The article concludes with recommendations for selecting, introducing, and scaling up HWT mechanisms. A place-based approach that can be sustained over the long-term is espoused, and prolonged exposure by the interveners coupled with meaningful participation of the target population is essential.

  8. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    releases, eventually leading to a final assessment of potential ENM exposure. The proposed framework was applied to three selected nanoproducts: nanosilver polyester textile, nanoTiO2 sunscreen lotion and carbon nanotube tennis racquets. We found that the potential global environmental exposure of ENMs......Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five......-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposure during nanowaste management. The framework includes deriving EOL nanoproducts and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the nanostructure, matrix properties and nanowaste treatment processes as well as transformation processes and environment...

  9. Performance assessment for municipal solid waste collection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, You-Ti; Pan, Tze-Chin; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2011-04-01

    Collecting municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major and expensive task for local waste management authorities, thus efficient MSW collection is a necessity. This study presents a procedure for developing an aggregate indicator (AI) to assess MSW collection efficiency based on multiple factors. The applicabilities of various key performance indicators (KPIs) are evaluated based on five selection criteria, and five KPIs are chosen to form the AI. The relative efficiencies of local MSW collection services are analyzed by the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. A set of common weights for all five KPIs is then generated based on DEA results and four selection rules by modifying a previous approach. Finally, the proposed AI is applied to assess the MSW collection services provided by 307 local governments in Taiwan, and associated results are compared and discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001) and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  11. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Rosa

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001 and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005. Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  12. Biohydrogen production from household solid waste (HSW) at extreme-thermophilic temperature (70 degrees C) - Influence of pH and acetate concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen production from household solid waste (HSW) was performed via dark fermentation by using an extreme-thermophilic mixed culture, and the effect of pH and acetate on the biohydrogen production was investigated. The highest hydrogen production yield was 257 +/- 25 mL/gVS(added) at the optimum...... pH of 7.0. Acetate was proved to be inhibiting the dark fermentation process at neutral pH, which indicates that the inhibition was caused by total acetate concentration not by undissociated acetate. Initial inhibition was detected at acetate concentration of 50 mM, while the hydrogen fermentation...... was seriously inhibited at acetate concentration of 200 mM. At 200 mM acetate concentration, the hydrogen yield was 36 +/- 25 mL/gVS(added), which was almost 7 times lower than the yield of 254 +/- 13 mL/gVS(added), which was achieved at lower acetate concentration (5-25 mM). Additional to the negative effect...

  13. Food fermentation: a safety and nutritional assessment. Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Assessment of Fermentation as a Household Technology for Improving Food Safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Motarjemi, Y.; Nout, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment of the food-safety and nutritional aspects of lactic acid fermentation for the preparation of weaning food at the household level was carried out during a Joint FAO/WHO Workshop held in Pretoria, South Africa, in December 1995. In particular, lactic acid fermentation was evaluated as a part of food preparation processes involving other operations such as soaking, cooking, and the germination of cereal grains. The use of germinated cereals is of particular interest since they can...

  14. Using life cycle assessment to address stakeholders' potential for improving municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Junior, Milton Aurelio Uba; Zanghelini, Guillherme Marcelo; Soares, Sebastião Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Because the consumption of materials is generally higher than their recovery rate, improving municipal solid waste (MSW) management is fundamental for increasing the efficiency of natural resource use and consumption in urban areas. More broadly, the characteristics of a MSW management system influence the end-of-life (EOL) impacts of goods consumed by households. We aim to indicate the extent to which greenhouse gas emissions from a MSW management system can be reduced by increasing waste paper recycling. We also address the stakeholders' contribution for driving transition towards an improved scenario. Life cycle assessment (LCA) addresses the EOL impacts of the paper industry, driven by the characteristics of MSW management in Florianópolis, Brazil, by varying the level of stakeholders' commitment through different recycling scenarios. The results show that 41% of the climate change impacts from waste paper management could be reduced when increasing the waste paper recycling rates and reducing waste paper landfilling. To achieve such emissions reduction, the industry contribution to the MSW management system would have to increase from 17% in the business-as-usual scenario to 74% in the target scenario. We were able to measure the differences in stakeholders' contribution by modelling the MSW management system processes that are under the industry's responsibility separately from the processes that are under the government's responsibility, based on the Brazilian legal framework. The conclusions indicate that LCA can be used to support policy directions on reducing the impacts of MSW management by increasing resource recovery towards a circular economy.

  15. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gichunge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  16. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment was perf...

  18. Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baynes, Timothy, E-mail: Tim.Baynes@csiro.au [Ecosystems Science Division, CSIRO, P.O. Box 310, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Lenzen, Manfred, E-mail: m.lenzen@physics.usyd.edu.au [ISA, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Steinberger, Julia K., E-mail: j.k.steinberger@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Social Ecology Alpen-Adria University, Schottenfeldg. 29, Vienna A-1070 (Austria); Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS29JT (United Kingdom); Bai Xuemei, E-mail: Xuemei.Bai@anu.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Assessment of urban energy use may proceed by a number of methods. Here we derive an energy account from local statistics, and compare them with an input output (IO) analysis as applied to Melbourne, Australia. These approaches highlight different aspects of urban energy use and comparable outputs are presented together to assess consistency, to identify complementarities and discuss the insight each approach brings to understanding urban energy. The IO method captures the direct and embodied primary energy requirements of local household expenditure (235.8 GJ/capita/year) while the regional assessment more directly accounts for local production activity (258.1 GJ/capita/year). The parity of these results is unexpected for a developed city with a strong tertiary sector. Sectoral detail reveals differences between the primary energy required by Melbourne's economic structure and that ultimately required through the full supply chain relating to household expenditure. This is accompanied by an IO analysis of the geography of Melbourne's 'energy catchment'. It is suggested that the IO consumption and regional production approaches have particular relevance to policies aimed at consumption behaviour and economic (re)structuring, respectively. Their complementarity further suggests that a combined analysis would be valuable in understanding urban energy futures and economic transitions elsewhere. - Highlights: > We compare an IO approach and a regional assessment of an urban energy use case. > Unusually, regional assessment of the primary energy use exceeds that from IO. > Sectoral and geographical detail reveals the urban consumption/production character. > We discuss the relative merits and policy utility of the different methods. > A combined approach is recommended for urban energy and economic transitions.

  19. Ehrlichiosis in Household Dogs and Parasitized Ticks in Kerman- Iran: Preliminary Zoonotic Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Motaghipisheh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the family of Anaplasmatacea. Re­cently, outbreak of human monocytic ehrlichiosis was reported in northern part of Iran. Besides, serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis was reported from southeastern of Iran but the epidemi­ology of this disease is almost undetermined in Iran. The present study was designed to use PCR for detection of Ehrlichia spp. in tick infested household dogs and determination of risks of disease transmission to dog’s owners.Method: Blood samples were prepared from 100 tick infested household dogs after complete clinical examination. Complete cell blood count was done for each sample. DNA extraction was done and PCR was carried out by a com­mercial kit afterwards. Regarding to PCR results, blood samples were collected from owners and family members who were exposed to infected and non-infected dogs. A similar method was utilized for DNA extraction and PCR in human samples.Result: Ehrlichial DNA was detected by PCR in six percent of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick pools and 9% of the examined dogs. No positive sample was detected among the 67 examined human bloods.Conclusion: Ehrlichiosis could be considered as an emerging canine disease but owning a dog should not be consid­ered a major risk factor for ehrlichiosis in humans. Further serological and molecular studies in different parts of Iran are required to clarify the epidemiology of ehrlichiosis in canine, ticks, and human population. 

  20. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  1. Assessing the Consistency and Microbiological Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices by Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Water at Home: A Case Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Huaylinos, Maria L.; Gil, Ana; Lanata, Claudio; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by vulnerable populations. Over 1.1 billion people report treating their water prior to drinking it. These estimates, however, are based on responses to household surveys that may exaggerate the consistency and microbiological performance of the practice—key factors for reducing pathogen exposure and achieving health benefits. The objective of this study was to examine how HWT practices are actually performed by households identified as HWT users, according to international monitoring standards. Methods and Findings We conducted a 6-month case study in urban (n = 117 households) and rural (n = 115 households) Peru, a country in which 82.8% of households report treating their water at home. We used direct observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, spot-checks, and water sampling to assess water treatment practices among households that claimed to treat their drinking water at home. While consistency of reported practices was high in both urban (94.8%) and rural (85.3%) settings, availability of treated water (based on self-report) at time of collection was low, with 67.1% and 23.0% of urban and rural households having treated water at all three sampling visits. Self-reported consumption of untreated water in the home among adults and children water of self-reported users was significantly better than source water in the urban setting and negligible but significantly better in the rural setting. However, only 46.3% and 31.6% of households had drinking water water quality. The lack of consistency and sub-optimal microbiological effectiveness also raises questions about the potential of HWT to prevent waterborne diseases. PMID:25522371

  2. Assessing the consistency and microbiological effectiveness of household water treatment practices by urban and rural populations claiming to treat their water at home: a case study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Huaylinos, Maria L; Gil, Ana; Lanata, Claudio; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by vulnerable populations. Over 1.1 billion people report treating their water prior to drinking it. These estimates, however, are based on responses to household surveys that may exaggerate the consistency and microbiological performance of the practice-key factors for reducing pathogen exposure and achieving health benefits. The objective of this study was to examine how HWT practices are actually performed by households identified as HWT users, according to international monitoring standards. We conducted a 6-month case study in urban (n = 117 households) and rural (n = 115 households) Peru, a country in which 82.8% of households report treating their water at home. We used direct observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, spot-checks, and water sampling to assess water treatment practices among households that claimed to treat their drinking water at home. While consistency of reported practices was high in both urban (94.8%) and rural (85.3%) settings, availability of treated water (based on self-report) at time of collection was low, with 67.1% and 23.0% of urban and rural households having treated water at all three sampling visits. Self-reported consumption of untreated water in the home among adults and children Drinking water of self-reported users was significantly better than source water in the urban setting and negligible but significantly better in the rural setting. However, only 46.3% and 31.6% of households had drinking water drinking water quality. The lack of consistency and sub-optimal microbiological effectiveness also raises questions about the potential of HWT to prevent waterborne diseases.

  3. Assessing Forest Cover Dynamics and Forest Perception in the Atlantic Forest of Paraguay, Combining Remote Sensing and Household Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Da Ponte

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Parana Atlantic Forest (BAAPA in Paraguay is one of the most threatened tropical forests in the world. The rapid growth of deforestation has resulted in the loss of 91% of its original cover. Numerous efforts have been made to halt deforestation activities, however farmers’ perception towards the forest and its benefits has not been considered either in studies conducted so far or by policy makers. This research provides the first multi-temporal analysis of the dynamics of the forest within the BAAPA region on the one hand, and assesses the way farmers perceive the forest and how this influences forest conservation at the farm level on the other. Remote sensing data acquired from Landsat images from 1999 to 2016 were used to measure the extent of the forest cover and deforestation rates over 17 years. Farmers’ influence on the dynamics of the forest was evaluated by combining earth observation data and household survey results conducted in the BAAPA region in 2016. Outcomes obtained in this study demonstrate a total loss in forest cover of 7500 km2. Deforestation rates in protected areas were determined by management regimes. The combination of household level and remote sensing data demonstrated that forest dynamics at the farm level is influenced by farm type, the level of dependency/use of forest benefits and the level of education of forest owners. An understanding of the social value awarded to the forest is a relevant contribution towards preserving natural resources.

  4. Linking household surveys and health facility assessments to estimate intervention coverage for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyangarara, Mufaro; Chou, Victoria B

    2017-11-07

    Calls have been made for improved measurement of coverage for maternal, newborn and child health interventions. Recently, methods linking household and health facility surveys have been used to improve estimation of intervention coverage. However, linking methods rely the availability of household and health facility surveys which are temporally matched. Because nationally representative health facility assessments are not yet routinely conducted in many low and middle income countries, estimates of intervention coverage based on linking methods can be produced for only a subset of countries. Estimates of intervention coverage are a critical input for modelling the health impact of intervention scale-up in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). The purpose of this study was to develop a data-driven approach to estimate coverage for a subset of antenatal care interventions modeled in LiST. Using a five-step process, estimates of population level coverage for syphilis detection and treatment, case management of diabetes, malaria infection, hypertensive disorders, and pre-eclampsia, were computed by linking household and health facility surveys. Based on data characterizing antenatal care and estimates of coverage derived from the linking approach, predictive models for intervention coverage were developed. Updated estimates of coverage based on the predictive models were compared, first with current default proxies, then with estimates based on the linking approach. Model fit and accuracy were assessed using three measures: the coefficient of determination, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the root mean square error (RMSE). The ability to predict intervention coverage was fairly accurate across all interventions considered. Predictive models accounted for 20-63% of the variance in intervention coverages, and correlation coefficients ranged from 0.5 to 0.83. The predictive model used to estimate coverage of management of pre-eclampsia performed relatively better (RMSE

  5. Assessing the Impact of Energy Access on Households in Kyrgyzstan: Government Rhetoric Versus Daily Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alyssa

    While significant literature enumerates the impacts of electrification on development, the impact of energy insecurity on daily life and governance is comparatively poorly understood. In post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, I will argue that this question is of critical importance for two reasons. First, if one were to only study state rhetoric on the subject, one might believe it to be self-evident that Kyrgyzstan is energy secure and even exporting excess hydroelectric production to its neighbors. In actuality, as I will illustrate by comparing household accounts of the impact of energy supply intermittencies on daily life to government rhetoric on energy, the sector's exports are only indicative of the government's lack of concern for domestic demand and desperate need for revenue. Yet, given that a similar mismatch in the resource allocation priorities of Kyrgyzstani citizens and those of their government created context for revolution in 2010, this finding has serious implications for the political stability of the country. Second, with the progression of global climate change, the population's struggle to access already restricted resource bases will only be further complicated by climate-induced vulnerabilities and resource degradation. Particularly in the short-term, while such a mismatch persists, consumer-driven, community-level interventions must play a key role in improving the energy access, capacity to adapt to climate change, and economic well-being of Kyrgyzstani citizens.

  6. Indoor Air Quality and ventilation assessment of rural mountainous households of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Parajuli

    2016-12-01

    The mean CO and PM2.5 concentration for ICS and TCS are 27.11 ppm and 825.4 μg/m3 (27.11 ± 14.24 ppm and 825.4 ± 730.9 μg/m3 with significant correlation (p < 0.0001 and 36.03 ppm and 1336 μg/m3 (36.03 ± 19.06 and 1336 ± 952.8 with significant correlation (p < 0.0481, respectively. From the overall sample, the mean CO and PM2.5 concentration is reduced by 29.9% and 39%, respectively. The ventilation analysis result shows more than an 80 percentage deficit in ventilation as per the minimal rate of ventilation as prescribed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE. Moreover, the placement of chimney at a short vertical height of 1.2 m adjoining to back window is the major cause of backflow. Therefore, the study has recommended a greater focus on ventilation to control IAQ of rural mountainous households.

  7. The Household Cooking Sector in Nigeria: Environmental and Economic Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Gujba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned by the government; high penetration of these stoves; increased use of fossil fuel stoves; and increased use of electric stoves. If business as usual (BAU continues, the environmental impacts would increase by up to four times and costs by up to five times, mainly because of high fuel wood consumption. Implementing the government’s plan to introduce improved fuel wood and solar stoves would yield no environmental advantages, as the proposed number of stoves is too low. A higher number of the advanced stoves would lead to significant improvements in some impacts but would worsen others so that some trade-offs are needed. From the economic perspective, the scenario with a high use of advanced stoves has the lowest total costs but its capital costs are three times higher than for BAU. The government should prioritise the introduction of advanced stoves to reduce health impact from indoor pollution and reduce pressures on biomass resources; however, this may require subsidies. Fossil fuel and electric stoves would also help to preserve biomass and reduce health impacts from indoor pollution but would lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil resources.

  8. Assessment of Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals in Lebanon: Management Options to Protect Water Quality and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, May A.; Chami, Ghida; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Alameddine, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals comprise an extensive group of compounds whose release into the environment has potential adverse impacts on human health and aquatic ecosystems. In many developing countries the extent of the problem and the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water bodies are generally unknown. While thousands of tons of pharmaceutical substances are used annually, little information is known about their final fate after their intended use. This paper focuses on better understanding the management of human-use pharmaceutical wastes generated at the residential level within the Administrative Beirut Area. A survey encompassing 300 households was conducted. Results revealed that the majority of respondents were found to dispose of their unwanted medications, mainly through the domestic solid waste stream. Willingness to participate in a future collection program was found to be a function of age, medical expenditure, and the respondents' views towards awareness and the importance of establishing a collection system for pharmaceutical wastes. Respondents who stated a willingness to participate in a collection program and/or those who believed in the need for awareness programs on the dangers of improper medical waste disposal tended to favor more collection programs managed by the government as compared to a program run by pharmacies or to the act of re-gifting medication to people in need. Ultimately, collaboration and coordination between concerned stakeholders are essential for developing a successful national collection plan.

  9. Molecular epidemiological analysis to assess the influence of pet-ownership in the biodiversity of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA in dog- and non-dog-owning healthy households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Balen, J C; Landers, T; Nutt, E; Dent, A; Hoet, A E

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that zoonotic transmission of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) can occur between owners and their pets within the same household. However, the influence that pet-ownership could have in the biodiversity of SA/MRSA strains circulating among owners is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to perform a molecular epidemiological analysis to evaluate and compare the biodiversity of SA/MRSA strains in dog-owning and non-dog-owning healthy households within the same community. Antimicrobial resistance, SCCmec type, USA type and clonality were assessed. Overall, 33·1% (165/499) of human subjects carried SA and 2·8% (14/499) carried MRSA. Among dogs, 7·1% (8/113) carried SA but none were MRSA positive. No difference was detected in the diversity index of SA/MRSA pulsotypes between dog-owning and non-dog-owning households; but, a marked variation was still observed in the pulsotypes circulating in each type of household. Additionally, simultaneous carriage of the same SA pulsotype in owner(s) and dog was observed in 57% of households with positive humans and pets. These results demonstrate that dogs can indeed participate in the circulation of SA/MRSA pulsotypes within a home and that the presence of a pet does not seem to favour certain strains within their household.

  10. The involvement of households in a local public service of environment : The case of solid waste management by French local authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Vicard, Fanny

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the issue of households’ participation to a local public service provision, offering an economic analysis of the strategies developed by local governments in France to involve households in waste reduction practices and recycling.In a first part, we present the policy instruments available to local governments in the French context to foster the adoption by households of waste management practices more respectful of the environment. Environmental economics are used here...

  11. Projecting Poverty at the Household Scale to Assess the Impact of Climate Change on Poor People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.; Rozenberg, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper quantifies the potential impacts of climate change on poverty in 2030 and 2050, in 92 countries covering 90% of the developing world population. It accounts for the deep uncertainties that characterize future socio-economic evolutions and the lack of data regarding the condition and livelihood of poor people. It also considers many impacts of climate change, another source of uncertainty. We use a micro-simulation model based on household surveys and explore a wide range of uncertainties on future structural change, productivity growth or demographic changes. This results, for each country, in the creation of several hundred scenarios for future income growth and income distribution. We then explore the resulting space of possible futures and use scenario discovery techniques to identify the main drivers of inequalities and poverty reduction. We find that redistribution and structural change are powerful drivers of poverty and inequality reduction, except in low-income countries. In the poorest countries in Africa, reducing poverty cannot rely on redistribution but requires low population growth and productivity growth in agriculture. Once we have explored the space of possible outcomes for poverty and inequalities, we choose two representative scenarios of the best and worst cases and model the impacts of climate change in each of these two scenarios. Climate change impacts are modeled through 4 channels. First, climate change has an impact on labor productivity growth for people who work outside because of higher temperatures. Second, climate change has an impact on human capital because of more severe stunting in some places. Third, climate change has an impact on physical capital via more frequent natural disasters. Fourth, climate change has an impact on consumption because of changes in food prices. Impacts are very heterogeneous across countries and are mostly concentrated in African and South-East Asian countries. For high radiative forcing (RCP8

  12. A household survey to assess community knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria in a rural population of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An extensive search on PubMed reveals very little in terms of evidence regarding the current knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP of the population in general and rural population, in particular, in this part of the country. Therefore, a study was conducted with the aim to assess the communities′ knowledge of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, treatment seeking. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage design was used to conduct a house-to-house survey using a semi-structured questionnaire in RS Pura block of Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir State in North India. Results: A total of 300 households were included in the study. However, data on 4 households was found to be incomplete at the time of analysis and, therefore, were excluded. Out of 296 study participants interviewed 65.5% were males, while 34.5% females. All of the study participants (100% had heard of malaria, and the main source of their information was television/newspaper. 92.5% of the study population considered malaria to be a serious health problem, thus reflecting their attitude to the disease. Regarding practices, 71.6% of the study participants preferred going to doctors at government hospitals for malaria treatment, and 56% were willing to seek medical help in <24 h in case of a child has a febrile episode. Conclusions: Results revealed that KAP among respondents were reasonably good and key sociocultural, and related indicators need to be identified as a part of malaria elimination strategy.

  13. Assessment of non-response bias in a probability household survey of male same-gender sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izazola-Licea, J A; Gortmaker, S L; De Gruttola, V; Tolbert, K; Mann, J

    2000-01-01

    To assess non-participation bias in a survey of male sexual behavior. A household survey was carried out in 1992-1993 using a probability sampling frame in Mexico City. Demographic variables were available for all eligible men. The extent of non-participation bias was estimated using a version of the Heckman method, which utilizes two equations, one to predict participation and the other to predict reports of same-gender sexual behavior. A total of 8,068 of the 13,713 eligible men completed a face-to-face questionnaire (response rate 59%); 173 men (2.1%) reported bisexual behavior in their lifetime, and 37 (0.4%) reported only male partners. Survey participation was predicted using demographic variables: 67% of the observations were correctly predicted by a probit regression model: 82% of participants and 53% of non-participants (pseudo-r2 = 0.13). Same-gender sexual behavior was predicted by variables indicating attachment to gay/bisexual social networks, history of sexually transmitted diseases, positive attitudes towards gay and bisexual males, and lack of support from male relatives. Ninety-seven per cent of the cases was correctly predicted by the probit model (pseudo-r2 = 0.14). The correlation between these two equations was not statistically significant. These results indicate that prevalence estimates of same-gender sexual behavior among Mexico City men were not biased by selective survey participation. Careful selection and training of household interviewers may have assisted in minimizing potential bias.

  14. Skin sensitisation quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on aggregate dermal exposure to methylisothiazolinone in personal care and household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, J; Bokkers, B G H; Bil, W; Delmaar, J E

    2017-12-25

    Contact allergy to preservatives is an important public health problem. Ideally, new substances should be evaluated for the risk on skin sensitisation before market entry, for example by using a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) as developed for fragrances. As a proof-of-concept, this QRA was applied to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI), a common cause of contact allergy. MI is used in different consumer products, including personal care products (PCPs) and household cleaning products (HCPs). Aggregate exposure to MI in PCPs and HCPs was therefore assessed with the Probabilistic Aggregated Consumer Exposure Model (PACEM). Two exposure scenarios were evaluated: scenario 1 calculated aggregate exposure on actual MI product concentrations before the restricted use in PCPs and scenario 2 calculated aggregate exposure using the restrictions for MI in PCPs. The QRA for MI showed that in scenarios 1 and 2, the proportion of the population at risk for skin sensitisation is 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. The restricted use of MI in PCPs does not seem very effective in lowering the risk on skin sensitization. To conclude, it is important to consider aggregate exposure from the most important consumer products into consideration in the risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing water filtration and safe storage in households with young children of HIV-positive mothers: a randomized, controlled trial in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Simunyama, Martin; Sarenje, Kelvin; Baisley, Kathy; Filteau, Suzanne; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Unsafe drinking water presents a particular threat to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) due to the increased risk of opportunistic infections, diarrhea-associated malabsorption of essential nutrients, and increased exposure to untreated water for children of HIV-positive mothers who use replacement feeding to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. This population may particularly benefit from an intervention to improve water quality in the home. We conducted a 12-month randomized, controlled field trial in Zambia among 120 households with children water filter and jerry cans for safe storage. Households were followed up monthly to assess use, drinking water quality (thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination) and reported diarrhea (7-day recall) among children filter have been unsuccessful, we also assessed weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) as an objective measure of diarrhea impact. Filter use was high, with 96% (596/620) of household visits meeting the criteria for users. The quality of water stored in intervention households was significantly better than in control households (3 vs. 181 TTC/100 mL, respectively, pwater filter combined with safe storage was used correctly and consistently, was highly effective in improving drinking water quality, and was protective against diarrhea. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01116908.

  16. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material

  17. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  18. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodar J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  19. Assessing the household financial burden associated with the chronic non-communicable diseases in a rural district of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is accumulated evidence showing the rapid rise of the burden caused by non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Vietnam, information on the extent to which households in the country suffer financial catastrophe or impoverishment caused by the diseases is still largely lacking. This paper aims to examine the self-reported prevalence of major chronic diseases among a population in rural Vietnam and to analyse the household financial burden associated with these diseases. Methods : A cross-sectional survey of 800 randomly selected households was carried out in Vo Nhai District, Thai Nguyen Province, in 2010. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with key informants of selected households on diagnosed chronic NCDs, health care utilization and health expenditure of all household members. The World Health Organization's definitions of catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment were used. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were applied. Results : The prevalence of chronic NCDs in households and individuals was 29.3 and 33.4%, respectively. The catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment rates among the households who have at least one member with a chronic disease were 14.6 and 7.6%, respectively. These rates were significantly higher than the corresponding figures among the households whose members were free from the diseases (4.2 and 2.3%, respectively. The odds of experiencing catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment among the household with NCD patients were 3.2 and 2.3 times greater than that of other households. Conclusion : Findings from this study indicate that the epidemiological and household financial burdens caused by chronic diseases in Vietnam are now substantial and need immediate mitigation measures.

  20. Discrete time, discrete state latent Markov modelling for assessing and predicting household acquisitions of financial products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, Leonard J.; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper demonstrates application of the latent Markov model for assessing developments by individuals through stages of a process. This approach is applied by using a database on ownership of 12 financial products and various demographic variables. The latent Markov model derives latent classes,

  1. Assessing social vulnerability in African urban context. The challenge to cope with climate change induced hazards by communities and households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Sigrun; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Social vulnerability assessment remains central in discourses on global climatic change and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters in African countries continue to deeply affect human settlements and destroys human livelihoods. In recent years, in particular large territories and growing cities have experienced severe weather events. Among them are river and flash floods, affecting the social and economic assets of local populations. The impact of the damage related to floods is not only perceptible during seasonal events but also during unexpected larger disasters which place a particular burden on local population and institutions to adapt effectively to increasing climatic pressures. Important features for social vulnerability assessment are the increasing severity of the physical damages, the shortcoming of social and technical infrastructure, the complexity of land management/market, the limited capacity of local institutions and last but not least the restricted capacities of local population to resist these events. Understanding vulnerability implies highlighting and interlinking relevant indicators and/or perceptions encompassed in four main dimensions: social, institutional, physical and attitudinal vulnerability. Case studies in Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Addis Ababa were carried out to obtain insights into the context-related conditions, behavior routines and survival networks in urban areas in west and east Africa. Using a combination of tools (e.g. focus group discussions, transect walks, interviews) we investigated in close cooperation with African partners how households and communities are being prepared to cope with, as well as to recover from floods. A comprehensive process of dealing with floods can be described based on sequential attributes concerning i) Anticipation before a flood occurs, ii) Resistance and coping activities during a flood event and, iii) Recovery and reconstruction afterwards. A participatory

  2. Assessment of the Degree of the Divergence and Inequality of Household Income Distribution in Poland in the Years 2005–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Gęstwicki Filip Edmund; Wędrowska Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The increase in income and wealth inequality observed in the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century is the subject of many analyses and discussions. Research shows that major changes in household incomes in Poland took place in the early years of transition (1990–1992), known as a ‘revolution in income’. The article focuses on the assessment of the degree of household income inequality after the Poland’s accession to the European Union. The most ...

  3. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    of the impact categories (especially human toxicity via water (HTw) and soil (HTs)) were affected by the heavy metal contents of the incoming OHW. The concentrations of heavy metals in the compost were below the threshold values for compost used on land and were thus not considered to constitute a problem......An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different....... The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of −2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg−1 wet waste (ww...

  4. Assessing the impact of a school-based safe water intervention on household adoption of point-of-use water treatment practices in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We assessed a pilot project by UNICEF and Hindustan Unilever Limited to improve the quality of drinking water for children in schools through adoption of improved drinking water practices among households in southern India. The intervention consisted of providing classrooms of 200 schools a commercial water purifier, and providing basic hygiene and water treatment information to students, parents, and teachers. We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in improving awareness or uptake of effective water treatment practices at home. A similar proportion of household members in the intervention and control groups boiled their water (P = 0.60), used a ceramic filtration system (P = 0.33), and used a cloth filter (P = 0.89). One year after the launch of the campaign, household ownership of the commercial purifier promoted at schools was higher in the intervention group (26%) than the control group (19%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.53).

  5. Household Income Volatility in U.S. Farm Households

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel; Prager, Daniel; Burns, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Farm households are subject to several sources of income instability, including yield and production fluctuations, disasters such as droughts or disease, input and output price changes, and varying levels of off-farm income. This paper assesses the income variability of households operating family farms in the continental United States. We find that income volatility varies between farm household subgroups, such as farm size, commodity specialization, and geographic location and that volatili...

  6. Life cycle assessment applied to nanomaterials in solid waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis

    While the generation of solid waste is globally increasing, much effort is concentrated to minimise the environmental impacts related to their management. With respect to nanoproducts (products containing nanomaterials), a growing amount of ‘nanowaste’ can be expected to enter the waste streams...

  7. Assessment of solid waste management systems in Ibadan North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management has been part of human activities right from time. Effort by the Oyo State Government in managing the collection and disposal of waste generated in Ibadan is seen in the provision of Skip bins at specific locations across the city. However, despite the provisions made by the government, ...

  8. [Livelihood status assessment of farmers and herdsmen's households based on participatory appraisal: a case in Taipusi Banner of Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen; Xu, Zhu; Shi, Shang-li; Tian, Qing-song; Wang, Hui-ping; Liu, Jian-li

    2011-10-01

    Participatory appraisal method was adopted to investigate the recent livelihood status of different type farmers and herdsmen's households in the Taipusi Banner of Inner Mongolia agriculture- animal husbandry ecotone, aimed to understand their livelihood strategies and restricting factors and to search for the ways to improve their living standards. The households dealing with pure agricultural production had smaller family size, with older age-structure and lower educational level, and their simple livelihood strategies brought about larger vulnerability and risk. To introduce and expand non-agricultural activities would be the important way to promote the livelihood diversification and to reduce the livelihood risks of these households. The households dealing with pure animal husbandry took grazing as the main subsistence, and their production activities were greatly restrained by the pasture vulnerability. To develop environment-friendly and high-yielding agriculture and animal husbandry would be the effective way to solve the livelihood problems of these households and to protect the ecological environment. The households dealing with both agricultural production and business or dealing with both animal husbandry and business generally had larger family size, with younger age- structure, higher diversity in labor division, larger proportion of non-farming activities, and better living standards. Especially for the households dealing with both animal husbandry and business, their income was much higher.

  9. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards - integrating psychological and governance factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werg, J.; Grothmann, T.; Schmidt, P.

    2013-06-01

    People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  10. Assessing the consistency and microbiological effectiveness of household water treatment practices by urban and rural populations claiming to treat their water at home: a case study in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Rosa

    Full Text Available Household water treatment (HWT can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by vulnerable populations. Over 1.1 billion people report treating their water prior to drinking it. These estimates, however, are based on responses to household surveys that may exaggerate the consistency and microbiological performance of the practice-key factors for reducing pathogen exposure and achieving health benefits. The objective of this study was to examine how HWT practices are actually performed by households identified as HWT users, according to international monitoring standards.We conducted a 6-month case study in urban (n = 117 households and rural (n = 115 households Peru, a country in which 82.8% of households report treating their water at home. We used direct observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, spot-checks, and water sampling to assess water treatment practices among households that claimed to treat their drinking water at home. While consistency of reported practices was high in both urban (94.8% and rural (85.3% settings, availability of treated water (based on self-report at time of collection was low, with 67.1% and 23.0% of urban and rural households having treated water at all three sampling visits. Self-reported consumption of untreated water in the home among adults and children <5 was common and this was corroborated during home observations. Drinking water of self-reported users was significantly better than source water in the urban setting and negligible but significantly better in the rural setting. However, only 46.3% and 31.6% of households had drinking water <1 CFU/100 mL at all follow-up visits.Our results raise questions about the usefulness of current international monitoring of HWT practices and their usefulness as a proxy indicator for drinking water quality. The lack of consistency and sub-optimal microbiological effectiveness also raises questions about the potential

  11. Assessing Public Attitudes and Behaviour to Household Waste Management in Cameroon to Drive Strategy Development: A Q Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence O. Mbeng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Household waste is an environmental and public health problem, especially for the large cities in Sub-Saharan African countries. While the improper management of household waste in Cameroon is linked to the systematic failure of policy makers and municipal authorities to identify the most sustainable ways of dealing with it in such a manner that is in line is with their socio-economic aspirations, the impact of public attitudes and behaviour has been neglected. It is in this context that this paper uses Q-methodology, a powerful methodology for identifying the different trends in behaviour in the management of household waste in Douala, Cameroon.

  12. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  13. Family Formation Processes: Assessing the Need for a New Nationally Representative Household Panel Survey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    The American family has undergone rapid transformation. Careful measurement attention to family formation is important because families are at the heart of numerous decisions, roles, and responsibilities with implications for understanding the well-being of families, adults and children. This paper considers whether there is a need for a new household panel study that addresses family formation. This paper consists of a review of the recent body of population-based, American surveys and finds a considerable gap in the ability to study the implications of families for the health and well-being of Americans. Earlier panel surveys used to assess family life anchored questions around marital events, but changes in family patterns require attention to a more diverse set of family forms. The paper concludes with recommendations for a multi-purpose panel study. The key challenge is to keep to pace with complexity and changes in American family life while at the same time maintaining a parsimonious set of survey questions. PMID:26612969

  14. Design and rationale of a matched cohort study to assess the effectiveness of a combined household-level piped water and sanitation intervention in rural Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Heather; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Sclar, Gloria; Delea, Maryann G; Sinharoy, Sheela S; Zambrano, Laura; Caruso, Bethany; Mishra, Samir R; Chang, Howard H; Clasen, Thomas

    2017-03-31

    Government efforts to address massive shortfalls in rural water and sanitation in India have centred on construction of community water sources and toilets for selected households. However, deficiencies with water quality and quantity at the household level and community coverage and actual use of toilets have led Gram Vikas, a local non-governmental organization in Odisha, India, to develop an approach that provides household-level piped water connections contingent on full community-level toilet coverage. This matched cohort study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combined piped water and sanitation intervention. Households with children environmental enteric dysfunction. In addition, intervention effects on sanitation and water coverage, access and use, environmental fecal contamination, women's empowerment, as well as collective efficacy, and intervention cost and cost-effectiveness will be assessed. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the ethics boards of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK and KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed literature and presentation to stakeholders, government officials, implementers and researchers. NCT02441699. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  16. Household salt for retrospective dose assessments using OSL: signal integrity and its dependence on containment, sample collection, and signal readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Maria; Bernhardsson, Christian; Geber-Bergstrand, Therése; Mattsson, Sören; Rääf, Christopher L

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine how a latent optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal in irradiated household salt is preserved under various ambient conditions, from the time of exposure to the time of signal readout. The following parameters were examined: optical fading in fluorescent light and under darkroom conditions (red light), thermal stability of the OSL signal during storage in a light-tight container, optical fading in representative container types, and sensitization effects of the OSL signal in exposed household salt. Furthermore, the influence of grain mixing within the saltshaker or salt container was studied by determining the dose gradient within typical salt packages. Finally, the signal integrity of salt irradiated under field conditions in a village in Belarus contaminated by Chernobyl fallout was investigated. The results show that the OSL signal in household salt is preserved in large cardboard box containers, but not in white plastic salt containers or in small portion bags used in, e.g., fast food restaurants. Furthermore, the continuous wave blue OSL signal in household salt does not fade significantly during storage up to 140 days. On the contrary, the signal appears to slowly increase during storage ("inverse fading"). Field tests of two different salt containers (with and without black tape to block light) located in Belarussian households confirmed that the signal is preserved in white plastic salt containers when they are covered with extra light-shielding material.

  17. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  18. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  19. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  20. Demonstration and Evaluation of Solid Phase Microextraction for the Assessment of Bioavailability and Contaminant Mobility (User’s Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    GUIDANCE DOCUMENT Demonstration and Evaluation of Solid Phase Microextraction For the Assessment of Bioavailability and Contaminant Mobility...Demonstration and Evaluation of Solid Phase Microextraction for the Assessment of Bioavailability and Contaminant Mobility ER-200624Danny R. Reible...in-situ measurement of sediment pore water concentrations with solid phase microextraction using polydimethyl siloxane as the extractant. The method

  1. Quantitative risk assessment of the aggregate dermal exposure to the sensitizing fragrance geraniol in personal care products and household cleaning agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijkamp, M M; Bokkers, B G H; Bakker, M I; Ezendam, J; Delmaar, J E

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was performed to establish if consumers are at risk for being dermally sensitized by the fragrance geraniol. Aggregate dermal exposure to geraniol was estimated using the Probabilistic Aggregate Consumer Exposure Model, containing data on the use of personal care products and household cleaning agents. Consumer exposure to geraniol via personal care products appeared to be higher than via household cleaning agents. The hands were the body parts receiving the highest exposure to geraniol. Dermal sensitization studies were assessed to derive the point of departure needed for the estimation of the Acceptable Exposure Level (AEL). Two concentrations were derived, one based on human studies and the other from dose-response analysis of the available murine local lymph node assay data. The aggregate dermal exposure assessment resulted in body part specific median exposures up to 0.041 μg/cm(2) (highest exposure 102 μg/cm(2)) for hands. Comparing the exposure to the lowest AEL (55 μg/cm(2)), shows that a range of 0.02-0.86% of the population may have an aggregated exposure which exceeds the AEL. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that personal care products contribute more to the consumer's geraniol exposure compared to household cleaning agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Different systems and approaches to treat municipal solid waste. A state-of the art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, A.; Euler, H.; Klopotek, F.; Kellner, C. [TBW GmbH, Sustainable Techno-logies Building and Business Consultants, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion is still a fairly new technology in the area of utilisation of organic residues, in particular as far as treatment of household wastes and integration of agricultural production is concerned. In the last few years, a number of different processes and concepts, with a variety of different intentions, have been developed and established on the European market, in particular in Germany. Actual categories and parameters, used to analyse, structure and compare available treatment systems, are not yet fully satisfying. The presentation will consist of the following elements: 1. Factors influencing the market of the technology in the recent past. 2. Brief comparison of features of anaerobic solid waste digestion with land filling, composting and incineration. 3. Brief comparison between some European and Non-European countries, concerning municipal solid waste digestion. 4. Main topics in the actual German Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Treatment (AMSWT) debate. 5. Comparison of some existing AMSWT systems and concepts. 6. Presentation of a comprehensive structure, covering the main technical elements of any of the different technologies available. 7. Outlook. (au)

  3. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  4. Risk of Active Tuberculosis among Index Case of Householders-A Long-Term Assessment after the Conventional Contacts Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Daniela V; Pérez-Quílez, Olga; Roure, Sílvia; Martínez-Cuevas, Octavio; Bocanegra, Cristina; Feijoo-Cid, Maria; Valerio, Lluís

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) among household contacts of TB-index cases diagnosed during a 7-year period in a public Primary Care Center located in a high-incidence area. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Data collection was based on the capture-recapture method; the two main sources crossed information from TB-index and contact cases from the El Fondo Primary Care Center (Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain) and their reports to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance Service. Variables were divided into demographic and health data (result of the Mantoux test, chest X-ray, presence of risk factors, and indication for chemoprophylaxis). Community nurses identified 103 household contacts that underwent the conventional contact study. Overall, 60.19% were male; the mean age was 29.08 years. Only one case of secondary active TB was found, representing an incidence of 0.56% per TB-index case and year. The incidence of new secondary TB among household contacts with TB-index cases was of a case. Nevertheless, a long-term follow-up of these householders beyond the conventional contacts study should be considered in areas with higher incidences of TB or among specific high-risk populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Humphrey, Jean H; Zungu, Lindiwe I

    2015-12-15

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within 1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  7. Assessment of the Degree of the Divergence and Inequality of Household Income Distribution in Poland in the Years 2005–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gęstwicki Filip Edmund

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in income and wealth inequality observed in the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century is the subject of many analyses and discussions. Research shows that major changes in household incomes in Poland took place in the early years of transition (1990–1992, known as a ‘revolution in income’. The article focuses on the assessment of the degree of household income inequality after the Poland’s accession to the European Union. The most commonly used measures in income inequality studies are the measures of inequality based on the Lorenz function – a popular Gini coefficient and the Schutz ratio, measures using the concept of entropy, measures based on welfare function, or measures based on income distribution quantiles. The article proposes the possibility of broadening the measuring spectrum of income inequality analysis of the Csiszár’s divergence measures. The main research objective of the article is to assess the divergence in the distribution of household equivalent disposable income in Poland in the years 2005–2013. The data used in the analysis come from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC.

  8. Ranking criteria for assessment of municipal solid waste dumping sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khalid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

  9. Does participatory forest management change household attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed the impact of participatory forest management (PFM) on household attitudes towards conservation and management of Arabuko–Sokoke Forest. The results obtained show that the impact of the forest on households was positive and higher in households in PFM zones than in those in non-PFM zones.

  10. assessment of environmental impact of solid waste dumpsites using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iguniwari ekeuwei

    This study presents a remote sensing approach of using freely available Landsat 8 satellite Indicators (Land Surface. Temperature (LST), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI)) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital. Elevation Model (DEM) geospatial data to assess the impact of dumpsites on the ...

  11. Field assessment of a novel household-based water filtration device: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Sophie; Kiyombo, Mbela; Sthreshley, Larry; Tumba, Saturnin; Makambo, Jacques; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons) in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field performance, use and effectiveness of a novel filtration device in preventing diarrhea. Households were followed up monthly for 12 months. Filters and placebos were monitored for longevity and for microbiological performance by comparing thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels in influent and effluent water samples. Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was estimated among participants of all ages. Compliance was assessed through self-reported use and presence of water in the top vessel of the device at the time of visit. Over the 12-month follow-up period, data were collected for 11,236 person-weeks of observation (81.8% total possible). After adjusting for clustering within the household, the longitudinal prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-1.20). The filters achieved a 2.98 log reduction in TTC levels while, for reasons that are unclear, the placebos achieved a 1.05 log reduction (pwater the previous day. The filter maintained a constant flow rate over time, though 12.4% of filters were damaged during the course of the study. While the filter was effective in improving water quality, our results provide little evidence that it was protective against diarrhea. The moderate reduction observed nevertheless supports the need for larger studies that measure impact against a neutral placebo. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03844341.

  12. Assessment of biosand filter performance in rural communities in southern coastal Nicaragua: an evaluation of 199 households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, M M; Minnings, K; Fiore, L D

    2010-01-01

    Lack of access to safe drinking water is a major health issue for more than one billion people globally. In areas where community-wide water treatment is not possible, point-of-use (POU) solutions are necessary. The biosand filter (BSF) is one of several such POU technologies available to treat water in the home to reduce the risk of infection. This study was conducted to evaluate the use and performance of BSFs in the rural communities surrounding San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua. Approximately 600 filters had been installed in this area over the preceding 2 years by local workers supported by US and Canadian NGOs. This field study was conducted In July and August 2009. Unannounced household visits were carried out by US volunteers supported by a local interpreter and driver. Visits were made to a convenience sample of 199 households where BSFs had been in place for an average of 12 months. Water for analysis was collected from wells, filter spouts and storage buckets and an 11 item questionnaire was administered. Laboratory analyses were performed on water samples using the membrane filtration method to determine Escherichia coli colony forming units (CFUs). Forty-five of 199 households visited had discontinued use of their BSF. In the 154 households tested, median CFU of E. coli per 100 mL of water from the source, filter spout and storage vessel were 313, 72, and 144, respectively. Median bacterial removal efficiency for the filters was 80%. Although biosand filtration reduced CFUs in 74% of households in which it was used, in only 26 cases (17%) did it reduce CFUs to filter's performance, citing improved health and better tasting water. Water quality testing of BSFs deployed in the field showed results somewhat inferior to previous reports. Possible explanations include lack of use of best practices and the inclusion of some filers in the analysis that may not have been in active use. Despite these results and high rates of recontamination in the storage bucket

  13. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...... of standard optimization techniques and focuses instead on direct consideration on saving. We provide a section on facts: who save and how much. We then discuss informally the recent decline in the U.S. saving rate and whether the theory is of much use in understanding this and other changes in aggregate...... be rationalized within a simple life cycle model. We also review a great number of studies of the consumption Euler equations. Based on our analysis of the studies cited we conclude that there is still mixed evidence that consumption is excessively sensitive to income. We also examine in depth the recent...

  14. Food fermentation: a safety and nutritional assessment. Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Assessment of Fermentation as a Household Technology for Improving Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motarjemi, Y; Nout, M J

    1996-01-01

    An assessment of the food-safety and nutritional aspects of lactic acid fermentation for the preparation of weaning food at the household level was carried out during a Joint FAO/WHO Workshop held in Pretoria, South Africa, in December 1995. In particular, lactic acid fermentation was evaluated as a part of food preparation processes involving other operations such as soaking, cooking, and the germination of cereal grains. The use of germinated cereals is of particular interest since they can be used to prepare semi-liquid porridges of high nutrient density. After reviewing the present state of knowledge concerning the antimicrobial effects of the lactic acid in fermented foods, and the nutritional benefits of fermentation and the use of germinated cereals, the Workshop made an inventory of gaps in current knowledge and priorities for further research. High priority areas for research include the following: the effect of lactic acid fermentation on viruses, parasites, certain bacteria, and mycotoxins; certain physiological and nutritional effects of the consumption of fermented foods; the characterization and optimization of fermentation processes and the development of appropriate fermentation starters; and risk mitigation using the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, the health education of food handlers, and efforts to change the consumer perception of fermented foods.

  15. Assessing poisoning risks related to storage of household hazardous materials: using a focus group to improve a survey questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Keswick David; Smolinske Susan; Kaufman Martin M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background In fall of 2004, the authors began an investigation to characterize the correlations between the storage of Household Hazardous Materials and the associated health risks, particularly to children. The study area selected was Genesee County, Michigan, near Flint, with data to be collected by a phone survey of residents and through the acquisition of county hospital records containing procedure codes indicating treatment for poison emergencies, and review of poison control c...

  16. “Improved” but Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Rocha, Claudio A.; Quick, Robert E.; Montano, Silvia M.; Tilley, Drake H.; Mock, Charles N.; Carrasco, A. Jannet; Cabrera, Ricardo M.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    The indicator used to measure progress toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water is access to an improved water supply. However, improved supplies are frequently fecally contaminated in developing countries. We examined factors associated with Escherichia coli contamination of improved water supplies in rural Pisco province, Peru. A random sample of 207 households with at least one child less than 5 years old was surveyed, and water samples from the source and storage container were tested for E. coli contamination. Although over 90% of households used an improved water source, 47% of source and 43% of stored water samples were contaminated with E. coli. Pouring or using a spigot to obtain water from the storage container instead of dipping a hand or object was associated with decreased risk of contamination of stored water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.80). Container cleanliness (aPR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.00) and correct handwashing technique (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.90) were also associated with decreased contamination risk. These findings highlighted the limitations of improved water supplies as an indicator of safe water access. To ensure water safety in the home, household water treatment and improved hygiene, water handling, and storage practices should be promoted. PMID:26195455

  17. "Improved" But Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Rocha, Claudio A; Quick, Robert E; Montano, Silvia M; Tilley, Drake H; Mock, Charles N; Carrasco, A Jannet; Cabrera, Ricardo M; Hawes, Stephen E

    2015-09-01

    The indicator used to measure progress toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water is access to an improved water supply. However, improved supplies are frequently fecally contaminated in developing countries. We examined factors associated with Escherichia coli contamination of improved water supplies in rural Pisco province, Peru. A random sample of 207 households with at least one child less than 5 years old was surveyed, and water samples from the source and storage container were tested for E. coli contamination. Although over 90% of households used an improved water source, 47% of source and 43% of stored water samples were contaminated with E. coli. Pouring or using a spigot to obtain water from the storage container instead of dipping a hand or object was associated with decreased risk of contamination of stored water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.80). Container cleanliness (aPR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.00) and correct handwashing technique (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.90) were also associated with decreased contamination risk. These findings highlighted the limitations of improved water supplies as an indicator of safe water access. To ensure water safety in the home, household water treatment and improved hygiene, water handling, and storage practices should be promoted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Assessment of occupational safety risks in Floridian solid waste systems using Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Mehrad; Celik, Nurcin

    2015-10-01

    Safety risks embedded within solid waste management systems continue to be a significant issue and are prevalent at every step in the solid waste management process. To recognise and address these occupational hazards, it is necessary to discover the potential safety concerns that cause them, as well as their direct and/or indirect impacts on the different types of solid waste workers. In this research, our goal is to statistically assess occupational safety risks to solid waste workers in the state of Florida. Here, we first review the related standard industrial codes to major solid waste management methods including recycling, incineration, landfilling, and composting. Then, a quantitative assessment of major risks is conducted based on the data collected using a Bayesian data analysis and predictive methods. The risks estimated in this study for the period of 2005-2012 are then compared with historical statistics (1993-1997) from previous assessment studies. The results have shown that the injury rates among refuse collectors in both musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have decreased from 88 and 15 to 16 and three injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. However, a contrasting trend is observed for the injury rates among recycling workers, for whom musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have increased from 13 and four injuries to 14 and six injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. Lastly, a linear regression model has been proposed to identify major elements of the high number of musculoskeletal and dermal injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The use of mediation analysis to assess the effects of a behaviour change communication strategy on bed net ideation and household universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily E; Boulay, Marc; Ainslie, Robert; Babalola, Stella; Fotheringham, Megan; Koenker, Hannah; Lynch, Matthew

    2015-01-21

    SBCC campaigns are designed to act on cognitive, social and emotional factors at the individual or community level. The combination of these factors, referred to as 'ideation', play a role in determining behaviour by reinforcing and confirming decisions about a particular health topic. This study introduces ideation theory and mediation analysis as a way to evaluate the impact of a malaria SBCC campaign in Tanzania, to determine whether exposure to a communication programme influenced universal coverage through mediating ideational variables. A household survey in three districts where community change agents (CCAs) were active was conducted to collect information on ITN use, number of ITNs in the household, and perceptions about ITN use and ownership. Variables relating to attitudes and beliefs were combined to make 'net ideation'. Using an ideational framework, a mediation analysis was conducted to see the impact exposure to a CCA only, mass media and community (M & C) messaging only, or exposure to both, had on household universal coverage, through the mediating variable net ideation. All three levels of exposure (CCA, M & C messaging, or exposure to both) were significantly associated with increased net ideation (CCA: 0.283, 95% CI: 0.136-0.429, p-value: effects between any exposure and universal coverage when controlling for net ideation. The results of this study indicate that mediation analysis is an applicable new tool to assess SBCC campaigns. Ideation as a mediator of the effects of communication exposure on household universal coverage has implications for designing SBCC to support both mass and continuous distribution efforts, since both heavily rely on consumer participation to obtain and maintain ITNs. Such systems can be strengthened by SBCC programming, generating demand through improving social norms about net ownership and use, perceived benefits of nets, and other behavioural constructs.

  20. Field assessment of a novel household-based water filtration device: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Boisson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field performance, use and effectiveness of a novel filtration device in preventing diarrhea. Households were followed up monthly for 12 months. Filters and placebos were monitored for longevity and for microbiological performance by comparing thermotolerant coliform (TTC levels in influent and effluent water samples. Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was estimated among participants of all ages. Compliance was assessed through self-reported use and presence of water in the top vessel of the device at the time of visit. Over the 12-month follow-up period, data were collected for 11,236 person-weeks of observation (81.8% total possible. After adjusting for clustering within the household, the longitudinal prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-1.20. The filters achieved a 2.98 log reduction in TTC levels while, for reasons that are unclear, the placebos achieved a 1.05 log reduction (p<0.0001. After 8 months, 68% of intervention households met the study's definition of current users, though most (73% of adults and 95% of children also reported drinking untreated water the previous day. The filter maintained a constant flow rate over time, though 12.4% of filters were damaged during the course of the study. CONCLUSIONS: While the filter was effective in improving water quality, our results provide little evidence that it was protective against diarrhea. The moderate reduction observed nevertheless supports the need for larger

  1. Effects of pH and hydraulic retention time on hydrogen production versus methanogenesis during anaerobic fermentation of organic household solid waste under extreme-thermophilic temperature (70ºC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Two continuously stirred tank reactors were operated with household solid waste at 70°C, for hydrogen and methane production. The individual effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days) at pH 7 or pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7) at 3-day HRT was investigated on the hydrogen production...... versus methanogenesis. It was found that at pH 7, the maximum hydrogen yield was 107 mL-H2/g VSadded (volatile solid added) but no stable hydrogen production was obtained as after some time methanogenesis was initiated at all tested HRTs. This demonstrated that sludge retention time alone was not enough...... for washing out the methanogens at pH 7 under extreme-thermophilic conditions. Oppositely, we showed that keeping the pH level at 5.5 was enough to inhibit methane and produce hydrogen stably at 3-day HRT. However, the maximum stable hydrogen yield was low at 21 mL-H2/g VSadded. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2008...

  2. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  3. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    -aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is “landfilling of 1 ton of wet household waste in a 10 m deep landfill...... for 100 years”. The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate......, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence of the active operations (i.e., leachate recirculation, waste flushing and air injection) on the environmental performance, the time horizon...

  4. Household Saving in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Finlay; Fiona Price

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household saving behaviour in Australia, as well as the drivers behind the recent rise in the aggregate household saving ratio. Our results explaining differences in saving behaviour across households are consistent with theory and previous findings. As might be expected, households' saving ratios tend to increase with income, but decrease with wealth and gearing. Financially constrained and migrant households tend to save more than other households, all else equal. Wh...

  5. Solid Waste Management in Greater Shillong Planning Area (GSPA) Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Site Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipun, B. S.; Hazarika, R.; Mondal, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2015-04-01

    In Shillong city the existing solid waste management system is mobile waste bins (72%). About 12 percent burn the waste generated by them. Door to door collection is about 5 percent. Over 2 percent households throw the wastes in the open space. Another 9 percent households throw their wastes into the waste bins located in the neighbourhood. The local headman takes care about half of the household's wastes, while Municipality takes care about 34 percent households. About 10 percent households are ignorant about the collection and disposal of wastes. Some NGO's takes care about 5 percent household's wastes. Awareness about segregation of waste into organic and non-bio degradable waste is 64 percent and a significant numbers do the segregation. In Shillong Municipality Board (SMB) area collects 45.91% (78.42 MT) waste, outside SMB area collection is 32.61% (45.99 MT) and entire GSPA the percentage of garbage collected is 41percent. The only dumping ground in GSPA is Marten, Mawiong, and the capacity to hold garbage is decreasing due to limited landfill. The sanitary landfill site is 5.0 acres that it is not enough to meet the demand. Out of he total area 170.69 sq. km. (GSPA) only 25.67% is most suitable and 18.58% is unsuitable to set up a new landfill area. Eastern part of the GSPA, is most suitable, which fulfils the entire criterion adopted in this study. In this the best-stated criterion are land cover (vacant space), slope (2000m) and elevation (1300-1500m). The eastern part of the GSPA is most suitable landfill location.

  6. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This appendix provides the radionuclide inventory data used for the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 Performance Assessment (PA). The uncertainties in the radionuclide inventory data are also provided, along with the descriptions of the methods used to estimate the uncertainties.

  7. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn C. F.) fruit yield assessment and management by farm households in the Atacora district of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Grace B.; Nyarko, Benjamin Kofi; Wala, Kperkouma; Akpagana, Koffi

    2018-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn C. F.), or shea tree, remains one of the most valuable trees for farmers in the Atacora district of northern Benin, where rural communities depend on shea products for both food and income. To optimize productivity and management of shea agroforestry systems, or "parklands," accurate and up-to-date data are needed. For this purpose, we monitored120 fruiting shea trees for two years under three land-use scenarios and different soil groups in Atacora, coupled with a farm household survey to elicit information on decision making and management practices. To examine the local pattern of shea tree productivity and relationships between morphological factors and yields, we used a randomized branch sampling method and applied a regression analysis to build a shea yield model based on dendrometric, soil and land-use variables. We also compared potential shea yields based on farm household socio-economic characteristics and management practices derived from the survey data. Soil and land-use variables were the most important determinants of shea fruit yield. In terms of land use, shea trees growing on farmland plots exhibited the highest yields (i.e., fruit quantity and mass) while trees growing on Lixisols performed better than those of the other soil group. Contrary to our expectations, dendrometric parameters had weak relationships with fruit yield regardless of land-use and soil group. There is an inter-annual variability in fruit yield in both soil groups and land-use type. In addition to observed inter-annual yield variability, there was a high degree of variability in production among individual shea trees. Furthermore, household socioeconomic characteristics such as road accessibility, landholding size, and gross annual income influence shea fruit yield. The use of fallow areas is an important land management practice in the study area that influences both conservation and shea yield. PMID:29346406

  8. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Katarina D M; Christidis, Tanya; Thomas, M Kate; Anderson, Maureen; Nesbitt, Andrea; Keithlin, Jessica; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Animal contact is a potential transmission route for campylobacteriosis, and both domestic household pet and petting zoo exposures have been identified as potential sources of exposure. Research has typically focussed on the prevalence, concentration, and transmission of zoonoses from farm animals to humans, yet there are gaps in our understanding of these factors among animals in contact with the public who don't live on or visit farms. This study aims to quantify, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter carriage in household pets and petting zoo animals. Four databases were accessed for the systematic review (PubMed, CAB direct, ProQuest, and Web of Science) for papers published in English from 1992-2012, and studies were included if they examined the animal population of interest, assessed prevalence or concentration with fecal, hair coat, oral, or urine exposure routes (although only articles that examined fecal routes were found), and if the research was based in Canada, USA, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies were reviewed for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis by two reviewers, compiled into a database, and relevant studies were used to create a weighted mean prevalence value. There were insufficient data to run a meta-analysis of concentration values, a noted study limitation. The mean prevalence of Campylobacter in petting zoo animals is 6.5% based on 7 studies, and in household pets the mean is 24.7% based on 34 studies. Our estimated concentration values were: 7.65x103cfu/g for petting zoo animals, and 2.9x105cfu/g for household pets. These results indicate that Campylobacter prevalence and concentration are lower in petting zoo animals compared with household pets and that both of these animal sources have a lower prevalence compared with farm animals that do not come into contact with the public. There is a lack of studies on Campylobacter in petting zoos and/or fair animals in

  9. Developing a Sustainability Assessment Model to Analyze China’s Municipal Solid Waste Management Enhancement Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a sustainability assessment model for analysis and decision-making of the impact of China’s municipal solid waste management enhancement strategy options based on three waste treatment scenarios: landfill disposal, waste-to-energy incineration, and a combination of a material recovery facility and composting. The model employs life cycle assessment, health risk assessment, and full cost accounting to evaluate the treatment scenarios regarding safeguarding public health, protecting the environment and conserving resources, and economic feasibility. The model then uses an analytic hierarchy process for an overall appraisal of sustainability. Results suggest that a combination of material recovery and composting is the most efficient option. The study results clarify sustainable attributes, suitable predications, evaluation modeling, and stakeholder involvement issues in solid waste management. The demonstration of the use of sustainability assessment model (SAM provides flexibility by allowing assessment for a municipal solid waste management (MSWM strategy on a case-by-case basis, taking into account site-specific factors, therefore it has the potential for flexible applications in different communities/regions.

  10. Life cycle assessment of potential municipal solid waste management strategies for Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhupendra K; Chandel, Munish K

    2017-01-01

    Dumping of municipal solid waste into uncontrolled dumpsites is the most common method of waste disposal in most cities of India. These dumpsites are posing a serious challenge to environmental quality and sustainable development. Mumbai, which generates over 9000 t of municipal solid waste daily, also disposes of most of its waste in open dumps. It is important to analyse the impact of municipal solid waste disposal today and what would be the impact under integrated waste management schemes. In this study, life cycle assessment methodology was used to determine the impact of municipal solid waste management under different scenarios. Six different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current practice of open dumping and partially bioreactor landfilling. The scenarios include landfill with biogas collection, incineration and different combinations of recycling, landfill, composting, anaerobic digestion and incineration. Global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity were assessed as environmental impact categories. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the recycling rate is increased from 10% to 90%, the environmental impacts as compared with present scenario would reduce from 998.43 kg CO2 eq t-1 of municipal solid waste, 0.124 kg SO2 eq t-1, 0.46 kg PO4-3 eq t-1, 0.44 kg 1,4-DB eq t-1 to 892.34 kg CO2 eq t-1, 0.121 kg SO2 eq t-1, 0.36 kg PO4-3 eq t-1, 0.40 kg 1,4-DB eq t-1, respectively. An integrated municipal solid waste management approach with a mix of recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion and landfill had the lowest overall environmental impact. The technologies, such as incineration, would reduce the global warming emission because of the highest avoided emissions, however, human toxicity would increase.

  11. A longitudinal assessment of work situation, sick leave, and household income of mothers and fathers of children with cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovén, Emma; von Essen, Louise; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2013-08-01

    The diagnosis of childhood cancer often results in an altered life situation for the parents, characterized by difficulties regarding work, family and household demands. Previous research shows that parents' work situation and income are impacted, yet, few studies have explored the issue from a longitudinal perspective. This study sought to increase the knowledge about the socio-economic conditions of parents of children with cancer in Sweden by means of a longitudinal assessment of work situation, sick leave, and household income. The sample consisted of mothers (n = 139) and fathers (n = 138) of children with cancer recruited from 2002 to 2004. Data was collected by telephone interviews at six time points, ranging from the time of diagnosis to one year after the end of treatment. Findings showed that parents' work situation was most evidently impacted during the child's treatment, when the greatest proportions of non-working and sick-listed parents were found. Compared with the time of diagnosis, fewer mothers worked up to three months after the end of treatment, and more mothers were on sick leave one year after the end of treatment. Although the extent of sick leave among fathers did not differ compared with the time of diagnosis, fewer fathers worked one year after the end of treatment. Household income was significantly reduced during the child's treatment and months thereafter, while income was at an equal level as before the diagnosis for most families one year after the end of treatment. The results offer a unique understanding of how mothers' and fathers' work situation and income are impacted in the short- and long-term, and give guidance on how to improve the comprehensive support given to parents of children with cancer. Socio-economical issues should be emphasized as these may provide targets for policy interventions aiming to reduce parental strain related to work and finances.

  12. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material...... for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co...

  13. An Assessment of Solid Waste and Landfilis in Muscat Area, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Zawahry

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a 1998 study of the solid waste generation within the greater Muscat City area. The recent data were compared with the available data from the last 10 years to assess the solid waste problems within the area. Five operating landfills were used as the data collection points. It appeared that through the last decade, the solid waste generation rate has increased sharply. However, the rate of waste production stabilized to 750 – 800 ton/day during the last three years of the 1990s. The rate amounts to 1.5 kg/person/day. Overall municipal waste volume decreased through the years while the amounts generated from private sources such as industries and commercial centers increased during the same period. This is due to the fact that the Sultanate of Oman is developing very fast with increasing industrial, commercial and residential activities. About 80 % of the solid wastes is organic materials. This amount is high when compared to figures found in western countries. The data indicate that about 40 percent of the solid wastes are composed of recoverable materials. The concerned authorities should encourage the growth of industries to be involved in recycling business. Such activities will reduce the solid waste discharge in landfills and increase nearly 1.6 folds the expected life of existing landfills. A survey of the operating landfills indicate that the operational efficiency may be substantially improved by incorporating measures that deal with problems of gas production and leachate movements. The paper includes a detailed discussion of the problem and makes recommendations for possible future actions.

  14. [Disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, P; Cai, Y; Liu, J M; Liu, Y N; Qi, J L; Wang, L J; You, J L; Zhou, M G

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To assess the disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China. Methods: Based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 in China (GBD 2013), we used population attributable fractions (PAF) to analyze the burden of different diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 2013 in China(not inclnding HongKang, Macao, Taiwan). We compared PAF, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 31 provinces in mainland China in 1990 and 2013, and stratified the burden by age group. The estimated world average population during 2000- 2025 was used to calculate age-standardized mortality and DALY rates. Results: In 2013, 14.9% of lower respiratory infections in children pollution. In addition, 807 000 deaths were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution, including 296 000 from COPD, 169 000 from hemorrhagic stroke, 152 000 from ischemic heart disease, 88 000 from ischemic stroke, 75 000 from lung cancer, and 28 000 from lower respiratory infections in children pollution decreased by 59.3% from 158.8/100 000 in 1990 to 64.6/100 000 in 2013. The age-standardized mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all 31 provinces, with the highest decline observed in Shanghai (96.3%), and lowest in Xinjiang (39.9%). In 2013, the age-standardized DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution was highest in Guizhou (2 233.0/100 000) and lowest in Shanghai (27.0/100 000). The DALY rate was the highest for the >70 age group (7 006.0/100 000). Compared with 1990, the 2013 mortality rate and DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all age groups, with the highest decline observed in the pollution decreased notably between 1990 and 2013, household pollution caused a high number of deaths and DALY loss in certain western provinces.

  15. Assessment of a government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and children's dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Moran, Alyssa; Dixon, L Beth; Kiszko, Kamila; Cantor, Jonathan; Abrams, Courtney; Mijanovich, Tod

    2015-10-01

    To assess the impact of a new government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and dietary habits in children. A difference-in-difference study design was utilized. Two neighbourhoods in the Bronx, New York City. Outcomes were collected in Morrisania, the target community where the new supermarket was opened, and Highbridge, the comparison community. Parents/caregivers of a child aged 3-10 years residing in Morrisania or Highbridge. Participants were recruited via street intercept at baseline (pre-supermarket opening) and at two follow-up periods (five weeks and one year post-supermarket opening). Analysis is based on 2172 street-intercept surveys and 363 dietary recalls from a sample of predominantly low-income minorities. While there were small, inconsistent changes over the time periods, there were no appreciable differences in availability of healthful or unhealthful foods at home, or in children's dietary intake as a result of the supermarket. The introduction of a government-subsidized supermarket into an underserved neighbourhood in the Bronx did not result in significant changes in household food availability or children's dietary intake. Given the lack of healthful food options in underserved neighbourhoods and need for programmes that promote access, further research is needed to determine whether healthy food retail expansion, alone or with other strategies, can improve food choices of children and their families.

  16. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility.

  17. The Household Planning Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Louise; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Nyström, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    on the same schedule as in the IGT. Eighteen university students performed the HPG, which was separated into three conditions containing 100 trials. During the game, participants were asked to; 1) pay a number of fixed monthly costs or save money for various household costs; 2) purchase a number of consumer...... goods like groceries or presents; and 3) prioritize between paying bills at the beginning of a month or go out and spend money on shopping. Eye tracking was used to assess visual attention while participants performed the task. The results showed that the two non-risky decks were selected 30% and 37...

  18. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Jang, Mi-Sun; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel; Gwinner, Wilfried; Lehner, Frank; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Haller, Hermann; Wacker, Frank; Gueler, Faikah; Hueper, Katja

    2017-07-14

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. • Renal cortical T1 relaxation times are prolonged after solid organ transplantation. • Cortical T1 values increase with higher stages of renal function impairment. • Corticomedullary difference decreases with higher stages of renal function impairment. • Renal cortical T1 relaxation time and corticomedullary difference correlate with renal function. • T1 mapping may be helpful for non-invasive assessment of post-operative renal pathology.

  19. A Methodology for Assessing the Sustainability of Hydrogen Production from Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal V. Gnanapragasam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for assessing the sustainability of hydrogen production using solid fuels is introduced, in which three sustainability dimensions (ecological, sociological and technological are considered along with ten indicators for each dimension. Values for each indicator are assigned on a 10-point scale based on a high of 1 and a low of 0, depending on the characteristic of the criteria associated with each element or process, utilizing data reported in the literature. An illustrative example is presented to compare two solid fuels for hydrogen production: coal and biomass. The results suggest that qualitative sustainability indicators can be reasonably defined based on evaluations of system feasibility, and that adequate flexibility and comprehensiveness is provided through the use of ten indicators for each of the dimensions for every process or element involved in hydrogen production using solid fuels. Also, the assessment index values suggest that biomasses have better sustainability than coals, and that it may be advantageous to use coals in combination with biomass to increase their ecological and social sustainability. The sustainability assessment methodology can be made increasingly quantitative, and is likely extendable to other energy systems, but additional research and development is needed to lead to a more fully developed approach.

  20. Assessing poisoning risks related to storage of household hazardous materials: using a focus group to improve a survey questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Martin M; Smolinske, Susan; Keswick, David

    2005-08-10

    In fall of 2004, the authors began an investigation to characterize the correlations between the storage of Household Hazardous Materials and the associated health risks, particularly to children. The study area selected was Genesee County, Michigan, near Flint, with data to be collected by a phone survey of residents and through the acquisition of county hospital records containing procedure codes indicating treatment for poison emergencies, and review of poison control center data. A focus group was used to identify key topics and relationships within these data for improving the phone survey questionnaire and its analysis. The focus group was successful in identifying the key issues with respect to all the data collection objectives, resulting in a significantly shorter and more topically focused survey questionnaire. Execution time of the phone survey decreased from 30 to 12 minutes, and useful relationships between the data were revealed, e.g., the linkage between reading food labels and reading labels on containers containing potentially harmful substances. Focus groups and their preparatory planning can help reveal data interrelationships before larger surveys are undertaken. Even where time and budget constraints prevent the ability to conduct a series of focus groups, one successful focus group session can improve survey performance and reduce costs.

  1. Assessing poisoning risks related to storage of household hazardous materials: using a focus group to improve a survey questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keswick David

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fall of 2004, the authors began an investigation to characterize the correlations between the storage of Household Hazardous Materials and the associated health risks, particularly to children. The study area selected was Genesee County, Michigan, near Flint, with data to be collected by a phone survey of residents and through the acquisition of county hospital records containing procedure codes indicating treatment for poison emergencies, and review of poison control center data. Methods A focus group was used to identify key topics and relationships within these data for improving the phone survey questionnaire and its analysis. Results The focus group was successful in identifying the key issues with respect to all the data collection objectives, resulting in a significantly shorter and more topically focused survey questionnaire. Execution time of the phone survey decreased from 30 to 12 minutes, and useful relationships between the data were revealed, e.g., the linkage between reading food labels and reading labels on containers containing potentially harmful substances. Conclusion Focus groups and their preparatory planning can help reveal data interrelationships before larger surveys are undertaken. Even where time and budget constraints prevent the ability to conduct a series of focus groups, one successful focus group session can improve survey performance and reduce costs.

  2. Assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Accra, Ghana: A 'Wasteaware' benchmark indicator approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro-Appiah, Kwaku; Scheinberg, Anne; Mensah, Anthony; Afful, Abraham; Boadu, Henry Kofi; de Vries, Nanne

    2017-11-01

    This article assesses the performance of the city of Accra, Ghana, in municipal solid waste management as defined by the integrated sustainable waste management framework. The article reports on a participatory process to socialise the Wasteaware benchmark indicators and apply them to an upgraded set of data and information. The process has engaged 24 key stakeholders for 9 months, to diagram the flow of materials and benchmark three physical components and three governance aspects of the city's municipal solid waste management system. The results indicate that Accra is well below some other lower middle-income cities regarding sustainable modernisation of solid waste services. Collection coverage and capture of 75% and 53%, respectively, are a disappointing result, despite (or perhaps because of) 20 years of formal private sector involvement in service delivery. A total of 62% of municipal solid waste continues to be disposed of in controlled landfills and the reported recycling rate of 5% indicates both a lack of good measurement and a lack of interest in diverting waste from disposal. Drains, illegal dumps and beaches are choked with discarded bottles and plastic packaging. The quality of collection, disposal and recycling score between low and medium on the Wasteaware indicators, and the scores for user inclusivity, financial sustainability and local institutional coherence are low. The analysis suggests that waste and recycling would improve through greater provider inclusivity, especially the recognition and integration of the informal sector, and interventions that respond to user needs for more inclusive decision-making.

  3. Seasonal fuel consumption, stoves, and end-uses in rural households of the far-western development region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Upadhyay, Basudev; Maharjan, Shovana; Jagoe, Kirstie; Weyant, Cheryl L.; Thompson, Ryan; Uprety, Sital; Johnson, Michael A.; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how fuels and stoves are used to meet a diversity of household needs is an important step in addressing the factors leading to continued reliance on polluting devices, and thereby improving household energy programs. In Nepal and many other countries dependent on solid fuel, efforts to mitigate the impacts of residential solid fuel use have emphasized cooking while focusing less on other solid fuel dependent end-uses. We employed a four-season fuel assessment in a cohort of 110 households residing in two elevation regions of the Far-Western Development Region (Province 7) of Nepal. Household interviews and direct fuel weights were used to assess seasonality in fuel consumption and its association with stoves that met cooking and non-cooking needs. Per-capita fuel consumption in winter was twice that of other measured seasons, on average. This winter increase was attributed to greater prevalence of use and fuel consumption by supplemental stoves, not the main cooking stove. End-use profiles showed that fuel was used in supplemental stoves to meet the majority of non-meal needs in the home, notably water heating and preparation of animal food. This emphasis on fuels, stoves, and the satisfaction of energy needs—rather than just stoves or fuels—leads to a better understanding of the factors leading to device and fuel choice within households.

  4. Analysis of expired medications in Serbian households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Ana; Tomic, Zdenko; Bukumiric, Dragica; Corac, Aleksandar; Horvat, Olga; Sabo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction An ongoing issue of expired medications accumulating in some households is a universal problem around the world. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent and structure of expired medications in Serbian households, and to determine which therapeutic groups generated the most waste. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study conducted in households in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. The study had been performed over 8 month period (December 2011 - July 2012) and it consisted of personal insights into the medication inventory in households. Results Of 1008 families, 383 agreed to participate and complete the questionnaire (38.3% response rate). In almost a half of households (44.4%), expired medications were maintained. The amount of expired medications was 402 items, corresponding to 9.2% of total medications presented in surveyed households. The majority of expired medications (64.7%) was in solid dosage (tablets, capsules, granules, lozenges), following semisolid (ointments, creams, gel, suppositories) and liquid dosage forms (drops, syrups). Expired medications in the households belonged mostly to 3 categories: antimicrobials for systemic use (16.7%), dermatological preparation (15.9%) and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism (14.2%). Conclusions This study revealed that there were relatively large quantities of expired medications in Serbian households, with a high prevalence of antibiotics for systemic use, anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism. PMID:27703539

  5. Assessment of College Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Solid Waste Management in North Central Zone of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Mohammed Dauda; Makilik, Mangut; Ozoji, Bernadette Ebele

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on assessment of colleges of education students' knowledge and attitudes toward solid waste management in the North Central zone of Nigeria. The cross-sectional survey design was adopted. A students' knowledge and attitudes toward solid waste management questionnaire were used to collect data from 1,800 students. The findings…

  6. Assessment of the TCA functional in computational chemistry and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fabiano, E; Terentjevs, A; Della Sala, F; Cortona, P

    2015-01-01

    We assess the Tognetti-Cortona-Adamo (TCA) generalized gradient approximation correlation functional [J. Chem. Phys. 128:034101 (2008)] for a variety of electronic systems. We find that, even if the TCA functional is not exact for the uniform electron gas, it is very accurate for the jellium surface correlation energies and it gives a realistic description of the quantum oscillations and surface effects of various jellium clusters, that are important model systems in computational chemistry and solid-state physics. When the TCA correlation is combined with the non-empirical PBEint, Wu-Cohen, and PBEsol$_b$ exchange functionals, the resulting exchange-correlation approximations provide good performances for a broad palette of systems and properties, being reasonably accurate for thermochemistry and geometry of molecules, transition metal complexes, non-covalent interactions,equilibrium lattice constants, bulk moduli, and cohesive energies of solids.

  7. Biotest- and chemistry-based hazard assessment of soils, sediments and solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollumaa, L.; Kahru, A. [National Inst. of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia); Manusadzianas, L. [Inst. of Botany, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the current study was (1) to compare the ecotoxicity and chemistry-based environmental evaluations for 27 solid-phase environmental samples (soils, sediments, solid wastes); (2) to suggest the battery of biotests for the screening of water-extracted toxicity. 14 soils, 9 sediments and 4 oil-shale industry solid waste samples from Estonia and Lithuania were analyzed for the concentration of total PAHs, heavy metals, oil products and water-extracted phenols. The pollution level was evaluated by comparison of measured concentrations with Estonian permitted limit values in residential (PLV{sub r}) and industrial (PLV{sub i}) areas for each key pollutant. A battery of 8 aquatic toxicity tests was applied for the analysis of aqueous extracts (L/S=3) of samples: tests with microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum, macroalgae Nitellopsis obtusa, protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila, crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and photobacteria Vibrio fischeri. Particle-bound bioavailable toxicity was evaluated using a kinetic photobacterial assay with Vibrio fischeri (Solid-Phase Flash-Assay). The toxicity data were evaluated by MaxTox index (highest toxic signal of the battery). Results. Chemical evaluation and toxicological evaluation pointed to the same direction in half of the cases (13/27): 5 samples (including 2 presumably clean control soils) proved harmless and 8 hazardous to environment in case of both evaluations. However, there was a disagreement between chemical and toxicological evaluations for the rest of the samples (14/27). In two mismatching cases (soils from the territory of former gasoline stations) the level of oil products exceeded the PLV{sub r}, but no toxicity was detected, most probably due to the low bioavailability of aged pollutants. The results of this study show the necessity of biotesting in environmental risk assessment to avoid the falsenegative results that may result in harmful effects for

  8. TIMBULAN SAMPAH B3 RUMAHTANGGA DAN POTENSI DAMPAK KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN DI KABUPATEN SLEMAN, YOGYAKARTA (Generation of Household Hazardous Solid Waste and Potential Impacts on Environmental Health in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswanto Iswanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Sampah rumahtangga yang mengandung Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (B3 seperti baterai, lampu listrik, elektronik, kemasan pestisida, pemutih pakaian, pembersih lantai, cat, kaleng bertekanan (aerosol, sisa obat-obatan, termometer dan jarum suntik berpotensi mengancam kesehatan manusia dan lingkungan. Meskipun kuantitas sampah B3 rumahtangga (SB3-RT di Kabupaten Sleman hanya 2,44 g/orang/hari atau sekitar 0,488% dari sampah domestik, tetapi karena memiliki karakteristik mudah meledak, mudah terbakar, reaktif, beracun, infeksius dan/atau korosif maka sangat membahayakan bagi kesehatan dan lingkungan (air, tanah, udara. Sampai saat ini, SB3-RT di Kabupaten Sleman masih ditangani seperti layaknya sampah domestik, yaitu dibakar, dibuang ke sungai, ditimbun di pekarangan, dibuang ke tempat pembuangan sampah ilegal atau dibuang ke Tempat Pemrosesan Akhir (TPA Piyungan. Jenis SB3-RT yang banyak ditemukan adalah sampah elektronik (24,91%, lampu listrik bekas (18,08% dan baterai bekas (16,71%. Ketiga jenis sampah tersebut mengandung berbagai unsur logam berat seperti Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, Li, Sb dan Fe yang umumnya bersifat toksik, karsinogenik dan akumulatif yang dapat masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia secara langsung atau melalui rantai makanan. Pemaparan bahan berbahaya beracun (B3 dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada berbagai jaringan/organ tubuh pada masyarakat sekitar tempat pembuangan, petugas sampah, pemulung, pengepul, pemanfaat dan pelaku daur ulang SB3-RT. Oleh karena itu SB3-RT perlu dikelola sebagaimana mestinya sesuai dengan sifat dan karakteristiknya.   ABSTRACT Household solid waste containing hazardous and toxic materials such as batteries, electric light, electronics, pesticides, bleach, cleaner, paint, pressurized cans (aerosol, unused medicines, thermometers and syringes can threaten human and environment. Although the quantity of Household Hazardous Solid Waste (HHSW in Sleman Regency only 2.44 g/person/day or

  9. Getting the scale right: a comparison of analytical methods for vulnerability assessment and household-level targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, L; Downing, T E

    2001-06-01

    This paper introduces broad concepts of vulnerability, food security and famine. It argues that the concepts and theories driving development and implementation of vulnerability assessment tools are related to their utility. The review concludes that socio-geographic scale is a key issue, and challenge. It analyses three vulnerability assessment (VA) methods, using Ethiopia as a case study. Facing the challenges of vulnerability assessment and early warning requires providing accurate information at the required scale, useful for multiple decision-makers within realistic institutional capacities.

  10. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources on potable water demand in formal residential areas. Reliable potable municipal supply to urban consumers via the water distribution system is typically linked to relatively low uptake of household water sources. However ...

  11. How Assessment Methods Can Support Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries—A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zurbrügg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting actions for improvement of solid waste management in low and middle income countries and understanding how a specific decision choice will fit and impact on a local context is key to identifying sustainable solutions. Assessment of the choice (be it technical or managerial and assessment of the local enabling or disabling conditions are both important steps in the decision making process. Various assessment tools and methods are currently available to support decision-making in solid waste management. Assessment can be used to identify weaknesses or strengths of existing systems in a structured way and hereby highlight factors of success and failure. Assessment methods can also evaluate and compare different possible choices as in project scenarios. This overview describes established and innovative assessment methods serving both these purposes. A range of assessment tools are often designed to assess a specific sustainability domain (technical, environmental and health, economic and financial, social and institutional, organizational aspects, others attempt to provide a more holistic picture by integrating different sustainability domains into the same tool. This paper reviews a number of methods describing and discussing each of them, and referring to their use in low and middle-income countries if published in scientific literature. The overview concludes that in low- and middle-income countries the use of comprehensive assessment methods is yet very limited. We hypothesize that most formal methods of assessment are still too complex and generally overburden the weak local capacities intended for their usage. The few applications identified, were conducted by academia for scientific purposes. Lack of resources to collect the vast data required for some assessment methods is a further restriction to their practical application. Future development is suggested to improve user friendliness of existing tools or to simplify certain

  12. Discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey assessing workplace and household productivity in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The novel arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) was developed to estimate patient productivity limitations associated with arthritis within and outside the home, which is an unmet need in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The WPS has been validated in rheumatoid arthritis. This report assesses the discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the WPS in adult-onset PsA. Methods Psychometric properties were assessed using data from the RAPID-PsA trial (NCT01087788) investigating certolizumab pegol (CZP) efficacy and safety in PsA. WPS was completed at baseline and every 4 weeks until Week 24. Validity was evaluated at baseline via known-groups defined using first and third quartiles of patients’ Disease Activity Score 28 based on C-reactive protein (DAS28(CRP)), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Short Form-36 (SF-36) items and PsA Quality of Life (PsAQoL) scores. Responsiveness and reliability were assessed by comparing WPS mean changes at Week 12 in American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) or HAQ-DI Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) 0.3 responders versus non-responders, as well as using standardized response means (SRM). All comparisons were conducted on the observed cases in the Randomized Set, regardless of the randomization group, using a non-parametric bootstrap-t method. Results Compared with patients with a better health state, patients with a worse health state had on average 2 to 6 times more household work days lost, more days with reduced household productivity, more days missed of family/social/leisure activities, more days with outside help hired and a significantly higher interference of arthritis per month. Among employed patients, those with a worse health state had 2 to 4 times more workplace days lost, more days with patient workplace productivity reduced, and a significantly higher interference of arthritis on patient workplace productivity versus

  13. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banar, Mufide; Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management.

  14. Compost maturity assessment using physicochemical, solid-state spectroscopy, and plant bioassay analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Senthil; Kumar, P Satheesh; Rajendran, N M; Anbuganapathi, G

    2013-11-27

    The vermicompost produced from flower waste inoculated with biofertilizers was subjected to compost maturity test: (i) physicochemical method (pH, OC, TN, C:N); (ii) solid state spectroscopic analysis (FTIR and (13)C CPMAS NMR); and (iii) plant bioassay (germination index). The pH of vermicompost was decreased toward neutral, C:N ratio microbes present in the gut of earthworm. Plant bioassays are considered the most conventional assessment of compost maturity analysis, and subsequently, it shows the effect of vermicompost maturity on the germination index of Vigna mungo .

  15. Thermal treatment of municipal solid waste. Assessment of the 42 French facilities funded by ADEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, Ademe provided a financial assistance to the construction of 42 municipal solid waste incinerators, covering an average of 5,7 % of the required investments. This note outlines the lessons to be drawn from the assessment of the operation of these units, which was produced within the framework of a study steered by Ademe and carried out by Trivalor. It contents details on the in-depth modification of french facilities, a complete mastery of operations, the economic conditions in the sector, the analysis of Ademe subsidies and evaluates the market over the next ten years. (A.L.B.)

  16. Nutritional assessment of pre-school children in rural villages of the family dynamics, lifestyles and nutrition study (1997-2001) I. Socio-economic status of households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Heng Leng; Khor, Geoklin; Arshad, Fatimah; Wanmuda, Wanabdulmanan; Shabdin, Ahmadaffendi; Abusamah, Asnarulkhadi; Abdullah, Rohani; Bidin, Sitijamilah; Emby, Zahid; Mohdmarjan, Zamaliah

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents the socio-economic profile of households in the Family Dynamics Study (FDS) (1997-2001) and makes comparisons with the earlier Functional Groups Study (FGS) (1992-1996). For the current study, FGS villages with a high prevalence of child malnutrition were purposively selected. In each village selected, all households were included, and interviews with a structured questionnaire were conducted in April-May 1998. Incomes were generally low and incidence of poverty was high; 49.6% of the households were under the poverty line income, of which 37.2% were poor and 12.4% were hard core poor. Overall, only 23.2% of heads of households were in agricultural occupations, others being primarily waged workers and petty traders. Livestock rearing was widespread (57.8%), and most households (90.4%) owned at least one motorised vehicle, the most common being the motorcycle. The majority of households had refrigerators (73.6%), washing machines (58.8%), and televisions (91.1%); but telephones (42.2%), mobile phones (6.1%) and computers (2.3%) were less common. Although 99.7% of households had electricity supply and 95.1% had either a flush or pour flush latrine, only 57.4% had piped water supply. In comparison to the FGS, poverty in the current study is lower (49.6% of FDS households are poor compared to 55.2% of FGS households), the proportion of household heads in agricultural occupations is also lower (26.9% compared to 55.3%), while all other socioeconomic indicators were better, except for piped water supply, which remains inadequate for households in the current study.

  17. Skin sensitisation quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on aggregate dermal exposure to methylisothiazolinone in personal care and household cleaning products.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, J; Bokkers, B G H; Bil, W; Delmaar, J E

    2017-01-01

    Contact allergy to preservatives is an important public health problem. Ideally, new substances should be evaluated for the risk on skin sensitization before market entry, for example by using a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) as developed for fragrances. As a proof-of-concept, this QRA was

  18. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... to the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Relative abundance of the culture members, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, were 87 +/- 5% and 13 +/- 5% for Bacillus and Clostridium, respectively. An extreme thermophilic, strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with H-2-producing potential was enriched...... from digested household wastes. This study provided a culture with a potential to be applied in reactor systems for extreme thermophilic H-2 production from complex organic wastes....

  19. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  20. Household air pollution and childhood pneumonia in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organisms (viruses and bacteria) easy access into the respiratory system [7]. Meta-analysis of studies showed that young children exposed to smoke from burning of household solid fuels had twice incidence of acute lower respiratory infection.

  1. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety.

  2. Assessing Potential Energy Savings in Household Travel: Methodological and Empirical Considerations of Vehicle Capability Constraints and Multi-day Activity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolon, Kevin M.

    The lack of multi-day data for household travel and vehicle capability requirements is an impediment to evaluations of energy savings strategies, since (1) travel requirements vary from day-to-day, and (2) energy-saving transportation options often have reduced capability. This work demonstrates a survey methodology and modeling system for evaluating the energy-savings potential of household travel, considering multi-day travel requirements and capability constraints imposed by the available transportation resources. A stochastic scheduling model is introduced---the multi-day Household Activity Schedule Estimator (mPHASE)---which generates synthetic daily schedules based on "fuzzy" descriptions of activity characteristics using a finite-element representation of activity flexibility, coordination among household members, and scheduling conflict resolution. Results of a thirty-household pilot study are presented in which responses to an interactive computer assisted personal interview were used as inputs to the mPHASE model in order to illustrate the feasibility of generating complex, realistic multi-day household schedules. Study vehicles were equipped with digital cameras and GPS data acquisition equipment to validate the model results. The synthetically generated schedules captured an average of 60 percent of household travel distance, and exhibited many of the characteristics of complex household travel, including day-to-day travel variation, and schedule coordination among household members. Future advances in the methodology may improve the model results, such as encouraging more detailed and accurate responses by providing a selection of generated schedules during the interview. Finally, the Constraints-based Transportation Resource Assignment Model (CTRAM) is introduced. Using an enumerative optimization approach, CTRAM determines the energy-minimizing vehicle-to-trip assignment decisions, considering trip schedules, occupancy, and vehicle capability

  3. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  4. Prevalence of Giardia infection in households of Giardia cases and risk factors for household transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Alison; Vivancos, Roberto; Hartley, Catherine; Lamden, Kenneth

    2017-07-11

    Giardia is a leading but neglected cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide and is treatable. There is a substantial burden of undetected Giardia in the UK and for every one case of Giardia reported to national surveillance there are 14 cases in the community. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with secondary household Giardia infections to assess the burden of infection and inform control measures. We identified all giardiasis cases notified in nine local authorities in Lancashire between June 2014 and June 2015, and invited their household contacts to submit faecal specimens for Giardia testing and complete a risk factor questionnaire. We estimated the proportion of households with additional Giardia infection. We compared household risk factors between households with and without additional Giardia using Fisher's exact test. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for additional Giardia infections. We identified additional Giardia infections in 30% (27/91) of included households. A total of 41 infections were found from 212 household members, of which 37 were asymptomatic. The majority of infections were assemblage B (57%) but there were also a high number of mixed infections (20%). Risk factors significantly associated with additional household infections were; having children under 5 years in the household (odds ratio 42; 95% confidence intervals 10-178) and the presence of gastrointestinal illness in the household before the onset of the index case (odds ratio 9; 95% confidence intervals 1.5-48). Our finding of a high household prevalence of asymptomatic infection has raised the public health question of whether treatment of asymptomatic household contacts may be justified in preventing Giardia re-infection of the index case or in preventing secondary cases and household clusters. We recommend the communication of this risk in household contacts of Giardia and reinforcement of

  5. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards – integrating psychological and governance factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Werg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  6. Structural Assessment of Solid Propellant Grains (l’Evaluation structurale des blocs de poudre a’ propergol solide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Life of Solid Propellant Systems, 6-10 May 1996, Athens. [8] Chevalier, M.; Laurent, J.M.; Programme General d’Essais Vieillissement . Application a...analysis, the finite 2-4 element solution procedure and interpretation of results, and the basic material characterisation inputs and the definition of... DEFINITION 3-2 3.2.1 Problem Definition 3-2 3.2.1.1 Two Dimensional Analysis 3-4 3.2.1.2 Three Dimensional Analysis 3-4 3.2.2 Finite Element Model

  7. Refractometer assessment of colostral and serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimation of the quantity of colostral IgG or serum IgG absorbed following ingestion of colostrum by calves is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of colostrum feeding practices on dairy farms. Milk total solids concentrations determination is a critical part of quality assessment of nonsaleable whole milk prior to feeding to calves. To date, on-farm methods to assess colostral IgG, serum IgG or milk total solids concentrations have been performed separately with various instruments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a single electronic, hand-held refractometer for assessing colostral and serum IgG concentrations and milk total solids in dairy cattle. Colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations were determined by the refractometer. Corresponding analysis of colostral and serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID) while milk total solids were determined by spectrophotometry. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for colostrum and serum samples were calculated as determined by RID. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for milk samples was calculated as determined by spectrophotometry. Results The sensitivity of the refractometer was 1 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations. Specificity of the refractometer was 0.66, 0.24 and 0 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations, respectively. The refractometer underestimated colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations compared to the concentrations determined by RID or spectrophotometry. Conclusions The refractometer was an acceptable, rapid, convenient on-farm method for determining colostral IgG and milk total solids. The refractometer was not an acceptable method for determination of serum IgG concentrations as it severely underestimated the serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25125217

  8. ASSESSMENT OF TANNERY BASED SOLID WASTES MANAGEMENT IN ASILI, NAIROBI KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O. Oruko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes generated in Nairobi and its environs are posing a serious environmental challenge to the authorities and public, especially the hazardous and non-biodegradable solid wastes from leather industries. There were environmental concerns and complaints from workers and residents living adjacent to Asili tanneries limited about degradation of natural and inbuilt environment. This pointed to the effect of environmental pollution by the tannery. The broad objective of study was to assess the effectiveness of tannery based solid wastes management, by identifying and analyzing the concentration levels of sodium chlorides,sulphide, chromium ions and total phenols as selected pollutants along the tanning stages, in Nairobi river, borehole water, and soils around the dump site inside the tannery. Experimental (laboratory analysis design was used.Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing data resulting in means and tables. The means concentration of total Chrome was 2633.38mg/L,Sodium chloride 609.93mg/L, Sulphide 129.77mg/L, total Phenols 10.91mg/L in the soil sampled around the composite dump site.. In Nairobi river water the means of Sodium chloride was 317.48mg/L, Sulphide 24.00mg/L, total Phenol 3.97mg/L and total Chrome Nil, While means concentration in borehole water, had Sodium chloride detected at 354.73mg/L, Sulphide 6.67mg/L, total Phenol 0.03mg/L and total Chrome as Nil, indicating heavily contaminated ecosystems above the discharge set limits of National Environmental Management Authority and Nairobi city water and sewerage company.

  9. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    By using life cycle assessment (LCA) modeling, this paper compares the environmental performance of six landfilling technologies (open dump, conventional landfill with flares, conventional landfill with energy recovery, standard bioreactor landfill, flushing bioreactor landfill and semi-aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is "landfilling of 1ton of wet household waste in a 10m deep landfill for 100 years". The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate that it is crucially important to ensure the highest collection efficiency of landfill gas and leachate since a poor capture compromises the overall environmental performance. Once gas and leachate are collected and treated, the potential impacts in the standard environmental categories and on spoiled groundwater resources significantly decrease, although at the same time specific emissions from gas treatment lead to increased impact potentials in the toxicity-related categories. Gas utilization for energy recovery leads to saved emissions and avoided impact potentials in several environmental categories. Measures should be taken to prevent leachate infiltration to groundwater and it is essential to collect and treat the generated leachate. The bioreactor technologies recirculate the collected leachate to enhance the waste degradation process. This allows the gas collection period to be reduced from 40 to 15 years, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence

  10. Household indebtedness in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Lobna; Zouari Dorra; Zouari Ghorbel Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the development of household indebtedness in Tunisia and its microeconomic determinants. The probit method was used to identify the determinants of household indebtedness with reference to gender. The results show that the Tunisian household indebtedness is in continuous increase and each type of credit is associated with specific determinants. The findings show that only some variables are significant in explaining the differences between the number of credit.

  11. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (II: history of torture and other traumatic experience of violence and functional assessment of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Shuvodwip

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organised crime and political violence (OPV and human rights violations have marred Bangladesh history since 1971. Little is known about the consequences for the oppressed population. This study describes the patterns of OPV and human rights violations in a disturbed area of Bangladesh and assesses the physical, emotional and social functioning of victims. Methods A total of 236 of selected participants in a household survey in Meherpur district were recruited for a detailed study. Interviews and physical examinations were used to obtain information about history of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (TCIDTP, and about injuries, pain frequency and intensity. Handgrip strength and standing balance performance were measured. The "WHO-5 Well-being" scale was used to assess the subjective emotional well-being of study participants. Results The majority of the reported cases of TCIDTP occurred in 2000-2008, 51% of incidents occurred during winter; 32.0% between 20:00 and midnight. Police involvement was reported in 75% of cases. Incidents took place at victims' homes (46.7%, or at the police station, military camp, in custody or in prison (21.9%. Participants experienced 1-10 TCIDTP methods and reported 0-6 injury locations on their bodies; 77.5% reported having at least two injuries. Less than half of the participants were able to stand on one leg for 30 seconds. Only 7.5% of males aged 25-44 had handgrip strength in both hands exceeding average values for healthy people at the same age. Over 85% of participants scored low ( Conclusion A detailed picture of characteristics of the victimisation is presented. The participants showed poor emotional well-being and reduced physical capacity. The results indicated that the simple and rapid method of assessment used here is a promising tool that could be used to monitor the quality and outcome of rehabilitation.

  12. Assessment of heterogeneity in types of vegetables served by main household food preparers and food decision influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan; Kanetkar, Vinay; Brauer, Paula

    2015-10-01

    While vegetables are often studied as one food group, global measures may mask variation in the types and forms of vegetables preferred by different individuals. To explore preferences for and perceptions of vegetables, we assessed main food preparers based on their preparation of eight specific vegetables and mushrooms. An online self-report survey. Ontario, Canada. Measures included perceived benefits and obstacles of vegetables, convenience orientation and variety seeking in meal preparation. Of the 4517 randomly selected consumers who received the invitation, 1013 responded to the survey (22·4 % response). Data from the main food preparers were analysed (n 756). Latent profile analysis indicated three segments of food preparers. More open to new recipes, the 'crucifer lover' segment (13 %) prepared and consumed substantially more Brussels sprouts, broccoli and asparagus than the other segments. Although similar to the 'average consumer' segment (54 %) in many ways, the 'frozen vegetable user' segment (33 %) used significantly more frozen vegetables than the other segments due to higher prioritization of time and convenience in meal preparation and stronger 'healthy=not tasty' perception. Perception of specific vegetables on taste, healthiness, ease of preparation and cost varied significantly across the three consumer segments. Crucifer lovers also differed with respect to shopping and cooking habits compared with the frozen vegetable users. The substantial heterogeneity in the types of vegetables consumed and perceptions across the three consumer segments has implications for the development of new approaches to promoting these foods.

  13. Assessing the failure of continuum formula for solid-solid drag force using discrete element method in large size ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Payman; Hyppänen, Timo

    2017-06-01

    In loose or moderately-dense particle mixtures, the contact forces between particles due to successive collisions create average volumetric solid-solid drag force between different granular phases (of different particle sizes). The derivation of the mathematical formula for this drag force is based on the homogeneity of mixture within the calculational control volume. This assumption especially fails when the size ratio of particles grows to a large value of 10 or greater. The size-driven inhomogeneity is responsible to the deviation of intergranular force from the continuum formula. In this paper, we have implemented discrete element method (DEM) simulations to obtain the volumetric mean force exchanged between the granular phases with the size ratios greater than 10. First, the force is calculated directly from DEM averaged over a proper time window. Second, the continuum formula is applied to calculate the drag forces using the DEM quantities. We have shown the two volumetric forces are in good agreement as long as the homogeneity condition is maintained. However, the relative motion of larger particles in a cloud of finer particles imposes the inhomogeneous distribution of finer particles around the larger ones. We have presented correction factors to the volumetric force from continuum formula.

  14. Microfinance Programs in Uganda: An Analysis of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies a model of low-income household participation in microfinance credit programs and the effects on investment behavior from repeated access to these institutions using evidence from household survey data. The primary focus is on changes in household investment behavior, not the assessment of ...

  15. Material Implications of Rural Electrification—A Methodological Framework to Assess In-Use Stocks of Off-Grid Solar Products and EEE in Rural Households in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Batteiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available “Universal access to electricity” is proclaimed as the seventh sustainable development goal (SDG 7 of the United Nations (UN Sustainable Development Goals list. The achievement of this goal will result in a rapid diffusion of energy technologies that would in turn increase materials stocks, subsequently increase the raw material demand as well as the arising waste flows. This study describes a methodological framework to assess in-use stocks of off-grid solar products and electrical and electronic equipment (EEE for rural communities in developing countries. The methodology is based on energy-access data. Furthermore, the specifics of the characteristics of off-grid solar products are discussed. The methodology is applied to rural Bangladesh and its solar home system (SHS program. By the end of 2016, around 4.1 million SHSs were installed. This type of access to electricity has a significant impact on the in-use stocks, as households add the comparatively heavy SHSs to their in-use stocks. In-use stocks of EEE, in general, are low. Off-grid solar products are lighter than standard EEE, and fewer products types are available. These findings will help to better understand material stocks and future waste flows in the given context and will support the adaption of recycling infrastructures.

  16. Assessment of androgen receptor agonistic/antagonistic effects on 25 chemicals in household applicants by OECD in vitro stably transfected transcriptional activation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Seok; Park, Eun-Jung; Han, Songyi; Oh, Gyeong-Yong; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Shin, Min-Ki; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Moon, Guiim; Koh, Young-Ho; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Koo, Yong Eui

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the androgen receptor (AR) agonistic/antagonistic effects on various chemicals, which are used in household products including cleaning agents and wetted tissues by in vitro OECD test guideline No. 458 (using AR-EcoScreen™ cell line) and the me-too test method (using 22Rv1cell line), which was adopted as OECD project No. 4.99. All chemicals were not determined as AR agonists. However α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxypoly (oxyethylene) and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate have shown a weak AR antagonistic effects with IC 50 values of 2.18 ± 0.12 and 4.26 ± 0.17 μg/ml via binding affinity to AR in only 22Rv1/mouse mammary tumor virus using AR transcriptional activation assay, because of their different cytotoxicity on each applied cell line. This report firstly provides information about agonistic/antagonistic effects against human AR of various chemicals including surfactants and biocides by OECD in vitro stably transfected transcriptional activation assays. However, further in vivo and human model studies are needed to confirm their adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: A multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers Mulwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt what appear to be relatively simple agronomic or management practices which can help them cope with climate-induced stressors? Using household and plot level data collected in 2011, we implement a multivariate probit model to assess the determinants of farmer adaptation behavior to climatic risks and the relative contribution of information, credit and education on the probability of adopting specific practices in response to adverse changes in weather patterns. We find that plot characteristics, credit constraints and availability of climate-related information explain the adoption of several of these practices. In relative terms, we also find that even when financial limitations are binding, making climate-related information available can still motivate farmers to adapt. Policy implications are that the deepening of extension access with information on the appropriate adaptation strategies is crucial to help farmers make adaptation choices. The need to foster credit markets for easy accessibility and affordability by farmers or otherwise strengthening access to assets is also important.

  18. Use of the Health Belief Model for the Assessment of Public Knowledge and Household Preventive Practices in Karachi, Pakistan, a Dengue-Endemic City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranum Ruba Siddiqui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevention is most effective in reducing dengue infection risk, especially in endemic countries like Pakistan. Evaluation of public awareness and health beliefs regarding dengue fever (DF is important for devising disease control strategies. This study assessed dengue knowledge, health beliefs, and preventive practices against DF in different socioeconomic groups of Karachi, Pakistan.In this community-based cross-sectional study, 6 randomly selected towns were visited, 2 persons (man and woman per household were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and household practices were observed. Information regarding DF was shared through a printed pamphlet. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of variables associated with dengue knowledge and practices was conducted.We interviewed 608 Karachi residents (mean age: 33.2 ± 13.35 years; 7.7%, 71.9%, and 20.4% had a high, middle, and low socioeconomic status, respectively. The mean knowledge score was 6.4 ± 2.10 out of 14. The mean preventive practices score was 9 ± 1.8 out of 17. Predictors of dengue knowledge were perceived threat (odds ratio [OR] = 1.802; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.71; p = 0.005, self-efficacy (OR = 2.910; 95% CI = 1.77-4.76; p = 0.000, and television as an information source (OR = 3.202; 95% CI = 1.97-5.17; p = 0.000. Predictors of dengue preventive practices were perceived threat (OR = 1.502; 95% CI = 1.02-2.19; p = 0.036, self-efficacy (OR = 1.982; 95% CI = 1.34-2.91; p = 0.000, and dengue knowledge (OR = 1.581; 95% CI = 1.05-2.37; p = 0.028.Public knowledge about DF is low in Karachi. Knowledge, threat perception, and self-efficacy are significant predictors of adequate dengue preventive practices. Prevention and control strategies should focus on raising awareness about dengue contraction risk and severity through television. Health messages should be designed to increase individual self-efficacy.

  19. Use of the Health Belief Model for the Assessment of Public Knowledge and Household Preventive Practices in Karachi, Pakistan, a Dengue-Endemic City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Taranum Ruba; Ghazal, Saima; Bibi, Safia; Ahmed, Waquaruddin; Sajjad, Shaimuna Fareeha

    2016-11-01

    Prevention is most effective in reducing dengue infection risk, especially in endemic countries like Pakistan. Evaluation of public awareness and health beliefs regarding dengue fever (DF) is important for devising disease control strategies. This study assessed dengue knowledge, health beliefs, and preventive practices against DF in different socioeconomic groups of Karachi, Pakistan. In this community-based cross-sectional study, 6 randomly selected towns were visited, 2 persons (man and woman) per household were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and household practices were observed. Information regarding DF was shared through a printed pamphlet. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of variables associated with dengue knowledge and practices was conducted. We interviewed 608 Karachi residents (mean age: 33.2 ± 13.35 years); 7.7%, 71.9%, and 20.4% had a high, middle, and low socioeconomic status, respectively. The mean knowledge score was 6.4 ± 2.10 out of 14. The mean preventive practices score was 9 ± 1.8 out of 17. Predictors of dengue knowledge were perceived threat (odds ratio [OR] = 1.802; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.71; p = 0.005), self-efficacy (OR = 2.910; 95% CI = 1.77-4.76; p = 0.000), and television as an information source (OR = 3.202; 95% CI = 1.97-5.17; p = 0.000). Predictors of dengue preventive practices were perceived threat (OR = 1.502; 95% CI = 1.02-2.19; p = 0.036), self-efficacy (OR = 1.982; 95% CI = 1.34-2.91; p = 0.000), and dengue knowledge (OR = 1.581; 95% CI = 1.05-2.37; p = 0.028). Public knowledge about DF is low in Karachi. Knowledge, threat perception, and self-efficacy are significant predictors of adequate dengue preventive practices. Prevention and control strategies should focus on raising awareness about dengue contraction risk and severity through television. Health messages should be designed to increase individual self-efficacy.

  20. Using life cycle assessment for municipal solid waste management in Tehran Municipality Region 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Omid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the lack of a proper waste management system, Tehran Municipality Region 20 is facing economic and environmental problems such as the high costs of a disposal system and source pollution. Life cycle assessment (LCA is a method for collecting and evaluating the inputs, outputs, and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. The current study purposed to provide a stable and optimized system of solid waste management in Tehran Municipality Region 20. Methods: The LCA method was used to evaluate various scenarios and compare the effects on environmental aspects of management systems. Four scenarios were defined based on existing and possible future waste management systems for this region. These scenarios were considered with different percentages for source separation, composting, recycling, and energy recovery. Results: Based on the results of this study, Scenario 4 (source separation [14%] + composting [30%] + municipal recycling facility [MRF] [20%] + energy recovery [10%] + landfilling [26%] was found to be the option with the minimum environmental impact. In the absence of government support and sufficient funds for establishing energy recovery facilities, the third scenario (source separation [14%] + composting [30%] +MRF [20%] + landfilling [36%] is recommended. Conclusion: The results acquired from this investigation will confirm the belief that LCA as an environmental device may be successfully used in an integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS as a support tool for decision-making.

  1. Assessment of Two Solid Anaerobic Digestate Soil Amendments for Effects on Soil Quality and Biosolarization Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bayo, Jesús D; Achmon, Yigal; Harrold, Duff R; McCurry, Dlinka G; Hernandez, Katie; Dahlquist-Willard, Ruth M; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Christopher W

    2017-05-03

    Anaerobic digestion is an organic waste bioconversion process that produces biofuel and digestates. Digestates have potential to be applied as soil amendment to improve properties for crop production including phytonutrient content and pest load. Our objective was to assess the impact of solid anaerobic digestates on weed seed inactivation and soil quality upon soil biosolarization (a pest control technique that combines solar heating and amendment-induced microbial activity). Two solid digestates from thermophilic (TD) and mesophilic (MD) digesters were tested. The solarized TD-amended samples presented significantly higher mortality of Brassica nigra (71%, P = 0.032) than its equivalent incubated at room temperature. However, biosolarization with digestate amendment led to decreased weed seed mortality in certain treatments. The plant-available water, total C, and extractable P and K were significantly increased (P soils. The results confirm the potential of digestates as beneficial soil amendments. Further studies are needed to elucidate the impacts of digestate stability on biosolarization efficacy and soil properties.

  2. A Supply-Chain Analysis Framework for Assessing Densified Biomass Solid Fuel Utilization Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Densified Biomass Solid Fuel (DBSF is a typical solid form of biomass, using agricultural and forestry residues as raw materials. DBSF utilization is considered to be an alternative to fossil energy, like coal in China, associated with a reduction of environmental pollution. China has abundant biomass resources and is suitable to develop DBSF. Until now, a number of policies aimed at fostering DBSF industry have been proliferated by policy makers in China. However, considering the seasonality and instability of biomass resources, these inefficiencies could trigger future scarcities of biomass feedstocks, baffling the resilience of biomass supply chains. Therefore, this review paper focuses on DBSF policies and strategies in China, based on the supply chain framework. We analyzed the current developing situation of DBSF industry in China and developed a framework for policy instruments based on the supply chain steps, which can be used to identify and assess the deficiencies of current DBSF industry policies, and we proposed some suggestions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance the development of DBSF industry.

  3. Tourism and solid waste generation in Europe: A panel data assessment of the Environmental Kuznets Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulú, Italo; Lozano, Javier; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between tourism growth and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been, until now, the subject of little research. This is puzzling since the tourism sector is an important MSW generator and, at the same time, is willing to avoid negative impacts from MSW mismanagement. This paper aims to provide tools for tourism and MSW management by assessing the effects of tourism volume, tourism quality and tourism specialization on MSW generation in the UE. This is done using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework. The study considers a panel data for 32 European economies in the 1997-2010 periods. Empirical results support the EKC hypothesis for MSW and shows that northern countries tend to have lower income elasticity than less developed countries; furthermore, results confirm a non-linear and significant effect of tourism arrivals, expenditure per tourist and tourism specialization on MSW generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Volatile compounds emission and health risk assessment during composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Liu, Yanjun; Duan, Zhenhan

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste in composting facilities is among the major contributors of volatile compounds (VCs) generation and emission, causes nuisance problems and health risks on site as well as in the vicinages. The aim of current study...... was to determine the seasonal (summer and winter) variation and human health risk assessment of VCs in the ambient air of different processing units in MSOF at composting plant in China. Average concentration of VCs was 58.50 and 138.03 mg/m3 in summer and winter respectively. Oxygenated compounds were found...... attention should be made to minimize cumulative non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk as people are well exposed to mixture of compounds, not to individual....

  5. 76 FR 33780 - Assessments for Mismatched Payments or Inadequate Payment Information for Geothermal, Solid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... for Geothermal, Solid Minerals, and Indian Oil and Gas Leases AGENCY: Office of Natural Resources Revenue, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Regulations for geothermal, solid minerals, and Indian oil and...

  6. Technical and economic assessment of power generation from municipal solid waste incineration on steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Luna, Carlos Manuel; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto; Ferrufino, Gretta Larisa Aurora Arce; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Dept. of Energy. UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: carrocci@feg.unesp.br, perrella@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a concern in development of environmentally friendly methods for a municipal solid waste (MSW) management and demand for renewable energy sources. The source of waste is increasing, and the capacity and availability Landfill treatment and disposal are coming to be insufficient. In Sao Paulo City, the 10 million inhabitants produce 10,000 t of residential solid waste daily, being that 76% this quantity goes to landfill sites. In order to adopt a new treatment technology for MSW that will promote a solution minimizing this problem, within the order of priorities regarding waste management, the MSW incineration with energy recovery shown as the leading choice on the point of view of efficiency in converting energy. MSW incineration with energy recovery received wide acceptance from various countries including European Union members and the rest of the world in the past 15 years. Incineration has the ability decrease 90 % the volume of waste to be used in landfills, increasing the useful life of existing as well as a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. MSW incineration systems have a low global warming potential (GWP). now has become a less important source of dioxins and furans due to the current available technology. MSW incineration with energy recovery could contribute considerably in the energy matrix, thus promote the conservation of non-renewable resources. This paper proposes the assessment the technical and economic feasibility of a steam cycle with conventional steam generator for MSW incineration with energy recovery for power generation in Sao Paulo City. Will be developed a thermoeconomic analysis aiming at the total power generation product of MSW incineration, and the assessment investment cost regarding the total sale of power generated. The study shows that Sao Paulo City has potential for power generation from the MSW incineration, although it has a high cost investment this technology shown as a suitable alternative for

  7. Household organophosphorus pesticide use and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Shilpa; Liew, Zeyan; Paul, Kimberly; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-01

    Household pesticide use is widespread in the USA. Since the 1970s, organophosphorus chemicals (OPs) have been common active ingredients in these products. Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to pesticide exposures but little is known about the contributions of chronic exposures to household pesticides. Here we investigate whether long-term use of household pesticides, especially those containing OPs, increases the odds of PD. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed frequency of household pesticide use for 357 cases and 807 controls, relying on the California Department of Pesticide Regulation product label database to identify ingredients in reported household pesticide products and the Pesticide Action Network pesticide database of chemical ingredients. Using logistic regression we estimated the effects of household pesticide use. Frequent use of any household pesticide increased the odds of PD by 47% [odds ratio (OR)=1.47, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.92)]; frequent use of products containing OPs increased the odds of PD more strongly by 71% [OR=1.71, (95% CI: 1.21, 2.41)] and frequent organothiophosphate use almost doubled the odds of PD. Sensitivity analyses showed that estimated effects were independent of other pesticide exposures (ambient and occupational) and the largest odds ratios were estimated for frequent OP users who were carriers of the 192QQ paraoxonase genetic variant related to slower detoxification of OPs. We provide evidence that household use of OP pesticides is associated with an increased risk of developing PD.

  8. [Methods for health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmagnani, Federica; Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Lauriola, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy.

  9. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  10. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  11. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  12. Household Wealth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility.

  13. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department ' ' Radiation Protection and Health' ' , Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Zurich, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Zhang, Wei [Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated ''No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data''. Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome ''all solid cancer'', it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome ''all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer''. It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and

  14. Solid transport in mountain rivers: monitoring techniques and long term assessment as flood prevention tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Ivanov, Vladislav; Messa, Giacomo; Veronelli, Andrea; Radice, Alessio; Papini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Floods are calamitous phenomena with an ever-increasing frequency around the globe, that often result in socio-economic damage and casualties. The role of the solid fraction in the river dynamic has been widely debated in the last decade and its importance is recognized as critical and not negligible in flood simulations as it has been evidenced that the severity of an event is often the result of the coupling of a flood wave with elevated solid transport rates. Nevertheless, assessing the quantity of sediment mobilized in a particular event is not feasible without a long term analysis of the river's dynamics and its morphological evolution since it is defined by past events. This work is focused on the techniques to improve knowledge about sediment production and transport through hydrological networks as a necessary component of a wise flood prevention planning. In particular, a multidisciplinary approach that combines hydraulic and geological knowledge is required in order to understand the evolution of the river sediment and how it will influence the following critical event. The methods are presented through a case study in Italy where a series of different approaches have been integrated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the problem: the sediment movement has been studied by a Eulerian as well as a Lagrangian approaches while hydraulic properties of the stream have been measured. The research started with an attempt to monitor sediment movements: in June 2016 300 sample pebbles, equipped with RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) transponders, have been deployed in the river and tracked after every major rainfall event. The obtained data-set has been combined with a morphological analysis and a river flow discharge computed through PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method in order to identify the relation between a given rainfall event and sediment transport. Moreover, critical sediment size has been estimated from field data using three approaches: two

  15. Application of the Nutrition Functional Diversity indicator to assess food system contributions to dietary diversity and sustainable diets of Malawian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Mundorf, Adrienne R; Rose, Donald

    2015-09-01

    Dietary diversity is associated with nutrient adequacy and positive health outcomes but indicators to measure diversity have focused primarily on consumption, rather than sustainable provisioning of food. The Nutritional Functional Diversity score was developed by ecologists to describe the contribution of biodiversity to sustainable diets. We have employed this tool to estimate the relative contribution of home production and market purchases in providing nutritional diversity to agricultural households in Malawi and examine how food system provisioning varies by time, space and socio-economic conditions. A secondary analysis of nationally representative household consumption data to test the applicability of the Nutritional Functional Diversity score. The data were collected between 2010 and 2011 across the country of Malawi. Households (n 11 814) from predominantly rural areas of Malawi. Nutritional Functional Diversity varied demographically, geographically and temporally. Nationally, purchased foods contributed more to household nutritional diversity than home produced foods (mean score=17·5 and 7·8, respectively). Households further from roads and population centres had lower overall diversity (PFunctional Diversity score is an effective indicator for identifying populations with low nutritional diversity and the relative roles that markets, agricultural extension and home production play in achieving nutritional diversity. This information may be used by policy makers to plan agricultural and market-based interventions that support sustainable diets and local food systems.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental assessment of mining industry solid pollution in the mercurial district of Azzaba, northeast Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seklaoui, M'hamed; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Benali, Hanafi; Alligui, Fadila; Prochaska, Walter

    2016-11-01

    To date, there have been few detailed studies regarding the impact of mining and metallogenic activities on solid fractions in the Azzaba mercurial district (northeast Algeria) despite its importance and global similarity with large Hg mines. To assess the degree, distribution, and sources of pollution, a physical inventory of apparent pollution was developed, and several samples of mining waste, process waste, sediment, and soil were collected on regional and local scales to determine the concentration of Hg and other metals according to their existing mineralogical association. Several physico-chemical parameters that are known to influence the pollution distribution are realized. The extremely high concentrations of all metals exceed all norms and predominantly characterize the metallurgic and mining areas; the metal concentrations significantly decrease at significant low distances from these sources. The geo-accumulation index, which is the most realistic assessment method, demonstrates that soils and sediments near waste dumps and abandoned Hg mines are extremely polluted by all analyzed metals. The pollution by these metals decreases significantly with distance, which indicates a limited dispersion. The results of a clustering analysis and an integrated pollution index suggest that waste dumps, which are composed of calcine and condensation wastes, are the main source of pollution. Correlations and principal component analysis reveal the important role of hosting carbonate rocks in limiting pollution and differentiating calcine wastes from condensation waste, which has an extremely high Hg concentration (˃1 %).

  18. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...... of population ageing....

  19. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  20. Multidimensional structure of a questionnaire to assess barriers to and motivators of physical activity in recipients of solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin J.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Dekker, Rienk; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the underlying dimensions of the Barriers and Motivators Questionnaire that is used to assess barriers to and motivators of physical activity experienced by recipients of solid organ transplantation and thereby improve the application in research and clinical settings. Method: A

  1. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  2. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and clearly labeled. Never store hazardous products in food containers. Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with ... a newspaper and placing them in a sealed plastic bag in your trash can. Dispose of hazardous ...

  3. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Household Wealth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of househ...

  5. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e.......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  6. Performance Assessment of Single Electrode-Supported Solid Oxide Cells Operating in the Steam Electrolysis Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X. Zhang; J. E. O' Brien; R. C. O' Brien; N. Petigny

    2011-11-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm{sup 2} per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes ({approx}10 {mu}m thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes ({approx}1400 {mu}m thick), and modified LSM or LSCF air-side electrodes ({approx}90 {mu}m thick). The purpose of the present study is to document and compare the performance and degradation rates of these cells in the fuel cell mode and in the electrolysis mode under various operating conditions. Initial performance was documented through a series of voltage-current (VI) sweeps and AC impedance spectroscopy measurements. Degradation was determined through long-term testing, first in the fuel cell mode, then in the electrolysis mode. Results generally indicate accelerated degradation rates in the electrolysis mode compared to the fuel cell mode, possibly due to electrode delamination. The paper also includes details of an improved single-cell test apparatus developed specifically for these experiments.

  7. Oxygen respirometry to assess stability and maturity of composted municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannotti, D.A.; Grebus, M.E.; Toth, B.L.; Madden, L.V.; Hoitink, A.J. [Ohio State Univ./Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The stability and maturity of compost prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a full-scale composting plant was assessed through chemical, physical, and biological assays. Respiration bioassays used to determine stability (O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} respirometry) were sensitive to process control problems at the composting plant and indicated increasing stability with time. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth bioassays revealed that immature compost samples inhibited growth. Growth of ryegrass in potting mix prepared with cured compost not amended with fertilizer was enhanced as compared to a pest control. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed germination, used as an indicator of phytotoxicity, revealed inhibition of germination at all compost maturity levels. The phytotoxicity was though to be salt-related. Spearman rank-order correlations demonstrated that O{sub 2} respirometry, water-soluble organic C, and the water extract organic C to organic N ratio, significantly correlated with compost age and best indicated an acceptable level of stability. Oxygen respirometry also best predicted the potential for ryegrass growth, and an acceptable level of compost maturity. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Health risk assessment of PCDD/F emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu-Qi; Liu, Hong-Mei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the environmental impacts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) emitted from two typical municipal solid-waste incinerators (MSWIs), named M and L, in China. The main differences between the two MSWIs relate to incineration technologies, treatment capacities, emission standards and meteorological conditions. The distribution of PCDD/Fs in the surrounding ambient air and soils of the MWSIs were monitored and compared. In addition, air dispersion models and health risk assessments were combined to determine the behaviour and transport of PCDD/Fs. The results indicated that higher PCDD/F emission levels resulted in higher concentrations in the surrounding environment. The average PCDD/F levels emitted from the M MSWI was about seven times higher than those emitted from the L MSWI and about 10 times and 2 times higher in air and soils, respectively. The simulation results were similar to the trend of the monitored results. Both the observed and the simulation results suggested that the atmospheric pollution by PCDD/F surrounding the M MSWI was relatively serious; the environmental impact of the L MSWI was not significant.

  9. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Hassan A; Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-01

    Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H(2)) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify(®)) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection.

  11. Development of sludge filterability test to assess the solids removal potential of a sludge bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    A qualitative sludge characterisation technique called ¿sludge filterability technique¿ has been developed. This technique enables the determination of the sludge potential for the physical removal of solids, weighing the effect of different process parameters on solids removal and identifying the

  12. French Health Technology Assessment of Antineoplastic Drugs Indicated in the Treatment of Solid Tumours: Perspective for Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaid, Christos; Borget, Isabelle; Braun, Eric; Bazil, Marie-Laure; Schaetz, Dominique; Rémuzat, Cécile; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-08-01

    France is one of the European countries that spend the most on oncology drugs. To keep pharmaceutical expenditure under control, Health Authorities highly scrutinize market access of costly medicines. To assess current and future trends in French health technology assessment (HTA) of antineoplastic drugs indicated in the treatment of solid tumours. A review of the SMR and ASMR drivers of the Transparency Committee (CT) opinions issued for antineoplastic drugs indicated in the treatment of solid tumours and approved between 2009 and 2014 was performed to assess current trends in French health technology assessment (HTA), complemented by an expert board consultation to capture the critical issues on the future of antineoplastic drugs HTA. Thirty-one drugs indicated for the treatment of solid tumours were identified (77 % targeted therapies). Initial CT assessments were available for 26 drugs. Four key items in the CT assessment were identified: 1) Clinical trial methodology; 2) Acceptance of progression-free survival (PFS) as a valuable endpoint; 3) Transferability of clinical trials in clinical practice; 4) Unpredictability of CT decisions. Experts raised the important development of personalised medicines in oncology and key challenges for oncology products to generate information expected from HTA perspective. The French system remains committed to its values and philosophy (access of all innovations for everybody) which are threatened by the increasing launch of innovative therapies and budget constraint. Both HTA decision framework evolution and revision of the current pricing process should be considered in France to cope with these new challenges.

  13. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios on the small island of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajcoomar, Avinash; Ramjeawon, Toolseeram

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the life cycle assessment tool to assess, from an environmental point of view, the different possible municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios for the island of Mauritius. The scenarios include landfilling with energy recovery (S1), incineration with energy recovery (S2), composting, incineration and landfilling (S3) and finally composting, recycling, incineration and landfilling (S4). The MSW generated in 2010 was selected as the functional unit. Foreground data were collected through surveys and literature. Background data were obtained from ecoinvent data in SimaPro 8 libraries. The scenarios were compared both through the CML-IA baseline-midpoint method and the ReCiPe end-point method. From the midpoint method, the results obtained indicates that landfilling (S1) has the greatest impact in all the analyzed impact categories except ozone layer depletion and human toxicity, while incineration (S2) has the least impact on almost all the analyzed damage categories except in global warming potential and human toxicity. The collection and transportation of waste has a significant impact on the environment. From the end-point method, S4 reduces the damage impact categories on Human Health, Ecosystems and Resources due to the recycling process. S3 is not favorable due to the impact caused by the composting process. However, it is also very important to emphasize that for incineration, the best available technology with energy recovery shall be considered. It is recommended that S2 and S4 are considered for strategic planning.

  14. Life-cycle assessment (EASEWASTE) of two municipal solid waste incineration technologies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-06-01

    The environmental profile of two municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) technologies with semi-dry flue gas cleaning, namely grated firing incinerators (GFI) and fluidised bed incinerators (FBI) that are commonly used in China were evaluated and compared by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. All emissions of key pollutants as well as energy, resource and material inputs and outputs associated with the two MSWI technologies were determined and the corresponding environmental impact potentials were modelled. Incineration of MSW with a lower heating value (LHV) around 4.5 MJ kg(-1) demands that auxiliary fuel is used, and both GFI and FBI caused environmental loads by contributing with environmental impact potentials in most categories except for some saving in global warming (GW100) and hazardous waste (HW). Coal combustion in FBI is a main contributor to the environmental impact potentials and thus should always be limited to a minimum. Auxiliary fuels can be avoided when the LHV of MSW is higher than 5-6 MJ kg(- 1). For all scenarios, GFI saves more global warming potentials than FBI due to its higher net power generation from combustion of MSW itself. Leachate from the bunker could be sprayed into the furnace for evaporation under high temperature, as an alternative to waste-water treatment, without major changes in the environmental profile of the incinerator. The presented evaluations may contribute to a more balanced environmental assessment of the two incineration technologies with respect to incineration of MSW with low heating values as often found in Asia and China.

  15. [Health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: findings of the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Badaloni, Chiara; Cernigliaro, Achille; Chiusolo, Monica; Parmagnani, Federica; Pizzuti, Renato; Scondotto, Salvatore; Cadum, Ennio; Forastiere, Francesco; Lauriola, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The SESPIR Project (Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants) assessed the impact on health of residents nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants in five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily). The assessment procedure took into account the available knowledge on health effects of waste disposal facilities. Analyses were related to three different scenarios: a Baseline scenario, referred to plants active in 2008-2009; the regional future scenario, with plants expected in the waste regional plans; a virtuous scenario (Green 2020), based on a policy management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through the reduction of production and an intense recovery policy. Facing with a total population of around 24 million for the 5 regions, the residents nearby the plants were more than 380,000 people at Baseline. Such a population is reduced to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and 170.000 inhabitants in the regional and Green 2020 scenarios, respectively. The health impact was assessed for the period 2008-2040. At Baseline, 1-2 cases per year of cancer attributable to MSW plants were estimated, as well as 26 cases per year of adverse pregnancy outcomes (including low birth weight and birth defects), 102 persons with respiratory symptoms, and about a thousand affected from annoyance caused by odours. These annual estimates are translated into 2,725 years of life with disability (DALYs) estimated for the entire period. The DALYs are reduced by approximately 20% and 80% in the two future scenarios. Even in these cases, health impact is given by the greater effects on pregnancy and the annoyance associated with the odours of plants. In spite of the limitations due to the inevitable assumptions required by the present exercise, the proposed methodology is suitable for a first approach to assess different policies that can be adopted in regional planning in

  16. Quantitative assessment of solid waste treatment systems in the industrial ecology perspective by exergy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Jo P; Van Langenhove, Herman R

    2002-03-01

    Solid waste treatment options (recycling, incineration, and landfilling; the two latter processes both with co-generation of heat and electricity) have been studied for cardboard, newspaper, polyethylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), polypropylene, polystyrene, and poly(vinyl chloride) waste. The conversion processes have been analyzed in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The analysis allows calculating the exergy (useful energy) embodied in conversion products that can be obtained from the required inputs for the treatment processes. Taking into account the waste materials and the resources to convert them, it proved that recycling is the most efficient option for polyethylene with an efficiency of 62.5% versus 43.6% for incineration and 0.9% for landfilling. Next, waste treatment has been put into the broader perspective of industrial ecology. Exergetic efficiencies of industrial metabolic options have been calculated. Here resources for manufacturing and converting solid products have been considered. Furthermore, selection of one type of conversion excludes the generation of other potential conversion products. Therefore, it has to be taken into account that these latter products still have to be produced starting from virgin resources. Recycling proved to be the most efficient strategy: the ratio eta between exergy embodied in all delivered products on one hand, and all exergy withdrawn from the ecosphere or from waste materials on the other hand, is the highest. For polyethylene, eta proved to be 0.568, whereas eta is 0.503 and 0.329 for incineration and landfilling, respectively. On the other hand, if R the ratio between exergy of delivered products on one hand and exergy of virgin materials on the other hand is calculated, the differences between the industrial metabolic options are larger. Recycling polyethylene showed a ratio R of 0.936, whereas ratios of 0.772 and 0.531 were found for incineration and landfilling, respectively. It has been

  17. Common mental disorder in Nyanza province, Kenya in 2013 and its associated risk factors--an assessment of change since 2004, using a repeat household survey in a demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Ongeri, Linnet; Sifuna, Peter; Ongecha, Michael; Kingora, James; Kiima, David; Omollo, Raymond; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2015-12-09

    Repeat household surveys are useful to assess change in prevalence over time, but there have been no repeat surveys of common mental disorder (CMD) in Kenya, or indeed sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore a repeat household survey of CMD and its associated risk factors was conducted in Maseno area, Kisumu county in Kenya, using a demographic surveillance site as the sample frame, in order to test the hypotheses that (a) the prevalence of CMD would increase between 2004 and 2013 due to the intervening political, social and economic pressures; (b) as in 2004, there would be no gender difference in prevalence of CMD. One thousand one hundred ninety households were selected, and 1158 adult participants consented to be interviewed with a structured epidemiological assessment while 32 refused to participate in the study interviews, giving a response rate of 97.3%. The study found that the overall prevalence of CMD in 2013 was 10.3%. However, there were significantly higher rates of having any CMD in 2013 if one was female (OR 6.2, p mental disorders continue to pose a significant public health burden in Kenya, and gender related vulnerability merits further research and is relevant for health worker training.

  18. Assessment of environmental policy implementation in solid waste management in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Schoenberger, Erica; Boland, John J

    2017-06-01

    In Nepal, full-fledged environmental legislation was rare before the democratic constitution of 1990. The first law covering the environment and sustainability was the Environment Protection Act 1997. While the Solid Waste Act was introduced in 1987, the problem of solid waste management still surfaces in Kathmandu. In order to understand the bedrock of this unrelenting failure in solid waste management, the manuscript digs deeper into policy implementation by dissecting solid waste rules, environmental legislations, relevant local laws, and solid waste management practices in Kathmandu, Nepal. A very rich field study that included surveys, interviews, site visits, and literature review provided the basis for the article. The study shows that volumes of new Nepalese rules are crafted without effective enforcement of their predecessors and there is a frequent power struggle between local government bodies and central authority in implementing the codes and allocating resources in solid waste management. The study concludes that Kathmandu does not require any new instrument to address solid waste problems; instead, it needs creation of local resources, execution of local codes, and commitment from central government to allow free exercise of these policies.

  19. Assessing the costs of municipal solid waste treatment technologies in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleluia, João; Ferrão, Paulo

    2017-11-01

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the main costs incurred by local authorities in developing countries. According to some estimates, these costs can account for up to 50% of city government budgets. It is therefore of importance that policymakers, urban planners and practitioners have an adequate understanding of what these costs consist of, from collection to final waste disposal. This article focuses on a specific stage of the MSW value chain, the treatment of waste, and it aims to identify cost patterns associated with the implementation and operation of waste treatment approaches in developing Asian countries. An analysis of the capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditures (OPEX) of a number of facilities located in countries of the region was conducted based on a database gathering nearly 100 projects and which served as basis for assessing four technology categories: composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal treatment, and the production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Among these, it was found that the least costly to invest, asa function of the capacity to process waste, are composting facilities, with an average CAPEX per ton of 21,493 USD 2015 /ton. Conversely, at the upper end featured incineration plants, with an average CAPEX of 81,880 USD 2015 /ton, with this treatment approach ranking by and large as the most capital intensive of the four categories assessed. OPEX figures of the plants, normalized and analyzed in the form of OPEX/ton, were also found to be higher for incineration than for biological treatment methods, although on this component differences amongst the technology groups were less pronounced than those observed for CAPEX. While the results indicated the existence of distinct cost implications for available treatment approaches in the developing Asian context, the analysis also underscored the importance of understanding the local context asa means to properly identify the cost structure of each specific plant

  20. Geospatial analysis of household spread of Ebola virus in a quarantined village - Sierra Leone, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, B L; Foster, S; Wilt, G E; Miles, B; Lewis, B; Cauthen, K; King, M; Bayor, F; Conteh, S; Sesay, T; Kamara, S I; Lambert, G; Finley, P; Beyeler, W; Moore, T; Gaudioso, J; Kilmarx, P H; Redd, J T

    2017-10-01

    We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.

  1. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  2. SEPARATE DIGESTION OF LIQUID AND SOLID FRACTIONS OF THERMALLY PRETREATED SECONDARY SLUDGE. ASSESSMENT AND GLOBAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Pérez-Elvira

    Full Text Available Abstract The fractioning into separate liquid and solid fractions obtained by centrifugation of thickened fresh and thermally pretreated (170 ºC, 50 minutes secondary sludge showed that 30% of the particulate organic matter was released during the pretreatment, correspondingly increasing the methane production of the particulate matter by 30% (from 259 to 329 mL CH4/g VSfed. The responsible of this enhancement was the liquid fraction, as the biodegradability of the solid fraction remained constant after the pretreatment. Mass balances showed that 34% of the VS were released to the liquid fraction, generating nearly 50% of the total methane produced, with much faster kinetics compared to the solid fraction. These results support the hypothesis of a separate liquid-solid digestion of thermally pretreated sludge, which would result in decreasing the digestion volume to half while duplicating the methane productivity per kilogram of sludge fed to digestion.

  3. A Platform for Rapid, Quantitative Assessment of Multiple Drug Combinations Simultaneously in Solid Tumors In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyoti Dey

    Full Text Available While advances in high-throughput screening have resulted in increased ability to identify synergistic anti-cancer drug combinations, validation of drug synergy in the in vivo setting and prioritization of combinations for clinical development remain low-throughput and resource intensive. Furthermore, there is currently no viable method for prospectively assessing drug synergy directly in human patients in order to potentially tailor therapies. To address these issues we have employed the previously described CIVO platform and developed a quantitative approach for investigating multiple combination hypotheses simultaneously in single living tumors. This platform provides a rapid, quantitative and cost effective approach to compare and prioritize drug combinations based on evidence of synergistic tumor cell killing in the live tumor context. Using a gemcitabine resistant model of pancreatic cancer, we efficiently investigated nine rationally selected Abraxane-based combinations employing only 19 xenografted mice. Among the drugs tested, the BCL2/BCLxL inhibitor ABT-263 was identified as the one agent that synergized with Abraxane® to enhance acute induction of localized apoptosis in this model of human pancreatic cancer. Importantly, results obtained with CIVO accurately predicted the outcome of systemic dosing studies in the same model where superior tumor regression induced by the Abraxane/ABT-263 combination was observed compared to that induced by either single agent. This supports expanded use of CIVO as an in vivo platform for expedited in vivo drug combination validation and sets the stage for performing toxicity-sparing drug combination studies directly in cancer patients with solid malignancies.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste: Multi-input versus multi-output perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, G; Ripa, M; Protano, G; Hornsby, C; Ulgiati, S

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyses four strategies for managing the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW) in terms of their environmental impacts and potential advantages by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. To this aim, both a multi-input and a multi-output approach are applied to evaluate the effect of these perspectives on selected impact categories. The analyzed management options include direct landfilling with energy recovery (S-1), Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) followed by Waste-to-Energy (WtE) conversion (S-2), a combination of an innovative MBT/MARSS (Material Advanced Recovery Sustainable Systems) process and landfill disposal (S-3), and finally a combination of the MBT/MARSS process with WtE conversion (S-4). The MARSS technology, developed within an European LIFE PLUS framework and currently implemented at pilot plant scale, is an innovative MBT plant having the main goal to yield a Renewable Refined Biomass Fuel (RRBF) to be used for combined heat and power production (CHP) under the regulations enforced for biomass-based plants instead of Waste-to-Energy systems, for increased environmental performance. The four scenarios are characterized by different resource investment for plant and infrastructure construction and different quantities of matter, heat and electricity recovery and recycling. Results, calculated per unit mass of waste treated and per unit exergy delivered, under both multi-input and multi-output LCA perspectives, point out improved performance for scenarios characterized by increased matter and energy recovery. Although none of the investigated scenarios is capable to provide the best performance in all the analyzed impact categories, the scenario S-4 shows the best LCA results in the human toxicity and freshwater eutrophication categories, i.e. the ones with highest impacts in all waste management processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of biogas production in Argentina from co-digestion of sludge and municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Vicentin, Rocio; Campanella, Enrique A

    2017-03-01

    In Argentina, there is an important potential to utilize organic waste to generate bioenergy. This work analyzes the environmental impacts and the energetic and economic requirements of the biogas produced by digesting the sewage sludge (SS) produced in a wastewater treatment plant in a medium city in Argentina. The SS is co-digested with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), and the basis of this study is the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA is performed according to ISO 14040-44 using the SimaPro simulator. First, the transport of the raw materials to the biogas plant was defined. Then, the co-digestion and the biogas treatment for final use were evaluated. The co-digestion was improved with glycerol, and the generation of biogas was estimated using the GPS-X software. Two alternatives for the end use of biogas were considered: combined heat and power (CHP) and biomethane generation. For the first, H 2 S and water vapor were removed from the raw biogas stream, and for the second, also CO 2 was removed. The H 2 S removal process was simulated in the SuperPro software by anaerobic biofiltration. The same software was used to simulate the removal of CO 2 absorption-desorption with water as solvent. Finally, the environmental impacts related to the end use of biogas (CHP and biomethane) were evaluated. The environmental, energetic and economic analyses showed that the co-digestion of SS and OFMSW has great potential for reducing the environmental impacts and increasing the economic and energetic value of the substances via the production of biomethane, electricity and, potentially, fertilizer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An assessment of the current municipal solid waste management system in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Maryam; Barlow, Claire Y; Wilson, David C

    2014-09-01

    The current status of solid waste management in Lahore, a metropolitan city of Pakistan, is reviewed in this article using an existing approach, the UN-Habitat city profile. This involves a systematic quantitative and qualitative assessment of physical components and governance features of the current waste management system. A material flow diagram (MFD) is developed, which allows visualisation of the current waste management system with all related inputs and outputs. This study shows that in the current system, waste collection and transportation is the main focus, however the collection coverage is only about 68%. There is no controlled or even semi-controlled waste disposal facility in Lahore. There is no official recycling system in the city. It is estimated that currently ~27% of waste by weight is being recycled through the informal sector. Making use of the organic content of the waste, a composting facility is operative in the city, producing 47,230 tonnes year(-1) of organic compost. Lahore does not perform very well in governance features. Inclusivity of users and providers of the waste management system is low in the city, as not all stakeholders are consulted in the decision making processes. Waste management costs US$20 per tonne of waste, where the main focus is only on waste collection, and the current user fees are much lower than the actual costs. This study recommends that recycling should be promoted by increasing public awareness and integrating the informal sector to make the current system sustainable and financially viable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...... advantage of this identification strategy is that inheritances from estates that hold risky assets alter the active decision from one of choosing to take risk to one of choosing not to take risk. Our measure of experience derives from investments in banks that defaulted following the financial crisis. We...

  9. Determinants of fuels stacking behaviour among households in Bauchi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ado Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is an important determinant of the socio economic status of citizens across the globe especially the consumption of modern energy. According to the energy ladder hypothesis households move along the energy ladder as their income increases. At the lower rung of the ladder are the low income and usually uneducated households who mainly consume traditional fuels while the middle class and those at upper echelon of the society largely consume transitional and modern fuels. However the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour where households adopt more than one fuel type has been observed even among the middle and upper income families. The question is why is the observed energy consumption pattern in violation of the energy ladder hypothesis? The paper assesses the combined influence of four variables which include income level of households, education level/exposure of households, households’ size and modern fuels supply security on fuels stacking behaviour of households. Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the combined influence of the IVs on the DV. The model has an R2 value of .252 meaning that the model explains about 25% variation in the DV. Individually the variables that make significant and unique contribution to the model are educational level of households, income level of households and family size of households. We therefore recommend improved macroeconomic management to improve households’ income, improved educational system and increased supply and diffusion of modern fuel as a way of reducing the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour of households.

  10. Use of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as an instrument to develop a solid waste management assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Batagarawa, Rabia; Williams, John Barry; Potts, Jonathan Stephenson; Brown, Julia Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a data collection instrument in developing a solid waste management assessment tool. AHP is a quantifying tool that provides an effective and precise means of choosing options evident in many disciplines such as waste management where priority scales measure elements in relative terms. The procedure is performed using Expert Choice software. A structured questionnaire survey was employed to obtain data...

  11. Acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e impactos na saúde de crianças residentes em assentamentos periurbanos de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Household solid waste bagging and collection and their health implications for children living in outlying urban settlements in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Santos Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta estudo do acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e o impacto na saúde de crianças, por meio de pesquisa realizada em nove assentamentos humanos localizados em área periurbana da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Como indicadores epidemiológicos foram utilizados, em 1.893 crianças entre 5 e 14 anos, a infecção por nematóides intestinais, expressa pela prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e ancilostomídeos, e em 1.204 crianças menores de cinco anos, a incidência de diarréia e o estado nutricional, este expresso por indicadores antropométricos. Os resultados apresentam a maior prevalência dos três nematóides nas crianças dos domicílios que não dispõem de acondicionamento adequado e de coleta de resíduos sólidos que naquelas de domicílios com acondicionamento adequado e coleta regular, sendo a diferença encontrada estatisticamente significante, mesmo quando outros fatores de risco sócio-econômicos, culturais, demográficos e ambientais são considerados. Resultado semelhante é também observado com relação aos indicadores epidemiológicos, incidência de diarréia e estado nutricional.This paper presents a study on the bagging and collection of household solid waste and the health implications for children. The research was conducted in nine human settlements on the outskirts of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Intestinal nematode infection, predominantly involving Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, was used as an epidemiological indicator in 1,893 children from 5 to 14 years of age. The study also included diarrhea incidence and nutritional status as shown by anthropometric indicators in 1,204 children less than 5 years of age. There was a higher prevalence of the three nematodes in children living in households without proper bagging/isolation and collection of household solid waste as compared to those in areas with regular garbage

  12. Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management System in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a few basic steps of municipal solid waste management practiced in the six major cities of Bangladesh, namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal, and Sylhet. A six-month field study was conducted to identify the solid wastes management steps such as storage at source, separation, on-site storage, collection, transportation, treatment, reuse, recycling, and ultimate disposal. This study addresses the role of the city authority to meet the demand of the city dwellers in solving this emerging socioenvironmental issue and the initiatives taken by some nongovernmental organizations and community based organizations. The problems and constraints of the solid wastes management system are also identified to find a sustainable management concept for the urban areas of Bangladesh.

  13. The economic burden of cancers on Indian households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Mahal

    Full Text Available We assessed the burden of cancer on households' out-of-pocket health spending, non-medical consumption, workforce participation, and debt and asset sales using data from a nationally representative health and morbidity survey in India for 2004 of nearly 74 thousand households. Propensity scores were used to match households containing a member diagnosed with cancer (i.e. cancer-affected households to households with similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (controls. Our estimates are based on data from 1,645 households chosen through matching. Cancer-affected households experienced higher levels of outpatient visits and hospital admissions and increased out-of-pocket health expenditures per member, relative to controls. Cancer-affected households spent between Indian Rupees (INR 66 and INR 85 more per member on healthcare over a 15-day reference period, than controls and additional expenditures (per member incurred on inpatient care by cancer-affected households annually is equivalent to 36% to 44% of annual household expenditures of matched controls. Members without cancer in cancer-affected households used less health-care and spent less on healthcare. Overall, adult workforce participation rates were lower by between 2.4 and 3.2 percentage points compared to controls; whereas workforce participation rates among adult members without cancer were higher than in control households. Cancer-affected households also had significantly higher rates of borrowing and asset sales for financing outpatient care that were 3.3% to 4.0% higher compared to control households; and even higher for inpatient care.

  14. Promoting household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first

  15. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...

  16. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  17. Assessing the Effectiveness of Learning Solid Geometry by Using an Augmented Reality-Assisted Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chen, Mei-Chi; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates augmented reality (AR) technology into teaching activities to design a learning system that assists junior high-school students in learning solid geometry. The following issues are addressed: (1) the relationship between achievements in mathematics and performance in spatial perception; (2) whether system-assisted learning…

  18. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, Phase II, Post-Secondary Education Profile: Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    Educational programs in solid waste management offered by 16 schools in 9 states were surveyed. These programs represent a sample, only, of the various programs available nationwide. Enrollment and graduate statistics are presented. Overall, 116 full-time and 124 part-time faculty were involved in the programs surveyed. Curricula and sources of…

  19. Spatial assessment of soluble solid contents on apple slices using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to map internal soluble solids content (SSC) of apples using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging was developed. The reflectance spectra of sliced apples were extracted from hyperspectral absorbance images obtained in the 400e1000 nm rang...

  20. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  1. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural women of Tamilnadu: implications for refining disease burden assessments attributable to household biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Johnson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive1 1This paper was orally presented in the Annual conference International Society of Environmental Epidemiology held in Pasadena in 2008. pulmonary disease (COPD is the 13th leading cause of burden of disease worldwide and is expected to become 5th by 2020. Biomass fuel combustion significantly contributes to COPD, although smoking is recognized as the most important risk factor. Rural women in developing countries bear the largest share of this burden resulting from chronic exposures to biomass fuel smoke. Although there is considerable strength of evidence for the association between COPD and biomass smoke exposure, limited information is available on the background prevalence of COPD in these populations.This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of COPD and its associated factors among non-smoking rural women in Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 900 non-smoking women aged above 30 years, from 45 rural villages of Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India in the period between January and May 2007. COPD assessments were done using a combination of clinical examination and spirometry. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between COPD and use of biomass for cooking. R software was used for statistical analysis.The overall prevalence of COPD in this study was found to be 2.44% (95% CI: 1.43–3.45. COPD prevalence was higher in biomass fuel users than the clean fuel users 2.5 vs. 2%, (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.36–6.64 and it was two times higher (3% in women who spend >2 hours/day in the kitchen involved in cooking. Use of solid fuel was associated with higher risk for COPD, although no statistically significant results were obtained in this study.The estimates generated in this study will contribute significantly to the growing database of available information on COPD prevalence in rural women. Moreover, with

  2. Geographic information system (GIS)-based image analysis for assessing growth of Physarum polycephalum on a solid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hanh T M; Stephenson, Steven L; Tullis, Jason A

    2015-01-01

    The conventional method used to assess growth of the plasmodium of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum in solid culture is to measure the extent of plasmodial expansion from the point of inoculation by using a ruler. However, plasmodial growth is usually rather irregular, so the values obtained are not especially accurate. Similar challenges exist in quantification of the growth of a fungal mycelium. In this paper, we describe a method that uses geographic information system software to obtain highly accurate estimates of plasmodial growth over time. This approach calculates plasmodial area from images obtained at particular intervals following inoculation. In addition, the correlation between plasmodial area and its dry cell weight value was determined. The correlation could be used for biomass estimation without the need of having to terminate the cultures in question. The method described herein is simple but effective and could also be used for growth measurements of other microorganisms such as fungi on solid media.

  3. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  4. Cancer evaluation in the assessment of solid organ transplant candidates: A systematic review of clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Sergio A; Lam, Winnie; Daly, Corinne; Kim, S Joseph; Baxter, Nancy N

    2018-01-01

    Active malignancies are a contraindication to transplantation, as immunosuppression can lead to worse cancer outcomes; therefore, ensuring transplant candidates are free of malignancy before transplantation is essential. This systematic review assesses the availability, quality, and consistency of recommended cancer evaluation prior to transplantation in Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) for the selection of solid organ transplant candidates. We systematically searched for CPGs for the assessment of transplant candidates. The characteristics of included CPGs, strength of recommendations and supporting evidence were extracted. A quality assessment of the CPGs was conducted using the AGREE II tool. We identified 52 CPG for the selection of solid organ transplant candidates. Only 13 (25%) included recommendations for cancer evaluation as part of the assessment of transplant candidates. Most recommended age and sex appropriate cancer screening as per the general population guidelines. Recommendations to evaluate for other malignancies and for high-risk candidates were variable. Most recommendations were based on expert opinion and only two CPGs provided an explicit link between the recommendations and supporting evidence. There is a lack of clear and consistent recommendations for pretransplant cancer evaluation in existing CPGs. Although there is some consensus regarding the indication to screen for cancer as per the recommendations for the general population, these recommendations are not an appropriate risk reduction strategy for transplant candidates. Standardized protocols to ensure transplant candidates are cancer free prior to transplantation are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    211 single-family houses in Denmark. The residual waste from each household was collected and sorted separately to obtain a representative variation of the quantity and composition of food waste among households. The main fractions contributing to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food......Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation...... and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...

  6. Household Characteristics That Influence Simple Household Demand on Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongam Sihol Nababan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of households that affect the electric energy consumption of simple households. The second objective is to analyze the probability of each of the factors affecting the electricity energy consumption of small household. The research was conducted in Medan City in the period of March 2014 to November 2014 with samples of 143 small households, the customer of PT. PLN (Persero Medan, which use the power of electricity for TR-1 /450VA. Data were analyzed by using the logistic regression model. The estimation results indicated that (1 the higher the willingnes to pay (WTP of households, the higher the tendency to consume elec trical energy per month. (2 the closer the households residence to the city center, the higher the tendency to consume electrical energy than of the households residence in the suburbs, (3 increasingly unfavourable response to electrical quality, the higher the opportunity to consume a greater electric power monthly.

  7. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  8. R. Bruce Merrifield and Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Historical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R

    2007-12-04

    Bruce Merrifield, trained as a biochemist, had to address three major challenges related to the development and acceptance of solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The challenges were (1) to reduce the concept of peptide synthesis on a insoluble support to practice, (2) overcome the resistance of synthetic chemists to this novel approach, and (3) establish that a biochemist had the scientific credentials to effect the proposed revolutionary change in chemical synthesis. How these challenges were met is discussed in this article.

  9. Assessment of the Stability of Condensed Solid Substance Ignition by a Hot Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a numerical simulation of composite fuel ignition by a disc-shaped hot metal particle. The study establishes the temperature and the source size limits, which are necessary and sufficient for condensed substance ignition. A diagram with coordinates “a heat flow the amplitude – ignition delay time” has been presented. The diagram shows the area of the sustainable initiate combustion of composite solid fuel at local heating by the source with limited energy capacity.

  10. Assessment of the Stability of Condensed Solid Substance Ignition by a Hot Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.; Nyashina Galina S.; Vershinina Ksenia Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical simulation of composite fuel ignition by a disc-shaped hot metal particle. The study establishes the temperature and the source size limits, which are necessary and sufficient for condensed substance ignition. A diagram with coordinates “a heat flow the amplitude – ignition delay time” has been presented. The diagram shows the area of the sustainable initiate combustion of composite solid fuel at local heating by the source with limited energy capacity.

  11. Contribution of Wetlands to Household Income and Food Security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically the study assessed the contribution of wetland system to household income and food security and problems associated with the utilization of the wetland. Both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were collected by use of structured questionnaire administered to different households whose ...

  12. Determinants and coping strategies of household food insecurity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identified the major determinants of household food insecurity and their local coping strategies based on primary data collected from 180 randomly selected households of rural Adwa Woreda, Tigray National Regional State. To assess the determinants of food insecurity binary logit model is employed. The extent ...

  13. Contribution of Food Crops to Household Food Security Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of Food Crops to Household Food Security Among Crop Farmers in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. AL Ala, FA Bello. Abstract. This study was designed to assess the contribution of the major food crops grown by farmers to household food security in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara ...

  14. Nutritional status of children in food insecure households in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess nutritional status of children and other related information in food insecure households. Two hundred food insecure households (HHs) were selected from two districts of North Showa zone of Amhara in 2007. The criteria for inclusion were being landless, oxen-less, and/ or ...

  15. Poverty Profile of Rural Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to empirically assess the extent and level of poverty among rural farm households in Southwest, Nigeria. The study drew a sample of 411 rural farm households through a multi-stage sampling technique and the data obtained were analyzed using the descriptive statistical measures, the poverty depth ...

  16. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy

  17. Rural Household Attitude towards Traditional Methods of Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed rural households' attitude towards traditional methods of malaria treatment and cultural beliefs that affect choice of malaria treatment for enhanced agricultural production in south-east, Nigeria. A sample size of 360 household heads was randomly selected for the study. Data were collected with the use ...

  18. Gender Differences In The Household-Headship And Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In genera self declared female headed-households in most developing countries tend to be poorer, own less and have less access to job opportunities. Objective: To assess the nutritional status of pre-schoolers by gender differentiation of heads of households. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study ...

  19. Redistributive Land Reform in Rwanda: The impact on Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To contribute on this important debate, this study investigates the impact of land redistribution on households' food security. With data collected using household survey in July 2009 in Kayonza District, the study assessed the impact by using Dietary Diversity and Children's Nutritional Status (Stunting, Underweight and ...

  20. Physical characterization and dissolution performance assessment of Etravirine solid dispersions prepared by spray drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommavarapu, Pavan; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Koya, Ravi Teja

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current exertion was to prepare Solid Dispersion of Etravirine by Spray drying technique to enhance aqueous solubility and dissolution rate. Solid dispersions (SD) of Etravirine were prepared using Copovidone and Povidone-Copovidone in dichloromethane and physical properties were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffractometry (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). SD's were evaluated for equilibrium solubility and in vitro drug release profile by dissolution testing. The diffraction and thermal patterns of solid dispersions indicated the conversion of crystalline Etravirine to amorphous form. The solubility of drug in SD's was appreciably more when evaluated against physical mixtures and intact Etravirine. Drug release characteristics were evaluated in three different media at different pH and found that drug release kinetic was best described by weibull mathematical model. Mean dissolution time (MDT) and Dissolution efficiency (DE %) in different media were evaluated for SDs. Statistical evaluation of dissolution data using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) single factor and t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means was applied for better understanding and evaluation.

  1. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar......-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. RESULTS: Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins...

  2. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tewodros; Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

  3. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    . The tests of the usual symmetry conditions are rejected for two person households but not for one person households. We also show that income pooling is rejected for two person households. We then test for our collective setting conditions on the couples data. None of the collective setting restrictions......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...

  4. Good householder and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Petar M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in Serbia, it's fashionable to talk about the fight against corruption. 'The spook of fighting corruption circulates through Serbia'. Is there a chance the fight will win the way it's lead? We are convinced there isn't. Since corruption is a process caused by 'rotten' characters, the anti-corruption fight must also be a process of rehabilitation and creation of the right character - the good householder's character. In this process each aspect is important (legal, economic… but for permanent eradication of the evil or the sin of corruption the most important segment is educational because it creates the genuine moral and spiritual value in a hardworking and long-term manner. In 'the period rich in disasters' (Tacitus, in the hard circumstances lasting too long, which would not be endured by any other nation, many values​​, material and moral have inevitably failed. A Serb has endured but also has worn out and lost many virtues, particularly the spirit of a good householder. Mutual hatred seems to be stronger than love, distrust greater than confidence, doubt stronger than faith, and robbery and spoils stronger than charity and solidarity. We need to restore the balance and despite the hardships, and because of them, we must foster mutual love, harmony, unwavering patriotism and value of domesticity. In other words, we must ensure victory of virtue over vice that threatens us from everywhere, both from inside and outside. At the time of 'nuclear techniques and jungle ethics' (Justin Popović the dispersed home of the Serbs can be turned again into a proper home only if we 'have the spirit of domesticity reigning' (Nikolaj Velimirović. To be a successful householder is to be responsible in relation to the state, institution, household that he was entrusted with: add, not to waste, create not to destroy, enlarge rather than reduce, preserve not to destroy a household. 'Do not steal from a country, it was overpaid. Your brothers

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL SOLIDS AND FAT CONTENTS IN WHOLE LIQUID EGG PRODUCTS BY ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Berardinelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The total solids and fat contents of nine whole liquid egg products were assessed by means of electrical and thermal conductivity measurements. Linear correlations between conductivity values and total solids and fat contents were obtained with R2 values up to 0.995 and 0.990 and maximum errors of predic- 46 TABLE 6 - Linear regression models for the total solids (TS, % and fat (FC, % contents estimation from electrical (Ec, mS/cm and thermal (Tc, W/mK conductivity measurements. SE: Standard Error. Linear regression equation R2 p-level SE (% TS=-6.857*Ec+65.373 0.995 0.000 0.27 FC=-4.993*Ec+40.070 0.985 0.000 0.33 TS=-172.967*Tc+109.605 0.992 0.000 0.33 FC=-126.449*Tc+72.521 0.990 0.000 0.27 tion up to 0.41% and 0.42%, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the albumen, yolk and egg mixtures linearly increased with temperature; at 20°C, temperature coefficients of 2.1%/°C, 2.1%/°C and 1.9 %/°C were respectively calculated. On the contrary, the thermal conductivity of the analysed products did not appear to be substantially influenced by the temperature of the liquid.

  6. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. A community survey of the pattern and determinants of household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... to reduce poverty and improve the use of cleaner source of cooking energy particularly in rural .... The second part contain questions on the primary or ... ventilation, awareness of the harmful effect of inhaling smoke from solid fuel on the lungs. .... Larger households have more hands to collect firewood from.

  8. Household air pollution and childhood pneumonia in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumonia causes more childhood deaths compared to other infectious diseases. Studies have showed that young children exposed to household air pollution (smoke) caused by burning of unprocessed solid fuels such as wood, charcoal, crop waste, animal dung and coal had double the risk of pneumonia infections ...

  9. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This paper reports the evaluation of households' usage of the current solid waste management system (SWMS) within the city of Ilorin, ... respectively of the households were unsatisfied and moderately satisfied with the current waste management system. ..... collection, separation and willingness to pay”,. Kuwait Journal of ...

  10. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB... to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of PCB...

  11. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  12. Maternal resources and household food security: evidence from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A; Herrera Rodríguez, Andrés; Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano; Centeno Cárdenas, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    Women (especially mothers) are theorized as critical to reducing household food insecurity through their work and caregiver roles. The present study tests these assumptions, assessing how maternal economic and social resources are associated with food insecurity in households with young children. Data from a population-based sample of households was collected in León, Nicaragua (n 443). Data include a newly validated measure of household food insecurity (ELCSA), maternal resource measures, and household economic status and demographics. Regression analysis tests the statistical associations (Pyoung children were food secure, with 50% mildly food insecure and 25% moderately/severely food insecure. When mothers contributed substantially to household income, the odds of moderate/severe household food insecurity were 34% lower than when their spouse/partner was the main provider. The odds of food insecurity were 60% lower when mothers managed household money, 48% lower when mothers had a secondary (v. primary) education, 65% higher among single mothers and 16% lower with each indicator of social support. Results were similar for adult- and child-specific food insecurity. This research provides new evidence that maternal economic and social resources are important for reducing household food insecurity and adult- and child-specific food insecurity. Women's social status, social support and access to economic resources need to be enhanced as a part of policies aimed to reduce food insecurity in high-poverty settings.

  13. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Advanced microscopy techniques to assess solid-state properties of inhalation medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2012-03-30

    Efficient control and characterisation of the physico-chemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and excipients for orally inhaled drug products (OIDPs) are critical to successful product development. Control and reduction of risk require the introduction of a material science based approach to product development and the use of advanced analytical tools in understanding how the solid-state properties of the input materials influence structure and product functionality. The key issues to be addressed, at a microscopic scale, are understanding how the critical quality attributes of input materials influence surface, interfacial and particulate interactions within OIDPs. This review offers an in-depth discussion on the use of advanced microscopy techniques in characterising of the solid-state properties of particulate materials for OIDPs. The review covers the fundamental principles of the techniques, instrumentation types, data interpretation and specific applications in relation to the product development of OIDPs. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Viruses at Solid-Water Interfaces: A Systematic Assessment of Interactions Driving Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanious, Antonius; Aeppli, Meret; Jacak, Ronald; Refardt, Dominik; Sigstam, Thérèse; Kohn, Tamar; Sander, Michael

    2016-01-19

    Adsorption to solid-water interfaces is a major process governing the fate of waterborne viruses in natural and engineered systems. The relative contributions of different interaction forces to adsorption and their dependence on the physicochemical properties of the viruses remain, however, only poorly understood. Herein, we systematically studied the adsorption of four bacteriophages (MS2, fr, GA, and Qβ) to five model surfaces with varying surface chemistries and to three dissolved organic matter adlayers, as a function of solution pH and ionic strength, using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The viruses were selected to have similar sizes and shapes but different surface charges, polarities, and topographies, as identified by modeling the distributions of amino acids in the virus capsids. Virus-sorbent interactions were governed by long-ranged electrostatics and favorable contributions from the hydrophobic effect, and shorter-ranged van der Waals interactions were of secondary importance. Steric effects depended on the topographic irregularities on both the virus and sorbent surfaces. Differences in the adsorption characteristics of the tested viruses were successfully linked to differences in their capsid surface properties. Besides identifying the major interaction forces, this work highlights the potential of computable virus surface charge and polarity descriptors to predict virus adsorption to solid-water interfaces.

  16. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Puvanesuaran, Vignesh R.; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes. PMID:23435587

  17. Application of life cycle assessment for hospital solid waste management: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-10-01

    This study was meant to determine environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios using a life cycle analysis approach. The survey for this study was conducted at the largest hospital in a major city of Pakistan. The hospital was thoroughly analyzed from November 2014 to January 2015 to quantify its wastes by category. The functional unit of the study was selected as 1 tonne of disposable solid hospital waste. System boundaries included transportation of hospital solid waste and its treatment and disposal by landfilling, incineration, composting, and material recycling methods. These methods were evaluated based on their greenhouse gas emissions. Landfilling and incineration turned out to be the worst final disposal alternatives, whereas composting and material recovery displayed savings in emissions. An integrated system (composting, incineration, and material recycling) was found as the best solution among the evaluated scenarios. This study can be used by policymakers for the formulation of an integrated hospital waste management plan. This study deals with environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios. It is an increasing area of concern in many developing and resource-constrained countries of the world. The life cycle analysis (LCA) approach is a useful tool for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from different waste management activities. There is a shortage of information in existing literature regarding LCA of hospital wastes. To the best knowledge of the authors this work is the first attempt at quantifying the environmental footprint of hospital waste in Pakistan.

  18. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.

  19. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Canine Symptom Assessment Scale, a multidimensional owner-reported questionnaire instrument for assessment of physical symptoms in dogs with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Michelle A; Farrar, John T; Brown, Dorothy Cimino

    2017-12-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe development and initial psychometric testing of the Canine Symptom Assessment Scale (CSAS), a multidimensional owner-reported questionnaire instrument, in a population of dogs with solid tumors enrolled in clinical trials. DESIGN Questionnaire development and validation study. ANIMALS 238 client-owned dogs with solid tumors. PROCEDURES A 14-symptom questionnaire was developed. Symptoms were defined as subjective physical disturbances dogs experienced during the course of daily living as assessed through proxy reports of pet owners. For each symptom, owners reported frequency and severity of the symptom and extent of distress caused by the symptom for the dog and the owner. Questionnaire content, symptom prevalence and dimensionality, internal consistency, and factor structure were examined. Construct and criterion validity were examined via comparison with the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI). RESULTS Symptom prevalence was high, with pain and lack of energy reported in most dogs. Severity, versus frequency, was most highly correlated with both dog and owner distress. Two symptoms were removed from consideration because of poor performance. Analysis of the remaining 12 symptoms revealed that they could be grouped into 3 factors: malaise, anxiety, and digestive upset. The CSAS factor and total scores demonstrated predictable relationships with quality of life and pain scores as measured by the CBPI, including a significant association between increasing symptom burden and decreasing quality of life. The Cronbach α for the CSAS was 0.77. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The 12-item CSAS was a psychometrically sound owner-reported instrument for assessment of symptom frequency and characteristics in client-owned dogs with solid tumors. Potential applications include clinical research and practice settings.

  1. Performance Assessment of Solid Waste Management following Private Partnership Operations in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboje Ifeoma Anestina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of delivering modern, high quality public services and promoting competition in the waste management sector leads to formation of private sector participation (PSP to handle solid waste management in Lagos State. The findings depict that quality of service among the PSP operators recorded high success in the high income areas than those of the low and medium income areas. On the average, industry productivity was 6.63 tonnes per day per vehicle. 18 out of 30 companies in the study area were above this average and in meeting increased productivity, year of experience in operations, number of trips made, number of times trucks were serviced, and adhering to regulatory agency requirement were among the factors influencing company’s productivity in the state. The study, therefore, recommends that regulatory agency should be more aggressive in playing its statutory roles of managing the PSP operators.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lu, Wenjing

    2011-01-01

    of auxiliary fuels to support combustion of wet waste. As for the long-term future scenario, efficient source separation of food waste could result in significant environmental improvements, primarily because of increase in calorific value of remaining waste incinerated with energy recovery. Sensitivity...... analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City.......The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery...

  3. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...... (GB13223-2011)” implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO2 and NOx emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated...

  4. Solid secondary waste testing for maintenance of the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment - FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being constructed to treat 56 million gallons of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site. Operation of the WTP will generate several solid secondary waste (SSW) streams including used process equipment, contaminated tools and instruments, decontamination wastes, high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), carbon adsorption beds, silver mordenite iodine sorbent beds, and spent ion exchange resins (IXr) all of which are to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). An applied research and development program was developed using a phased approach to incrementally develop the information necessary to support the IDF PA with each phase of the testing building on results from the previous set of tests and considering new information from the IDF PA calculations. This report contains the results from the exploratory phase, Phase 1 and preliminary results from Phase 2. Phase 3 is expected to begin in the fourth quarter of FY17.

  5. Phytotoxicity assessment of olive mill solid wastes and the influence of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Inês A; Lopes, Daniela V; Martins, Rui C; Quina, Margarida J

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the phytotoxicity of olive mill solid wastes (OMW) produced in two different centrifugation technologies and also the toxicity associated with specific phenolic compounds. Two samples of waste were collected in two-phase (2P-OMW) and three-phase (3P-OMW) centrifugation olive oil production processes, and cress bioassays with Lepidium sativum L. were employed to evaluate phytotoxicity. Although both OMW have similar total phenolic content (TPh), results confirmed that 2P-OMW is more phytotoxic than 3P-OMW. When extracts from 2P-OMW at liquid to solid ratio of 10 L kg(-1) were applied none of the seeds germinated, i.e. germination index (GI) was 0%, while for 3P-OMW GI was 94.3%. Growth tests in soil and mixtures with OMW also led to more favorable results for 3P-OMW, whereas worse results than those obtained in the control experiments were observed. In order to discriminate the individual influence of eleven phenolic compounds, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, cinnamic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, veratric acid and phenol were tested in the concentration range of 5-500 mg L(-1). Results showed that cinnamic acid is the most phytotoxic, with EC50 of 60 mg L(-1), which is related with its hydrophobicity. Moreover, increasing -OH and -OCH3 groups in these molecules seem to reduce phytotoxicity. Tests with a mixture of six phenolic compounds demonstrated there are neither synergistic nor additive effects. The phytotoxicity appears to be determined by the presence of the most lipophilic phenolic molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EFFECT SIGNIFICANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE THERMODYNAMICAL FACTORS ON THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of direct conversion of the fuel energy into electrical power are an upcoming trend in power economy. Over the last decades a number of countries have created industrial prototypes of power plants on fuel elements (cells, while fuel cells themselves became a commercial product on the world energy market. High electrical efficiency of the fuel cells allows predictting their further spread as part of hybrid installations jointly with gas and steam turbines which specifically enables achieving the electrical efficiency greater than 70 %. Nevertheless, investigations in the area of increasing efficiency and reliability of the fuel cells continue. Inter alia, research into the effects of oxidizing reaction thermodynamic parameters, fuel composition and oxidation reaction products on effectiveness of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC is of specific scientific interest. The article presents a concise analysis of the fuel type effects on the SOFC efficiency. Based on the open publications experimental data and the data of numerical model studies, the authors adduce results of the statistical analysis of the SOFC thermodynamic parameters effect on the effectiveness of its functioning as well as of the reciprocative factors of these parameters and gas composition at the inlet and at the outlet of the cell. The presented diagrams reflect dimension of the indicated parameters on the SOFC operation effectiveness. The significance levels of the above listed factors are ascertained. Statistical analysis of the effects of the SOFC functionning process thermodynamical, consumption and concentration parameters demonstrates quintessential influence of the reciprocative factors (temperature – flow-rate and pressure – flow-rate and the nitrogen N2 and oxygen O2 concentrations on the operation efficiency in the researched range of its functioning. These are the parameters to be considered on a first-priority basis while developing mathematical models

  7. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  8. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account.Problem statementThe goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  9. The multitasking of household production

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Foster, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    The standard household production model does not incorporate multitasking, although time-diary data reveal that individuals regularly multi-task. We formulate a model where time spent in child care can be sole-tasked or multitasked with other household production activities. This model implies associations between household productivity factors and both child outcomes and parental time use. We then use data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Australian Time Use Surveys...

  10. Mercury risk assessment combining internal and external exposure methods for a population living near a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chunyan; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Maodian; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessments for human health have been conducted for municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in many western countries, whereas only a few risk assessments have been performed for MSWIs in developing countries such as China where the use of waste incineration is increasing rapidly. To assess the mercury exposure risks of a population living near the largest MSWI in South China, we combined internal exposure and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire. The mercury concentrations in air, soil, and locally collected food around the MSWI were assessed. The total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) of 447 blood samples from a control group, residential exposure group, and MSWI workers were measured. The internal and external exposures of the subject population were analyzed. Significant difference in MeHg concentrations was observed between the control group and the exposed group, between the control group and the MSWI workers, and between the exposed group and the MSWI workers (median levels: 0.70 μg/L, 0.81 μg/L, and 1.02 μg/L for the control group, exposed group, and MSWI workers, respectively). The MeHg/T-Hg ratio was 0.51 ± 0.19, 0.59 ± 0.17 and 0.58 ± 0.25, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that MeHg concentrations were positively correlated with the gaseous mercury in the air. Combining internal and external exposure assessment showed that the direct contribution of MSWI emissions was minor compared with the dietary contribution. The external and internal exposures were well matched with each other. This study also suggested that an integrated method combining internal and external exposure assessment with an individual-specific questionnaire is feasible to assess the risks for a population living near a MSWI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV and severity of seasonal household food-related coping behaviors in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Price, L.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In-depth research was conducted to evaluate the seasonal food insecurity of HIV-positive and HIV-negative farm households in the Eastern Region, Ghana. A Coping Strategy Index (CSI) was used to assess household food-related coping behaviors. HIV-positive farm households often relied on both less

  12. Household Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditure and Impoverishment Due to Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Requiring Hospitalization in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Loganathan, T.; Lee, WS; Lee, KF; Jit, M; Ng, CW

    2015-01-01

    Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Methods A...

  13. Use of Household Survey Data as a Tool to Assess the Carbon Footprint of Rural Tourist Accommodation and Related Services in China: A Case Study of Mount Qingcheng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The need to improve the accuracy of carbon emission measurements is a major issue which the tourism industry must resolve in order to reduce adverse impacts on climate change and the environment. This study established a detailed consumption list based on household survey data and calculated the carbon emissions of accommodation and services of the rural tourism industry of Mount Qingcheng using the input–output and lifecycle methods. Further, it analysed the key factors affecting carbon emissions. The results indicate that within the surveyed area, carbon emissions from accommodation and services amounted to 30.27 kg CO2/per person per day; these emissions were primarily from indirect sources, which accounted for 74.99% of the total emissions. Emissions from construction and production of durable goods accounted for 13.08% and 21.58% of the total emissions. The omission of these sources of carbon emissions was the primary reason for the carbon emission levels of the tourism industry being underestimated previously. For each additional 10,000 yuan in revenue, accommodation and related services of the rural tourism industry emit an additional 1412.08 kg of CO2. This is higher than the level of carbon emissions of the agriculture industry, but lower than those of the processing and manufacturing industries. Tourist consumption behaviours and types of tourism operations are important factors affecting carbon emissions. Effective emission reduction strategies include guiding tourist consumption behavioural changes, optimizing tourism operation portfolios, and extending the service life of constructions and durable goods.

  14. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel M Blake

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies.We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies.Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is required to assess if costs can be reduced and to what extent the approach

  15. Power generation using fermentation of solids: ecological assessment; Stromproduktion aus Feststoff-Vergaerung: Oekobilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung, Baar (Switzerland); Edelmann, W. [Arbi GmbH, Maschwanden (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    As a result of the liberalisation of the electricity market, clients have the opportunity to choose between different power providers and qualities of products. One of them is 'eco-power', sold in Switzerland under the brand name 'naturemade star'. Biogas from the digestion of source-separated municipal solid waste is a potential energy source to produce 'naturemade star'. The goal of the present study was to evaluate under which prerequisites biogas from bio waste can fulfil the criteria set by the mentioned label. The life cycle analysis of three different systems of bio waste digestion have been compared with two types of 'composting' plants ('windrow' and 'hall composting'). The calculation was based on the power production of 1 kWh. For the comparison with 'composting' - which is an energy consumer - 1 kg of bio waste was taken as a unit. Usually, digestion is followed by a short aerobic post-treatment. In same installations, only a part of the bio waste, i.e. the wetter, protein-rich fraction, is digested whereas the lignin-rich fraction is composted. All calculations were based on real installations, however, it was assumed that the same amount of waste with an identical composition was treated (35% dry matter, 70% volatile solids, degradation rate 55%). The three anaerobic/aerobic systems digest 100%, 60% and 30% of the waste respectively. Composting includes only aerobic treatment. All the anaerobic systems are favoured when it comes to energy production whereas the windrow composting has lower methane emissions and the indoor composting decreased ammonia emissions. Compared to electricity from PV and wind, biogas has higher emissions of methane, ammonia and NO{sub x}, whereas CO{sub 2} is far lower thanks to the recycling into plant material. However, it is important to optimise combined heat and power generation with respect to flue gas emissions. Beside the direct comparison of the

  16. Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells--expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Anna; Berger, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the potential of coal ash and bagasse ash as inorganic amendments during composting of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Boojhawon, Anuksha; Sewhoo, Babita; Rungasamy, Selven; Somaroo, Geeta D; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2015-08-15

    This study investigates the potential of incorporating inorganic amendments such as coal and bagasse ashes in different composting mixes. 10 different composting mixes were assessed as follows: A-20% bagasse ash (BA) with unsorted municipal solid wastes (UMSW); B-40% BA with UMSW; C-UMSW; D-20% BA with sorted municipal solid wastes (SMSW); E-40% BA with SMSW; F-SMSW; G-20% coal ash (CA) with UMSW; H-40% CA with UMSW; I-20% CA with SMSW and J-40% CA with SMSW. The composting processes were carried out in rotary drum composters. Composting mixes D, F, G and I achieved a temperature above 55 °C for at least 3 days, with the following peak temperatures: D-62 °C, F-57 °C, G-62 °C and I-58 °C. D resulted in the highest average net Volatile solids (VS) degradation of 68.6% and yielded the highest average volume reduction of 66.0%. The final compost from D, G, I, C and F were within range for electrical conductivities (EC) (794-1770 μS/cm) and pH (6.69-7.12). The ashes also helped in maintaining high average water holding capacities within the range of 183-217%. The C/N ratio of sorted wastes was improved by the addition of 20% coal ash and bagasse ash. Higher germination indices, above 0.8 were obtained for the ash-amended compost (D, G, I), indicating the feasibility and enhancement of using bagasse and coal ash as inorganic amendment in the composting process. Regarding heavy metals content, the chromium concentration for the composting mix G was found to be the highest whereas mixes D and I showed compliance with the MS (Mauritian Standards) 164 standards. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  19. The economic burden of angina on households in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-02-19

    Globally, an estimated 54 million people have angina, 16 million of whom are from the WHO South-East Asia region. Despite the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Asia, there is no evidence of an economic burden of angina on households in this region. We investigated the economic burden of angina on households in South Asia. We applied a novel propensity score matching approach to assess the economic burden of angina on household out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, borrowing or selling assets, non-medical consumption expenditure, and employment status of angina-affected individual using nationally representative World Health Survey data from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka collected during 2002-2003. We used multiple matching methods to match households where the respondent reported symptomatic or diagnosed angina with control households with similar propensity scores. Angina-affected households had significantly higher OOP health spending per person in the four weeks preceding the survey than matched controls, in Bangladesh (I$1.94, p = 0.04), in Nepal (I$4.68, p = 0.03) and in Sri Lanka (I$1.99, p household expenditure in excess of 20%, was significantly higher in angina-affected households relative to matched controls in India (9.60%, p households significantly relied on borrowing or selling assets to finance OOP health expenses in Bangladesh (6%, p = 0.03), India (8.20%, p Households that had the respondent reporting angina in South Asia face an economic burden of OOP health expenses (primarily on drugs and other outpatient expenses), and tend to rely on borrowing or selling assets. Our analysis underscores the need to protect South Asian households from the financial burden of CVD.

  20. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-02-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.

  1. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-01-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

  2. Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources & Municipal Solid Waste for Sustainable Power Generation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderoju, Olaide M.; Dias, Guerner A.; Echakraoui, Zhour

    2017-12-01

    The demand for Energy in most Sub-Saharan African countries has become unimaginable despite its high potential of natural and renewable resources. The deficit has impeded the regions’ economic growth and sustainability. Nigeria as a nation is blessed with fossil fuels, abundant sunlight, hydro, wind and many among others, but the energy output to its population (185 million) still remains less than 4000MW. Currently, the clamour for an alternative but renewable energy source is the demand of the globe but it is quite expensive to achieve the yield that meets the Nigeria demand. Hence, this study aims at identifying and mapping out various regions with renewable energy potentials. The study also considers municipal solid waste as a consistent and available resource for power generation. Furthermore, this study examines the drawbacks inhibiting the inability to harness these renewable, energy generating potentials in full capacity. The study will enable the authorities and other stakeholders to invest and plan on providing a sustainable energy for the people.

  3. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review – including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances – were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all – or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for

  4. Methodology of recent solid waste stream assessments and summary of current recycling endeavors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.

    1996-04-01

    Solid Waste Stream Assessments determine the components of given waste streams. An evaluation of findings allows components to be targeted for effective source reduction, reuse, or recycling. LLNL assessed 10% of its onsite dumpster locations (25 of 250). Dumpsters were selected based on location and surrounding facility use. Dumpster contents were sorted according to type into containers. The filled containers were weighed and photographed. The information was noted on field tabulation sheets. Dumpster locations, date of sort, sort categories, weight, and cubic yardage were entered into a database for review and tabulation. LLNL sorted approximately 7000 pounds of waste in each of the two assessments. A high incidence of cardboard (uncompacted) was present in most dumpsters. A high incidence of polystyrene was also present at dumpsters serving the LLNL cafeterias. Very little glass or aluminium was found. Enough waste paper was present to indicate that the paper recycling program needed increased employee awareness and a possible expansion. As a result of our assessments, LLNL has expanded its cardboard and paper recycling programs and implemented moving box and pallet reuse programs. LLNL is also studying a possible recycling program for cafeteria polystyrene and possible program expansions for magazine, newsprint, and glass recycling.

  5. Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste management in Sri Lanka and India in a life cycle perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikpura, S.N.M.; Bonnet, Sebastien; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment; Ministry of Education (Thailand). Center for Energy Technology and Environment

    2010-07-01

    At present, many Asian developing countries are practicing poor Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management methods such as open dumping and non-engineered landfilling. This creates severe burdens on the environment and threat to human health. The quantification of the environmental impacts resulting from such poor MSW management practices is necessary to serve as a baseline against which alternative treatment technology options can be assessed for implementation of more environmentally sustainable MSW management systems that are adapted to local situation. In this study, existing MSW management systems in Ski Lanka and India were evaluated in order to assess the severity of their environmental impacts with focus on global warming potential and abiotic resource depletion. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was followed to perform this investigation. Results from this study reveal that the existing MSW management methods used in both countries cause severe environmental damages. However, the situation in India is slightly better as compared to Sri Lanka since 24% of its MSW is being composted. The implementation of landfill with landfill gas recovery for energy was identified as an important initial step to overcome the existing environmental impacts assessed. The results obtained revealed that implementation of such systems would help substantially to reduce global warming potential and abiotic resources depletion. (orig.)

  6. Comprehensive Assessment and Standardization of Solid Phase Multiplex-Bead Arrays for the Detection of Antibodies to HLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elaine F.; Rao, Ping; Zhang, Zilu; Gebel, Howard; Bray, Robert A.; Guleria, Indira; Lunz, John; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Nickerson, Peter; Tambur, Anat R.; Zeevi, Adriana; Heeger, Peter S.; Gjertson, David

    2014-01-01

    Solid phase multiplex-bead arrays for the detection and characterization of HLA antibodies provide increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional lymphocyte-based assays. Assay variability due to inconsistencies in commercial kits and differences in standard operating procedures hamper comparison of results between laboratories. The Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation Antibody Core Laboratories investigated sources of assay variation and determined if reproducibility improved through utilization of standard operating procedures, common reagents and normalization algorithms. Ten commercial kits from two manufacturers were assessed in each of seven laboratories using 20 HLA reference sera. Implementation of a standardized (versus a non-standardized) operating procedure greatly reduced MFI variation from 62% to 25%. Although laboratory agreements exceeded 90% (R2), small systematic differences were observed suggesting center specific factors still contribute to variation. MFI varied according to manufacturer, kit, bead type and lot. ROC analyses showed excellent consistency in antibody assignments between manufacturers (AUC>0.9) and suggested optimal cutoffs from 1000–1500 MFI. Global normalization further reduced MFI variation to levels near 20%. Standardization and normalization of solid phase HLA antibody tests will enable comparison of data across laboratories for clinical trials and diagnostic testing. PMID:23763485

  7. A global prospective of income distribution and its effect on life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pooja; Samadder, S R

    2017-04-01

    This study reviewed the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition, the management practices, and the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) tool for MSW management (MSWM) options in the various income group countries. LCA studies require inventory data, which is difficult to procure for any country including higher income group countries, and this issue gets compounded in low-income and lower middle-income group countries, which limits the implementation of LCA. This paper compared the use of LCA for MSWM between high-income and low-income group countries and also highlights the gap in using LCA for MSWM. A very limited number of LCA studies on MSWM were found for low-income group countries in comparison to high-income group countries. The study also provided a critical discussion on the challenges in applications of LCA in MSWM for better solid waste management in low-income and lower middle-income group countries. The study will help in taking up LCA studies in low-income countries to improve the overall MSWM efficiency.

  8. Why assessment in medical education needs a solid foundation in modern test theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauber, Stefan K; Hecht, Martin; Nouns, Zineb M

    2017-03-16

    Despite the frequent use of state-of-the-art psychometric models in the field of medical education, there is a growing body of literature that questions their usefulness in the assessment of medical competence. Essentially, a number of authors raised doubt about the appropriateness of psychometric models as a guiding framework to secure and refine current approaches to the assessment of medical competence. In addition, an intriguing phenomenon known as case specificity is specific to the controversy on the use of psychometric models for the assessment of medical competence. Broadly speaking, case specificity is the finding of instability of performances across clinical cases, tasks, or problems. As stability of performances is, generally speaking, a central assumption in psychometric models, case specificity may limit their applicability. This has probably fueled critiques of the field of psychometrics with a substantial amount of potential empirical evidence. This article aimed to explain the fundamental ideas employed in psychometric theory, and how they might be problematic in the context of assessing medical competence. We further aimed to show why and how some critiques do not hold for the field of psychometrics as a whole, but rather only for specific psychometric approaches. Hence, we highlight approaches that, from our perspective, seem to offer promising possibilities when applied in the assessment of medical competence. In conclusion, we advocate for a more differentiated view on psychometric models and their usage.

  9. Household air pollution, health, and climate change: cleaning the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Martinez-Gomez, Javier; Sagar, Ambuj; Smith, Kirk R.

    2018-03-01

    Air pollution from the use of solid household fuels is now recognized to be a major health risk in developing countries. Accordingly, there has been some shift in development thinking and investment from previous efforts, which has focused only on improving the efficiency of household fuel use, to those that focus on reducing exposure to the air pollution that leads to health impact. Unfortunately, however, this is occurring just as the climate agenda has come to dominate much of the discourse and action on international sustainable development. Thus, instead of optimizing approaches that centrally focus on the large health impact, the household energy agenda has been hampered by the constraints imposed by a narrow definition of sustainability—one primarily driven by the desire to mitigate greenhouse emissions by relying on renewable biomass fueling so-called improved cookstoves. In reality, however, solid biomass is extremely difficult to burn sufficiently cleanly in household stoves to reach health goals. In comparison to the international development community, however, some large countries, notably Brazil historically and more recently, India have substantially expanded the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in their household energy mix, using their own resources, having a major impact on their national energy picture. The net climate impact of such approaches compared to current biomass stoves is minimal or non-existent, and the social and health benefits are, in contrast, potentially great. LPG can be seen as a transition fuel for clean household energy, with induction stoves powered by renewables as the holy grail (an approach already being adopted by Ecuador as also discussed here). The enormous human and social benefits of clean energy, rather than climate concerns, should dominate the household energy access agenda today.

  10. Storage, utilization and cost of drug products in Palestinian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, W M; Sawalha, A F; Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Bani Shamseh, F F; Khalaf, H S

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate storage and use of medications in households may decrease drug wastage and unnecessary hazard. The objective of this study was to investigate storage, utilization habits and cost of medications in households in Palestine. This is a cross sectional, anonymous, questionnaire-based study of 465 households in northern Palestine. The drug product inventory in the surveyed households was investigated and family members were interviewed. A total of 465 households were assessed, 50 were excluded. The total number of drug products in the 415 households was 5,505; the mean + or - SD was 13.3 + or - 7.8. Level of father's education, presence of chronic disease and insurance coverage were the variables that showed a significant relationship with the amount of drug products found in the households. Most of the drug products (43.4%) were stored in relatively unsafe places in the house within the reach of children. Approximately one third (32.5%) of the drug products were not in their original container. The percentages of unused drug products, expired, or those with no clear expiry date were 32.7%, 17.7% and 11% respectively. Estimated drug wastage in the 415 households and nationwide would be 16,100 and 19 million USD respectively. The most common drug categories encountered in households were alimentary, musculoskeletal and anti-infective agents. The most common individual drugs encountered were: paracetamol (8.5%), ibuprofen (4.9%) and diclofenac (3.7%). Medications were stored in large quantities in Palestinian households, and a large percentage was being wasted. Drug-use assessments and a comprehensive evaluation of the current national drug policies are warranted to curtail this problem.

  11. Solid oxide fuels cells - Assessment of the technology from an industrial perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paelsson, Jens; Boegild Hansen, John, Christiansen, Niel; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik; Kristensen, Steen [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    Fuel cells can play a large role in future energy supply as being a clean and efficient power and heat generator. One promising fuel cell type, SOFC, utilises mainly ceramic materials and operates at elevated temperatures. The inherent advantages of high temperature fuel cells, such as internal reforming of methane and waste heat production at high temperatures, lower the demands on the fuel processing system and lead to higher efficiency compared with low temperature fuel cells. Haldor Topsoee A/S has been active in the fuel cell area for a long time primarily in the fuel cell processing field. Today, the company has an extended development programme to bring to market SOFC technology. The cell design used is the planar SOFC from Risoe National Laboratory, which is of the anode-supported type. This paper deals with a thermodynamic analysis of an atmospheric SOFC based CHP system. Using natural gas as feed, an electric efficiency of more than 55% (88% total) was predicted. In a comparison made with a PEMFC or solid polymer fuel cell system, the SOFC system comes out superior. An energy analysis showed relatively small losses of the SOFC system compared with those of the PEMFC system. In a separate study on flow design for the stack it was found that the preferred flow geometry is counter-current flow, as a more homogenous temperature profile can be achieved. However, it puts higher demands on the gas manifolding than a cross-flow configuration does. The difference in stack size (power density) was substantial. Very low NOx emissions can be expected from a SOFC system employing a catalytic combustor for the unspent fuel. Also carbon dioxide emissions are lower than state of the art gas turbines and diesel engines. Although system performance and emissions are predicted to be extremely good, the road to success depends also on the installation cost. A short to medium term cost goal of 1000 USD/kW is within reach. (au)

  12. Thermodynamic assessment of solid oxide fuel cell system integrated with bioethanol purification unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamsak, W.; Assabumrungrat, S. [Center of Excellence in Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand); Douglas, P.L.; Croiset, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada); Laosiripojana, N. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi (Thailand); Suwanwarangkul, R. [School of Bio-Chemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasart University, Rangsit Campus, Patum Thani 12121 (Thailand); Charojrochkul, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC) (Thailand)

    2007-11-22

    A solid oxide fuel cell system integrated with a distillation column (SOFC-DIS) has been proposed in this article. The integrated SOFC system consists of a distillation column, an EtOH/H{sub 2}O heater, an air heater, an anode preheater, a reformer, an SOFC stack and an afterburner. Bioethanol with 5 mol% ethanol was purified in a distillation column to obtain a desired concentration necessary for SOFC operation. The SOFC stack was operated under isothermal conditions. The heat generated from the stack and the afterburner was supplied to the reformer and three heaters. The net remaining heat from the SOFC system (Q{sub SOFC,Net}) was then provided to the reboiler of the distillation column. The effects of fuel utilization and operating voltage on the net energy (Q{sub Net}), which equals Q{sub SOFC,Net} minus the distillation energy (Q{sub D}), were examined. It was found that the system could become more energy sufficient when operating at lower fuel utilization or lower voltage but at the expense of less electricity produced. Moreover, it was found that there were some operating conditions, which yielded Q{sub Net} of zero. At this point, the integrated system provides the maximum electrical power without requiring an additional heat source. The effects of ethanol concentration and ethanol recovery on the electrical performance at zero Q{sub Net} for different fuel utilizations were investigated. With the appropriate operating conditions (e.g. C{sub EtOH} = 41%, U{sub f} = 80% and EtOH recovery = 80%), the overall electrical efficiency and power density are 33.3% (LHV) and 0.32 W cm{sup -2}, respectively. (author)

  13. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  14. Retirement Behaviour of Dutch Elderly Households: Diversity in Retirement Patterns across Different Household Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrogiacomo, Mauro; Alessie, R.J.M.; Lindeboom, Maarten

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the relative importance of differences in behaviouralresponses to financial incentives in explaining the observed variation in retirement behaviour across different types of households. We specify and estimate models for singles and married couples and estimate these on

  15. Release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites and consumer exposure assessment - a forward-looking review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    identify and discuss the key data needs and provide recommendations for consumer exposure assessment of nanomaterials. In total, we identified 76 studies of relevance. Most studies have analyzed the release of Ag and TiO2 from textiles and paints, and CNT and SiO2 from nanocomposites. Less than half...

  16. Why Assessment in Medical Education Needs a Solid Foundation in Modern Test Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauber, Stefan K.; Hecht, Martin; Nouns, Zineb M.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the frequent use of state-of-the-art psychometric models in the field of medical education, there is a growing body of literature that questions their usefulness in the assessment of medical competence. Essentially, a number of authors raised doubt about the appropriateness of psychometric models as a guiding framework to secure and refine…

  17. Noncooperative Household Consumption with Caring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a household consumption model that accounts for caring house- hold members, while allowing for noncooperative behavior in decisions on pub- lic goods. The intrahousehold consumption outcome critically depends on the degree of caring between the household members. By varying the degree of

  18. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process...

  19. Household Finance: An Emerging Field

    OpenAIRE

    Guiso, Luigi; Sodini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Household finance - the normative and positive study of how households use financial markets to achieve their objectives - has gained a lot of attention over the past decade and has become a field with its own identity, style and agenda. In this chapter we review its evolution and most recent developments.

  20. An economic evaluation and assessment of environmental impact of the municipal solid waste management system for Taichung City in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Min-Der

    2012-05-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an important environmental challenge and subject in urban planning. For sustainable MSWM strategies, the critical management factors to be considered include not only economic efficiency of MSW treatment but also life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact. This paper employed linear programming technique to establish optimal MSWM strategies considering economic efficiency and the air pollutant emissions during the life cycle of a MSWM system, and investigated the correlations between the economical optimization and pollutant emissions. A case study based on real-world MSW operating parameters in Taichung City is also presented. The results showed that the costs, benefits, streams of MSW, and throughputs of incinerators and landfills will be affected if pollution emission reductions are implemented in the MSWM strategies. In addition, the quantity of particulate matter is the best pollutant indicator for the MSWM system performance of emission reduction. In particular this model will assist the decision maker in drawing up a friendly MSWM strategy for Taichung City in Taiwan. Recently, life-cycle assessments of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) strategies have been given more considerations. However, what seems to be lacking is the consideration of economic factors and environmental impacts simultaneously. This work analyzed real-world data to establish optimal MSWM strategies considering economic efficiency and the air pollutant emissions during the life cycle of the MSWM system. The results indicated that the consideration of environmental impacts will affect the costs, benefits, streams of MSW, and throughputs of incinerators and landfills. This work is relevant to public discussion and may establish useful guidelines for the MSWM policies.

  1. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects on tax revenues and welfare expenditures in Denmark caused by changes in age and household structures over the years 1982-2007. During that period, there has been a minor fall in the old-age dependency ratio, and a major increase in the number of people living alone......, lone parents and cohabiting couples. Focusing on components of welfare services with noticeable differences in unit costs across age and household status, we find that changes in age structures have improved public finances by 1.6% of GDP whereas changing household structures have worsened public...... finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  2. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality...... scrap metals may limit recycling potential, and the utilisation of aggregates may cause the release of toxic substances into the natural environment through leaching. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a full-scale MSWI bottom ash management and recovery system to identify environmental......, choice of marginal energy technologies and substitution rates between primary and secondary aluminium, stainless steel and ferrous products, were assessed and discussed. The modelling resulted in burdens to toxic impacts associated with metal recycling and leaching from aggregates during utilisation...

  3. Life Cycle Assessment Modelling of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Existing and Proposed Municipal Solid Waste Management System of Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adila Batool Syeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Open Dumping of indiscriminate municipal solid waste (MSW remarkably contributes to global warming (GW. Life Cycle Assessment modelling may be a useful tool for assessing the best waste management option regarding GW potential. The current study evaluates the contribution of an existing MSW management (MSWM system to greenhouse gases in Gulberg Town, Lahore, Pakistan. This research also presents a comparison of scenarios with different waste management options. Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been used to conduct the study. EASETECH has been used for modelling. The short-term scenarios (STSs have been developed to promote the thinking of integration of treatment technologies in the current waste management system within a few months. The results show that the major contribution to the total emissions comes from the anaerobic digestion of organic material from open waste dumps. Currently, recycling is the best treatment option for reducing the CO2-eq values in the study area. It was clarified that recycling is the best option for reducing the CO2-eq values, whereas biogasification comes in second in terms of savings and reduction. The integration of recycling and biogasification techniques would be a good solution.

  4. A new criterion to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral images of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacré, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pysacre@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Lebrun, Pierre [Arlenda S.A., Avenue de l’Hopital, 1, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chavez, Pierre-François; Bleye, Charlotte De; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Rozet, Eric [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Klinkenberg, Régis; Streel, Bruno [Galéphar Research Center M/F, rue du Parc Industriel 39, 6900 Marche-en-Famenne (Belgium); Hubert, Philippe; Ziemons, Eric [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • DHI has been developed to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral maps. • This criterion has been tested with simulated maps of different homogeneity. • A linear relationship is observed between homogeneity and DHI value. • DHI methodology has been applied on real samples. • A linear relationship is observed between DHI and content uniformity values. - Abstract: During galenic formulation development, homogeneity of distribution is a critical parameter to check since it may influence activity and safety of the drug. Raman hyperspectral imaging is a technique of choice for assessing the distributional homogeneity of compounds of interest. Indeed, the combination of both spectroscopic and spatial information provides a detailed knowledge of chemical composition and component distribution. Actually, most authors assess homogeneity using parameters of the histogram of intensities (e.g. mean, skewness and kurtosis). However, this approach does not take into account spatial information and loses the main advantage of imaging. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new criterion: Distributional Homogeneity Index (DHI). DHI has been tested on simulated maps and formulation development samples. The distribution maps of the samples were obtained without validated calibration model since different formulations were under investigation. The results obtained showed a linear relationship between content uniformity values and DHI values of distribution maps. Therefore, DHI methodology appears to be a suitable tool for the analysis of homogeneity of distribution maps even without calibration during formulation development.

  5. Microbiome sharing between children, livestock and household surfaces in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Mosites

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome community structure and development are associated with several health outcomes in young children. To determine the household influences of gut microbiome structure, we assessed microbial sharing within households in western Kenya by sequencing 16S rRNA libraries of fecal samples from children and cattle, cloacal swabs from chickens, and swabs of household surfaces. Among the 156 households studied, children within the same household significantly shared their gut microbiome with each other, although we did not find significant sharing of gut microbiome across host species or household surfaces. Higher gut microbiome diversity among children was associated with lower wealth status and involvement in livestock feeding chores. Although more research is necessary to identify further drivers of microbiota development, these results suggest that the household should be considered as a unit. Livestock activities, health and microbiome perturbations among an individual child may have implications for other children in the household.

  6. Climate change, household vulnerability and smart agriculture: The case of two South African provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkhululi Ncube

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate-change disasters poses significant challenges for South Africa, especially for vulnerable rural households. In South Africa, the impact of climate change at the local level, especially in rural areas, is not well known. Rural households are generally poor and lack resources to adapt to and mitigate the impact of climate change, but the extent of their vulnerability is largely not understood. This study looked at the micro-level impact of climate change, evaluated household vulnerability and assessed alternative adaptation strategies in rural areas. The results indicate that climate change will hit crop yields hard and that households with less capital are most vulnerable. These households consist of the elderly and households headed by females. Households that receive remittances or extension services or participate in formal savings schemes in villages are less vulnerable. The results suggest that households need to move towards climate-smart agriculture, which combines adaptation, mitigation and productivity growth.

  7. Retrospective assessment of interobserver agreement and accuracy in classifications and measurements in subsolid nodules with solid components less than 8mm: which window setting is better?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Roh-Eul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Eui Jin; Yoon, Soon Ho; Lee, Chang Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Soyeon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To compare interobserver agreements among multiple readers and accuracy for the assessment of solid components in subsolid nodules between the lung and mediastinal window settings. Seventy-seven surgically resected nodules with solid components smaller than 8 mm were included in this study. In both lung and mediastinal windows, five readers independently assessed the presence and size of solid component. Bootstrapping was used to compare the interobserver agreement between the two window settings. Imaging-pathology correlation was performed to evaluate the accuracy. There were no significant differences in the interobserver agreements between the two windows for both identification (lung windows, k = 0.51; mediastinal windows, k = 0.57) and measurements (lung windows, ICC = 0.70; mediastinal windows, ICC = 0.69) of solid components. The incidence of false negative results for the presence of invasive components and the median absolute difference between the solid component size and the invasive component size were significantly higher on mediastinal windows than on lung windows (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The lung window setting had a comparable reproducibility but a higher accuracy than the mediastinal window setting for nodule classifications and solid component measurements in subsolid nodules. (orig.)

  8. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Automated Image Assessment System for Microbial Colonies on Solid Culture Media. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the automated image assessment system for microbial colonies on solid culture media into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the automated image assessment system for microbial colonies on solid culture media's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  9. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  10. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2007-01-01

    , Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals...... and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially...... and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment...

  11. Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudkhani, Rouhallah; Valizadeh, Behzad; Khastoo, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. In this paper the EPA's Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management methods comprised in seven scenarios. The amount of GHG which was generated from Iran's waste sector estimated about 17836079 Metric Tons of Carbon dioxide Equivalents (MT CO2e) in this study. The lowest amount of GHG was generated by LFG capture system with energy recovery (557635 MT CO2e), while Incineration of materials being sent to landfill (1756823 MT CO2e), Landfill Gas (LFG) capture system with flaring (2929150 MT CO2e) and Improved source reduction and recycling (4780278 MT CO2e) emitted fewer GHG than the other scenarios. Lowest levels of gross energy consumption occur in source reduction with recycling and composting (-89356240 Mega British Thermal Unit, M BTU), recycling and composting (-86772060 M BTU) as well as Improved source reduction with recycling and composting (-54794888 M BTU). It appears that recycling and composting each offer significant GHG emissions and energy consumption reductions (scenarios 4, 5 and 6). Upon of the GHG emission and energy consumption results concluded that improved source reduction and recycling scenario has been the Balanced and appropriate technology for handling the solid waste streams in municipalities.

  12. Solid-state fermentation and composting as alternatives to treat hair waste: A life-cycle assessment comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Eva; Komilis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    One of the wastes associated with leather production in tannery industries is the hair residue generated during the dehairing process. Hair wastes are mainly dumped or managed through composting but recent studies propose the treatment of hair wastes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases and compost. These enzymes are suitable for its use in an enzymatic dehairing process, as an alternative to the current chemical dehairing process. In the present work, two different scenarios for the valorization of the hair waste are proposed and assessed by means of life-cycle assessment: composting and SSF for protease production. Detailed data on hair waste composting and on SSF protease production are gathered from previous studies performed by our research group and from a literature survey. Background inventory data are mainly based on Ecoinvent version 3 from software SimaPro® 8. The main aim of this study was to identify which process results in the highest environmental impact. The SSF process was found to have lower environmental impacts than composting, due to the fact that the enzyme use in the dehairing process prevents the use of chemicals traditionally used in the dehairing process. This permits to reformulate an industrial process from the classical approach of waste management to a novel alternative based on circular economy.

  13. How to assess solid waste management in armed conflicts? A new methodology applied to the Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, Marco; Vaccari, Mentore

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a new methodology for assessing solid waste management in a situation of armed conflict. This methodology is composed of six phases with specific activities, and suggested methods and tools. The collection, haulage, and disposal of waste in low- and middle-income countries is so complicated and expensive task for municipalities, owing to several challenges involved, that some waste is left in illegal dumps. Armed conflicts bring further constraints, such as instability, the sudden increase in violence, and difficulty in supplying equipment and spare parts: planning is very difficult and several projects aimed at improving the situation have failed. The methodology was validated in the Gaza Strip, where the geopolitical situation heavily affects natural resources. We collected information in a holistic way, crosschecked, and discussed it with local experts, practitioners, and authorities. We estimated that in 2011 only 1300 tonne day(-1) were transported to the three disposal sites, out of a production exceeding 1700. Recycling was very limited, while the composting capacity was 3.5 tonnes day(-1), but increasing. We carefully assessed system elements and their interaction. We identified the challenges, and developed possible solutions to increase system effectiveness and robustness. The case study demonstrated that our methodology is flexible and adaptable to the context, thus it could be applied in other areas to improve the humanitarian response in similar situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO 3 , Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air. Material and substance flow analyses were performed in order to obtain transfer coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred to the biogas, 24% to the compost, 13% to residues and 40% into the atmosphere. For nitrogen, 69% was transferred to the compost, 10% volatilised to the biofilter, 11% directly into the atmosphere and 10% to residues. Finally, a full life cycle inventory was conducted for the combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Personal and indoor PM2.5 exposure from burning solid fuels in vented and unvented stoves in a rural region of China with a high incidence of lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Wei; Downward, George S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412435667; Reiss, Boris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314119205; Xu, Jun; Bassig, Bryan A.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Zhang, Linlin; Seow, Wei Jie; Wu, Guoping; Chapman, Robert S.; Tian, Linwei; Wei, Fusheng; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The combustion of biomass and coal is the dominant source of household air pollution (HAP) in China, and contributes significantly to the total burden of disease in the Chinese population. To characterize HAP exposure related to solid fuel use and ventilation patterns, an exposure assessment study

  17. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving...

  18. Mutagenicity of particle emissions from solid fuel cookstoves: A literature review and research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng

    2017-07-01

    Household solid fuel use is a major source of many air pollutants causing severe air pollution and adverse health outcomes. In evaluation of health impacts of household air pollution, it is essential to characterize toxic properties like mutagenicity of residential fuel combustion emissions and exposure assessments. Mutagenicity of emissions from solid fuel cookstoves were analyzed through a literature review. T98 and TA100 strains are two most widely used strains in mutagenic Ames test, and results for these two strains are generally positively correlated though they have different endpoints. Direct and indirect mutagenic activities are positively correlated, and statistically insignificantly different though indirect mutagenic emissions are apparently higher. Mutagenicity emission factors on the basis of fuel energy (MJ) or useful energy delivered (MJd) for solid fuel cookstoves vary in nearly 3 orders of magnitude, ranging from 3.0×10 4 rev./MJd to 1.8×10 7 rev./MJd (or 1.1×10 4 rev./MJ to 4.2×10 6 rev./MJ). Low mutagenic emissions are reported for high efficiency stoves such as a forced-draft one. Mutagenicity emission factors are positively correlated with emissions of PM 2.5 . Relationship between mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions is inconsistent among studies as PAHs are minor fractions of toxic organics contributing to the total mutagenicity. Generally, studies on mutagenicity of emissions from household cookstoves are very limited, and future studies are encouraged on mutagenic emissions from different fuel types and household stoves, evaluation of mutagenic activities of both gaseous and particulate emissions, and toxicology and exposure assessments of household air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Facility for assessing spectral normal emittance of solid materials at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercatelli, Luca; Meucci, Marco; Sani, Elisa

    2015-10-10

    Spectral emittance is a key topic in the study of new compositions, depositions, and mechanical machining of materials for solar absorption and for renewable energies in general. The present work reports on the realization and testing of a new experimental facility for the measurement of directional spectral emittance in the range of 2.5-20 μm. Our setup provides emittance spectral information in a completely controlled environment at medium-high temperatures up to 1200 K. We describe the layout and first tests on the device, comparing the results obtained for hafnium carbide and tantalum diboride ultrarefractory ceramic samples to previous quasi-monochromatic measurements carried out in the PROMES-CNRS (PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire- Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) solar furnace, obtaining a good agreement. Finally, to assess the reliability of the widely used approach of estimating the spectral emittance from room-temperature reflectance spectrum, we compared the calculation in the 2.5-17 μm spectral range to the experimental high-temperature spectral emittance, obtaining that the spectral trend of calculated and measured curves is similar but the calculated emittance underestimates the measured value.

  20. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Solid Waste Open Burning in Terengganu, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Ariffin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With more than 40 percent of the world’s rubbish is burned, open burning is a significant source of atmospheric pollution globally and remains one of the main environmental issues and health concerns for many developing nations. Despite having stringent criminal penalties for illegal open burning, Malaysia encounters increasing trend in open burning incidents. A better understanding of the knowledge, attitudinal, and perception towards open burning would inform more effective intervention efforts towards changing this trend. A questionnaire survey to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of public was conducted in Kuala Terengganu. A total of 384 respondents from various demographic backgrounds participated in the survey. Descriptive analysis was used to analyse the respondents’ socio-demographic profiles. Pearson correlation was used to uncover the relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice among the respondents. Results showed that the respondents had good knowledge on open burning and showed positive attitude towards protecting the environment from the problem. However, they displayed lack of practice to tackle the problem in real life. The study also found a weak relationship between knowledge with attitude and practice on open burning. Policy-makers should, therefore, devise intervention programmes that can encourage higher practice rather than merely focusing on raising awareness.

  1. Assessment of end-of-life design in solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzombak, Rachel; Padon, Jack; Salsbury, Josh; Dillon, Heather

    2017-08-01

    Consumers in the US market and across the globe are beginning to widely adopt light emitting diode (LED) lighting products while the technology continues to undergo significant changes. While LED products are evolving to consume less energy, they are also more complex than traditional lighting products with a higher number of parts and a larger number of electronic components. Enthusiasm around the efficiency and long expected life span of LED lighting products is valid, but research to optimize product characteristics and design is needed. This study seeks to address that gap by characterizing LED lighting products' suitability for end of life (EOL) recycling and disposal. The authors disassembled and assessed 17 different lighting products to understand how designs differ between brands and manufacture year. Products were evaluated based on six parameters to quantify the design. The analysis indicates that while the efficiency of LED products has improved dramatically in the recent past, product designers and manufacturers could incorporate design strategies to improve environmental performance of lighting products at end-of-life.

  2. Hurricane Mitch and consumption growth of Nicaraguan agricultural households

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Premand

    2008-01-01

    Risk has been presented as a cause of poverty persistence under imperfect insurance mechanisms. This paper assesses the ex post effect of hurricane Mitch on consumption growth of Nicaraguan agricultural house-holds. How persistent was Mitch's direct impact beyond October 1998 damage? A nationally representative panel is available for 1998 and 2001, but affected households were also re-surveyed in 1999. Given the data design, idiosyncratic and common dimensions of the shock can be disentangled...

  3. Solid waste management in Linamon, Lanao del Norte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragoso, Glaiza P.; Sapar, Cherine Mae A.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Lahoylahoy, Myrna E.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.

    2018-01-01

    In this modern world, Solid Waste Management is very important in maintaining a high quality of life so humans must manage and store waste efficiently and safely. Almost every day each household generates garbage or wastes. People throw things improperly without knowing the consequences. The main objective of the study was to assess the residents' Solid Waste Management. Specifically, it aimed to answer the following questions: What is the profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, educational attainment, occupation, monthly income, no. of household member; What is the knowledge of the respondents about Natural Environment?; How do respondents disposed garbage from the household?; What is the level of the respondents concern about proper waste management?; What is the willingness of the respondents to participate in proper Solid Waste Management?; What is the attitude of the respondents towards the Solid Waste Management? The said study was conducted at the Municipality of Linamon, which is a 5th class municipality located at the Eastern Gateway to Lanao del Norte, a south western Province of Northern Mindanao in the Philippines. The study was conducted in the 8 barangays of the Municipality of Linamon, namely: Bosque, Larapan, Mago-ong, Napo, Poblacion, Purakan, Robocon, and Samburon. The Municipality has 3 urban barangays and 4 rural barangays. The study revealed that most of the respondents interviewed were housewives. Out of 313 respondents, 67.10 % did not understand the term natural environment, with major issue currently affecting natural environment as "household garbage'. The respondents dispose the yard trimmings and papers through burning. The plastic and glass is disposed through the garbage truck. The metals and damaged home appliances were disposed by selling it to the junk shop. The respondents disposed their garbage into an open container specifically in a sack, collected by garbage trucks. The study also revealed that the respondents were

  4. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  5. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  6. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Histopathological Examination may be Useful for Assessment of Fibrosis and Lipomatosis of Pancreas Allograft Prior to Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajor, Maciej; Ziaja, Jacek; Liszka, Łukasz; Kostrząb-Zdebel, Anna; Właszczuk, Paweł; Karkoszka, Henryk; Sekta, Sylwia; Król, Robert; Cierpka, Lech

    2015-11-03

    The results of pancreas transplantation depend in a large degree on appropriate pancreas allograft donor selection. Several risk factors of early surgical complications or pancreas allograft loss following transplantation have been identified, but the final decision on pancreas harvesting for transplantation belongs to the surgeon. In the present study we aimed to assess whether histopathological examination may be utilized for detection of fibrosis and lipomatosis in tissue from a potential pancreas allograft. Additionally, we aimed to test whether presence of pancreatic fibrosis and lipomatosis may be explained solely by donor age and/or body mass index (BMI). Pancreata retrieved from 50 deceased organ donors referred to our institution and not transplanted between 2010 and 2013 were used for the present study. Tissue samples were excised from pancreata, fixed in formalin, and embedded in paraffin. Presence and intensity of pancreatic fibrosis and lipomatosis were assessed semi-quantitatively. Fibrosis was found in the majority of study samples (72%), but it was usually mild or moderate. Lipomatosis was present in 34% of the study cases. Presence of fibrosis was more frequent in older donors, but was still not rare in donors under 40 years old. Presence of lipomatosis did not seem to be significantly related to donor age. Neither pancreatic fibrosis nor lipomatosis was related to donor BMI. There is no clear relationship between histological parenchymal changes in potential pancreas allograft and donor age and BMI. Histopathological assessment of pancreatic fibrosis and/or lipomatosis can potentially facilitate decision making on pancreas allograft acceptance for solid organ transplantation.

  8. Analysis of Capability of Households to Finance Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasenko Yuliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses possibilities of financing higher education by households, it proves, using example of households of Ukraine and Russia, wish and capability of households to finance higher education. Analysis of such a capability of households reveals both possibilities for development of the education system and possibilities of overcoming problems in the structure of own finances. In the result of the analysis, the article identifies problems that require solution for adjustment of stable financing. One of the main problems is imbalance of household expenditures. The structure of these expenditures, which is individual for each country, should be taken into account when identifying cost of education, since household finances become one of the priority sources of financing higher education. Due to this, the article identifies a formula of the cost of education, which should be taken into account when it is established and which includes household capabilities. The article identifies a model, with the help of which it is possible to assess the quality of financing higher education when combining various sources of financing.

  9. From solid to liquid: Assessing the release of carbon from soil into solution in response to forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J. N.; Gross, C. D.; Butman, D. E.; Harrison, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a crucial conduit for internal cycling of carbon within soils as well as for the transfer of organic matter out of soil and into aquatic systems. Little is known about how the quantity, quality, lability and chemical characteristics of DOM changes in response to human management of forest soils. To examine the processes that release soil organic matter (SOM) into solution, we gathered samples from adjacent native and industrially managed Eucalyptus grandis plantation forests across Sao Paulo State, Brazil and from adjacent old-growth and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzisii) plantation forests in the coastal Pacific Northwest. Samples from each soil horizon were taken from soil profiles excavated to at least 1.5 m at each site. Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) was extracted twice from each sample using 0.5 M K2SO4 and Milli-Q water to quantify both dissolved and exchange phase organic matter. These extracts were measured for total organic carbon (TOC), 13C and 14C, and chemical characteristics were assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMs and SUVA254). At the same time, solid phase characteristics of the soil samples were quantified, including bulk density, pH, total carbon and nitrogen, microbial biomass, and 13C and 14C. Characterization of bulk SOM was undertaken by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) by subtracting mineral matrix spectra of each sample from the bulk spectra. Organic matter lability was assessed by incubations using difference in TOC for WEOM extracts and repeated measurement of CO2 efflux for bulk SOM. All together, these analyses permit a unique snapshot of the natural separation of organic matter from solid into liquid phase through the entire soil profile. Initial results reveal that small but measureable quantities of WEOM may be released from deep B and C horizons in soil, and that this material is labile to microbial decomposition. By identifying differences in SOM and DOM cycling due to

  10. Thermochemical valorization and characterization of household biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Vekkos, K; Baratieri, M

    2017-12-01

    Valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW), by means of energy and material recovery, is considered to be a crucial step for sustainable waste management. A significant fraction of MSW is comprised from food waste, the treatment of which is still a challenge. Therefore, the conventional disposal of food waste in landfills is being gradually replaced by recycling aerobic treatment, anaerobic digestion and waste-to-energy. In principle, thermal processes like combustion and gasification are preferred for the recovery of energy due to the higher electrical efficiency and the significantly less time required for the process to be completed when compared to biological process, i.e. composting, anaerobic digestion and transesterification. Nonetheless, the high water content and the molecular structure of biowaste are constraining factors in regard to the application of thermal conversion pathways. Investigating alternative solutions for the pre-treatment and more energy efficient handling of this waste fraction may provide pathways for the optimization of the whole process. In this study, by means of utilizing drying/milling as an intermediate step, thermal treatment of household biowaste has become possible. Household biowaste has been thermally processed in a bench scale reactor by means of torrefaction, carbonization and high temperature pyrolysis. According to the operational conditions, fluctuating fractions of biochar, bio-oil (tar) and syngas were recovered. The thermochemical properties of the feedstock and products were analyzed by means of Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA), Ultimate and Proximate analysis and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). The analysis of the products shows that torrefaction of dried household biowaste produces an energy dense fuel and high temperature pyrolysis produces a graphite-like material with relatively high yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Household behavior and individual autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    d'Aspremont-Lynden, Claude; Dos Santos Ferreira, Rodolphe

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a model of household behavior with both private and public consumption where the spouses independently maximize their utilities, but taking into account, together with their own individual budget constraints, the collective household budget constraint (with public goods evaluated at Lindahl prices). The Lagrange multipliers associated with these constraints are used to parameterize the set of equilibria, in addition to the usual parameterization by income shares. The pr...

  12. Household External Finance and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Besley, Timothy J.; Meads, Neil; Surico, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses mortgage data to construct a measure of terms on which households access to external finance, and relates it to consumption at both the aggregate and cohort levels. The Household External Finance (HEF) index is based on the spread paid by risky borrowers in the mortgage market. There is evidence that the terms of access to external finance matter more for the consumption of young cohorts in U.K. data. Results are robust to a wide variety of specifications.

  13. Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2016-03-01

    Globally, 41% of households, over 2.8 billion people, rely on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating. In developing countries in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where these fuels are predominantly used, women who are customarily responsible for cooking, and their young children, are most exposed to the resulting air pollution. Solid fuels are still in widespread use and it appears that intervention efforts are not keeping pace with population growth in developing countries. Here we pinpoint the challenges and identify opportunities for addressing household air pollution while mitigating global climate change and promoting the sustainable development goals. We recommend the following actions: implementation of the WHO indoor air quality guidelines on household fuel combustion; effective promotion and dissemination of improved cookstoves through formation of country alliances for clean cookstoves; expansion of liquefied petroleum gas production facilities and distribution networks; harnessing renewable energy potential; promotion of biogas production at both household and community level; ensuring improved ventilation of homes through education and enforcement of building standards; and exploiting opportunities in the health and other sectors for changing health-damaging cooking behaviour.

  14. The household-level economic burden of heart disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Anup; Engelgau, Michael; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-05-01

    To estimate healthcare use and financial burden associated with heart disease among Indian households. Data from the 2004 round household survey of the National Sample Survey in India were used to assess the implications of heart disease for out-of-pocket health spending, spending on items other than health care, employment and healthcare financing patterns, by matching households with a member self-reporting heart disease (cardiovascular disease (CVD)-affected households) to (control) households with similar socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Propensity score matching methods were used. Compared with control households, CVD-affected households had more outpatient visits and inpatient stays, spent an extra INT$ (International Dollars) 232 (P household expenditure that was 16.5% higher (P finance inpatient care (32.7% vs. 12.8%, P households had lower employment rates than members of control households (43.6% vs. 46.4%, P households with lower socio-economic status were at heightened financial risk. Non-communicable conditions such as CVD can impose a serious economic burden on Indian households. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Household dietary diversity, vitamin A consumption and food security in rural Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Rebecca J; Tesfay, Haile; Asfaw, Frezer; Jogo, Wellington; Busse, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    To describe: household dietary diversity across four zones in Ethiopia; the relationship between household dietary diversity and consumption of vitamin A-rich foods; and the relationship between household dietary diversity and food security status. This was a cross-sectional survey. Data were collected using structured questionnaires in the local language. Household dietary diversity scores measured types of foods households consumed, and households were classified by food security status using a modified version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. An ordinal logistics regression model was created to assess the relationship between three tiers of dietary diversity (low, medium and high) and food security while controlling for agricultural zone, educational variables and household characteristics. Rural households in Tigray, Ethiopia. Three hundred households in Tigray, Ethiopia, were interviewed. Of the households, 23, 47 and 30 % had low, medium and high dietary diversity, respectively. Among households with high dietary diversity, eggs and fruit were the most common foods added to the diet. In the fully adjusted model, participants who reported being food secure had 1·8 increased odds of greater dietary diversity (95 % CI 1·0, 3·2) compared with participants who were food insecure. Food security was positively associated with dietary diversity. In order to enhance health, interventions that improve dietary diversity and vitamin A consumption should remain important areas of focus for health leaders in the region.

  16. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved approaches are needed to rapidly and accurately assess the bioavailability of persistent, hydrophobic organic compounds in soils at contaminated sites. The performance of a thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) assay using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate polymer was compared to...

  17. Mortality in North Korean migrant households: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Lee, M K; Hill, K; Burnham, G M

    1999-07-24

    A deteriorating economy, coupled with a series of natural disasters in 1995-97, led to a severe food crisis in North Korea. Although the country has received substantial international aid since 1996, demographic assessments of crisis impact have been limited. We assessed mortality trends in North Korea since 1995. At 15 randomly selected sites in China, 440 North Korean adult migrants were interviewed during July-September, 1998. Respondents were asked about births, deaths, and migration patterns in their households between mid-1994 and mid-1998, and about household food sources. The respondents also provided basic demographic information about the households of their relatives. We compared mortality rates from migrant households with data from the 1993 census and with data about households of non-migrant relatives. Households that included a recent migrant to China showed increasing mortality: crude death rates rose from 28.9 per 1000 in 1995, to 45.6 per 1000 in 1996, and to 56.0 per 1000 in 1997 (p=0.0001), with a 3-year average rate of 42.8 per 1000. The crude 3-year birth rate was 11.0 per 1000. Average household size declined from 4.0 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.4 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0002). Among 259 households of non-migrant relatives, the crude death rate was 43.2 per 1000 and the crude birth rate was 8.8 per 1000. In these households, the 3-year trend of increasing mortality was significant (p=0.001), as was the decline in average household size from 4.3 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.7 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0001). Among North Korean households that include a recent migrant to China, mortality has increased and household size has declined since 1995. This trend raises concern about the state of the general population, at least in the province of North Hamkyong, from where most of the migrants originated.

  18. Factors Associated with Backyard Composting Behavior at the Household Level

    OpenAIRE

    Park, William M.; Lamons, Kevin S.; Roberts, Roland K.

    2002-01-01

    Communities in most states are under pressure to reduce the amount of solid waste going into landfills. Many are making efforts to encourage their citizens to practice backyard composting. A logit regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with backyard composting of yard and food wastes in a case study area. Sample data were obtained through a September 1997 telephone survey of 865 households residing in single-family dwellings in Knox County, Tennessee. Findings indica...

  19. Assessing newly introduced climate change adaptation strategy packages among rural households: Evidence from Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Tabbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses new strategies developed and introduced by national and international partners to help farmers in building adaptative capacity against the negative externalities of climate change. The purpose of this study is to determine and to assess the most important adaptation strategies introduced by development partners. Based on the recognition interview with farmers and synthesis of previous research, 13 strategies were compiled and included in the study. Thus, an advance in the balanced incomplete block design was used to design the questionnaire served as data collection tools. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and their worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory was used for the modelling. Results show that herd rebuilding, human capacity building, introduction of fishing, water and soil conservation activities, introduction of leafy vegetable such as Moringa oleifera, financial credit, forage seed marketing and introduction of agriculture inputs were the most important strategies, while the support to vegetable production, income-generating activities, the use of agricultural improved seed varieties, anti-fire band making and cereal bank introduction were the least important adaptation strategies for farmers. These results are therefore essential for the dissemination of adaptation strategies, thereby stimulating and maintaining sustainability development actions in the study area.

  20. Avian Influenza H5N1 Transmission in Households, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusriastuti, Rita; Sampurno, Ondri Dwi; Purba, Wilfried; Misriyah; Santoso, Hari; Bratasena, Arie; Maruf, Anas; Sariwati, Elvieda; Setiawaty, Vivi; Glass, Kathryn; Lokuge, Kamalini; Kelly, Paul M.; Kandun, I. Nyoman

    2012-01-01

    Background Disease transmission patterns are needed to inform public health interventions, but remain largely unknown for avian influenza H5N1 virus infections. A recent study on the 139 outbreaks detected in Indonesia between 2005 and 2009 found that the type of exposure to sources of H5N1 virus for both the index case and their household members impacted the risk of additional cases in the household. This study describes the disease transmission patterns in those outbreak households. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared cases (n = 177) and contacts (n = 496) in the 113 sporadic and 26 cluster outbreaks detected between July 2005 and July 2009 to estimate attack rates and disease intervals. We used final size household models to fit transmission parameters to data on household size, cases and blood-related household contacts to assess the relative contribution of zoonotic and human-to-human transmission of the virus, as well as the reproduction number for human virus transmission. The overall household attack rate was 18.3% and secondary attack rate was 5.5%. Secondary attack rate remained stable as household size increased. The mean interval between onset of subsequent cases in outbreaks was 5.6 days. The transmission model found that human transmission was very rare, with a reproduction number between 0.1 and 0.25, and the upper confidence bounds below 0.4. Transmission model fit was best when the denominator population was restricted to blood-related household contacts of index cases. Conclusions/Significance The study only found strong support for human transmission of the virus when a single large cluster was included in the transmission model. The reproduction number was well below the threshold for sustained transmission. This study provides baseline information on the transmission dynamics for the current zoonotic virus and can be used to detect and define signatures of a virus with increasing capacity for human-to-human transmission. PMID

  1. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ru Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR region (380–1030 nm were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits.

  2. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Household crowding and psychosocial health among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Poor housing conditions experienced by many Indigenous peoples threaten their health and well-being. This study examines whether household crowding is associated with poorer psychosocial health among Greenlanders, and the mediating role of social support. It also assesses whether Inuit...... men and women are differently influenced by their housing conditions. METHODS: Data on more than 3,000 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit health in transition Greenland survey. Associations between household crowding and composition, and mental well-being and binge drinking were examined....... The association between household crowding and mental well-being was significantly mediated by social support. This suggests that having a strong social network may buffer the deleterious impacts of household crowding. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting housing conditions and fostering social support as part of population...

  5. Urbanization and Household Structure in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, William F.

    1977-01-01

    This study analyzes urban-rural variations in Philippine household size and components of household size, as well as the relative contribution of these components to household size. Household size is larger in urban than in rural areas and the difference largely reflects the presence of extended family members and non-relatives. (Author)

  6. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the patterns and correlations of solid waste disposal practices among households in urbanized and populated Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Household Budget Survey (HBS) data covering many households' characteristics was used. Multinomial Logit (MNL) model was applied to ...

  7. Assessment of tbe Performance of Ablative Insulators Under Realistic Solid Rocket Motor Operating Conditions (a Doctoral Dissertation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heath Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ablative insulators are used in the interior surfaces of solid rocket motors to prevent the mechanical structure of the rocket from failing due to intense heating by the high-temperature solid-propellant combustion products. The complexity of the ablation process underscores the need for ablative material response data procured from a realistic solid rocket motor environment, where all of the potential contributions to material degradation are present and in their appropriate proportions. For this purpose, the present study examines ablative material behavior in a laboratory-scale solid rocket motor. The test apparatus includes a planar, two-dimensional flow channel in which flat ablative material samples are installed downstream of an aluminized solid propellant grain and imaged via real-time X-ray radiography. In this way, the in-situ transient thermal response of an ablator to all of the thermal, chemical, and mechanical erosion mechanisms present in a solid rocket environment can be observed and recorded. The ablative material is instrumented with multiple micro-thermocouples, so that in-depth temperature histories are known. Both total heat flux and thermal radiation flux gauges have been designed, fabricated, and tested to characterize the thermal environment to which the ablative material samples are exposed. These tests not only allow different ablative materials to be compared in a realistic solid rocket motor environment but also improve the understanding of the mechanisms that influence the erosion behavior of a given ablative material.

  8. Households Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    sanitary fees and the willingness to pay (WTP) of residents for improved urban waste management, and suggest ... Keywords: Urban waste management, willingness to pay, cost recovery, Ethiopia, cities. JEL Classification: D13 ...... average age of respondents was 39.5 years and average family size 4.76. In addition, 53.54 ...

  9. Examination of Household Solid Waste Management in Nadowli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to identify the gaps between existing practices and the provisions of the hierarchy of waste management model in the Nadowli Township of the Upper West Region of Ghana. A cross-sectional study design with quantitative and qualitative approaches was adopted and questionnaires, ...

  10. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support in the assoc......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  11. The role of Bahi swamp wetlands in enhancing household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the role of Bahi swamp resources in enhancing household food security and income of adjacent communities. Specifically, the study assessed the socioeconomic activities in the swamp with a potential contribution to local livelihoods, the contribution of the swamp in enhancing ...

  12. Prevalence of household food poverty in South Africa: results from a large, nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Rose, Donald

    2002-06-01

    Household food insecurity is a major determinant of undernutrition, yet there is little information on its prevalence in the South African population. This paper assesses household food insecurity in South Africa using a quantitative and objective measure, known as food poverty, and provides prevalence estimates by geographic area and socio-economic condition. Secondary data analysis combining two sources: Statistics South Africa's household-based 1995 Income and Expenditure Survey; and the University of Port Elizabeth's Household Subsistence Level series, a nationally-conducted, market-based survey. South Africa. A nationally representative sample of the entire country - stratified by race, province, and urban and non-urban areas - consisting of 28 704 households. A household is defined to be in food poverty when monthly food spending is less than the cost of a nutritionally adequate very low-cost diet. The prevalence of food poverty in South Africa in 1995 was 43%. Food poverty rates were highest among households headed by Africans, followed by coloureds, Indians and whites. Higher food poverty rates were found with decreasing income, increasing household size, and among households in rural areas or those headed by females. The widespread nature of household food insecurity in South Africa is documented here. Prevalence rates by geographic and socio-economic breakdown provide the means for targeting of nutritional interventions and for monitoring progress in this field. The corroboration of these findings with both internal validation measures and external sources suggests that food poverty is a useful, objective measure of household food insecurity.

  13. Assessment of Poliak-Jonas criterion for the onset of dynamic recrystallization in semi-solid deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Ansari, M. H.; Aghaie-Khafri, M.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, the application of the Poliak-Jonas criterion in the semi-solid state has been evaluated. The evolution of grains by dynamic recrystallization during semi-solid forming was studied using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The strain rate in the solid phase for each strain in terms of the overall strain rate, as well as the liquid fraction, was calculated based on the Gurson model. The numerical investigation revealed that the preliminaries of the Poliak-Jonas criterion are almost satisfied in the semi-solid deformation of alloys at low and moderate strain rates. However, there is less reliability regarding the criterion at high values of strain rates, where commonly used in industrial applications.

  14. Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P-J; Huang, L-X; Zhang, C-H; Zhang, Y-L

    2016-07-01

    Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF), and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined. The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride) and yeasts (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum), and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. niger and C. utilis in a 1 : 1 ratio (v/v) in co-culture fermentation for 5 days. Under these conditions, the total content of amino acids in the fermented olive leaf residues increased by 22·0% in comparison with that in the raw leaf residues. Both Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid contents were increased by more than 25·4%. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The results demonstrated that the chicken weight gains increased by 120%, and normal serum biochemical parameters were improved significantly after 10% of the feedstuff additives were supplemented to the daily chicken feed for 28 days. The co-culture combination of A. niger and C. utilis with SSF for olive leaf residue had the best nutrient values. The addition of 10% fermented olive leaf residue facilitated the chicken growth and development. This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Assessment of water quality of Sembilang River receiving effluent from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Ibrahim, T. N. B.; Othman, F.; Mahmood, N. Z.

    2017-06-01

    Most of the landfills in Malaysia are situated near to the main river basin that supplies almost 90% of water requirement. This includes landfills in Selangor where a total of 20 landfill sites are situated in 5 main river basins and the highest number of operating landfills (three) are at the Selangor River Basin (Jeram, Bukit Tagar and Kuang Inert landfills). This situation has caused wide concern over the water safety, even the leachate has been treated. The leachate itself still contains contaminants that are difficult to treat. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect on water quality of Sembilang River that receives effluent from the nearby landfill. In this study, we analyzed samples of water from ten sampling stations starting from the upstream to downstream of Sembilang River. The water quality was evaluated by the Water Quality Index (WQI) depending on in-situ and laboratory analysis. 11 water quality variables are selected for the quality assessment; temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphate and nitrate. The result indicated that, when the effluent mixed with the river water, the water quality decreased gradually and was found to be lower at a few stations. The water quality of Sembilang River falls under Class III of Water Quality Index with ranges between 68.03 to 43.46 mg/L. It is revealed that the present scenario of water quality of Sembilang River is due to the effect of effluent from the landfill.

  16. The Influence of Household- and Community-Level Sanitation and Fecal Sludge Management on Urban Fecal Contamination in Households and Drains and Enteric Infection in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David; Kirby, Amy; Clennon, Julie A; Raj, Suraja; Yakubu, Habib; Leon, Juan; Robb, Katharine; Kartikeyan, Arun; Hemavathy, Priya; Gunasekaran, Annai; Ghale, Ben; Kumar, J Senthil; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Moe, Christine

    2017-06-01

    AbstractUrban sanitation necessitates management of fecal sludge inside and outside the household. This study examined associations between household sanitation, fecal contamination, and enteric infection in two low-income neighborhoods in Vellore, India. Surveys and spatial analysis assessed the presence and clustering of toilets and fecal sludge management (FSM) practices in 200 households. Fecal contamination was measured in environmental samples from 50 households and household drains. Enteric infection was assessed from stool specimens from children under 5 years of age in these households. The two neighborhoods differed significantly in toilet coverage (78% versus 33%) and spatial clustering. Overall, 49% of toilets discharged directly into open drains ("poor FSM"). Children in households with poor FSM had 3.78 times higher prevalence of enteric infection when compared with children in other households, even those without toilets. In the neighborhood with high coverage of household toilets, children in households with poor FSM had 10 times higher prevalence of enteric infection than other children in the neighborhood and drains in poor FSM clusters who had significantly higher concentrations of genogroup II norovirus. Conversely, children in households with a toilet that contained excreta in a tank onsite had 55% lower prevalence of enteric infection compared with the rest of the study area. Notably, households with a toilet in the neighborhood with low toilet coverage had more fecal contamination on floors where children played compared with those without a toilet. Overall, both toilet coverage levels and FSM were associated with environmental fecal contamination and, subsequently, enteric infection prevalence in this urban setting.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABILITY OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-31

    Mar 31, 2012 ... media, academic, politicians and even business, as evidence mounts about its scale and seriousness, and the speed at which it is affecting the world. In the past two decades, several studies have been conducted aimed at analyzing the possible effects of climate change on a range of natural and social.

  18. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  19. Sustainable household egg production to enhance household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple method of keeping laying hens has been developed with the aim of improving family nutrition through the provision of high quality egg protein at low cost. A unit is kept at a family's home and provides on average six eggs per day for daily household consumption after a number of eggs have been sold to cover the ...

  20. Frequency and longitudinal trends of household care product use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Rebecca E.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Wu, Xiangmei (May); Ritz, Beate; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-08-01

    The use of household cleaning products and air fresheners exposes people to a variety of chemicals, including some that have been shown to be irritants, potential carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds. In addition, some react with ambient ozone infiltrating to the indoor environment to form potentially toxic secondary pollutants. Although realistic estimates of usage patterns are necessary for modeling potential exposures in risk assessments, few studies have documented cleaning habits and product usage to characterize how they vary between households and over time. In addition, understanding within-household temporal variability of use is important to assess the reliability of exposure questionnaires used in epidemiological surveys and improve the cost-efficiency of data collection. In the SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behavior) study, frequencies of use of eight types of household cleaning products and air fresheners and the performance of different types of cleaning tasks are collected in three annual telephone and six quarterly web-based surveys. All-purpose and glass cleaners were the products most frequently used among all products surveyed. Use frequencies differed by demographic and other household characteristics for some products. Product usage was internally consistent, with over 75% of pairwise cross-sectional correlations between product types statistically significantly different from zero. In addition, each product type was correlated with at least one cleaning habit. Frequency of cleaning product use and performing cleaning tasks did not vary by season. An examination of intra-household variability showed moderately to highly consistent usage patterns over time, with lower temporal consistency observed among products used more frequently, such as all-purpose cleaners. Frequency of household care product usage was consistent enough that in epidemiologic studies, participants can be classified, for example, into three

  1. Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Management System and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the evaluation of households' usage of the current solid waste management system (SWMS) within the city of Ilorin, central Nigeria and investigates the determinants of household's willingness-to-Pay (WTP) for its improvement. Data was collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to ...

  2. Pro-environmental Behaviour of Households in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the positive effects, which are reflected in the relative improvement of the quality of life, the way households satisfy their needs has a direct impact on many environmental problems. Among them are global climatic changes, air, soil and water pollution, excessive usage of natural resources and loss of biodiversity. Sustainable consumption belongs to the key elements of global movement for sustainable development. It can be characterized as consumer behaviour which satisfies the needs of current and future generations. Czech households influence the environment every day by doing their shopping, consuming and using various kinds of products and services, the way they spend their leisure time, by commuting to work and travelling in general and, last but not the least, by producing waste. Both the location and the size of the household significantly influence the environment as well. 30 to 40% of environmental problems are caused by households. Thus, pro-environmental movements warn of the necessity to eliminate negative impacts of households’ behaviour. This paper analyses development tendencies of relevant indicators of household operations which have impact on the environment. The attention is paid primarily to consumption of electrical energy, water and food by households, usage of personal means of transport and production of communal waste. Time series statistical methods were used when assessing development tendencies.

  3. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O; Ssempebwa, John C

    2016-01-01

    Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices.

  4. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trasias Mukama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Results. Food remains (38% and plastics (37% formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9% disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6% and compost (54.9% solid wastes. Conclusion. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices.

  5. The Determinants of Rural Household Food Security for Landless Households of the Punjab, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Muhammad Khalid; Schilizzi, Steven; Pandit, Ram

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of food security for the landless rural households of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Primary data from 576 landless households were collected from 12 districts of the province. About 27% of the sample households were measured to be food insecure. Household’s monthly income and household head’s education levels of middle and intermediate were positively impacting household food security. On the other hand, household heads’ age and family size were negatively...

  6. Household Size and Brand Perception: The Case of Store Brands in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Nyengerai; Evans Manjoro

    2014-01-01

    An assessment was made of the effect of family size on store brand perception. It was hypothesized that larger households because of resources constraints would have a higher perception of store brands. A survey of 43 households was conducted in Harare, Bulawayo and Bindura and their perception of store brands was captured along three dimensions which were perceived quality, value and risk. The results from the regression analysis illustrated that the effect of household size was significant ...

  7. The Effects of a "Fat Tax" on the Nutrient Intake of French Households

    OpenAIRE

    Allais, Olivier; Bertail, Patrice; Nichèle, Veronique

    2008-01-01

    This article assesses the effects of a "fat tax" on the nutrient intake of French households across different income groups using a method that estimates the nutrient elasticities of French households. We estimate a complete demand system by aggregating an individual demand system over cohorts. The use of a cohort model is justified by the incompleteness of our data. We find that a "fat tax" would have ambiguous and extremely small effects on the nutrient intake of French households, and its ...

  8. Inflation differentials among Czech households

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Hait, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-84 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : households * inflation * inflation differentials Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016

  9. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  10. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  11. Geospatial datasets for assessing the effects of rangeland conditions on dissolved-solids yields in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Anning, David W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) surface-water quality model for the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) relating dissolved-solids sources and transport in the 1991 water year to upstream catchment characteristics. The SPARROW model focused on geologic and agricultural sources of dissolved solids in the UCRB and was calibrated using water-year 1991 dissolved-solids loads from 218 monitoring sites. A new UCRB SPARROW model is planned that will update the investigation of dissolved-solids sources and transport in the basin to circa 2010 conditions and will improve upon the 2009 model by incorporating more detailed information about agricultural-irrigation and rangeland-management practices, among other improvements. Geospatial datasets relating to circa 2010 rangeland conditions are required for the new UCRB SPARROW modeling effort. This study compiled geospatial datasets for the UCRB that relate to the biotic alterations and rangeland conditions of grazing, fire and other land disturbance, and vegetation type and cover. Datasets representing abiotic alterations of access control (off-highway vehicles) and sediment generation and transport in general, were also compiled. These geospatial datasets may be tested in the upcoming SPARROW model to better understand the potential contribution of rangelands to dissolved-solids loading in UCRB streams.

  12. Integrating Household Risk Mitigation Behavior in Flood Risk Analysis: An Agent-Based Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies showed that climate change and socioeconomic trends are expected to increase flood risks in many regions. However, in these studies, human behavior is commonly assumed to be constant, which neglects interaction and feedback loops between human and environmental systems. This neglect of human adaptation leads to a misrepresentation of flood risk. This article presents an agent-based model that incorporates human decision making in flood risk analysis. In particular, household investments in loss-reducing measures are examined under three economic decision models: (1) expected utility theory, which is the traditional economic model of rational agents; (2) prospect theory, which takes account of bounded rationality; and (3) a prospect theory model, which accounts for changing risk perceptions and social interactions through a process of Bayesian updating. We show that neglecting human behavior in flood risk assessment studies can result in a considerable misestimation of future flood risk, which is in our case study an overestimation of a factor two. Furthermore, we show how behavior models can support flood risk analysis under different behavioral assumptions, illustrating the need to include the dynamic adaptive human behavior of, for instance, households, insurers, and governments. The method presented here provides a solid basis for exploring human behavior and the resulting flood risk with respect to low-probability/high-impact risks. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Nutritional Assessment of Pre-School Children in Rural Villages of the Family Dynamics, Lifestyles and Nutrition Study (1997-2001) II. Prevalence of Undernutrition and Relationship to Household Socio-Economic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Hengleng; Khor, Geoklin; Arshad, Fatimah; Wan Muda, Wanabdulmanan; Mohdtaib, Mohdnasir; Safii, Nikshanita; Abdulkarim, Norimah; Mohdhusin, Norlela; Hashim, Normah; Poh, Beekoon; Mohdyusof, Rokiab

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes the nutritional status of pre-school children and analyzes its relationship to various household socio-economic indicators. Padi, rubber and fishing villages from the Functional Groups Study (1992-1996) were selected for having a high prevalence of child undernutrition, and all children between the ages of 12 and 72 months were measured for their weights and heights in April-May 1998. The NCHS reference values were used to calculate z-scores, which were categorised according to WHO (1983) recommendations. Children between minus 2SD and minus 1SD of reference median were classified as mildly malnourished. Prevalence of underweight was higher (30.5%) than stunting (22.3%), while wasting was only 9.7%. Padi villages had the highest prevalence of undernutrition, followed by fishing, and then rubber villages. Mean household incomes were found to be significantly lower for children with worse nutritional status, and undernutrition was higher in households below the poverty line income. The odds ratios for having stunted children were significantly higher for households whose heads were agricultural own-account workers (OR 3.66, 95% CI = 1.37-9.79), agricultural waged workers (OR 2.75, 95% CI = 1.06-7.10), and non-agricultural manual workers (OR 2.49, 95% CI = 1.04-6.00) compared to non-manual workers. Various household socio-economic indicators showed significantly higher odds ratios for underweight, stunting and wasting. After adjusting for confounding effects by logistic regression analysis, however, only mother's education was found to be a significant predictor for stunting, while poverty level and access to piped water supply were significant predictors for both underweight and stunting. Households without livestock were significant predictors for wasting. Thus, this study identified specific socio-economic factors that should be prioritized for policy and research towards the amelioration of childhood malnutrition in rural areas.

  14. Randomized evaluation of live attenuated vs. inactivated influenza vaccines in schools (RELATIVES) cluster randomized trial: Pilot results from a household surveillance study to assess direct and indirect protection from influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jeffrey C; Pereira, Jennifer A; Quach, Susan; Pellizzari, Rosana; Dusome, Edwina; Russell, Margaret L; Hamid, Jemila S; Feinberg, Yael; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Sirtonski, Brittany; Moher, Deanna; Sider, Doug; Finkelstein, Michael; Loeb, Mark

    2015-09-11

    Children are key drivers of influenza transmission. Vaccinating school age children decreases influenza in the community. To pilot-test the methods for a future trial to compare the direct and indirect benefits of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) vs. live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in preventing influenza infection. During the 2013-14 influenza vaccination campaign, we piloted an open-label cluster randomized trial involving 10 elementary schools in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. We randomized schools on a 1:1 basis to have students receive IIV or LAIV. We invited a subset of vaccinated students and their households to participate in a surveillance sub-study, which involved completing daily symptom diaries during influenza season and collecting mid-turbinate swabs from symptomatic individuals to detect influenza infection. The main outcome measure was confirmed influenza infection using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. One hundred and nineteen households (166 students and 293 household members) participated. During 15 weeks of surveillance, we detected 22 episodes of PCR-confirmed influenza (21 influenza A/H1N1 and 1 influenza B). The incidence of influenza per 1000 person-days was 1.24 (95% CI, 0.40-2.89) for IIV-vaccinated students, compared to 0.13 (95% CI, 0.003-0.72) for LAIV-vaccinated students; the incidence rate ratio was 0.10 (95% CI, 0.002-0.94). Similarly, the incidence of influenza per 1000 person-days was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.64-2.44) for IIV household members, compared to 0.47 (95% CI, 0.17-1.03) for LAIV household members; the incidence rate ratio was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.11-1.08). The overall incidence rate ratio (combining students and household members) was 0.27 (95% CI, 0.09-0.69). Household surveillance involving participant monitoring and reporting of symptoms and self-collection of mid-turbinate swabs is feasible. A larger study is required to validate the suggestion that vaccinating children with LAIV

  15. Assessment of Bacterial Spores in Solid Materials: Curriculum Improvements Partnership Award for the Integration of Research (CIPAIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    This summer, we quantified the release, by cryogenic grinding at liquid nitrogen temperatures, of microbes present in 4 different spacecraft solids: epoxy 9309, epoxy 9394, epoxy 9396, and a silicone coating. Three different samples of each material were prepared: aseptically prepared solid material, powdered material inoculated with a known spore count of Bacillus atrophaeus, and solid material artificially embedded with a known spore count of Bacillus atrophaeus. Samples were cryogenically ground as needed, and the powders were directly cultured to determine the number of microbial survivors per gram of material. Recovery rates were found to be highly material-dependent, varying from 0.2 to 50% for inoculated material surfaces and 0.002 to 0.5% for embedded spores. A study of the spore survival rate versus total grinding time was also performed, with results indicating that longer grinding time decreases recovery rates of viable spores.

  16. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried out on solid -agar diffusion assay- and liquid -turbidometric assay- substrates, applied in the quantification of the most studied bacteriocin nisin. Results The performance of characterized microorganisms of known sources, belonging to the genera of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Leuconostoc, has been assessed in this work in the assays of plate agar diffusion and turbidometry. Dose responses and sensitivities were examined and compared over a range of assay variables in standard bacteriocin solutions, fermentation broth filtrates and processed food samples. Measurements on inhibition zones produced on agar plates were made by means of digital image analysis. The data produced were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA technique and pairwise comparisons tests. Sensitivity limits and linearity of responses to bacteriocin varied significantly among different test-microorganisms in both applied methods, the lower sensitivity limits depending on both the test-microorganism and the applied method. In both methods, however, only two of the nine tested microorganisms (Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436 and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 25740 were sensitive to very low concentrations of the bacteriocin and produced a linear-type of response in all kinds of samples used in this work. In all cases, very low bacteriocin concentrations, e.g. 1 IU/ml nisin, were more accurately determined in the turbidometric assay. Conclusion The present work shows that in

  17. Assessment of carbon footprint emissions and environmental concerns of solid waste treatment and disposal techniques; case study of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Abualqumboz, Motasem S; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman M; Abunama, Taher J

    2017-12-01

    Malaysian authorities has planned to minimize and stop when applicable unsanitary dumping of waste as it puts human health and the environment at elevated risk. Cost, energy and revenue are mostly adopted to draw the blueprint of upgrading municipal solid waste management system, while the carbon footprint emissions criterion rarely acts asa crucial factor. This study aims to alert Malaysian stakeholders on the uneven danger of carbon footprint emissions of waste technologies. Hence, three scenarios have been proposed and assessed mainly on the carbon footprint emissions using the 2006 IPCC methodology. The first scenario is waste dumping in sanitary landfills equipped with gas recovery system, while the second scenario includes anaerobic digestion of organics and recycling of recyclable wastes such as plastic, glass and textile wastes. The third scenario is waste incineration. Besides the carbon footprint emissions criterion, other environmental concerns were also examined. The results showed that the second scenario recorded the lowest carbon footprint emissions of 0.251t CO2 eq./t MSW while the third scenario had the highest emissions of 0.646t CO2 eq./t MSW. Additionally, the integration between anaerobic digestion and recycling techniques caused the highest avoided CO2 eq. emissions of 0.74t CO2 eq./t MSW. The net CO2 eq. emissions of the second scenario equaled -0.489t CO2 eq./t MSW due to energy recovery from the biogas and because of recycled plastic, glass and textile wastes that could replace usage of raw material. The outcomes also showed that the first scenario generates huge amount of leachate and hazardous air constituents. The study estimated that a ton of dumped waste inside the landfills generates approximately 0.88m3 of trace risky compounds and 0.188m3 of leachate. As for energy production, the results showed that the third scenario is capable of generating 639kWh/t MSW followed by the second scenario with 387.59kWh/t MSW. The first scenario

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  20. Assessment of Solid Sorbent Systems for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glier, Justin C.

    In an effort to lower future CO2 emissions, a wide range of technologies are being developed to scrub CO2 from the flue gases of fossil fuel-based electric power and industrial plants. This thesis models one of several early-stage post-combustion CO2 capture technologies, solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process, and presents performance and cost estimates of this system on pulverized coal power plants. The spreadsheet-based software package Microsoft Excel was used in conjunction with AspenPlus modelling results and the Integrated Environmental Control Model to develop performance and cost estimates for the solid sorbent-based CO2 capture technology. A reduced order model also was created to facilitate comparisons among multiple design scenarios. Assumptions about plant financing and utilization, as well as uncertainties in heat transfer and material design that affect heat exchanger and reactor design were found to produce a wide range of cost estimates for solid sorbent-based systems. With uncertainties included, costs for a supercritical power plant with solid sorbent-based CO2 capture ranged from 167 to 533 per megawatt hour for a first-of-a-kind installation (with all costs in constant 2011 US dollars) based on a 90% confidence interval. The median cost was 209/MWh. Post-combustion solid sorbent-based CO2 capture technology is then evaluated in terms of the potential cost for a mature system based on historic experience as technologies are improved with sequential iterations of the currently available system. The range costs for a supercritical power plant with solid sorbent-based CO2 capture was found to be 118 to 189 per megawatt hour with a nominal value of 163 per megawatt hour given the expected range of technological improvement in the capital and operating costs and efficiency of the power plant after 100 GW of cumulative worldwide experience. These results suggest that the solid sorbent-based system will not be competitive with currently available

  1. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS).

  2. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  3. Household Credit and Saving: Does Policy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys the existing literature on the determinants of household savings and credit in developing countries and examines the ways in which macro-level policies might impact on household financial behaviour.

  4. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste.......This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...

  5. Effect of community participation on household environment to mitigate dengue transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannapong, N; Tipayamongkholgul, M; Bhumiratana, A; Boonshuyar, C; Howteerakul, N; Poolthin, S

    2014-03-01

    Due to the absence of dengue vaccination, vector control is the only measure to prevent dengue outbreaks. The key element of dengue prevention is to eliminate vector habitats. Clean household environment, preventive behaviors of household members and community participation in dengue prevention and control are key successful elements. This study aimed to investigate the associations between environmental factors, dengue knowledge, perception and preventive behaviors of household and collaboration of community members and household risk of dengue by using mixed methods. One dengue epidemic province was selected from each region of Thailand including Bangkok. Two districts, one from the highest and another from the lowest dengue incidence areas, were selected from those provinces. The household leaders, community members, and local authorities in highest dengue incidence areas were interviewed by using questionnaire and through group interviews. The environment of each selected household was observed. Of 4,561 households, 194 were reported having dengue case(s) in the past year and that outdoor solid waste disposal significantly influenced household risk of dengue (OR=1.62; 95% CI=1.16-2.29). In contrast, having gardening areas reduced dengue risk at household level by 32%. High level of community participation in dengue prevention and control in uninfected areas and the information from local authorities and community members reconfirmed that community participation was the key factor against dengue outbreaks. Sustainable process of encouraging community members to eliminate vector breeding sites such as outdoor solid waste disposal is likely to lead to an achievement in dengue prevention and control.

  6. Assessment of applicability index for better management of municipal solid waste: a case study of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pooja; Samadder, S R

    2017-06-01

    Selection of suitable municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options is one of the major challenges in urban areas of the developing countries. Success of MSWM requires accurate data of generation rate, composition and physico-chemical characteristics of solid wastes. Improper handling of solid waste can have significant environmental and aesthetical impacts. The present study proposes a new method (applicability index - Pik values) for identifying the most appropriate disposal option with the help of applicability values of Composting-CP, Incineration-IP and Landfill-LP for individual components of MSW based on the results of the physico-chemical analysis of the collected representative solid waste samples from the study area, Dhanbad, India. The mean values of moisture content, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, volatile organic carbon, fixed carbon, ash content, density and calorific values (CV) of individual components were used as input values in this process. Based on the proposed applicability index (Pik), the highest Pik values were obtained for incineration (IP) for plastics, polythene, paper, coconut shell, wood, cardboard, textile, thermocol (polystyrene), rubber, sugarcane bagasse, cow dung and leather wastes (IP > CP > LP) due to high CV of these solid waste components; the highest Pik values were obtained for composting (CP) of kitchen waste (CP > IP > LP); and the highest Pik values for inert wastes were obtained for landfill option (LP > IP > CP). The highest Pik value for a particular waste for a specific treatment option signifies that the waste is suitable for treatment/disposal using that option.

  7. Household metabolism in European countries and cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Falkena, H.J.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.; Noorman, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of household metabolism was applied to enhance the understanding of the environmental impacts of household consumption in cities during the second phase of the ToolSust project. The household metabolism in four European cities was determined in terms of total energy requirements,

  8. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  9. Fairness judgments in household decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Kroft, M.

    2005-01-01

    The behavioral economic study of fairness was applied to household decision making. A sample of household partners judged the fairness of a number of hypothetical decisions of a household partner, varying in the context of the decision. Decisions made by the partner to make a large personal

  10. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  11. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household concept... under 22 years of age who is living with his or her natural or adoptive parent(s) or step-parent(s); and...

  12. Substitution between cars within the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borger, B.; Mulalic, I.; Rouwendal, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate - for each car owned by the household

  13. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...

  14. Health Care Expenditure of Rural Households in Pondicherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Varadarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortcomings in healthcare delivery has led people to spend a substantial proportion of their incomes on medical treatment. World Health Organization (2005 estimates reveal that every year 25 million households are forced into poverty by illness and the struggle to pay for healthcare. Thus we planned to calculate the health care expenditure of rural households and to assess the households incurring catastrophic health expenditure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the service area of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital from May to August 2011. A total of 100 households from the 4 adjoining villages of our Institute were selected for operational and logistic feasibility. The household’s capacity to pay, out of pocket expenditure and catastrophic health expenditure were calculated. Data collection was done using a pretested questionnaire by the principal investigator and the analysis was done using SPSS (version 16. Results: The average income in the highest income quintile was Rs 51,885 but the quintile ratio was 14.98. The median subsistence expenditure was Rs 4,520. About 18% of households got impoverished paying for health care. About 81% of households were incurring out of pocket expenditure and 66% were facing catastrophic health expenses of 40%.Conclusion There was very high out of pocket spending and a high prevalence of catastrophic expenditure noted. Providing quality care at affordable cost and appropriate risk pooling mechanism are warranted to protect households from such economic threats.

  15. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant J Aaron

    Full Text Available A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%; however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately. For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.

  16. Household food security and adequacy of child diet in the food insecure region north in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbadi, Pascal; Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2017-01-01

    Adequate diet is of crucial importance for healthy child development. In food insecure areas of the world, the provision of adequate child diet is threatened in the many households that sometimes experience having no food at all to eat (household food insecurity). In the context of food insecure northern Ghana, this study investigated the relationship between level of household food security and achievement of recommended child diet as measured by WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding Indicators. Using data from households and 6-23 month old children in the 2012 Feed the Future baseline survey (n = 871), descriptive analyses assessed the prevalence of minimum meal frequency; minimum dietary diversity, and minimum acceptable diet. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of minimum acceptable diet with household food security, while accounting for the effects of child sex and age, maternal -age, -dietary diversity, -literacy and -education, household size, region, and urban-rural setting. Household food security was assessed with the Household Hunger Scale developed by USAID's Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Forty-nine percent of children received minimum recommended meal frequency, 31% received minimum dietary diversity, and 17% of the children received minimum acceptable diet. Sixty-four percent of the children lived in food secure households, and they were significantly more likely than children in food insecure households to receive recommended minimum acceptable diet [O.R = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82]. However, in 80% of food secure households, children did not receive a minimal acceptable diet by WHO standards. Children living in food secure households were more likely than others to receive a minimum acceptable diet. Yet living in a food secure household was no guarantee of child dietary adequacy, since eight of 10 children in food secure households received less than a minimum acceptable diet. The results call for research

  17. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed roles of household members in kolanut production and marketing in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 80 kolanut farmers. Data were collected from the respondents using structured interview schedule. Data were presented and analyzed using frequency counts, ...

  18. 31 The Gender Perspective of Household Food Security in Meskan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    assess the food security situation and the type of coping strategies pursued by female and male- headed households in two kebeles of Meskan District of the .... are leading subsistence way of life entails whether the crops and livestock they produce at home cover their annual food consumption requirements or not.

  19. Intake of household salt in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2009-01-01

    from the mean urinary excretion of sodium in four 24-h collections. Household salt, added to the food by the volunteers, was assessed using a lithium-marker technique. Results: Total salt intake was 10.6 +/- 3.3 g day(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) in men and 7.1 +/- 2.3 g day(-1) in women. Median intake...

  20. Rural livelihood diversification and its effects on household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed at identifying the major livelihood diversification activities, reasons for diversification and the main challenges of livelihood diversification and assessing the effect of livelihood diversification on food security at household level. A blended approach that involved quantitative and qualitative research ...