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Sample records for assessing household solid

  1. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Minh Giang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and composting from various management scenarios. In oder to use Tier 2 model of IPCC 2006 for GHG estimation from landfills, an analysis on current household solid waste management system of the city was obtained by using material flow analysis approach. A case study in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam was carried out in this research. As a result, there was a reduced of over 70% of the amount of CH4 emissions and  up to 53% of total GHG saving (CO2-eq from avoiding organic waste to landfill. In addition, applying an energy recovery from LFG system to available landfills would lead to aproximately 75% of GHG saved compare to current emission of waste sector.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16Citation: Giang, H.M.,Luong, N.D., and Huong, L.T.M.2013. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies. . Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16

  2. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang Minh Giang; guyen Duc Luong; Luong Thi Mai Huong

    2013-01-01

    Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and compost...

  3. ATTITUDES AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCING SOLID WASTE GENERATION: A HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Donald J.; Mauger, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of household decision-makers and an analysis of their garbage was used to suggest factors affecting the weight of household contributions to municipal solid waste. Iterative regression was used to build a model from the data that is hypothesized to explain garbage weight. Food expenditure, environmental attitude, consumption of soft drinks in plastic bottles, and cats in the household were significant for all households. Self-sufficiency and energy-conscious behavioral scales also af...

  4. Towards sustainable solid waste management: Investigating household participation in solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, A. M.; Ho, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the readiness of Iskandar Malaysia community to accept solid waste recycling. The research is based on quantitative research design and descriptive survey of the households at Iskandar Malaysia using the stratified sampling method for a sample of 670. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that covered two basic principles; a) recycling knowledge; b) willingness to recycle. Data was analysed using the SPSS to carry out statistical analysis. The finding shows households' knowledge towards the solid waste recycling is good and positive. However, finding also shows that respondents have incomprehensive knowledge on the method of disposal as more than 50% of householders only recycle papers and textiles. Most of the households agreed to participate in the activities of the separation of waste if the facility will be made available at their kerbside. Therefore, it is recommended that government should provide more in-depth knowledge by intensifying the awareness of the households in the recycling programs. In term of urban planning and management, the location of recycling facility can be analysing by using GIS. This is important to understand the catchment area of each neighbourhood or precinct to ensure effective household participation.

  5. Towards sustainable solid waste management: Investigating household participation in solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to assess the readiness of Iskandar Malaysia community to accept solid waste recycling. The research is based on quantitative research design and descriptive survey of the households at Iskandar Malaysia using the stratified sampling method for a sample of 670. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that covered two basic principles; a) recycling knowledge; b) willingness to recycle. Data was analysed using the SPSS to carry out statistical analysis. The finding shows households' knowledge towards the solid waste recycling is good and positive. However, finding also shows that respondents have incomprehensive knowledge on the method of disposal as more than 50% of householders only recycle papers and textiles. Most of the households agreed to participate in the activities of the separation of waste if the facility will be made available at their kerbside. Therefore, it is recommended that government should provide more in-depth knowledge by intensifying the awareness of the households in the recycling programs. In term of urban planning and management, the location of recycling facility can be analysing by using GIS. This is important to understand the catchment area of each neighbourhood or precinct to ensure effective household participation

  6. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  7. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (rxy = 0.236, p xy = 0.244, p xy = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the

  8. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

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    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  9. Household Demand for Solid Waste Disposal Options in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pek, Chuen Khee; Othman, Jamal

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic values of household preference for enhanced solid waste disposal services in Malaysia. The contingent valuation (CV) method estimates an average additional monthly willingness-to-pay (WTP) in solid waste management charges of €0.77 to 0.80 for improved waste disposal services quality. The finding of a slightly higher WTP from the generic CV question than that of label-specific, further reveals a higher WTP for sanitary landfill, at €0.90, than incineration, a...

  10. Informal Collection of Household Solid Waste in Three Towns of Anambra State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Egbu Anthony; Okoroigwe Decklan

    2014-01-01

    Management of urban solid waste implies the collection, transfer, treatment recycle, reuse and disposal of such waste. Collection of urban household solid waste traditionally rests with government agencies designated with such responsibility. Solid waste collection begins from storage at the household level to the final treatment or disposal point and represents the most important aspect of urban solid waste management. Little has however been written on urban household solid waste collection...

  11. Informal Collection of Household Solid Waste in Three Towns of Anambra State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbu Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of urban solid waste implies the collection, transfer, treatment recycle, reuse and disposal of such waste. Collection of urban household solid waste traditionally rests with government agencies designated with such responsibility. Solid waste collection begins from storage at the household level to the final treatment or disposal point and represents the most important aspect of urban solid waste management. Little has however been written on urban household solid waste collection in Nigeria. Using empirical data from three urban areas of Anambra State, Nigeria, the paper examines the place of informal private solid waste collectors in household solid waste collection. The ANOVA technique is used to test the null hypothesis that the sample means of the distance to designated community/street solid waste collection containers in the residential neighbourhoods of the three towns are equal. We conclude on household patronage of informal private solid waste collectors as against government provided community/street collection containers in the areas studied.

  12. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  13. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  14. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance of...... environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of...

  15. Evaluation of nitrogen fertilizing value of composted household solid waste under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Elherradi, Elhassania; Soudi, Brahim; CHIANG, Claude; Elkacemi, Kacem

    2005-01-01

    Accumulation of municipal solid wastes, such as household solid waste, can be rated as a harmful, if not critical, pollution problem. However, if these wastes can be composted and the end product used as soil organic amendment or fertilizer, this may represent one of the alternatives for achieving the goal of ensuring integrated and sustainable waste management. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the nitrogen fertilizing value of household solid waste compost in two soils of Mor...

  16. Designing an economic instrument for sustainable solid waste management in the household sector

    OpenAIRE

    Welivita, Indunee

    2014-01-01

    Household Solid Waste Management has become problematic in urban areas especially in developing countries like Sri Lanka due to increased waste generation and financial constraints. The main objective of this research was to design an economic instrument with policy suggestions in order to address the household solid waste management problem in Dehiwala – the Mt. Lavinia Municipal Council area in Sri Lanka. In order to reduce the quantity of waste by encouraging sustainable solid waste manage...

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Iranian Urban Residents Regarding the Management of Household Hazardous Solid Wastes in 2014

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    Abdoliman Amouei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Household hazardous waste is an important part of municipal solid waste in any community and if it is not managed properly, it can significantly damage the health of family, community and environment. The present study aimed at evaluating the knowledge, attitude and practices of households regarding the management of household hazardous wastes in Amirkola, Mazandaran, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 330 households of Amirkola, Mazandaran, Iran in the summer of 2014. A researcher-made data collection form in accordance with the objectives of the study was used to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of Iranian urban residents regarding the management of household hazardous wastes through observation of researchers and interview. The validity of the data collection form was confirmed by five faculty members of the Departments of Environmental Health and Community Medicine. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19, descriptive statistical indexes, T-test and Chi- square tests, and p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Results : The mean age of studied people was 39.1±10 years and 51.5% had high school and diploma degrees. In this study, 75%, 36.7% and 6.3% of households were good in the knowledge, attitude and practices, respectively. A major part of household hazardous wastes (78% was the containers of disinfectants and detergents. 43.6% and 10.3% of households separated the household wastes and household hazardous wastes, respectively and no one recycled these wastes at home. 30% of households expressed that the lack of proper management of municipal on collecting the separated wastes as a major factor in the reluctance of them in waste separation. 86.7% of people need to get information about it. Conclusion : Despite appropriate knowledge of surveyed households on different kinds of household hazardous wastes, most of them had no good attitude and practices

  18. The rural population role in solving the solid household waste management issues

    OpenAIRE

    Gorobets, O.

    2013-01-01

    The survey about the solid household waste management issue results of the private peasant households owners in Zhytomyr region has been analyzed. A conclusion about the readiness of most respondents to implement a separate collection of individual waste components has been made

  19. The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solomon, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely ineffec

  20. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong;

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...

  1. Urban Households' Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Disposal Services in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Dadson Awunyo-Vitor; Shaibu Ishak; Godfred Seidu Jasaw

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management within Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly area continues to be a major challenge for the municipal assembly and one of the key issues is its financial constraints. This study was undertaken to examine households' willingness to pay for improved solid waste management services. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select six hundred respondents for the study. Logistic regression model was used to establish the determinants of willingness to pay for solid waste manag...

  2. SIMGERE: software para avaliação de cenários de gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos domiciliares SIMGERE: software to assess scenarios of integrated household solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Miyoko Massukado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento de um sistema de apoio à decisão como ferramenta para analisar diferentes cenários de gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos domiciliares. O SIMGERE, nome do software, foi desenvolvido para auxiliar as Administrações Públicas Municipais na gestão dos resíduos sólidos domiciliares por meio da simulação de cenários, mostrando os efeitos que poderão ocorrer a partir de possíveis mudanças nas estratégias da gestão. Para tanto, foi definido e delimitado o campo de trabalho do sistema de apoio à decisão seguindo-se para a construção do modelo conceitual com base no conhecimento adquirido na literatura pertinente, para depois traduzi-lo em telas de ação e fluxogramas de decisão. Terminados estes procedimentos iniciou-se a codificação do modelo em linguagem de programação (Delphi 6.0. Paralelamente foram realizados testes de validação do sistema quanto a usabilidade e coerência, sendo os erros ajustados. Finalmente, foram gerados os arquivos executáveis do sistema para sua instalação e posterior disponibilização.This paper presents a development of decision support system tool to analyze household solid waste management scenarios. SIMGERE, software's name, was developed to aid Municipal Administration in the management of their household solid waste through the simulation of scenarios, showing the effects that can happen if some targets were changed in the management. The development of the method consisted in defining and delimiting the work field of decision support system, followed by the construction of a conceptual model based on the acquired knowledge. The model was then translated in action screens and decision workflows, which were programmed in Delphi 6.0. At the same time tests of system validation were accomplished in two ways - first on program's usability and second on the coherence of results, being the adjusted mistakes. Finally, the executable files of the

  3. Hepatitis B and C in household and health services solid waste workers

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    Marcos Paulo Gomes Mol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human contact with solid waste poses biological, chemical, and physical health risks for workers involved in waste collection, transportation, and storage. The potential risk to human health resulting from contact with health services waste or household waste still sparks considerable controversy. The aim of this study was to identify the context of scientific discussions on risk/infection from the hepatitis B and C viruses in workers that collect solid waste from health services or households. The search covered publications up to 2013 in Brazilian and international databases, and 11 articles were selected through a literature review. Of these, six conclude that there is an increased risk of infection in workers that collect household waste when compared to those unexposed to waste, three point to greater risk for workers that collect health services waste as compared to those that collect ordinary waste, and the other two found no difference between exposed and unexposed individuals.

  4. The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely ineffective or not in place at all. Moreover, unsafe disposal of waste in the region is coupled with poor hygiene. There is no doubt that East African capital cities need to formulate effective ways to ma...

  5. A multiple criteria analysis for-household solid waste management in the urban community of Dakar

    OpenAIRE

    Kapepula, K. M.; Colson, Gérard; Sabri, Karim; Thonart, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Household solid waste management is a severe problem in big cities of developing countries. Mismanaged solid waste dumpsites produce bad sanitary, ecological and economic consequences for the whole population, especially for the poorest urban inhabitants. Dealing with this problem, this paper utilizes field data collected in the urban community of Dakar, in view of ranking nine areas of the city with respect to multiple criteria of nuisance. Nine criteria are built and organized in three fami...

  6. Household energy assessment: integration of approaches and additional factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    An appropriate household energy assessment for developing countries which use substantial biomass, requires a coordinated effort between surveyors, experimentalists and analysts. This paper describes the role of each and also the additional factors which need to be considered, recorded, measured and analyzed to account for variations in energy consumption across countries, income classes, etc. These range from seasonal and regional differences, fuel scarcities and coping strategies, dietary and cooking practices, food and fuel processing, to the role of women.

  7. INTERACTION OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE WITH MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE: STUDY OF OPEN DUMPSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Bini Samal; Omprakash Madguni

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that hazardous compounds are finding their way to safe landfills meant only for non-toxic municipal solid wastes (MSW). The source of this contamination could be household hazardous waste (HHW), which often contains a wide variety of highly toxic ingredients like solvents, heavy metals, acids, bases, oxidizers, reactive chemicals etc. Many of these compounds do not degrade with time and enter the food chain spontaneously and are responsible for a variety of health issues suc...

  8. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CORRELATES OF HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE GENERATION: EVIDENCE FROM LAGOS METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ojewale Oluwole SAMUEL

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzed the determinants of household solid waste generation among residents of Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Primary data for the study were obtained through questionnaire administered on residents in Eti-osa, Ikeja and Mushin Local Government Areas (LGAs) representing the low, medium and high densities respectively into which the sixteen LGAs in Lagos metropolis were stratified. From a total of 15,275 residential buildings in ten electoral wards, one out of every forty buildings (2....

  9. Hybrid Governance: The case of household solid waste management in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Governance is hybrid to the extent that it involves several types of stakeholders, jurisdictional domains, and organisational forms. This paper analyses governance of household solid waste management in Sweden from a hybridity perspective, with the City of Helsingborg as example. The empirical material on which the paper is based consists of interviews with politicians, civil servants and management of the municipal waste management company; and of documents of various kinds, from board meeti...

  10. EPHECT II: Exposure assessment to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Trantallidi, M; Carrer, P; Efthimiou, G C; Bartzis, J G

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region. PMID:26173853

  11. A multiple criteria analysis for household solid waste management in the urban community of Dakar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapepula, Ka-Mbayu; Colson, Gerard; Sabri, Karim; Thonart, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Household solid waste management is a severe problem in big cities of developing countries. Mismanaged solid waste dumpsites produce bad sanitary, ecological and economic consequences for the whole population, especially for the poorest urban inhabitants. Dealing with this problem, this paper utilizes field data collected in the urban community of Dakar, in view of ranking nine areas of the city with respect to multiple criteria of nuisance. Nine criteria are built and organized in three families that represent three classical viewpoints: the production of wastes, their collection and their treatment. Thanks to the method PROMETHEE and the software ARGOS, we do a pair-wise comparison of the nine areas, which allows their multiple criteria rankings according to each viewpoint and then globally. Finding the worst and best areas in terms of nuisance for a better waste management in the city is our final purpose, fitting as well as possible the needs of the urban community. Based on field knowledge and on the literature, we suggest applying general and area-specific remedies to the household solid waste problems. PMID:17064885

  12. Innovative Household Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Vialetto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed, and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost.This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systemand heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...

  13. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Irohibe Ifeoma; Agwu Agwu

    2014-01-01

    Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, t...

  14. Relationship between Personality Traits of the Urban Poor Concerning Solid Waste Management and Household Income and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Wahid Md. Murad; Mahadi Md. Hasan; Muhammad Shoeb-Ur-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of the urban poor householders concerning solid waste management systems and monthly household income and education. To attain the objective, the study employed statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way ANOVA, chi-squared „likelihood ratio“ test and simple descriptive statistics. The findings show that the urban poor communities with low income and education have been proven to behave in...

  15. Household Cooking with Solid Fuels Contributes to Ambient PM2.5 Air Pollution and the Burden of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoë A.; Brauer, Michael; Klimont, Zbigniew; Van Dingenen, Rita; Mehta, Sumi; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2.8 billion people cook with solid fuels. Research has focused on the health impacts of indoor exposure to fine particulate pollution. Here, for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease project (GBD 2010), we evaluated the impact of household cooking with solid fuels on regional population-weighted ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm) pollution (APM2.5). Objectives: We estimated the proportion and concentrations of APM2.5 attributable to household cooking with solid fuels (PM2.5-cook) for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010 in 170 countries, and associated ill health. Methods: We used an energy supply–driven emissions model (GAINS; Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) and source-receptor model (TM5-FASST) to estimate the proportion of APM2.5 produced by households and the proportion of household PM2.5 emissions from cooking with solid fuels. We estimated health effects using GBD 2010 data on ill health from APM2.5 exposure. Results: In 2010, household cooking with solid fuels accounted for 12% of APM2.5 globally, varying from 0% of APM2.5 in five higher-income regions to 37% (2.8 μg/m3 of 6.9 μg/m3 total) in southern sub-Saharan Africa. PM2.5-cook constituted > 10% of APM2.5 in seven regions housing 4.4 billion people. South Asia showed the highest regional concentration of APM2.5 from household cooking (8.6 μg/m3). On the basis of GBD 2010, we estimate that exposure to APM2.5 from cooking with solid fuels caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years globally in 2010. Conclusions: PM2.5 emissions from household cooking constitute an important portion of APM2.5 concentrations in many places, including India and China. Efforts to improve ambient air quality will be hindered if household cooking conditions are not addressed. Citation: Chafe ZA, Brauer M, Klimont Z, Van Dingenen R, Mehta S, Rao S, Riahi K, Dentener F, Smith KR. 2014. Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to

  16. Research on Factors Influencing Municipal Household Solid Waste Separate Collection: Bayesian Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujie Chu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Municipal household solid waste (MHSW has become a serious problem in China over the course of the last two decades, resulting in significant side effects to the environment. Therefore, effective management of MHSW has attracted wide attention from both researchers and practitioners. Separate collection, the first and crucial step to solve the MHSW problem, however, has not been thoroughly studied to date. An empirical survey has been conducted among 387 households in Harbin, China in this study. We use Bayesian Belief Networks model to determine the influencing factors on separate collection. Four types of factors are identified, including political, economic, social cultural and technological based on the PEST (political, economic, social and technological analytical method. In addition, we further analyze the influential power of different factors, based on the network structure and probability changes obtained by Netica software. Results indicate that technological dimension has the greatest impact on MHSW separate collection, followed by the political dimension and economic dimension; social cultural dimension impacts MHSW the least.

  17. INTERACTION OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE WITH MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE: STUDY OF OPEN DUMPSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bini Samal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that hazardous compounds are finding their way to safe landfills meant only for non-toxic municipal solid wastes (MSW. The source of this contamination could be household hazardous waste (HHW, which often contains a wide variety of highly toxic ingredients like solvents, heavy metals, acids, bases, oxidizers, reactive chemicals etc. Many of these compounds do not degrade with time and enter the food chain spontaneously and are responsible for a variety of health issues such as hormone disruption, reproductive disorders, learning disabilities, heart diseases etc. This paper reviews various issues related to MSW and its possible impact on the environment. Several literatures, cited reveal that there is policy and institutional failures in managing the MSW sustainably. There are hazardous substances mixed with MSW which are subsequently getting dumped in secured landfills. These hazardous substances later not only degrade the SLF but also pollute the surrounding environment. Contaminated leachates often take various pathways, like air, soil, water and vegetation and find their way into food chain. This review recommends few alternate measures to strengthen the policy. Organizing campaigns, strengthening the segregation system at household scale and establishment of temporary collection points/centers, application of spatial database and analysis tool to integrate various spatial attributes related to soil, water, natural vegetation, proximity to habitation etc. for establishing an SLF.

  18. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  19. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  20. The effects of socioeconomic parameters on household solid-waste generation and composition in developing countries (a case study: Ahvaz, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Omrani, Ghasem Ali; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Raof, Farzaneh Fakheri

    2012-04-01

    Environment problems associated with the generation of waste are part of societal changes where households play an important role. These societal changes influence the size, structure and characteristic of given households. For the effective planning of solid-waste handling infrastructure, it is essential to know the quantity of waste generation and its composition. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in an urban municipal area in Iran to determine the household solid-waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socioeconomic parameters. The dependent variables were waste generation and composition, and independent variables were family size, family employment, age, number of room and education. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology and from five different socioeconomic groups. Waste collected from all groups of households were segregated and weighted. Waste generation rate was 5.4 kg/household/day. Household solid waste comprised of ten categories of wastes and with the largest component (76.9%). The generation and composition of household solid waste were correlated with family size, education level and households income. This paper adequately suggests new insights concerning the role of socioeconomic parameters in affecting the generation of household waste. PMID:21713501

  1. Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied

  2. Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoniel, Buenrostro Delgado; Liliana, Márquez-Benavides; Francelia, Pinette Gaona

    2008-01-01

    Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied.

  3. Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior.

  4. Pro-environmental Behavior Regarding Solid Waste Management in Householders of Kalutara Urban Council Area- A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Amarasinghe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems generated by solid waste have become a major national issue in Sri Lanka due to high levels of economic growth and consumption. Inappropriate management of solid waste may generate many problems such as environmental pollution, public health, social and economic problems as well as aesthetic issues. Therefore, this problem needs immediate attention not only for the management of waste, but also for the study of individual behavior related to solid waste production and use. This research was carried out as a case study in Kalutara urban council area, where behavior that is related to the production and management of waste is analyzed. To achieve this, a questionnaire survey was done for the households of Kalutara North, Kalutara South and Katukurunda. The households’ descriptive, inferential and informative believes were identified where they express agreement or disagreement regarding the final disposal of waste. In total 100 households completed the questionnaire. This work approached the behavioral aspect of the problem by considering the attitudes towards the environment and the beliefs about the environment. In addition, knowledge of environment and the problems raised have been considered for prediction of environmentally protective behavior. In this investigation, the classification of believes were considered in terms of austerity or limitation of consumption, conservation and material beliefs or material squandering. Further, the environmental attitudes were considered as emotional, cognitive (know and behavioral. Based on the preliminary results of this study, it can be concluded that believes and attitudes show a certain level of relation with the behavior of the households. The questionnaire survey was useful to highlight the solid waste problem that exists in the area and to indicate the trends of attitudes and behavior among the solid waste management. Further, by considering the findings of this study, an environmental

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Household Waste Segregation in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tunmise A. Otitoju; Lau Seng

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is faced with daunting challenges relating to household waste segregation. Due to an increase in population, economic growth, enforcement, infrastructure, public attitude, awareness and participation among others, source segregation is considered a crucial issue in Malaysia, particularly in urban settings. This paper presents the key findings of the quantitative (questionnaire) survey administered among 235 households in Kuching South City and qualitative (interview) survey with the ...

  6. Municipal household solid waste collection strategies in an African megacity: analysis of public private partnership performance in Lagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliu, Ibrahim Rotimi; Adeyemi, Oluwagbemiga Ezekiel; Adebayo, Adeolu

    2014-09-01

    Managing municipal solid waste is a pervasive urban problem globally. While several strategies have been applied for efficient municipal solid waste management in developing economies, their performance level has not been critically investigated. Among these strategies, the public private partnership has widest appeal. This study examines the performance of public private partnership in household solid waste collection in Lagos, Nigeria. We collected primary data using a municipal solid waste survey in three residential density areas of Lagos megacity. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Two indexes of service performance, namely the service reliability index and operational quality index, were created to produce evidence on public private partnership performance in municipal solid waste collection in Lagos. Results show that the average amount of household solid waste generation per week ranges between 22.75 kg in the medium residential density area and 30.39 kg in the high residential density region of the city. The estimated per capita waste generated in Lagos Megacity is 0.95 kg day(-1). Regression models indicate that the public private partnership performance is significantly influenced by economic status, affordability, flexibility, consistency, cleanliness, coverage and accessibility, as well as number of waste collection vehicles, vehicle maintenance, capacity, trip rate, frequency, number of personnel and quality of personnel. Findings from this study reveal that Lagos residents have strong positive perception of public private partnership as a waste collection policy framework. The study has important policy and practical implications for urban waste management, public health and sustainability in developing economies. PMID:25193926

  7. Housing and mobility demands of individual households and their life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Dominik; Heeren, Niko; Jäggi, Boris; Waraich, Rashid A; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-06-01

    Household consumption, apart from governmental consumption, is the main driver of worldwide economy. Attached to each household purchase are economic activities along the preceding supply chain, with the associated resource use and emissions. A method to capture and assess all these resource uses and emissions is life cycle assessment. We developed a model for the life cycle assessment of housing and land-based mobility (excluding air travel) consumption of individual households a small village in Switzerland. Statistical census and dwelling register data are the foundations of the model. In a case study performed on a midsized community, we found a median value of greenhouse gas emissions of 3.12 t CO2 equiv and a mean value of 4.30 t CO2 equiv per capita and year for housing and mobility. Twenty-one percent of the households in the investigated region were responsible for 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions, meaning that if their emissions could be halved the total emissions of the community would be reduced by 25%. Furthermore, a cluster analysis revealed that driving factors for large environmental footprints are demands of large living area heated by fossil energy carriers, as well as large demands of motorized private transportation. PMID:23647391

  8. Household energy consumption patterns and its environmental implications: Assessment of energy access and poverty in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 87% of Nepal's total final energy is consumed by households. This paper analyzes the patterns of household energy use and associated air pollutant emissions in Nepal based on LEAP framework for thirteen analytical regions and three end-uses. Four scenarios involving different growth paths for socio economic and energy system development through the year 2040 are considered. The study finds that household energy use is heterogeneous across the regions and biomass for cooking dominates the country's energy-mix. Households' CO2 emissions are less significant but their local indoor pollutant emissions will continue to rise in the future. To help strengthen government's commitment to the UN's sustainable energy for all initiative, this study devises an energy development index (EDI) to assess country's energy access and poverty across the regions. The results reveal that the current level of both energy access and energy poverty in the country is below the basic human needs and this situation will improve by little in next 30 years. The paper argues that to improve these situations require more coordinated and innovative plans and policies from the government. The paper suggests that greater emphasis will be needed in reducing dependence of biomass for cooking, promoting domestic alternative energy sources, scaling up biomass improved cookstoves programs and developing periodic regional level energy database. - Highlights: • Household energy use and air pollutant emissions in Nepal are analyzed based on LEAP framework. • Household energy use is heterogeneous across the regions and biomass for cooking dominates country's energy-mix. • Energy Development Index is devised to assess country's energy access and poverty across the regions. • Scaling up RETs and biomass ICS programs are suggested. • Coordination with inter-agencies and ODAs is vital in alleviating energy poverty in Nepal

  9. Magnetic vs. vapor-compression household refrigerators : A preliminary comparative life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Monfared, Behzad; Furberg, Richard; Palm, Björn

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to shed light on the question whether a magnetic household refrigerator with permanent magnets is more environmentally friendly than a conventional, vapor-compression refrigerator. Life cycle assessment has been used as a tool to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the life cycle of a magnetic refrigerator. The results of the assessment have been compared with those of a conventional, vapor-compression refrigerator with the same functionality. The comparison...

  10. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  11. Relationship between Personality Traits of the Urban Poor Concerning Solid Waste Management and Household Income and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Md. Murad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of the urban poor householders concerning solid waste management systems and monthly household income and education. To attain the objective, the study employed statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way ANOVA, chi-squared „likelihood ratio“ test and simple descriptive statistics. The findings show that the urban poor communities with low income and education have been proven to behave in ways matching with and conducive to environment-friendly solid waste management, for instance, by practicing recycling and waste source reduction. This study also proves that the urban low-income communities generally have a very proactive role from a sound environmental management perspective, as they are the main recyclers and source-reducers of solid waste. The study suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, skills, and empowerment of the urban poor as means of promoting their living conditions.

  12. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives. The analysis of this study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The findings of this study revealed that the present system of MSWM in Gondar town entirely relied on the municipality which provided the full range of waste collection transportation and disposal service. But the provision of this service is not kept in pace with the town solid waste generation. Based on the findings of this study the town households dominantly produced biodegradable solid wastes with generation rate of 0.21kgpersonday. This made the daily total solid waste generation of households to be 8140Kg. Together with other four solid waste sources the total daily solid waste generation of the town is about 11660 kg. So that MSWM of the town is found in very low status and spatial coverage. This poor status of MSWM is also intensified by three critical factors i.e poor institutional structure and capacity of Sanitation and beautification limited participation and contribution of stakeholders and poor households solid waste management practices. This study concluded that there should be sustainable solid waste management systems reuse recycle composting and incineration through awareness creation and training improvement of SB institutional structure and capacity and implementation of integrated MSWM approach which recognizes and comprises all stakeholders in the town.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Household Waste Segregation in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunmise A. Otitoju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is faced with daunting challenges relating to household waste segregation. Due to an increase in population, economic growth, enforcement, infrastructure, public attitude, awareness and participation among others, source segregation is considered a crucial issue in Malaysia, particularly in urban settings. This paper presents the key findings of the quantitative (questionnaire survey administered among 235 households in Kuching South City and qualitative (interview survey with the Natural Resource & Environmental Board (NREB and Kuching South City Council. This survey attempts to identify the limiting and motivating factors on the part of households to waste segregation. The result shows that age, sex, race and education is insignificant towards waste segregation. The result also shows a significant difference between waste segregators and non-waste separators on their level of perception towards implementation of laws for source segregation. Result also shows that the ease of access to facilities and the methods of collection are the major limiting factors preventing households from waste segregation in Kuching South City.

  14. The Assessment of the Quality of Water Offered to Animals in Rural Households and Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the quality of water consumed by animals in rural households and farms. The water quality was determined based on indicator parameters (pH, ammonia, sulphates, iron, chlorides, organic substances, overall hardness, total number of germs, number of Coliform bacteria and chemical parameters (nitrites, nitrates, by collecting and analyzing 40 water samples (from 20 households and 20 farms. The results were compared to the provisions of the Laws 458/2002 and 311/2004. Three water samples (15% from rural households had nitrates exceeding the threshold levels. Within the indicator parameters, the following ones showed alterations: ammonia (20% from samples, sulphates (40% from samples, chlorides (35% from samples, overall hardness (60% from samples, organic substances (20% from samples, total number of germs (all of the samples and the number of Coliform bacteria (90% from samples, respectively. The water used in farms had no alterations of the chemical parameters. Within the indicator parameters, the following showed divergences from the legal provisions: overall hardness (85%, the total number of germs (50% from samples and the number of Coliform bacteria (35% from samples. The obtained results indicate a better quality of water consumed by animals in farms in comparison with water consumed by them in rural households.

  15. Dimensions of Wealth Dispersion Among Farm Operator Households: An Assessment of the Impact of Farm Subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    El-Osta, Hisham S.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses microlevel data from the Agricultural Resource Management Survey to examine the changes in the distributions of household wealth and to assess the role farm subsidies play, among other factors, in affecting these distributions. The empirical analysis relies on the concept of the adjusted Gini coefficient and on fixed-effect regression procedures. Coefficients from fixed-effect estimation indicate a negative correlation between government payments and wealth dispersion, with th...

  16. Technical, economic and environmental assessment of household biogas digesters for rural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Bort, Irene; Garfi, Marianna; Cadena, Erasmo; Ferrer Martí, Ivet

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out in response to the growing interest on household biogas digesters in Latin America, particularly in rural Andean communities. The aim was to compare the fixed dome and plastic tubular digester in terms of biogas production, cost and environmental impact, using the life cycle assessment methodology. Design and operational parameters, construction materials and implementation costs were based on our previous research and literature results for plastic tubular and fixe...

  17. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  18. A bio-economic farm household model to assess cropping systems in the Rift valley of Ethiopia : towards climate smart agriculture: do food security and mitigration goals match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Modelling approach for rain fed farm household systems in the Central Rif Valley of Ethiopia to assess the possible effects of intensification of cereal-based cropping systems to farm income, mitigation of GHG emissions and other household indicators

  19. Assessment of the Conditions for Linking Microfinance to Household Biodigester Construction in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandararot, K.; Dannet, L.

    2006-10-15

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the conditions for helping households finance the construction of a biodigester. A micro-credit programme for biodigester users was jointly designed by the National Biodigester Programme (NBP), Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO) and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). By using in-depth interviews, a household survey and a desk study, it was determined that the demand for biodigester market was significant, with 96.5% of the studied households possessing the capacity to operate a biodigester. The research for demand for micro-credit showed that households were indeed in need of a financial aid (84%) but the majority was unwilling to borrow credit due to fear of inability to repay it. The ones willing to borrow demanded a credit size of 400,000-1,200,000 riels. The MFIs contacted (ACLEDA, Amret, CEB, Prasac, HURREDO) were interested in lending a micro-credit to biodigester users but were also concerned for the credit as it was for consumption and not production. It appeared that credit conditions desired by potential biodigester users were overall in line with MFIs offered conditions, but an interest rate gap was also in place. Some of the extensive suggestions on how to alleviate the problem offered in the report place FMO in the centre of operations as a possible guarantor of default loans, among other duties. The challenges likely to arise because of a roll-out strategy (linking potential biodigester users with micro-credit), as well plausible solutions are presented as well.

  20. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Balakrishnan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural–urban framework in the future.

  1. Meeting Nigeria Rural Household Lighting Requirement Through Solar Photovoltaic -Electricity: Design And Economic Viability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet the prospect of achieving a sustainable energy supply to the rural households of Nigeria, especially to meet their lighting requirement. this paper carried out the engineering design requirement, and used the discounted cash flow micro- economic assessment to evaluate the favorability of 120 Wp solar photovoltaic (PV) over the use of an 0.4kVA petrol-powered generator. The presents worth costs of financial analysis are 203,315.52 and 345,754.07 Naira for solar PV and generator respectively. This shows that the 120Wp solar photovoltaic has a good economic potential, and therefore recommended

  2. Evaluating sustainability of household consumption - using DEA to assess environmental performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wier, Mette; Christoffersen, Line Block; Jensen, Trine S.;

    2005-01-01

    effects indices for various effect types (e.g. a global warming potential index, an ozone depletion potential index, etc). Subsequently, using DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis), we use these weighted environmental effects indices to form one environ-mental performance score for each family type and product......We assess environmental performance across product types and across household types in order to evaluate environmental pressure from human activities. To so do, we combine family budget statistics, input-output tables, energy and material flow matrices, various types of emissions and environmental...

  3. Validation of the food access survey tool to assess household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Muzi; Gross, Alden L.; West, Keith P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Perception-based Likert scale are commonly used to assess household food insecurity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and external construct validity of the 9-item Food Access Survey Tool (FAST) in a population-based randomized controlled trial. Methods Participating women (n = 11,992) were asked to recall the frequencies of nine food insecurity experiences over the past 6 months on a 5-point Likert scale. The Rasch partial credit model was used to ...

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  5. Biohydrogen production from household solid waste (HSW) at extreme-thermophilic temperature (70 degrees C) - Influence of pH and acetate concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen production from household solid waste (HSW) was performed via dark fermentation by using an extreme-thermophilic mixed culture, and the effect of pH and acetate on the biohydrogen production was investigated. The highest hydrogen production yield was 257 +/- 25 mL/gVS(added) at the optimum...

  6. STATUS OF HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN VIDHATA NAGAR, BATHINDI, JAMMU

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Jasrotia; Lokinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    India is still considered to be a so called developing country and an enormous gap exists between the Irich elite and the poor masses. It is the second largest nation in the world, with a population of 1.21 billion, accounting for nearly 18% of world’s human population, but it does not have enough resources or adequate systems in place to treat its solid wastes. Its urban population grew at a rate of 31.8% during the last decade to 377 million, which is greater than the entire population o...

  7. Determination of isothiazolinone preservatives in cosmetics and household products by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Dagnac, Thierry; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria

    2012-12-28

    In this work, the development of a new efficient methodology applying, for the first time, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of sensitizer isothiazolinone biocides in cosmetics and household products - 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BzI) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI) - is described. The main factors affecting the MSPD extraction procedure, the dispersive phase and the elution solvent, are assessed and optimized through a multicategorical experimental design, using a real cosmetic sample. The most suitable extraction conditions comprise the use of 2g of florisil as dispersive phase and 5 mL of methanol as elution solvent. Subsequently, the extract is readily analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS without any further clean-up or concentration steps. Method performance was evaluated demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9980) and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) at the low nanogram per gram level, which are well below the required limits for UE regulation compliance. Satisfactory recoveries above 80%, except for MI (mean values close to 60%), were obtained. In all cases, the method precision (% RSD) was lower than 7%, making this low cost extraction method reliable for routine control. The validated methodology was finally applied to the analysis of a wide variety of cosmetics and household products. Most of the real samples analyzed have been shown to comply with the current European Cosmetic Regulation, although the results obtained for some rinse-off cosmetics (e.g. baby care products) revealed high isothiazolinone content.

  8. Review of household solid waste charges for developing countries--A focus on quantity-based charge methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welivita, Indunee; Wattage, Premachandra; Gunawardena, Prasanthi

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste management has become a major issue in almost all municipalities especially in developing countries across the world. As more waste needs to be collected and disposed of in urban areas, the increased cost cannot be covered by the available funds in developing countries. Managing the Household Solid Waste (HSW) sector is very important as it is the main contributor of the waste that needs to be collected in residential areas. The reduction of the amount of HSW to be disposed of can be achieved by households themselves practising the "4R" activities: reducing, reusing, recycling and recovering. As a policy instrument, the Waste Management Charge (WMC) for HSW has shown much success in encouraging such activities all over the world. Given the already difficult context in which developing countries operate, it is important to careful consider what kind of charging system is implemented. Using available literature, this paper reviews the applicability of available charging methods, from a flat rate method, through to volume-based (bags, cans or tag/sticker) and weight-based charging methods. These charging methods were evaluated on the basis of overall cost, technology need possible other issues. By considering the conditions in developing countries, a 'pre-paid bag based charging method' could be suggested as the most suitable charging method for a WMC in Sri Lanka or other developing countries. The potential applicability of this method was also examined in the context of social, economic and political characteristics. Whilst the use of economic instruments, including WMC, was widely discussed in the literature, the selection of a charging method in the context of developing countries is rarely discussed. Having said that, this paper gives an insight to the policy makers in developing countries upon using pre-paid bag based charging method for HSW sector. It also provides recommendations regarding possible issues in implementing for developing countries

  9. Innovative household systems based on solid oxide fuel cells for the Mediterranean climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Rokni, Masoud; Noro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    .Publication of the 2004/8/EC Directive indicates that cogeneration is considered as a solution to reach the goal of energy efficiency.This paper presents an innovative system based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), an air source heat pump (ASHP), and an integration system to cover a part of the heating demand...... of a building. Two different integration systems are proposed: electric heater and condensing boiler. Heat storage is also considered to store waste heat when it is unused. An innovative parameter, the electric equivalent load, is proposed: it has the function of characterizing not only electricity consumption...... but also heating and cooling demands. The aim is to maximize efficiency while minimizing the mismatch between different forms of energy consumption. The proposal is to verify the energy efficiency of the system used to cover energy demands of a residential building located in a Mediterranean area (Trapani...

  10. Environmental and health impacts of household solid waste handling and disposal practices in third world cities: the case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-11-01

    Inadequate provision of solid waste management facilities in Third World cities results in indiscriminate disposal and unsanitary environments, which threatens the health of urban residents. The study reported here examined household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The residents of Accra currently generate large amounts of solid waste, beyond the management capabilities of the existing waste management system. Because the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the population do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. The majority of households store their waste in open containers and plastic bags in the home. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p solid waste facilities result in indiscriminate burning and burying of solid waste. There is an association between waste burning and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among adults (r = .25, p handling and disposal of waste are major causes of environmental pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra. PMID:16334095

  11. Voluntary approaches to solid waste management in small towns: a case study of community involvement in household hazardous waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Legleu, Tye; Vasut, Laura; Brandon, Kelly; Shelden, Greg

    2014-06-01

    An enormous amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated as part of municipal solid waste. This scenario presents problems during disposal, including endangering human health and the environment if improperly disposed. This article examines current HHW recycling efforts in Hammond, Louisiana, with the following objectives: (a) analyze factors and attitudes that motivate residents to participate in the program; (b) quantify various types of HHW; and (c) analyze the e-waste stream in the HHW. Residents and city officials who were surveyed and interviewed cited that commitment shown by local authorities and passion to protect the environment and human health were part of their active participation in the program. An awareness program has played a key role in the success of the program. A legislation specific to e-waste is encouraged. While knowledge and information on laws and permit application processes and the promotion of greener products are encouraged, provision of storage or collection facilities and communal transportation will further motivate more residents to participate in the recycling program.

  12. Modelling of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CHP System Coupled with a Hot Water Storage Tank for a Single Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Liso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is low (for instance during the night, taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab script.

  13. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia;

    2015-01-01

    in non-OECD countries. This study demonstrates the appropriateness and significance of integrating indoor environments into LCA, which ensures a more holistic account of all exposure environments and allows for a better accountability of health impacts. The model, intake fractions, and characterization......Human exposure to indoor pollutant concentrations is receiving increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We address this issue by incorporating an indoor compartment into the USEtox model, as well as by providing recommended parameter values for households in four different regions...... of the world differing geographically, economically, and socially. With these parameter values, intake fractions and comparative toxicity potentials for indoor emissions of dwellings for different air tightness levels were calculated. The resulting intake fractions for indoor exposure vary by 2 orders...

  14. Health and human rights in Chin State, Western Burma: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sollom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%-94.1% reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  15. Assessing Adequacy of Retirement Income for U.S. Households: A Replacement Ratio Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonkyung Yuh

    2011-01-01

    The retirement income replacement ratio is projected using the Federal Reserve's Survey of Consumer Finances. On the basis of lognormal portfolio projections and current portfolio allocation, at least 44 per cent of pre-retired households will not be able to maintain 70 per cent of permanent income standard in retirement. Households planning to retire later and taking a high financial risk in savings and investments have a higher projected replacement ratio. Households having a high proportio...

  16. Assessment of IFAD/FGN poverty reduction programme among farm households in Ondo State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakayode Segun B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Household poverty, especially among the farm families which are the highest population in Nigeria is still a major issue of discourse among policy makers and analysts. This study assesses the International Fund for Agricultural Development and the Federal Government of Nigeria (IFAD/FGN poverty reduction programme among farm households in Ondo State, Nigeria. The study employed a multi-stage sampling procedure. A total of 60 beneficiaries and 60 non-beneficiaries were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a combination of descriptive statistics and Foster, Greer and Thorbecke poverty measure. The study shows that poverty incidence, depth and severity among the respondents were lower among IFAD/FGN beneficiaries than among the non-beneficiaries. Poverty incidence for beneficiaries was (0.66 against (0.79 for non-beneficiaries. This implies that about 66% and 79% of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries were poor respectively. The poverty depth was (0.16 for beneficiaries compared to (0.24 for non-beneficiaries. The severity of poverty was mild among the beneficiaries (0.017 while it was severe among the non-beneficiaries (0.072. However, the study showed that the poverty measures (incidence, depth and severity of beneficiaries were lower compared with non-beneficiaries. Poverty related indices were still noticeable among the beneficiaries with poverty incidence of 66%, depth of 10% and severity of 1.7%. This implies that only 34% of the beneficiaries could be said to be non-poor compared with about 20% of the non-beneficiaries. This study recommends that IFAD/FGN project effort should be intensified at reducing poverty rates in the study areas using other measures such as income diversification and establishment of small scale agro-industries. More funds should also be made available for such programme and the programme should be extended to other states and rural areas of the country.

  17. At-School Victimization and Violence Exposure Assessed in a National Household Survey of Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    This national household telephone survey of youth and parents assessed exposure to a broad range of at-school victimizations among a representative sample of 3,391 children and youth ages 5 to 17. Nearly half the sample (48%) had been exposed to at least one form of victimization at school during the past year (in 2011), most of which was…

  18. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  19. Assessment of government support for the household adoption of micro-generation systems in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates how Korean government support affects household adoption of renewable energy-based micro-generation systems by analyzing household preferences in relation to the costs and benefits of system installation and different kinds of government support. The research adopts a discrete choice experiment approach and focuses on two micro-generation technologies: solar voltaic and solar thermal. Our empirical analysis revealed firstly that households prefer micro-generation systems that have low installation costs but high energy saving benefits and long warranty periods; and secondly that households prefer direct subsidies to low-interest loans. However, we also found that households are reluctant to install photovoltaic or solar thermal systems in reality because they see the cost of system installation as being higher than the benefits they would receive from such installation. In short, while existing government supports are somewhat effective in promoting household adoption of micro-generation systems, there also exists the obstacle that the majority of households are unwilling to install such systems despite government support. Thus several policy improvements, which focus on increasing the benefits and decreasing the installation costs of micro-generation systems, are suggested in this paper. -- Highlights: •We investigate how government support affects household adoption of micro-generation. •We analyze household preferences for the costs and benefits of micro-generation system installation. •System with low install costs but high energy saving benefits and long warranty periods are preferred. •Households prefer direct subsidies to low-interest loans. •But the majority of households are unwilling to install systems despite government support

  20. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  1. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  2. A study to assess catastrophic household expenditure on childhood illness in an urban slum in Bijapur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Shailaja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, the various factors determining the out-of-pocket expenditure on child health care by households are discussed to answer the following questions: How much are households currently spending on child health care? Is there any role of socio-economic status of households on expenditure on child health care? What percentage of their income is spent on child health care and is it catastrophic? Materials and Methods: Four slums with a total a population of 7000 were selected for this study. Households where there is history of illness/ sickness in children under 5 years in last one month were included in the study. Results: There were a total of 218 episodes of child illness in the households. The household′s belonging to socio- economic class I and II had higher spending on child′s illness per episode as compared to households of socio- economic class III, IV, and V. Socioeconomic status was the key determinant of health care expenditure. Conclusion: In this study, it has been found that almost all the households suffered from catastrophic health expenditure.

  3. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia; Hellweg, Stefanie; Jolliet, Olivier; Lam, Nicholas L; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Human exposure to indoor pollutant concentrations is receiving increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We address this issue by incorporating an indoor compartment into the USEtox model, as well as by providing recommended parameter values for households in four different regions of the world differing geographically, economically, and socially. With these parameter values, intake fractions and comparative toxicity potentials for indoor emissions of dwellings for different air tightness levels were calculated. The resulting intake fractions for indoor exposure vary by 2 orders of magnitude, due to the variability of ventilation rate, building occupation, and volume. To compare health impacts as a result of indoor exposure with those from outdoor exposure, the indoor exposure characterization factors determined with the modified USEtox model were applied in a case study on cooking in non-OECD countries. This study demonstrates the appropriateness and significance of integrating indoor environments into LCA, which ensures a more holistic account of all exposure environments and allows for a better accountability of health impacts. The model, intake fractions, and characterization factors are made available for use in standard LCA studies via www.usetox.org and in standard LCA software. PMID:26444519

  4. Zimbabwe's Child Supplementary Feeding Programme: a re-assessment using household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Lauchian T

    2002-09-01

    In 1992-3 and 1995-6, Zimbabwe used a Child Supplementary Feeding Programme (CSFP) to combat child malnutrition during drought-induced emergencies. Previous evaluations of the CSFP relied on routine administrative data and key informant interviews and made only cursory use of available household survey data. These evaluations concluded that the CSFP was effective in preventing an increase in malnutrition among children under five, especially in 1992-3. The more-detailed analysis of household surveys provided in this article suggests that CSFP coverage was generally patchy and disappointingly low, especially in 1995-6. There is little evidence that children from poor or nutritionally vulnerable households got preferential access to supplementary feeding. The CSFP failed to feed many malnourished and nutritionally vulnerable children even in areas where the programme was operating. Household survey evidence suggests that the CSFP's impact on nutritional status was likely marginal, especially in 1995-6. PMID:12227592

  5. Technical, economic and environmental assessment of household biogas digesters in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Ivet; Cadena, Erasmo; Pérez Bort, Irene; Garfi, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in response to the growing interest on household biogas digesters in Latin America, particularly in rural Andean communities. The aim was to compare traditional and novel digester designs, in terms of biogas production, cost and environmental impact. Three household digesters were compared: 1) fixed dome – Chinese model; 2) fixed dome – Camartec model and 3) plastic tubular – Taiwanese model. Data concerning design and operational parameters, construction materials ...

  6. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Darling

    Full Text Available Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...... resulted in a higher biogas output and nutrient recovery and, thus, the higher impact savings related to biogas production and digest utilization. Meanwhile, larger reject amount in the scenario with screw press led to more savings obtained by utilization of the reject in this scenario....

  8. Low-cost economic and environmental performance assessment of farm households systems: Application to mixed crop-livestock systems in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Verhagen, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.H.; Ruben, R.; Dixon, J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The farm household system (FHS) is one of the main entry points for interventions for rural development. To identify appropriate interventions, it is necessary to assess a priori potential impacts of these interventions on the livelihoods and environment of rural households. This study presents an a

  9. Low-cost Economic and Environmental Performance Assessment of Farm Households Systems: Application to Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Verhagen, A.; Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ruben, R.; Dixon, J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The farm household system (FHS) is one of the main entry points for interventions for rural development. To identify appropriate interventions, it is necessary to assess a priori potential impacts of these interventions on the livelihoods and environment of rural households. This study presents an a

  10. Assessing household wealth in health studies in developing countries: a comparison of participatory wealth ranking and survey techniques from rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargreaves James R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate tools for assessing household wealth are essential for many health studies in developing countries. Household survey and participatory wealth ranking (PWR are two approaches to generate data for this purpose. Methods A household survey and PWR were conducted among eight villages in rural South Africa. We developed three indicators of household wealth using the data. One indicator used PWR data only, one used principal components analysis to combine data from the survey, while the final indicator used survey data combined in a manner informed by the PWR. We assessed internal consistency of the indices and assessed their level of agreement in ranking household wealth. Results Food security, asset ownership, housing quality and employment were important indicators of household wealth. PWR, consisting of three independent rankings of 9671 households, showed a high level of internal consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.81, 95% CI 0.79–0.82. Data on 1429 households were available from all three techniques. There was moderate agreement in ranking households into wealth tertiles between the two indicators based on survey data (spearman rho = 0.69, kappa = 0.43, but only limited agreement between these techniques and the PWR data (spearman rho = 0.38 and 0.31, kappa = 0.20 and 0.17. Conclusion Both PWR and household survey can provide a rapid assessment of household wealth. Each technique had strengths and weaknesses. Reasons for differences might include data inaccuracies or limitations in the methods by which information was weighted. Alternatively, the techniques may measure different things. More research is needed to increase the validity of measures of socioeconomic position used in health studies in developing countries.

  11. Assessing the average Thermal Losses in Indian Households : A study for the city of Hyderabad, AP, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nandamuru, Venkateswara Himavanth

    2012-01-01

    A Thermal loss occurs when energy is consumed and work is done by a system. The use of ElectricalAppliances in households consumes energy and causes Thermal loss which gets dissipated to itssurrounding surfaces. Harnessing these losses by using principles like Cogeneration or CombinedHeat and Power (CHP) would result in the development of new energy techniques and provide asecure and decentralized supply of Energy to the Built Environment. This study aimed at assessing theaverage Thermal loss...

  12. Assessing Cost-effectiveness of Green Infrastructures in response to Large Storm Events at Household Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Liu, X.; Zhan, W.

    2015-12-01

    Green infrastructures (GI) are becoming more important for urban stormwater control worldwide. However, relatively few studies focus on researching the specific designs of GI at household scale. This study assesses the hydrological performance and cost-effectiveness of different GI designs, namely green roofs, bioretention systems and porous pavements. It aims to generate generic insights by comparing the optimal designs of each GI in 2-year and 50-year storms of Hong Kong, China and Seattle, US. EPA SWMM is first used to simulate the hydrologic performance, in particular, the peak runoff reduction of thousands of GI designs. Then, life cycle costs of the designs are computed and their effectiveness, in terms of peak runoff reduction percentage per thousand dollars, is compared. The peak runoff reduction increases almost linearly with costs for green roofs. However, for bioretention systems and porous pavements, peak runoff reduction only increases significantly with costs in the mid values. For achieving the same peak runoff reduction percentage, the optimal soil depth of green roofs increases with the design storm, while surface area does not change significantly. On the other hand, for bioretention systems and porous pavements, the optimal surface area increases with the design storm, while thickness does not change significantly. In general, the cost effectiveness of porous pavements is highest, followed by bioretention systems and then green roofs. The cost effectiveness is higher for a smaller storm, and is thus higher for 2-year storm than 50-year storm, and is also higher for Seattle when compared to Hong Kong. This study allows us to better understand the hydrological performance and cost-effectiveness of different GI designs. It facilitates the implementation of optimal choice and design of each specific GI for stormwater mitigation.

  13. Toward unbiased assessment of treatment and prevention: modeling household transmission of pandemic influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowell Gerardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Providing valid and reliable estimates of the transmissibility and severity of pandemic influenza in real time is key to guide public health policymaking. In particular, early estimates of the transmissibility are indispensable for determining the type and intensity of interventions. A recent study by House and colleagues in BMC Medicine devised a stochastic transmission model to estimate the unbiased risk of transmission within households, applying the method to datasets of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. Here, we discuss future challenges in household transmission studies and underscore the need to systematically collect epidemiological data to decipher the household transmission dynamics. We emphasize the need to consider three critical issues for future improvements: (i capturing age-dependent heterogeneity within households calls for intensive modeling efforts, (ii the timeline of observation during the course of an epidemic and the length of follow-up should be aligned with study objectives, and (iii the use of laboratory methods, especially molecular techniques, is encouraged to distinguish household transmissions from those arising in the community. See related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/117

  14. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing...

  15. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSEN, J. K.; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the envir...

  16. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  17. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  18. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  19. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  20. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann;

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...

  1. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Rosa

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001 and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005. Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  2. Overview of household pesticides risk assessment%国内外卫生用农药的风险评估概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红艳

    2012-01-01

    卫生用农药对人体健康和环境安全有潜在风险.对卫生用农药开展风险评估是人类社会发展的趋势和必然要求.综述国内外卫生用农药的监督管理及风险评估研究概况,为进一步开展卫生用农药风险评估提供依据.%Household pesticides are risky to human health and environment. It is the inevitable demand and trend of the development of the society to conduct risk assessment special for household pesticides. Domestic and overseas household pesticides supervision and risk assessment development summarized will lay foundation for further household pesticides risk assessment in China.

  3. Life cycle assessments of energy from solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Johansson, Jessica; Lind, Per; Moberg, Aasa [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology/Natural Resoruces Management Inst.]|[Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Defence Analysis

    2000-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste based on a life-cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment. The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems.

  4. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Gichunge; Shawn Somerset; Neil Harris

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availabili...

  5. Household drinking water: Assessment of microbiological contamination between source and point of use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambekar DH,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial contamination of drinking water has the potential to cause large outbreaks of waterborne diseases. This study is carried out to find the association of socioeconomic status, water storage and handling practices, hygienic condition of the house and surrounding and awareness about the waterborne diseases on household drinking water. Total 200 samples (fresh and residual water of household drinking water were collected from 200 families in different areas of low income groups in Amravati city. These water samples were subjected to bacteriological analysis and residual water found to be 48% contaminated after use. The study reported that small families, high socioeconomic status, proper method of collection of water, selection of earthenware container with tap, daily washing of storage container and dipper, proper lid on storage container, use of long handle dipper, washing hands before collecting water, maintaining personal, domestic and surrounding hygiene and by increasing awareness about the waterborne diseases prevents the contamination of household drinking water and water borne diseases. Thus it needs to increase the socioeconomic status, hygienic behavior to prevent water borne diseases. Thus, study concluded that poor hygiene behaviours such as improper method of storage, handling and serving, deteriorates the quality of drinking water which can be improved by imparting water hygiene behaviour education to families .

  6. Life cycle assessment applied to nanomaterials in solid waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis

    While the generation of solid waste is globally increasing, much effort is concentrated to minimise the environmental impacts related to their management. With respect to nanoproducts (products containing nanomaterials), a growing amount of ‘nanowaste’ can be expected to enter the waste streams...... of solid waste management systems as well as that of nanoproducts. But how has LCA generally been applied to both fields of solid waste management and nanotechnology until now? In particular, what are the current shortcomings for assessing impacts of released engineered nanoparticles? Is it possible...... by several pieces of work. Critical reviews were performed to evaluate the current state of LCA application to solid waste management systems and to nanoproducts. The former revealed that, out of 222 reviewed studies, several limitations were identified in the types of LCA application, with a narrow focus...

  7. Rheological and solid-state NMR assessments of copovidone/clotrimazole model solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengyuan; Su, Yongchao; Zhu, Lei; Brown, Chad D; Rosen, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Kenneth J

    2016-03-16

    This study aims to assess several model solid dispersions by using dynamic oscillatory rheology, solid-state NMR and other solid phase characterization techniques, and correlate their viscoelastic responses with processing methods and microstructures. A model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), clotrimazole, was compounded with copovidone to form solid dispersions via various techniques with different mixing capabilities. Physicochemical characterizations of the resulting solid dispersions demonstrated that simple physical mixing led to a poorly mixed blend manifested by existence of large API crystalline content and heterogeneous distribution. Cryogenic milling significantly improved mixing of two components as a result of reduced particle size and increased contact surface area, but produced limited amorphous content. In contrast, hot melt extrusion (HME) processing resulted in a homogenous amorphous solid dispersion because of its inherent mixing efficiency. Storage modulus and viscosities versus frequency of different solid dispersions indicated that the incorporation of API into the polymer matrix resulted in a plasticizing effect which reduced the viscosity. The crystalline/aggregated forms of API also exhibited more elastic response than its amorphous/dispersed counterpart. Temperature ramps of the physical mixture with high API concentration captured a critical temperature, at which a bump was observed in damping factor. This bump was attributed to the dissolution of crystalline API into the polymer. In addition, heating-cooling cycles of various solid dispersions suggested that cryomilling and HME processing could form a homogeneous solid dispersion at low API content, whereas high drug concentration led to a relatively unstable dispersion due to supersaturation of API in the polymer. PMID:26780122

  8. Rheological and solid-state NMR assessments of copovidone/clotrimazole model solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengyuan; Su, Yongchao; Zhu, Lei; Brown, Chad D; Rosen, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Kenneth J

    2016-03-16

    This study aims to assess several model solid dispersions by using dynamic oscillatory rheology, solid-state NMR and other solid phase characterization techniques, and correlate their viscoelastic responses with processing methods and microstructures. A model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), clotrimazole, was compounded with copovidone to form solid dispersions via various techniques with different mixing capabilities. Physicochemical characterizations of the resulting solid dispersions demonstrated that simple physical mixing led to a poorly mixed blend manifested by existence of large API crystalline content and heterogeneous distribution. Cryogenic milling significantly improved mixing of two components as a result of reduced particle size and increased contact surface area, but produced limited amorphous content. In contrast, hot melt extrusion (HME) processing resulted in a homogenous amorphous solid dispersion because of its inherent mixing efficiency. Storage modulus and viscosities versus frequency of different solid dispersions indicated that the incorporation of API into the polymer matrix resulted in a plasticizing effect which reduced the viscosity. The crystalline/aggregated forms of API also exhibited more elastic response than its amorphous/dispersed counterpart. Temperature ramps of the physical mixture with high API concentration captured a critical temperature, at which a bump was observed in damping factor. This bump was attributed to the dissolution of crystalline API into the polymer. In addition, heating-cooling cycles of various solid dispersions suggested that cryomilling and HME processing could form a homogeneous solid dispersion at low API content, whereas high drug concentration led to a relatively unstable dispersion due to supersaturation of API in the polymer.

  9. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund;

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches...... may not always be the most environmentally friendly. The EASEWASTE model can identify the most environmentally sustainable solution, which may differ among waste materials and regions and can add valuable information about environmental achievements from each process in a solid waste management system....

  10. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (Psupermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased.

  11. Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baynes, Timothy, E-mail: Tim.Baynes@csiro.au [Ecosystems Science Division, CSIRO, P.O. Box 310, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Lenzen, Manfred, E-mail: m.lenzen@physics.usyd.edu.au [ISA, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Steinberger, Julia K., E-mail: j.k.steinberger@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Social Ecology Alpen-Adria University, Schottenfeldg. 29, Vienna A-1070 (Austria); Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS29JT (United Kingdom); Bai Xuemei, E-mail: Xuemei.Bai@anu.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Assessment of urban energy use may proceed by a number of methods. Here we derive an energy account from local statistics, and compare them with an input output (IO) analysis as applied to Melbourne, Australia. These approaches highlight different aspects of urban energy use and comparable outputs are presented together to assess consistency, to identify complementarities and discuss the insight each approach brings to understanding urban energy. The IO method captures the direct and embodied primary energy requirements of local household expenditure (235.8 GJ/capita/year) while the regional assessment more directly accounts for local production activity (258.1 GJ/capita/year). The parity of these results is unexpected for a developed city with a strong tertiary sector. Sectoral detail reveals differences between the primary energy required by Melbourne's economic structure and that ultimately required through the full supply chain relating to household expenditure. This is accompanied by an IO analysis of the geography of Melbourne's 'energy catchment'. It is suggested that the IO consumption and regional production approaches have particular relevance to policies aimed at consumption behaviour and economic (re)structuring, respectively. Their complementarity further suggests that a combined analysis would be valuable in understanding urban energy futures and economic transitions elsewhere. - Highlights: > We compare an IO approach and a regional assessment of an urban energy use case. > Unusually, regional assessment of the primary energy use exceeds that from IO. > Sectoral and geographical detail reveals the urban consumption/production character. > We discuss the relative merits and policy utility of the different methods. > A combined approach is recommended for urban energy and economic transitions.

  12. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  13. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-18

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement.

  14. Using a Household Food Inventory to Assess the Availability of Traditional Vegetables among Resettled African Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichunge, Catherine; Somerset, Shawn; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted among household food preparers to examine the association between home availability and consumption of traditional vegetables among resettled African refugees living in Queensland, Australia. Home availability of traditional African vegetables was associated with age, having a vegetable garden, employment status, and having a supermarket in the local neighborhood. Food preparers from homes with low vegetable availability were less likely to consume the recommended number of vegetable servings. Barriers faced in the food environment included language, lack of availability of traditional vegetables and lack of transport. All of these aspects contributed to the study findings that both individual and food environment characteristics may play a role in access to and availability of food and vegetable consumption of resettled refugees. Consumption of traditional foods among the resettled refugees continues post resettlement. PMID:26797623

  15. Ehrlichiosis in Household Dogs and Parasitized Ticks in Kerman- Iran: Preliminary Zoonotic Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Motaghipisheh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the family of Anaplasmatacea. Re­cently, outbreak of human monocytic ehrlichiosis was reported in northern part of Iran. Besides, serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis was reported from southeastern of Iran but the epidemi­ology of this disease is almost undetermined in Iran. The present study was designed to use PCR for detection of Ehrlichia spp. in tick infested household dogs and determination of risks of disease transmission to dog’s owners.Method: Blood samples were prepared from 100 tick infested household dogs after complete clinical examination. Complete cell blood count was done for each sample. DNA extraction was done and PCR was carried out by a com­mercial kit afterwards. Regarding to PCR results, blood samples were collected from owners and family members who were exposed to infected and non-infected dogs. A similar method was utilized for DNA extraction and PCR in human samples.Result: Ehrlichial DNA was detected by PCR in six percent of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick pools and 9% of the examined dogs. No positive sample was detected among the 67 examined human bloods.Conclusion: Ehrlichiosis could be considered as an emerging canine disease but owning a dog should not be consid­ered a major risk factor for ehrlichiosis in humans. Further serological and molecular studies in different parts of Iran are required to clarify the epidemiology of ehrlichiosis in canine, ticks, and human population. 

  16. Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 randomly sampled in the two agricultural development zones (ADP in the study area. Descriptive statistics and the Logistic Binary Regression model were fitted to examine factors that influence respondents’ decision to pay more than the prevailing average prices for access to agrochemicals in the study area. Findings indicated a high level of awareness of agrochemical use and modal responses to quantities used include: fertilizers (41-50Kg/ha, herbicides (<10liters/ha, and pesticides (<10liters/ha on the cultivation of yam, cassava and maize, which were the dominant arable crops in the study area. About 90% of the respondents purchase agrochemicals from their personal savings and less than 10% of the respondents got their agrochemicals from other sources (governmental, developmental agencies, ADP and farmers’ cooperative. Furthermore, 88% (p<0.01 of the respondents indicate willingness to pay more than the current average price to have access to agrochemicals and the logistic regression reveals that level of education (P<0.01, had a positive relationship with respondents’ to willingness to pay more for agrochemicals in the study area. Recommendations were made towards encouraging expanded use of agrochemicals throughenhanced marketing strategies that will facilitate contact of marketing agents to prospective customers located in the rural communities.

  17. Laboratory assessment of a gravity-fed ultrafiltration water treatment device designed for household use in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Naranjo, Jaime; Frauchiger, Daniel; Gerba, Charles

    2009-05-01

    Interventions to improve water quality, particularly when deployed at the household level, are an effective means of preventing endemic diarrheal disease, a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developing world. We assessed the microbiologic performance of a novel water treatment device designed for household use in low-income settings. The device employs a backwashable hollow fiber ultrafiltration cartridge and is designed to mechanically remove enteric pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan cysts from drinking water without water pressure or electric power. In laboratory testing through 20,000 L (approximately 110% of design life) at moderate turbidity (15 nephelometric turbidity unit [NTU]), the device achieved log(10) reduction values of 6.9 for Escherichia coli, 4.7 for MS2 coliphage (proxy for enteric pathogenic viruses), and 3.6 for Cryptosporidium oocysts, thus exceeding levels established for microbiological water purifiers. With periodic cleaning and backwashing, the device produced treated water at an average rate of 143 mL/min (8.6 L/hour) (range 293 to 80 mL/min) over the course of the evaluation. If these results are validated in field trials, the deployment of the unit on a wide scale among vulnerable populations may make an important contribution to public health efforts to control intractable waterborne diseases. PMID:19407130

  18. Assessing the Role of Voluntary Self-Isolation in the Control of Pandemic Influenza Using a Household Epidemic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxia Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of effective vaccines, antiviral drugs and personal protective measures, such as voluntary self-isolation, have been a part of preparedness plans for the next influenza pandemic. We used a household model to assess the effect of voluntary self-isolation on outbreak control when antiviral drugs are not provided sufficiently early. We found that the early initiation of voluntary self-isolation can overcome the negative effects caused by a delay in antiviral drug distribution when enough symptomatic individuals comply with home confinement at symptom onset. For example, for the baseline household reproduction number RH0 = 2:5, if delays of one or two days occur between clinical symptom development and the start of antiviral prophylaxis, then compliance rates of q ≥ 0:41 and q ≥ 0:6, respectively, are required to achieve the same level of effectiveness as starting antiviral prophylaxis at symptom onset. When the time to beginning voluntary self-isolation after symptom onset increases from zero to two days, this strategy has a limited effect on reducing the transmission of influenza; therefore, this strategy should be implemented as soon as possible. In addition, the effect of voluntary self-isolation decreases substantially with the proportion of asymptomatic infections increasing.

  19. Effect of Household Solid Waste on Initial Growth Performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona in Mycorrhiza Inoculated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal and management became one of the major environmental concerns in Bangladesh. Realising the problem, the present study has been undertaken with a view to find a sound and effective way of bio-degradable solid waste management. The study was carried out in the nursery of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences at University of Chittagong to determine the effects of solid waste and waste inoculated with mycorrhizal soil on initial growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona. Before planting the seedlings, decomposable waste and mycorrhiza inoculated decomposable waste were placed on the planting holes. Physical growth parameters of seedlings (shoot and root length, leaf and branch number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root and nodulation status and the macro nutrients (N, P and K were recorded after six months of planting. The highest performance of physical parameters was recorded in the soil treated by mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Cedrela toona was represented by maximum nutrients uptake (N-2.60%, P-0.21% and K-2.34% respectively in the soil treated with mycorrhiza. In case of Acacia auriculiformis, N uptake was maximum (3.02% in control while K uptake was highest (1.27% in soil with waste and P (0.18% uptake was highest in the soil treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Highest initial growth performance was revealed by seedlings treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. This study suggested to use mycorrhiza and waste for plantation purposes for hygienic disposal of solid waste and to reduce cost of cultivation.

  20. Assessment of the Municipal Solid Waste Pollution Problem in the Newest Country: Case Study of Juba, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kajokare Loboka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many cities and towns of the developing countries face serious municipal solid waste pollution resulting from the indiscriminate waste disposal. The situation is even more critical and pervasive in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs. This study highlights the current pollution situation in Juba, with specific focus on waste management system. Brief investigation of some causative factors is also discussed. The study was purely quantitatively descriptive, including various data collection techniques (interviews, field observation and systematic literature reviews. The study revealed that average household municipal solid waste generated was 2.88 kg/day and the/capita/day was 0.38 kg. Thus, the entire city, with a population of about 231,776, generates approximately 667.5 tons/day. Plastic dominates the composition making up 72.75%, wood 19.98%, worn out textile 2.36%, metal 1.84% and organic (mostly food waste 3.13%. Illegal dumping was also observed as well as open air burning. The wastes were disposed of in river bank/streambeds, especially at night and burnt on the road sides, open spaces and near the houses. All these malpractices pose a serious health and environmental hazard to the water bodies. The same water being used for household purposes by the majority of the city’s residents. The study also noticed that 69% of the wastes were disposed of randomly by the householders themselves, 22% by Juba city respective waste management units and 9% by private companies. The conclusion of this assessment showed that the municipal solid waste pollution poses high risk to human health and the environment.

  1. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposure during nanowaste management. The framework includes deriving EOL nanoproducts and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the nanostructure,...

  2. A household survey to assess the burden of influenza in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, Birgit; Chamany, Shadi; Burapat, Channawong; Wannachaiwong, Yupapan; Simmerman, J Mark; Dowell, Scott F; Olsen, Sonja J

    2006-05-01

    Little is known about the disease burden of influenza in middle-income tropical countries like Thailand. The recent outbreak of avian influenza (H5N1) and studies on influenza from neighboring countries highlight the need for data on incidence, access to care, and health care cost. In May/ June 2003, we conducted a province-wide household survey using two-stage cluster sampling to determine the burden of influenza-like illness in Sa Kaeo Province. We used the total number of reported influenza that occurred in May 2003 and a prospective study of outpatient influenza in clinic patients to develop an estimate of the annualized incidence of influenza. Of 718 subjects, 16 (2.2%) suffered an episode of influenza-like illness in the preceding month; 14 sought care, of whom 7 went to a hospital facility. Fifty percent reported missing on average 3 days of work or school. The total individual cost per illness episode was 663 baht (15.78 US dollars). The proportion of outpatients with influenza-like illness caused by an influenza virus in May was 16% and the annualized influenza incidence was estimated to be 5,941/100,000 in Sa Kaeo Province. This survey adds to information indicating that in rural Thailand, the burden of influenza is substantial and costs associated with an illness episode are up to 20% of an average monthly income. PMID:17120968

  3. The Household Cooking Sector in Nigeria: Environmental and Economic Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Gujba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies life cycle environmental impacts and costs of the household cooking sector in Nigeria from 2003 to 2030. Five scenarios are considered: business as usual, dominated by fuel wood stoves; low penetration of improved fuel wood and solar stoves, as planned by the government; high penetration of these stoves; increased use of fossil fuel stoves; and increased use of electric stoves. If business as usual (BAU continues, the environmental impacts would increase by up to four times and costs by up to five times, mainly because of high fuel wood consumption. Implementing the government’s plan to introduce improved fuel wood and solar stoves would yield no environmental advantages, as the proposed number of stoves is too low. A higher number of the advanced stoves would lead to significant improvements in some impacts but would worsen others so that some trade-offs are needed. From the economic perspective, the scenario with a high use of advanced stoves has the lowest total costs but its capital costs are three times higher than for BAU. The government should prioritise the introduction of advanced stoves to reduce health impact from indoor pollution and reduce pressures on biomass resources; however, this may require subsidies. Fossil fuel and electric stoves would also help to preserve biomass and reduce health impacts from indoor pollution but would lead to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil resources.

  4. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (Psupply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased. PMID:26467200

  5. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Rousta; Karin M. Ekström

    2013-01-01

    Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established ...

  6. Assessment of Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals in Lebanon: Management Options to Protect Water Quality and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, May A.; Chami, Ghida; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Alameddine, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals comprise an extensive group of compounds whose release into the environment has potential adverse impacts on human health and aquatic ecosystems. In many developing countries the extent of the problem and the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water bodies are generally unknown. While thousands of tons of pharmaceutical substances are used annually, little information is known about their final fate after their intended use. This paper focuses on better understanding the management of human-use pharmaceutical wastes generated at the residential level within the Administrative Beirut Area. A survey encompassing 300 households was conducted. Results revealed that the majority of respondents were found to dispose of their unwanted medications, mainly through the domestic solid waste stream. Willingness to participate in a future collection program was found to be a function of age, medical expenditure, and the respondents' views towards awareness and the importance of establishing a collection system for pharmaceutical wastes. Respondents who stated a willingness to participate in a collection program and/or those who believed in the need for awareness programs on the dangers of improper medical waste disposal tended to favor more collection programs managed by the government as compared to a program run by pharmacies or to the act of re-gifting medication to people in need. Ultimately, collaboration and coordination between concerned stakeholders are essential for developing a successful national collection plan.

  7. Projecting Poverty at the Household Scale to Assess the Impact of Climate Change on Poor People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.; Rozenberg, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper quantifies the potential impacts of climate change on poverty in 2030 and 2050, in 92 countries covering 90% of the developing world population. It accounts for the deep uncertainties that characterize future socio-economic evolutions and the lack of data regarding the condition and livelihood of poor people. It also considers many impacts of climate change, another source of uncertainty. We use a micro-simulation model based on household surveys and explore a wide range of uncertainties on future structural change, productivity growth or demographic changes. This results, for each country, in the creation of several hundred scenarios for future income growth and income distribution. We then explore the resulting space of possible futures and use scenario discovery techniques to identify the main drivers of inequalities and poverty reduction. We find that redistribution and structural change are powerful drivers of poverty and inequality reduction, except in low-income countries. In the poorest countries in Africa, reducing poverty cannot rely on redistribution but requires low population growth and productivity growth in agriculture. Once we have explored the space of possible outcomes for poverty and inequalities, we choose two representative scenarios of the best and worst cases and model the impacts of climate change in each of these two scenarios. Climate change impacts are modeled through 4 channels. First, climate change has an impact on labor productivity growth for people who work outside because of higher temperatures. Second, climate change has an impact on human capital because of more severe stunting in some places. Third, climate change has an impact on physical capital via more frequent natural disasters. Fourth, climate change has an impact on consumption because of changes in food prices. Impacts are very heterogeneous across countries and are mostly concentrated in African and South-East Asian countries. For high radiative forcing (RCP8

  8. Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and ...

  9. Assessing social vulnerability in African urban context. The challenge to cope with climate change induced hazards by communities and households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Sigrun; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Social vulnerability assessment remains central in discourses on global climatic change and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters in African countries continue to deeply affect human settlements and destroys human livelihoods. In recent years, in particular large territories and growing cities have experienced severe weather events. Among them are river and flash floods, affecting the social and economic assets of local populations. The impact of the damage related to floods is not only perceptible during seasonal events but also during unexpected larger disasters which place a particular burden on local population and institutions to adapt effectively to increasing climatic pressures. Important features for social vulnerability assessment are the increasing severity of the physical damages, the shortcoming of social and technical infrastructure, the complexity of land management/market, the limited capacity of local institutions and last but not least the restricted capacities of local population to resist these events. Understanding vulnerability implies highlighting and interlinking relevant indicators and/or perceptions encompassed in four main dimensions: social, institutional, physical and attitudinal vulnerability. Case studies in Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Addis Ababa were carried out to obtain insights into the context-related conditions, behavior routines and survival networks in urban areas in west and east Africa. Using a combination of tools (e.g. focus group discussions, transect walks, interviews) we investigated in close cooperation with African partners how households and communities are being prepared to cope with, as well as to recover from floods. A comprehensive process of dealing with floods can be described based on sequential attributes concerning i) Anticipation before a flood occurs, ii) Resistance and coping activities during a flood event and, iii) Recovery and reconstruction afterwards. A participatory

  10. Discrete time, discrete state latent Markov modelling for assessing and predicting household acquisitions of financial products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, Leonard J.; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper demonstrates application of the latent Markov model for assessing developments by individuals through stages of a process. This approach is applied by using a database on ownership of 12 financial products and various demographic variables. The latent Markov model derives latent classes, r

  11. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rousta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

  12. Nutritional assessment of rural villages and estates in Peninsular Malaysia: I Socio-economic profile of households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, H; Khor, G; Tee, E S

    1997-03-01

    A nutritional study was carried out on six (five rural and one urban) low income groups in Peninsular Malaysia from 1992-1995. In this paper, the socio-economic data for the five rural groups - padi farmers, rubber smallholders, coconut smallholders, estate workers, and fishermen - are presented. With the exception of the estate workers, the sample was predominantly Malay, with an overall mean household size of 5.30. Household incomes were generally low, and 47% of all households had incomes that were below the poverty line income (PLI) of RM405. Based on this PLI, the prevalence of poverty was above 50% among the padi, rubber, coconut, and fishing households. Nevertheless, the study population appeared to be better off in terms of the other indicators examined. Poultry rearing, for example, was widespread in the padi, rubber, and coconut villages; 65% of all households owned at least one motorised vehicle, 53% owned a refrigerator, and 83% owned a television set. Furthermore, over 80% of all households had access to piped water, 96% had electricity supply, and over 90% had a flush or pour-flush latrine. In comparison to the 1979-1983 poverty villages study (Chong et al., 1984), the households in the current study enjoyed better living conditions. Strict comparisons between the two studies, however, is difficult owing to the different criteria adopted in the selection of the study villages. PMID:22692232

  13. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    of standard optimization techniques and focuses instead on direct consideration on saving. We provide a section on facts: who save and how much. We then discuss informally the recent decline in the U.S. saving rate and whether the theory is of much use in understanding this and other changes in aggregate...... saving rates over time. We do not find any convincing explanation for the change in saving rates. We also discuss some analyses of saving behavior over the life-cycle, addressing such questions as whether households save "enough" for retirement and whether the consumption patterns of older households can......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  14. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards - integrating psychological and governance factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werg, J.; Grothmann, T.; Schmidt, P.

    2013-06-01

    People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  15. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  16. Correlation of in vivo relative bioavailability to in vitro bioaccessibility for arsenic in household dust from China and its implication for human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Li, Jie; Juhasz, Albert L; Ma, Lena Q

    2014-12-01

    Incidental ingestion of household dust is an important arsenic (As) exposure pathway for children. However, compared to soils, assessment of As relative bioavailability (RBA) in household dust is limited. In this study, As-RBA in 12 household dust samples (7–38 mg kg(–1)) was measured using an in vivo mouse model and compared to As bioaccessibility determined using 4 assays [Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium method (SBRC), in vitro gastrointestinal method (IVG), Deutsches Institut für Normunge.V. method (DIN), and physiologically based extraction test (PBET)]. Arsenic RBA ranged from 21.8 ± 1.6 to 85.6 ± 7.2% with samples containing low Fe and high total organic carbon content having higher As-RBA. Strong in vivo–in vitro correlations (IVIVC) were found between As-RBA and As bioaccessibility for SBRC and DIN (r2 = 0.63–0.85), but weaker ones were obtained for IVG and PBET (r2 = 0.29–0.55). The developed IVIVC for SBRC and DIN were used to calculate As-RBA based on As bioaccessibility for an additional 12 household dust samples. Although As bioaccessibility differed significantly (up to 7.7-fold) based on in vitro methods, predicted As-RBA was less variable (up to 3.0-fold) when calculated using As bioaccessibility data and the corresponding IVIVC. Our data suggested that both SBRC and DIN had potential to assess As bioavailability in household dust samples; however, additional research is needed.

  17. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  18. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  19. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  20. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  1. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material recycling

  2. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material

  3. GENERATION OF RECYCLABLES BY RURAL HOUSEHOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakus, Paul M.; Tiller, Kelly; Park, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Rising landfill costs have forced solid waste managers to consider ways to reduce the waste stream. Using survey data, models explaining the weight of recyclables generated by households are estimated for paper and glass. Results indicate that households respond to the time cost of recycling paper but not glass. The waste generation models imply total monthly willingness to pay for recycling is $5.78 per household. Waste managers may increase the weight of recycled waste stream with programs ...

  4. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Humphrey, Jean H; Zungu, Lindiwe I

    2015-12-15

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each household to the nearest perennial, functional, protected water source was calculated, and for each cluster, the median distance and the proportion of households within 1500 m of such a water source. Cluster-specific sanitation coverage was ascertained using a random sample of 13 households per cluster. These parameters were included as covariates in randomization to optimize balance in water and sanitation access across treatment arms at the start of the trial. The observed high variability between clusters in both parameters suggests that constraining on these factors was needed to reduce risk of bias. PMID:26602299

  5. Dose estimates for the solid waste performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittman, P.D.

    1994-08-30

    The Solid Waste Performance Assessment calculations by PNL in 1990 were redone to incorporate changes in methods and parameters since then. The ten scenarios found in their report were reduced to three, the Post-Drilling Resident, the Post-Excavation Resident, and an All Pathways Irrigator. In addition, estimates of population dose to people along the Columbia River are also included. The attached report describes the methods and parameters used in the calculations, and derives dose factors for each scenario. In addition, waste concentrations, ground water concentrations, and river water concentrations needed to reach the performance objectives of 100 mrem/yr and 500 person-rem/yr are computed. Internal dose factors from DOE-0071 were applied when computing internal dose. External dose rate factors came from the GENII Version 1.485 software package. Dose calculations were carried out on a spreadsheet. The calculations are described in detail in the report for 63 nuclides, including 5 not presently in the GENII libraries. The spreadsheet calculations were checked by comparison with GENII, as described in Appendix D.

  6. Dose estimates for the solid waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solid Waste Performance Assessment calculations by PNL in 1990 were redone to incorporate changes in methods and parameters since then. The ten scenarios found in their report were reduced to three, the Post-Drilling Resident, the Post-Excavation Resident, and an All Pathways Irrigator. In addition, estimates of population dose to people along the Columbia River are also included. The attached report describes the methods and parameters used in the calculations, and derives dose factors for each scenario. In addition, waste concentrations, ground water concentrations, and river water concentrations needed to reach the performance objectives of 100 mrem/yr and 500 person-rem/yr are computed. Internal dose factors from DOE-0071 were applied when computing internal dose. External dose rate factors came from the GENII Version 1.485 software package. Dose calculations were carried out on a spreadsheet. The calculations are described in detail in the report for 63 nuclides, including 5 not presently in the GENII libraries. The spreadsheet calculations were checked by comparison with GENII, as described in Appendix D

  7. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load) and the avoided emissions in relation to the substitution of fertiliser and peat when compost was used in hobby gardening (saving). The replacement of fertiliser and peat was also identified as one of the most sensible parameters, which could potentially have a significant environmental benefit. Many of the impact categories (especially human toxicity via water (HTw) and soil (HTs)) were affected by the heavy metal contents of the incoming OHW. The concentrations of heavy metals in the compost were below the threshold values for compost used on land and were thus not considered to constitute a problem. The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of −2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg−1 wet waste (ww) for the non-toxic categories and −0.9 to 28 mPE Mg−1 ww for the toxic categories. Home composting performed better than or as good as incineration and landfilling in several of the potential impact categories. One exception was the global warming (GW) category, in which incineration performed better due to the substitution of heat and electricity based on fossil fuels.

  8. Evaluation of Iranian Leopold Matrix application in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA of solid waste management options in Birjand city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Valizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Significant increase in population and as a result, the production of excessive waste has recently made attention to municipal solid waste management a necessary issue. The objective of this study was to use matrix-based EIA process in order to determine best waste management option in Birjand City and to suggest appropriate solutions to managers and planners of this city. Materials and Methods: Assessing the environmental impacts of waste management options was done using Iranian Leopold Matrix. Through this method, the environmental impacts of waste management options were determined in the Birjand City. The options were Open dumping, Recycling, Composting, and Sanitary damping. Results: The results indicated that Open dumping with a final score of -3.06 had the highest environmental impact and was introduced as the fourth preference. In addition, composting with final score of -2.34 has the lowest environmental impact compared with other options. Conclusion: About 76.95% of the composition of municipal solid waste of Birjand City is household waste; therefore, putrescible organic materials are the predominant waste. Thus, according to the results of the Iranian Leopold matrix method, composting option was introduced as the first priority and the most logical option for waste management in the Birjand City.

  9. Using Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis Methods to Assess Household Water Access and Sanitation Coverage in the SHINE Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ntozini, Robert; Marks, Sara J.; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Gerema, Grace; Mutasa, Batsirai; Julian, Timothy R.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Zungu, Lindiwe I.

    2015-01-01

    Access to water and sanitation are important determinants of behavioral responses to hygiene and sanitation interventions. We estimated cluster-specific water access and sanitation coverage to inform a constrained randomization technique in the SHINE trial. Technicians and engineers inspected all public access water sources to ascertain seasonality, function, and geospatial coordinates. Households and water sources were mapped using open-source geospatial software. The distance from each hous...

  10. Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Bolton, Kim; Lundin, Magnus; Dahlén, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household's application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system. PMID:25817721

  11. Are cats (Felis catus) from multi-cat households more stressed? Evidence from assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, D; Reche-Junior, A; Fragoso, P L; Palme, R; Yanasse, N K; Gouvêa, V R; Beck, A; Mills, D S

    2013-10-01

    Given the social and territorial features described in feral cats, it is commonly assumed that life in multi-cat households is stressful for domestic cats and suggested that cats kept as single pets are likely to have better welfare. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that under high densities cats can organize themselves socially thus preventing stress when spatial dispersion is unavailable. This study was aimed at comparing the general arousal underpinning emotional distress in single housed cats and in cats from multi-cat households (2 and 3-4 cats) on the basis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA). GCM did not significantly vary as a function of living style (single, double or group-housing); highly stressed individuals were equally likely in the three groups. Young cats in multi-cat households had lower GCM, and overall cats that tolerate (as opposed to dislike) petting by the owners tended to have higher GCM levels. Other environmental aspects within cat houses (e.g. relationship with humans, resource availability) may play a more important role in day to day feline arousal levels than the number of cats per se. PMID:24021924

  12. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    -aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is “landfilling of 1 ton of wet household waste in a 10 m deep landfill...... for 100 years”. The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate...

  13. Utilization of Household Sewage Sludge in Brick making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Household sewage sludge is a kind of solid waste produced in sewage purifying at sewage farm. in procedure of water purifying, which can be used as raw material for producing fired brick. This article compares the chemical composition between household sewage sludge and clay, and explores two kinds of production process for making brick with Household sewage sludge.

  14. Health and human rights in eastern Myanmar after the political transition: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kaur Parmar

    Full Text Available Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published.Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV. Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition was 11.3% (8.0-14.7. A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5 and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0. 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5 experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2. Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5.This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.

  15. Assessment of urban solid waste logistics systems: the case of Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kinobe, Joel Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many cities, especially in developing countries, are facing challenges in the management of solid waste. The aim of the study was to develop effective logistics systems for solid waste management in urban areas of developing countries, with a specific focus on Kampala, Uganda. This thesis contains an assessment of the reverse logistics systems that enable effective recapturing of valuable products from urban solid waste. The study mapped the waste collection systems in Kampala using a geograp...

  16. Assessment of solid breeding blanker options for commercial tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the materials and design implications regarding the use of solid breeding materials with respect to compatibility with structure and coolant, tritium processing, chemical and radiation stability, and thermal-hydraulics. Four solid breeding materials considered, viz., Li7Pb2, Li2O, Li2SiO3, and LiAlO2, are representative of the metallic and ceramic compounds available. The major design problems regarding the use of solid breeding materials relate to the limited range of operating temperatures acceptable for tritium release and chemical stability or compatibility. The allowable ranges of breeder temperatures for which in-situ tritium recovery is potentially viable are evaluated for the candidate breeding materials

  17. Assessment of analytical techniques for predicting solid propellant exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevepaugh, J. A.; Smith, S. D.; Penny, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    The calculation of solid propellant exhaust plume flow fields is addressed. Two major areas covered are: (1) the applicability of empirical data currently available to define particle drag coefficients, heat transfer coefficients, mean particle size and particle size distributions, and (2) thermochemical modeling of the gaseous phase of the flow field. Comparisons of experimentally measured and analytically predicted data are made. The experimental data were obtained for subscale solid propellant motors with aluminum loadings of 2, 10 and 15%. Analytical predictions were made using a fully coupled two-phase numerical solution. Data comparisons will be presented for radial distributions at plume axial stations of 5, 12, 16 and 20 diameters.

  18. Addressing household air pollution : a case study in rural Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Martin, Paul; Samad, Hussain A.

    2013-01-01

    Household air pollution is the second leading cause of disease in Madagascar, where more than 99 percent of households rely on solid biomass, such as charcoal, wood, and crop waste, as the main cooking fuel. Only a limited number of studies have looked at the emissions and health consequences of cook stoves in Africa. This paper summarizes an initiative to monitor household air pollution in two towns in Madagascar, with a stratified sample of 154 and 184 households. Concentrations of fine par...

  19. Assessment of surface energy functions for solid elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liukkonen, M.; Friman, M.; Nakamoto, M.; Haemaelaeinen, M.; Holappa, L.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this report was to evaluate the surface energy values of solid elements compiled in a previous report and to create temperature dependence functions for solid surface energy. Certain criteria were used in evaluation; surface energy values of solids should be bigger than the liquid ones and the temperature dependence of surface energy should be negative. The data which did not fulfil these requirements were declined. In order to find out more comprehensive understanding of the character of surface energy, also a literature survey was included focusing on theoretical approaches to explain surface energy and its temperature dependence. Based on the survey two such treatments were chosen: Missol's method and Mezey's method. Although relevant data in wide temperature range are quite scanty for many metals, it was possible, however, to evaluate reasonable temperature functions for 22 elements. As a main criterium was that the surface energy of a solid element should be in the range 10-30 % higher than the surface energy of the corresponding liquid element. The chosen two theoretical evaluations seemed to be interesting, and in many cases well-comparable with the evaluation based on experimental data. Missol's approach was in good accordance for FCC metals but the values for BCC metals were unexpectedly high. The calculated results based on Mezey's method agreed relatively well with those defined experimentally at the melting point but due to strong temperature dependence the values at lower temperatures were, in general, higher than the experimental ones. The results were represented in the form of graphs with respective functions for solid surface energy and for liquid surface energy as well. Corresponding data by calculations of Kitamura and evaluations of Alchagirov at the melting point were presented and discussed as well. For liquids the evaluations by Keene were applied as well as the evaluated liquid surface energy value by Iida

  20. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary an...

  1. Assessment of Metal Pollution in Contaminated Sediment after Bioleaching with Different Solid Contents

    OpenAIRE

    GUVEN, Duyusen; AKINCI, Gorkem

    2012-01-01

    The effect of solid concentration on bioleaching of metals from sediment was tested in this study in order to assess the Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn pollution levels after the process. The solid contents of 10, 5, and 2.5% (w/v) were used in the bioleaching tests. After 48 days of flask experiments, Zn, Cr, and Cu, solubilizations were over 90% with 2.5% solid content. The metal pollution remained in the sediment after bioleaching is assessed by using the Pollution Index (PI) due to the values of Ecot...

  2. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  3. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... to the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Relative abundance of the culture members, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, were 87 +/- 5% and 13 +/- 5% for Bacillus and Clostridium, respectively. An extreme thermophilic, strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with H-2-producing potential was enriched...

  4. Different systems and approaches to treat municipal solid waste. A state-of the art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, A.; Euler, H.; Klopotek, F.; Kellner, C. [TBW GmbH, Sustainable Techno-logies Building and Business Consultants, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion is still a fairly new technology in the area of utilisation of organic residues, in particular as far as treatment of household wastes and integration of agricultural production is concerned. In the last few years, a number of different processes and concepts, with a variety of different intentions, have been developed and established on the European market, in particular in Germany. Actual categories and parameters, used to analyse, structure and compare available treatment systems, are not yet fully satisfying. The presentation will consist of the following elements: 1. Factors influencing the market of the technology in the recent past. 2. Brief comparison of features of anaerobic solid waste digestion with land filling, composting and incineration. 3. Brief comparison between some European and Non-European countries, concerning municipal solid waste digestion. 4. Main topics in the actual German Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Treatment (AMSWT) debate. 5. Comparison of some existing AMSWT systems and concepts. 6. Presentation of a comprehensive structure, covering the main technical elements of any of the different technologies available. 7. Outlook. (au)

  5. ASSESSMENT OF TANNERY BASED SOLID WASTES MANAGEMENT IN ASILI, NAIROBI KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Richard O. Oruko; Wilkister N. Moturi; John M. Mironga

    2014-01-01

    Solid wastes generated in Nairobi and its environs are posing a serious environmental challenge to the authorities and public, especially the hazardous and non-biodegradable solid wastes from leather industries. There were environmental concerns and complaints from workers and residents living adjacent to Asili tanneries limited about degradation of natural and inbuilt environment. This pointed to the effect of environmental pollution by the tannery. The broad objective of study was to assess...

  6. Assessment of contamination for inorganic elements and phthalate esters in household dust from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Household dust has been identified as an important vector of exposure by inorganic and organic substances potentially toxic in children and adults. The dust composition has a strong influence of contaminants provided from internal and external environments. During the natural process of wearing or weather incidents of artifacts and materials variety, the chemical substances are released into the environment in the steam form or by leaching from final products. Once released, they can be accumulated and enriched in the dust; and by continuous exposure (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact mechanisms), these substances are harmful to human health. In this work, a study to determine the inorganic constituents and phthalate esters concentrations in residential indoor environment dust samples, correlating them with the probable anthropogenic sources was proposed. Dust samples were collected from 69 residences in neighborhoods Pirituba, Freguesia do O, Jaragua and Perus of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, using a domestic vacuum cleaner, between 2006 and 2008. The samples were sieved in the fractions of 850, 850-300, 300-150, 150-75, 75-63 and <63 μm. The analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb. The presence of phthalate esters (DEHP, DnBP, DEP, DEHA, DMP and BBP) was detected, by GCMS analyses. From the enrichment factor (EF), the elements P, S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were classified as being significant and extremely enriched in the dust. The natural and anthropogenic contributions by statistical tools as factor analysis (AF) and cluster were identified. The elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were present significantly elevated concentrations in relation to the total exposure values (ingestion, inhalation and skin contact) and to risk. (author)

  7. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    releases, eventually leading to a final assessment of potential ENM exposure. The proposed framework was applied to three selected nanoproducts: nanosilver polyester textile, nanoTiO2 sunscreen lotion and carbon nanotube tennis racquets. We found that the potential global environmental exposure of ENMs...

  8. Developing a Sustainability Assessment Model to Analyze China’s Municipal Solid Waste Management Enhancement Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Li; Vilas Nitivattananon; Peng Li

    2015-01-01

    This study develops a sustainability assessment model for analysis and decision-making of the impact of China’s municipal solid waste management enhancement strategy options based on three waste treatment scenarios: landfill disposal, waste-to-energy incineration, and a combination of a material recovery facility and composting. The model employs life cycle assessment, health risk assessment, and full cost accounting to evaluate the treatment scenarios regarding safeguarding public health, ...

  9. Effects of pH and hydraulic retention time on hydrogen production versus methanogenesis during anaerobic fermentation of organic household solid waste under extreme-thermophilic temperature (70ºC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Two continuously stirred tank reactors were operated with household solid waste at 70°C, for hydrogen and methane production. The individual effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days) at pH 7 or pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7) at 3-day HRT was investigated on the hydrogen production...... versus methanogenesis. It was found that at pH 7, the maximum hydrogen yield was 107 mL-H2/g VSadded (volatile solid added) but no stable hydrogen production was obtained as after some time methanogenesis was initiated at all tested HRTs. This demonstrated that sludge retention time alone was not enough...... for washing out the methanogens at pH 7 under extreme-thermophilic conditions. Oppositely, we showed that keeping the pH level at 5.5 was enough to inhibit methane and produce hydrogen stably at 3-day HRT. However, the maximum stable hydrogen yield was low at 21 mL-H2/g VSadded. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2008...

  10. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Building 922 solid office waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building 922 houses all of SNL/California's ES and H Departments: Health Protection, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Environmental Operations. It covers approximately 10,000 square feet and houses about 80 people. The office personnel generate nonhazardous solid office wastes in their daily activities. To determine the types and amounts of waste generated, a special PPOA sorting team sorted all of the trash collected from the building for a period of one-week (including paper and aluminum cans in the recycling bins). The team sorted the trash into major categories: paper, plastic, metals, glass, wet garbage, rest room waste, and miscellaneous materials. They then sorted it into subcategories within each major category. Rest room waste was collected but not sorted. The waste in each category was weighed separately. The total amount of trash collected during the week was approximately 168.8 kg (371.4 lbs). The results of this PPOA indicate that SNL/California is minimizing most nonhazardous office waste and reductions planned for the near future will add significantly to the minimization efforts

  11. Victims of location: Health Implications on household living proximal to the Owhim solid waste dump in the Kumasi Metropolitan Area (KMA) of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ebenezer Owusu-Sekyere; Abdul- Kadri Yahaya

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of acquiring land for the final disposal of solid waste in urban areas of Ghana has become a critical issue in the urban planning process because of its enormous impact on the economy, ecology and environmental health. Waste dumps have been blamed for the upsurge in disease such as malaria, diarrhea, dermal infection, respiratory tract infection and typhoid among others in the communities they are located. This has therefore resulted in conflicts and demonstrations between city ...

  12. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  13. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Household Safety: Preventing Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > Household Safety: ... and often contain small parts. Make sure small refrigerator magnets are out of your child's reach. Check ...

  14. Assessment of anti mosquito measures in households and resistance status ofCulex species in urban areas in southern Ghana:Implications for the sustainability of ITN use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas A Kudom; Ben A Mensah; Jacob Nunoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine resistance status ofCulex species to different class of insecticides and assess the major anti-mosquito strategies employed by urban households and their possible effects on malaria acquisition. Methods:Structured questionnaires were randomly administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics, measures that people use to prevent mosquito bites and their perception of where mosquitoes breed in their communities.Adult susceptibility assays were also carried out usingWHO discriminating dosages of four insecticides from different chemical classes againstCulex species.Results:Majority of respondents(54.75%) preferred the use of domestic insecticides in the form of aerosols and coils.Among households that used domestic insecticides, the use of coil was most frequent(62.9%) with a mean(95%CI) of9.18(8.99,9.37) coils per week.Strong level of pyrethroid-resistance and multiple insecticide resistance inCulex species were also detected in some of the study sites.Conclusions:The excessive use of domestic insecticides and high level of resistance inCulex species observed in the study area has implications for theITN component of the nation’s malaria control program in more subtle ways.People will lose interest in the use ofITN when it fails to protect users from bites of resistantCulex species.Excessive use of domestic insecticides may also select resistance in both malaria vectors andCulex species.On this account we recommend that nuisance mosquitoes must be controlled as part of malaria control programs to improve acceptance and utilization ofITN.

  15. Solid Waste Management in Greater Shillong Planning Area (GSPA) Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Site Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipun, B. S.; Hazarika, R.; Mondal, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2015-04-01

    In Shillong city the existing solid waste management system is mobile waste bins (72%). About 12 percent burn the waste generated by them. Door to door collection is about 5 percent. Over 2 percent households throw the wastes in the open space. Another 9 percent households throw their wastes into the waste bins located in the neighbourhood. The local headman takes care about half of the household's wastes, while Municipality takes care about 34 percent households. About 10 percent households are ignorant about the collection and disposal of wastes. Some NGO's takes care about 5 percent household's wastes. Awareness about segregation of waste into organic and non-bio degradable waste is 64 percent and a significant numbers do the segregation. In Shillong Municipality Board (SMB) area collects 45.91% (78.42 MT) waste, outside SMB area collection is 32.61% (45.99 MT) and entire GSPA the percentage of garbage collected is 41percent. The only dumping ground in GSPA is Marten, Mawiong, and the capacity to hold garbage is decreasing due to limited landfill. The sanitary landfill site is 5.0 acres that it is not enough to meet the demand. Out of he total area 170.69 sq. km. (GSPA) only 25.67% is most suitable and 18.58% is unsuitable to set up a new landfill area. Eastern part of the GSPA, is most suitable, which fulfils the entire criterion adopted in this study. In this the best-stated criterion are land cover (vacant space), slope (2000m) and elevation (1300-1500m). The eastern part of the GSPA is most suitable landfill location.

  16. Unemployment and Household formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Amina; Woolard, Ingrid; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to other continents, Africa has received little scholarly attention with regard to household composition. Household composition is endogenous to a variety of welfare issues and little is understood about the determinants of this composition. Understanding the household composition and formation decision may improve our understanding of how the unemployed gain access to resources and how household composition could provide a safety net to the unemployed. However, increasingly, mo...

  17. A potential new energy source - Assessment of energy recovery from municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, E. T.; Nollet, A. R.

    1980-08-01

    The state-of-the-art of recovering resources from the 135 million tons of household, industrial, and commercial wastes generated each year in the United States is discussed. Some of the hazards attendant upon the preliminary shredding of solid wastes at resource recovery plants are described with reference made to the impetus for resource recovery arising from legislation and to the difficulty in finding markets for refuse-derived fuel. Economic factors militating against resource recovery are enumerated, including the unviability of mass-burning systems to generate process or heating steam and/or electrical energy. It is also shown that the cost per ton of incoming waste has been underestimated and that the revenues to be derived from recovered resources have been overestimated. A new system in which separation, that is, classification, of incoming waste is the first step is proposed. This system would avoid the hazards of shredding and would make the recovery of resources less costly. It is shown that the cellulose contained in solid waste could be converted into ethanol.

  18. Victims of location: Health Implications on household living proximal to the Owhim solid waste dump in the Kumasi Metropolitan Area (KMA of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Owusu-Sekyere

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of acquiring land for the final disposal of solid waste in urban areas of Ghana has become a critical issue in the urban planning process because of its enormous impact on the economy, ecology and environmental health. Waste dumps have been blamed for the upsurge in disease such as malaria, diarrhea, dermal infection, respiratory tract infection and typhoid among others in the communities they are located. This has therefore resulted in conflicts and demonstrations between city authorities and communities where waste dumps are located.The Owhim disposal site in the KMA which is generally sited based on access to tipping vehicles rather than hydrological or public health considerations does not conform to international environmental standards. Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches, the research reveals that residents of Owhim are continousely exposed to environmental health hazards from the waste dump and this has brought an upsurge of diseases such as malaria,diarrhea, respiratory tract infection and skin diseases since the inception of the solid waste dump.The paper concludes that the residents have just become victims of poor location dicision which also reflects the much bigger policy context of spatial planning, in which land use, and development policies are shaped.

  19. Assessment of occupational safety risks in Floridian solid waste systems using Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Mehrad; Celik, Nurcin

    2015-10-01

    Safety risks embedded within solid waste management systems continue to be a significant issue and are prevalent at every step in the solid waste management process. To recognise and address these occupational hazards, it is necessary to discover the potential safety concerns that cause them, as well as their direct and/or indirect impacts on the different types of solid waste workers. In this research, our goal is to statistically assess occupational safety risks to solid waste workers in the state of Florida. Here, we first review the related standard industrial codes to major solid waste management methods including recycling, incineration, landfilling, and composting. Then, a quantitative assessment of major risks is conducted based on the data collected using a Bayesian data analysis and predictive methods. The risks estimated in this study for the period of 2005-2012 are then compared with historical statistics (1993-1997) from previous assessment studies. The results have shown that the injury rates among refuse collectors in both musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have decreased from 88 and 15 to 16 and three injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. However, a contrasting trend is observed for the injury rates among recycling workers, for whom musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have increased from 13 and four injuries to 14 and six injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. Lastly, a linear regression model has been proposed to identify major elements of the high number of musculoskeletal and dermal injuries. PMID:26219294

  20. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material

  1. Gambling households in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  2. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  3. Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the EPHAs for Mixed Hazardous Waste storage, the TRU Waste Storage Pads or the E-Area Vaults. The hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the SWMD operational emergency management program

  4. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This appendix provides the radionuclide inventory data used for the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 Performance Assessment (PA). The uncertainties in the radionuclide inventory data are also provided, along with the descriptions of the methods used to estimate the uncertainties.

  5. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix provides the radionuclide inventory data used for the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 Performance Assessment (PA). The uncertainties in the radionuclide inventory data are also provided, along with the descriptions of the methods used to estimate the uncertainties. of the methods used to estimate the uncertainties

  6. Household Level Pollution in India: Patterns and Projections

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Kavi Kumar; Brinda Viswanatha

    2011-01-01

    Solid fuels are still a major source for cooking in many households in India causing significant disease and global warming burden. This study analyses the pollution-income relationship (for both local and global pollution), separately across rural and urban households in India based on unit record data on fuel consumption obtained through National Sample Survey data for 2004-05. Based on the estimated relationship, the study makes an attempt to project household level pollution for 2026. The...

  7. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (II: history of torture and other traumatic experience of violence and functional assessment of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Shuvodwip

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organised crime and political violence (OPV and human rights violations have marred Bangladesh history since 1971. Little is known about the consequences for the oppressed population. This study describes the patterns of OPV and human rights violations in a disturbed area of Bangladesh and assesses the physical, emotional and social functioning of victims. Methods A total of 236 of selected participants in a household survey in Meherpur district were recruited for a detailed study. Interviews and physical examinations were used to obtain information about history of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (TCIDTP, and about injuries, pain frequency and intensity. Handgrip strength and standing balance performance were measured. The "WHO-5 Well-being" scale was used to assess the subjective emotional well-being of study participants. Results The majority of the reported cases of TCIDTP occurred in 2000-2008, 51% of incidents occurred during winter; 32.0% between 20:00 and midnight. Police involvement was reported in 75% of cases. Incidents took place at victims' homes (46.7%, or at the police station, military camp, in custody or in prison (21.9%. Participants experienced 1-10 TCIDTP methods and reported 0-6 injury locations on their bodies; 77.5% reported having at least two injuries. Less than half of the participants were able to stand on one leg for 30 seconds. Only 7.5% of males aged 25-44 had handgrip strength in both hands exceeding average values for healthy people at the same age. Over 85% of participants scored low ( Conclusion A detailed picture of characteristics of the victimisation is presented. The participants showed poor emotional well-being and reduced physical capacity. The results indicated that the simple and rapid method of assessment used here is a promising tool that could be used to monitor the quality and outcome of rehabilitation.

  8. Developing a Sustainability Assessment Model to Analyze China’s Municipal Solid Waste Management Enhancement Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a sustainability assessment model for analysis and decision-making of the impact of China’s municipal solid waste management enhancement strategy options based on three waste treatment scenarios: landfill disposal, waste-to-energy incineration, and a combination of a material recovery facility and composting. The model employs life cycle assessment, health risk assessment, and full cost accounting to evaluate the treatment scenarios regarding safeguarding public health, protecting the environment and conserving resources, and economic feasibility. The model then uses an analytic hierarchy process for an overall appraisal of sustainability. Results suggest that a combination of material recovery and composting is the most efficient option. The study results clarify sustainable attributes, suitable predications, evaluation modeling, and stakeholder involvement issues in solid waste management. The demonstration of the use of sustainability assessment model (SAM provides flexibility by allowing assessment for a municipal solid waste management (MSWM strategy on a case-by-case basis, taking into account site-specific factors, therefore it has the potential for flexible applications in different communities/regions.

  9. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material...... for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co...

  10. Consumer Behaviour of Households

    OpenAIRE

    Netrdová, Blanka

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is focused on the consumer behavior of the households in the period from 2003 to 2013. The theoretical part is divided into two parts, household consumption from the perspective of marketing, and from the perspective of economics. In the marketing section explains the concepts of consumer, household, consumer credit, consumer behavior, consumer predisposition and the buying decision process. In the section dedicated to economics concepts are explained, the budget line consumption, ...

  11. Life cycle greenhouse gas emission assessment of major petroleum oil products for transport and household sectors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy security concerns due to high oil import dependence and climate change concerns due to related greenhouse gas emissions are important policy discussions in India. Could life cycle assessment (LCA) of petroleum oil products provide inputs to crude oil sourcing and domestic oil pricing policies to address the two concerns? This paper presents a baseline study on LCA of petroleum products in India from Well to Storage depending on the oil source, type of refinery, product and the selected destinations. The LCA based GHG emissions are found to be higher by 4–12 per cent than GHG emissions from direct fuel consumption alone for LPG, 7–10 per cent for Gasoline, 3–9 per cent for Diesel and 4–10 per cent for Kerosene based on various supply chain routes supplying oil to six largest cities in India. Overall the energy used in oil exploration, refinery and transportation in the LCA have a share of 72–77 per cent, 11–15 per cent and 6–8 per cent, respectively. The paper proposes imposing a relative carbon cess for various oil products in different Indian cities. States could accommodate this additional carbon cess by reducing their respective state taxes without increasing the final delivery price to the consumers. - Highlights: ► LCA emissions are found to be higher by 4–12 per cent than direct fuel consumption emissions. ► Energy used in oil exploration, refinery and transportation in the LCA have a share of 72–77 per cent, 11–15 per cent and 6 8 per cent, respectively. ► Corresponding GHG emission shares are 60–66 per cent, 23–27 per cent and 5–8 per cent, respectively. ► The source of crude oil matters. E and P energy consumption is found highest for African countries. ► Differential carbon cess could be imposed without changing final delivery price to consumers

  12. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.fr [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2011-10-15

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: > Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. > Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. > Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. > Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  13. Price elasticity of household fuel comsumption

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc, M.; Marcus, V.

    2009-01-01

    The high levels reached by world oil prices and fuel prices in mid 2008 have raised notable concerns about the risk of future significant drops in household purchasing power. In the framework of a national strategy to reduce CO2 emissions, a tax reform on fossil fuels is also being studied. In this context, this paper aims to identify the categories of households that are most exposed to an energy-price increase and to assess the sensitivity of household consumption to changes in fuel prices ...

  14. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co-combustion in......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material...... production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the...

  15. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e...

  16. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  17. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility

  18. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.-T.; Lu, W.-J.; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH4 released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to...

  19. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility.

  20. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  1. A Methodology for Assessing the Sustainability of Hydrogen Production from Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal V. Gnanapragasam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for assessing the sustainability of hydrogen production using solid fuels is introduced, in which three sustainability dimensions (ecological, sociological and technological are considered along with ten indicators for each dimension. Values for each indicator are assigned on a 10-point scale based on a high of 1 and a low of 0, depending on the characteristic of the criteria associated with each element or process, utilizing data reported in the literature. An illustrative example is presented to compare two solid fuels for hydrogen production: coal and biomass. The results suggest that qualitative sustainability indicators can be reasonably defined based on evaluations of system feasibility, and that adequate flexibility and comprehensiveness is provided through the use of ten indicators for each of the dimensions for every process or element involved in hydrogen production using solid fuels. Also, the assessment index values suggest that biomasses have better sustainability than coals, and that it may be advantageous to use coals in combination with biomass to increase their ecological and social sustainability. The sustainability assessment methodology can be made increasingly quantitative, and is likely extendable to other energy systems, but additional research and development is needed to lead to a more fully developed approach.

  2. Assessment of Cost Variation in Solid and Hollow Floor Construction in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Sunday Dosumu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences in construction methods between different forms of slabs construction tend to result into variation in the cost of the slabs for any building project. Thus, this study aims at assessing the variation in construction cost among various construction methods available for hollow and solid floors in construction projects within Lagos State. The research design for this study was a survey design approach and the population of the study are active professionals (Architects, Civil Engineers, Builders, Quantity Surveyors, Consultant and contractors because they are the major participants in the construction activities of the construction industry in Lagos State, Nigeria. The research is based on 46 returned questionnaires out of the 60 that was administered. The data from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive tools such as frequencies, percentage and mean values. The hypotheses were tested with paired sample t-test and it was found that the system or method of slab construction well known to the respondents is cast in situ, precast and semi-precast. The study also shows that the cost of in-situ solid slabs are higher than that of hollow slab which is an indication that solid slab construction is more expensive than hollow slab construction provided the hollow slab is a one-way hollow floor and not waffle floor. In pre cast solid slab construction the cost of transportation of units to sites, cost of expertise required in the construction process and the cost of fabrication off site are the three highest and most expensive aspects of precast solid slab while cost of erection and placement and the cost of grouting and topping if required are less expensive. Therefore there is difference in the cost of construction between the solid and hollow slabs but the difference is not appreciable. The study's major recommendation is that, adequate and careful analysis must be done in the choice of floor system being adopted for any

  3. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Krsteva, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  4. How Assessment Methods Can Support Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries—A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zurbrügg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting actions for improvement of solid waste management in low and middle income countries and understanding how a specific decision choice will fit and impact on a local context is key to identifying sustainable solutions. Assessment of the choice (be it technical or managerial and assessment of the local enabling or disabling conditions are both important steps in the decision making process. Various assessment tools and methods are currently available to support decision-making in solid waste management. Assessment can be used to identify weaknesses or strengths of existing systems in a structured way and hereby highlight factors of success and failure. Assessment methods can also evaluate and compare different possible choices as in project scenarios. This overview describes established and innovative assessment methods serving both these purposes. A range of assessment tools are often designed to assess a specific sustainability domain (technical, environmental and health, economic and financial, social and institutional, organizational aspects, others attempt to provide a more holistic picture by integrating different sustainability domains into the same tool. This paper reviews a number of methods describing and discussing each of them, and referring to their use in low and middle-income countries if published in scientific literature. The overview concludes that in low- and middle-income countries the use of comprehensive assessment methods is yet very limited. We hypothesize that most formal methods of assessment are still too complex and generally overburden the weak local capacities intended for their usage. The few applications identified, were conducted by academia for scientific purposes. Lack of resources to collect the vast data required for some assessment methods is a further restriction to their practical application. Future development is suggested to improve user friendliness of existing tools or to simplify certain

  5. Assessment of the TCA functional in computational chemistry and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fabiano, E; Terentjevs, A; Della Sala, F; Cortona, P

    2015-01-01

    We assess the Tognetti-Cortona-Adamo (TCA) generalized gradient approximation correlation functional [J. Chem. Phys. 128:034101 (2008)] for a variety of electronic systems. We find that, even if the TCA functional is not exact for the uniform electron gas, it is very accurate for the jellium surface correlation energies and it gives a realistic description of the quantum oscillations and surface effects of various jellium clusters, that are important model systems in computational chemistry and solid-state physics. When the TCA correlation is combined with the non-empirical PBEint, Wu-Cohen, and PBEsol$_b$ exchange functionals, the resulting exchange-correlation approximations provide good performances for a broad palette of systems and properties, being reasonably accurate for thermochemistry and geometry of molecules, transition metal complexes, non-covalent interactions,equilibrium lattice constants, bulk moduli, and cohesive energies of solids.

  6. Plastic Solid Waste Assessment in the State of Kuwait and Proposed Methods of Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Salem

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper assessment of Solid Plastic Waste (SPW in Kuwait will provide a greater understanding to the industry of plastic manufacturing and manufacturers as well as direct the strategic future plans proposed into execution. This research show the results obtained after a years survey and study of plastic solid waste in the state of Kuwait and the surrounding region in order to create a database that can be used in future plans and research projects. Major manufacturers in the area were asked to complete a questionnaire to create a complete database. Recycling methods were studied and tested in order to evaluate the best solutions and schemes available to overcome the increasing rate of municipal plastic waste. From the current study it, Kuwait ranked in second behind Qatar in plastic waste but land filling rates in Kuwait are almost double than any other oil dependant country in the west Asia region.

  7. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio;

    2015-01-01

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered...... scrap metals may limit recycling potential, and the utilisation of aggregates may cause the release of toxic substances into the natural environment through leaching. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a full-scale MSWI bottom ash management and recovery system to identify environmental...... routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality...

  8. Life cycle assessment of micro production technologies - solar cells, household wind turbines and micro motors; Livscyklusvurdering af mikroproduktionsteknologier - solceller, husstandsvindmoeller og mikromotorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeborg Poulsen, A.; Kruse, H.; Hvid Ipsen, K.

    2000-07-15

    This report contains a life cycle based estimation of environmental effects of CHP based on the micro production technologies: solar cells, household wind turbines and micro motors. The technologies cover CHP production on very small plants which are characterised by being located by the individual consumer. (BA)

  9. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  10. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and disposing of the material according to the manufacturer’s directions. It is critical to store household chemicals in places where children cannot access them. Remember that products such as aerosol cans of hair spray and deodorant, nail polish ...

  11. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  12. Social-ecological-economic efficiency assessment of the existing scheme of communal solid waste handling in St. Petersburg

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbakova, Nadezda

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the existing scheme of communal solid waste handling in St. Petersburg. We assess the efficiency of the scheme by social, ecological and economic criteria. The results of this assessment allow us to conclude that all stages of communal solid waste handling in the city (collection, hauling, processing and disposal of wastes) are profitable. However, the level of waste recycling in the city is low in comparison with the industrially developed countries. Increasing the ...

  13. Thermal treatment of municipal solid waste. Assessment of the 42 French facilities funded by ADEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, Ademe provided a financial assistance to the construction of 42 municipal solid waste incinerators, covering an average of 5,7 % of the required investments. This note outlines the lessons to be drawn from the assessment of the operation of these units, which was produced within the framework of a study steered by Ademe and carried out by Trivalor. It contents details on the in-depth modification of french facilities, a complete mastery of operations, the economic conditions in the sector, the analysis of Ademe subsidies and evaluates the market over the next ten years. (A.L.B.)

  14. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.-T.; Lu, W.-J.;

    2009-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including...... waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH4 released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH3 from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling...

  15. Assessment of the radiological risks of underground disposal of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the general principles for assessing proposals for operating a landbased facility for solid radioactive waste disposal is that the site should be chosen and the facility should be designed so that the risk or probability of fatal cancer, to any member of the public, from any movement of radioactivity from the facility, is not greater than 1 in a million in any one year. This report provides advice to the Department of the Environment as to how this risk may be defined and gives a prescription for how it can be calculated. (author)

  16. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management options for Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banar, Mufide; Cokaygil, Zerrin; Ozkan, Aysun

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy for Eskisehir city. Eskisehir is one of the developing cities of Turkey where a total of approximately 750tons/day of waste is generated. An effective MSW management system is needed in this city since the generated MSW is dumped in an unregulated dumping site that has no liner, no biogas capture, etc. Therefore, five different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current waste management system. Collection and transportation of waste, a material recovery facility (MRF), recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling processes were considered in these scenarios. SimaPro7 libraries were used to obtain background data for the life cycle inventory. One ton of municipal solid waste of Eskisehir was selected as the functional unit. The alternative scenarios were compared through the CML 2000 method and these comparisons were carried out from the abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone depletion points of view. According to the comparisons and sensitivity analysis, composting scenario, S3, is the more environmentally preferable alternative. In this study waste management alternatives were investigated only on an environmental point of view. For that reason, it might be supported with other decision-making tools that consider the economic and social effects of solid waste management. PMID:18280731

  17. Use of Internet by households

    OpenAIRE

    Humlová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    This work is engaged in analysis of internet usage by the households by Czech households. The first part of work defines the basic concepts of Internet such as internet history, types of internet connection or the possibilities of its use. I tis followed by concrete analysis of trends in Internet usage by households in the Czech Republic, according to several aspects. The basic aspect is the share of households connected to the Internet to the total number of households. Next the work analyze...

  18. Household skills and low wages

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Household skills provide job skills when tasks in jobs and household production are similar and jobs produce substitutes for home-made services. Opportunity costs of higher education are foregone earnings during schooling and foregone household production while studying and later in life. I show that individuals in jobs requiring household skills accept lower wage rates than traditional human capital theory predicts, and that individuals with low household skills tend to enter higher educatio...

  19. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  20. Household Income Determination and Regional Income Differential in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xin; Wu, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Regional income dispersion is a sensitive issue in China in terms of judging the impact of economic reform. This study looks closely at the issue as to what are the determinants of income variation among households in general, and which are the key determinants of income dispersion among different regions. The study uses the data from a sample survey on 1000 rural households in five Chinese provinces. Household income equations are estimated to assess the determinants of income variations am...

  1. Mental Accounting and Remittances: A Study of Malawian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Simon; Easaw, Joshy; Ghoshray, Atanu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we use a behavioural approach to studying household consumption behaviour in Malawi. In particular we are interested to know whether households use mental accounting when consuming different categories of good. It is useful for assessing the impact of remittances on household consumption behaviour. We use 1998 cross-sectional data to find the following key results: (i) mental accounting systems are in operation. Remittance income exhibits a higher marginal propensity to save th...

  2. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety

  3. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety.

  4. Diarrhoea prevalence in children under five years of age in rural Burundi: an assessment of social and behavioural factors at the household level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Diouf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 551 rural households in northwestern Burundi. Areas of inquiry included 1 socio-demographic information, 2 diarrhoea period prevalence and treatment, 3 behaviour and knowledge, 4 socio-economic indicators, 5 access to water and water chain as well as 6 sanitation and personal/children's hygiene. Results: A total of 903 children were enrolled. The overall diarrhoea prevalence was 32.6%. Forty-six per cent (n=255 of households collected drinking water from improved water sources and only 3% (n=17 had access to improved sanitation. We found a lower prevalence of diarrhoea in children whose primary caretakers received hygiene education (17.9%, boiled water prior to its utilisation (19.4% and were aged 40 or older (17.9%. Diarrhoea was associated with factors such as the mother's age being less than 25 and the conviction that diarrhoea could not be prevented. No gender differences were detected regarding diarrhoea prevalence or the caretaker's decision to treat. Conclusions: Diarrhoea prevalence can be reduced through hygiene education and point-of use household water treatment such as boiling. In order to maximise the impact on children's health in the given rural setting, future interventions must assure systematic and regular hygiene education at the household and community level.

  5. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, D; Astrup, T

    2012-01-01

    Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co-combustion in existing power plants and utilization of the liquid fraction for biogas production were concluded to be the most favourable options with respect to their environmental impacts (particularly global warming) and energy performance. The optimization of the energy and environmental performance of the waste refinery was mainly associated with the opportunity to decrease energy and enzyme consumption. PMID:21940157

  6. The economic burden of cancers on Indian households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Mahal

    Full Text Available We assessed the burden of cancer on households' out-of-pocket health spending, non-medical consumption, workforce participation, and debt and asset sales using data from a nationally representative health and morbidity survey in India for 2004 of nearly 74 thousand households. Propensity scores were used to match households containing a member diagnosed with cancer (i.e. cancer-affected households to households with similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (controls. Our estimates are based on data from 1,645 households chosen through matching. Cancer-affected households experienced higher levels of outpatient visits and hospital admissions and increased out-of-pocket health expenditures per member, relative to controls. Cancer-affected households spent between Indian Rupees (INR 66 and INR 85 more per member on healthcare over a 15-day reference period, than controls and additional expenditures (per member incurred on inpatient care by cancer-affected households annually is equivalent to 36% to 44% of annual household expenditures of matched controls. Members without cancer in cancer-affected households used less health-care and spent less on healthcare. Overall, adult workforce participation rates were lower by between 2.4 and 3.2 percentage points compared to controls; whereas workforce participation rates among adult members without cancer were higher than in control households. Cancer-affected households also had significantly higher rates of borrowing and asset sales for financing outpatient care that were 3.3% to 4.0% higher compared to control households; and even higher for inpatient care.

  7. Strategic environmental assessment policy integration model for solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We identified policy drivers of SEA in solid waste policy planning. • The SEA primary policy drivers are benefits, barriers and enablers need. • The SEA sub-drivers are environmental attitude and environmental awareness. • Optimal SEA policy integration requires public participation and capacity building. • SEA integration should be a long-term sustainable policy strategy for SWM. -- Abstract: This paper examines the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) systemic policy drivers for solid waste management (SWM) policies, plans and programmes (PPP) in Malaysia. Solid waste generation in Malaysia has been increasing drastically from 9.0 million tonnes in 2000 to an expected 15.6 million tonnes in 2020. This projected rate of solid waste generation is expected to burden the country's environmental and water quality resources. The key problem the study frames is the lack of environmental integration in the SWM process which is only conducted during the environmental impact assessments (EIA) stage of SWM facilities. The purpose of this study is to expand the SEA subject knowledge by validating a behaviour based theoretical framework and identifying key policy drivers that influence the integration of SEA in SWM policy planning. The study methodology utilized a confirmatory covariance based structural equation modelling approach to validate the proposed theoretical model based on the policy makers/implementers interview questionnaire data collection. The study findings indicate five latent SEA policy drivers which were named policy knowledge, environmental attitude, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and perceived enablers. The study has conceptualized and tested a SEA policy model which indicates that SEA integration behaviour is influenced directly by three main drivers (perception of benefits, perception of barriers and perception of enablers) and influenced indirectly by two sub-drivers environmental attitude and environmental knowledge

  8. Ecologising Societal Metabolism and Recycling of Phosphorus At Household and Neighbourhood Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    The pressures of humanity on a fragile water resource base, and the corresponding need for environmental and freshwater protection requires that human excreta and other societal wastes (solid and liquid) be recycled and used as a resource. The Bel- lagio principles underpin the basis for this new approach to environmental sanitation. There are two main concepts emanating from the Bellagio principles, which make the basis of this paper. Firstly, the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) puts the household at the focal point of environmental sanitation planning and; sec- ondly, the Circular System of Resource Management (CSRM) that emphasises conser- vation, local recycling and reuse of resources. Recycling of Phosphorus (P) in urban or peri-urban ecological agriculture (without synthetic fertilisers) is used in this paper to assess the feasibility of these concepts. An inventory of annual P-fluxes based on characterisation of input goods, processes, transformation, output fluxes and storage was conducted for a high-density suburb in Harare, Zimbabwe where agriculture is already a major activity. Using systems thinking approach and material flow account- ing two compartments or subsystems are defined to enable accounting and analysis of P-bearing materials. The "household" (consumption/use and excretion/waste) and "agriculture" (soil-plant interaction). With a population of about 100 000 inhabitants, P inflows amount to about 26 600 kg/a and 1 900 kg/a as food/beverages and deter- gents respectively within the "household" subsystem. Storage is taken as negligible, whilst 85

  9. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  10. Ecological Assessment and Improvement for Agricultural Production Systems of Households in Cropping and Pasture Transition Zone of Northern China%北方农牧过渡带农户农业生产系统模式的生态评价和改良研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊江文; 梁飚

    2002-01-01

    Six households agricultural production systems were defined based on investigating and analyzing production situation of households in 3 geo-economic districts in transition zone of cropping and pasture(Chifeng, Inner Mongolia).Three production systems, e.g., pasture-pig system, cropping-cattle fattening system and agro-animal husbandry system,were selected through ecological assessment. The improved suggestion for the systems was provided according to existing problems of these systems.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF TANNERY BASED SOLID WASTES MANAGEMENT IN ASILI, NAIROBI KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard O. Oruko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes generated in Nairobi and its environs are posing a serious environmental challenge to the authorities and public, especially the hazardous and non-biodegradable solid wastes from leather industries. There were environmental concerns and complaints from workers and residents living adjacent to Asili tanneries limited about degradation of natural and inbuilt environment. This pointed to the effect of environmental pollution by the tannery. The broad objective of study was to assess the effectiveness of tannery based solid wastes management, by identifying and analyzing the concentration levels of sodium chlorides,sulphide, chromium ions and total phenols as selected pollutants along the tanning stages, in Nairobi river, borehole water, and soils around the dump site inside the tannery. Experimental (laboratory analysis design was used.Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing data resulting in means and tables. The means concentration of total Chrome was 2633.38mg/L,Sodium chloride 609.93mg/L, Sulphide 129.77mg/L, total Phenols 10.91mg/L in the soil sampled around the composite dump site.. In Nairobi river water the means of Sodium chloride was 317.48mg/L, Sulphide 24.00mg/L, total Phenol 3.97mg/L and total Chrome Nil, While means concentration in borehole water, had Sodium chloride detected at 354.73mg/L, Sulphide 6.67mg/L, total Phenol 0.03mg/L and total Chrome as Nil, indicating heavily contaminated ecosystems above the discharge set limits of National Environmental Management Authority and Nairobi city water and sewerage company.

  12. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy fram

  13. Assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios in Irkutsk (Russia) using a life cycle assessment-integrated waste management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulokhonova, Alisa; Ulanova, Olga

    2013-05-01

    Continuous growth in the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) and increasing demands for their environmentally-friendly treatment are one of the main consequences of the growing social and economic development rate in modern society. Despite ecologically sustainable trends in waste management systems around the world, open dumps are still the main waste treatment option in Russia. This study aims to help the local municipality administration in Irkutsk (Russia) identify the most appropriate direction for current waste management and its optimization. Within this study four developed MSW management scenarios were assessed and compared with respect to their ecological, economic and social aspects using a life cycle-based integrated waste management model. The evaluation results of these scenarios show that the development of environmental sustainability and the reduction of social effects lead to an increase in handling of costs of waste. The best scenario, regarding both environmental and social aspects, is scenario four, which includes the separate collection and reprocessing of recyclables in combination with an aerobic mechanical-biological pre-treatment of the residual waste before landfilling. However, this scenario is 3.6 times more expensive than the existing system. The results of all assessed scenarios were further analyzed and recommendations were made to design integrated waste management solutions that are optimal not only from the ecological and social points of view, but which are also realistic within the given economic situation. PMID:23444153

  14. Household metabolism in Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falkena, Henk-Jan; Moll, Henri C.; Noorman, Klaas Jan; Kok, Rixt; Benders, René

    2003-01-01

    This report is the Dutch national report of the second work package of the ToolSust project. ToolSust, the involvement of stakeholders to develop and implement Tools for Sustainable households in the city of tomorrow, has been developed within the fifth framework program of the EU, as a part of Ener

  15. A Supply-Chain Analysis Framework for Assessing Densified Biomass Solid Fuel Utilization Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Densified Biomass Solid Fuel (DBSF is a typical solid form of biomass, using agricultural and forestry residues as raw materials. DBSF utilization is considered to be an alternative to fossil energy, like coal in China, associated with a reduction of environmental pollution. China has abundant biomass resources and is suitable to develop DBSF. Until now, a number of policies aimed at fostering DBSF industry have been proliferated by policy makers in China. However, considering the seasonality and instability of biomass resources, these inefficiencies could trigger future scarcities of biomass feedstocks, baffling the resilience of biomass supply chains. Therefore, this review paper focuses on DBSF policies and strategies in China, based on the supply chain framework. We analyzed the current developing situation of DBSF industry in China and developed a framework for policy instruments based on the supply chain steps, which can be used to identify and assess the deficiencies of current DBSF industry policies, and we proposed some suggestions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance the development of DBSF industry.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT. PMID:25708404

  18. Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from municipal solid waste disposal sites: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mondal, A. N.; Gaikwad, S. A.; Devotta, Sukumar; Singh, R. N.

    2004-09-01

    In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing enormously and most of the SWs are disposed off by land filling in low-lying areas, resulting into generation of large quantities of biogas. Methane, the major constituent gas is known to cause global warming due to green house gas (GHG) effect. There is a need to study the ever-increasing contribution of SW to the global GHG effect. To assess the impacts, estimation of GHG emission is must and to avoid misguidance by these emission-data, qualitative assessment of the estimated GHG is a must. In this paper, methane emission is estimated for a particular landfill site, using default methodology and modified triangular methodology. Total methane generation is same for both theoretical methodologies, but the modified triangular method has an upper hand as it provides a time-dependent emission profile that reflects the true pattern of the degradation process. To check the quality of calculated emission-data, extensive sampling is carried out for different seasons in a year. Field results show a different trend as compared to theoretical results, this compels for logical thinking. Each methane emission-data is backed up by the uncertainty associated with it, this further strengthens the quality check of these data. Uncertainty calculation is done using Monte Carlo simulation technique, recommended in IPCC Guideline. In the due course of qualitative assessment of methane emission-data, many site-specific sensitive parameters are discovered and are briefly discussed in this paper.

  19. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Ashworth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7 but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen’s kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5. Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks.

  20. [Methods for health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmagnani, Federica; Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Lauriola, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy. PMID:25387745

  1. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing;

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits......-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese...

  2. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-François; Martínez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2011-10-01

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox(®) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. PMID:21570756

  3. Compost maturity assessment using physicochemical, solid-state spectroscopy, and plant bioassay analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Senthil; Kumar, P Satheesh; Rajendran, N M; Anbuganapathi, G

    2013-11-27

    The vermicompost produced from flower waste inoculated with biofertilizers was subjected to compost maturity test: (i) physicochemical method (pH, OC, TN, C:N); (ii) solid state spectroscopic analysis (FTIR and (13)C CPMAS NMR); and (iii) plant bioassay (germination index). The pH of vermicompost was decreased toward neutral, C:N ratio vermicomposts result shows reduction of complex organic materials into simple minerals which indicates the maturity of the experimental vermicompost product than the control. The increased aliphatic portion incorporated with flower residues may be due to the synthesis of alkyl, O-alkyl, and COO groups by the microbes present in the gut of earthworm. Plant bioassays are considered the most conventional assessment of compost maturity analysis, and subsequently, it shows the effect of vermicompost maturity on the germination index of Vigna mungo . PMID:24191667

  4. Tourism and solid waste generation in Europe: A panel data assessment of the Environmental Kuznets Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulú, Italo; Lozano, Javier; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between tourism growth and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been, until now, the subject of little research. This is puzzling since the tourism sector is an important MSW generator and, at the same time, is willing to avoid negative impacts from MSW mismanagement. This paper aims to provide tools for tourism and MSW management by assessing the effects of tourism volume, tourism quality and tourism specialization on MSW generation in the UE. This is done using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework. The study considers a panel data for 32 European economies in the 1997-2010 periods. Empirical results support the EKC hypothesis for MSW and shows that northern countries tend to have lower income elasticity than less developed countries; furthermore, results confirm a non-linear and significant effect of tourism arrivals, expenditure per tourist and tourism specialization on MSW generation.

  5. Tourism and solid waste generation in Europe: A panel data assessment of the Environmental Kuznets Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulú, Italo; Lozano, Javier; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between tourism growth and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been, until now, the subject of little research. This is puzzling since the tourism sector is an important MSW generator and, at the same time, is willing to avoid negative impacts from MSW mismanagement. This paper aims to provide tools for tourism and MSW management by assessing the effects of tourism volume, tourism quality and tourism specialization on MSW generation in the UE. This is done using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework. The study considers a panel data for 32 European economies in the 1997-2010 periods. Empirical results support the EKC hypothesis for MSW and shows that northern countries tend to have lower income elasticity than less developed countries; furthermore, results confirm a non-linear and significant effect of tourism arrivals, expenditure per tourist and tourism specialization on MSW generation. PMID:26294012

  6. Technical and economic assessment of power generation from municipal solid waste incineration on steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Luna, Carlos Manuel; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto; Ferrufino, Gretta Larisa Aurora Arce; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Dept. of Energy. UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: carrocci@feg.unesp.br, perrella@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a concern in development of environmentally friendly methods for a municipal solid waste (MSW) management and demand for renewable energy sources. The source of waste is increasing, and the capacity and availability Landfill treatment and disposal are coming to be insufficient. In Sao Paulo City, the 10 million inhabitants produce 10,000 t of residential solid waste daily, being that 76% this quantity goes to landfill sites. In order to adopt a new treatment technology for MSW that will promote a solution minimizing this problem, within the order of priorities regarding waste management, the MSW incineration with energy recovery shown as the leading choice on the point of view of efficiency in converting energy. MSW incineration with energy recovery received wide acceptance from various countries including European Union members and the rest of the world in the past 15 years. Incineration has the ability decrease 90 % the volume of waste to be used in landfills, increasing the useful life of existing as well as a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. MSW incineration systems have a low global warming potential (GWP). now has become a less important source of dioxins and furans due to the current available technology. MSW incineration with energy recovery could contribute considerably in the energy matrix, thus promote the conservation of non-renewable resources. This paper proposes the assessment the technical and economic feasibility of a steam cycle with conventional steam generator for MSW incineration with energy recovery for power generation in Sao Paulo City. Will be developed a thermoeconomic analysis aiming at the total power generation product of MSW incineration, and the assessment investment cost regarding the total sale of power generated. The study shows that Sao Paulo City has potential for power generation from the MSW incineration, although it has a high cost investment this technology shown as a suitable alternative for

  7. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-03-15

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered scrap metals may limit recycling potential, and the utilisation of aggregates may cause the release of toxic substances into the natural environment through leaching. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a full-scale MSWI bottom ash management and recovery system to identify environmental breakeven points beyond which the burdens of the recovery processes outweigh the environmental benefits from valorising metals and mineral aggregates. Experimental data for the quantity and quality of individual material fractions were used as a basis for LCA modelling. For the aggregates, three disposal routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality, choice of marginal energy technologies and substitution rates between primary and secondary aluminium, stainless steel and ferrous products, were assessed and discussed. The modelling resulted in burdens to toxic impacts associated with metal recycling and leaching from aggregates during utilisation, while large savings were obtained in terms of non-toxic impacts. However, by varying the substitution rate for aluminium recycling between 0.35 and 0.05 (on the basis of aluminium scrap and secondary aluminium alloy market value), it was found that the current recovery system might reach a breakeven point between the benefits of recycling and energy expended on sorting and upgrading the scrap. PMID:25555136

  8. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  9. Rapid assessment of soluble solids content in navel orange by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yande; Luo, Ji; Chen, Xingmiao; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    The potential of using Near Infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to assess soluble solids content (SSC) of intact navel orange was examined. A total 40 samples were used to develop the calibration and prediction models. NIR spectral data were collected in the spectral region between 350 nm and 2500 nm and its second derivative spectra was used for this study. Different scattering correction algorithms (no preprocessing and multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) were compared. Calibration models based on different spectral ranges, different derivatives and different kinds of statistical models including partial least square (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) were also compared in this research. The best results of PLS models with the second derivative spectra are r=0.929, RMSEC=0.517 and RMSEP=0.592, in the wavelength range of 361-2488 nm. The segment length used to derivate the spectra influences the calibration model and the results are better when the segment lengths and gap sizes are lower in Norris derivate filter. The results show that this method is feasible for rapid assessing SSC of the navel orange.

  10. Optimization of municipal solid waste leaching test procedure: assessment of the part of hydrosoluble organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, A; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, G; Pallier, V; Mansour, A A

    2011-02-28

    Despite national recycling campaigns, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) to be treated remains very important in France with almost 39% of the waste produced going to landfills. Therefore with the increasing concern over sustainable development and energy valorization, it seems essential to optimize current treatment methods and develop new preparation techniques of the waste. Nevertheless an important first step to take into account is to evaluate the waste using a different method than biogas production. In this perspective, the leaching test (LT) could be used as a tool to evaluate the ability of a waste to mobilize organic and mineral compounds. This research aims at optimizing a leaching test protocol mainly adapted to organic waste in order to be used on MSW to assess the fractions of both fast and slow mobilized organic matter. Several leaching tests have thus been implemented, optimized and compared in terms of accessible organic matter in the waste. Results have shown that the test conditions have a great influence on the mobilization of pollutants. The duration of the test affects mainly the quantity and quality of organic molecules extracted. The renewal of the eluent does not properly simulate the conditions of a landfill. The results would be used to assess the performance and the efficiency of new ways of waste pretreatment. PMID:21156339

  11. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural women of Tamilnadu: implications for refining disease burden assessments attributable to household biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Johnson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive1 1This paper was orally presented in the Annual conference International Society of Environmental Epidemiology held in Pasadena in 2008. pulmonary disease (COPD is the 13th leading cause of burden of disease worldwide and is expected to become 5th by 2020. Biomass fuel combustion significantly contributes to COPD, although smoking is recognized as the most important risk factor. Rural women in developing countries bear the largest share of this burden resulting from chronic exposures to biomass fuel smoke. Although there is considerable strength of evidence for the association between COPD and biomass smoke exposure, limited information is available on the background prevalence of COPD in these populations.This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of COPD and its associated factors among non-smoking rural women in Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 900 non-smoking women aged above 30 years, from 45 rural villages of Tiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in Southern India in the period between January and May 2007. COPD assessments were done using a combination of clinical examination and spirometry. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between COPD and use of biomass for cooking. R software was used for statistical analysis.The overall prevalence of COPD in this study was found to be 2.44% (95% CI: 1.43–3.45. COPD prevalence was higher in biomass fuel users than the clean fuel users 2.5 vs. 2%, (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.36–6.64 and it was two times higher (3% in women who spend >2 hours/day in the kitchen involved in cooking. Use of solid fuel was associated with higher risk for COPD, although no statistically significant results were obtained in this study.The estimates generated in this study will contribute significantly to the growing database of available information on COPD prevalence in rural women. Moreover, with

  12. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  13. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  14. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss two different approaches to model the flexible power consumption of heat pump heated households: individual household modeling and lumped modeling. We illustrate that a benefit of individual modeling is that we can overview and optimize the complete flexibility of a heat...... pump portfolio. Following, we illustrate two disadvantages of individual models, namely that it requires much computational effort to optimize over a large portfolio, and second that it is difficult to accurately model the houses in certain time periods due to local disturbances. Finally, we propose...... a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization...

  15. Is knowledge shared within households?

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik; Narayan, Ambar; Ravallion, Martin

    1999-01-01

    According to theory, a member of a collective-action household may or may not share knowledge with others in that household. Shared income gains from shared knowledge may well be offset by a shift in the balance of power within the family. But do literate members of the household share the benefits of literacy with other members of the household in practice? Using household survey data for Bangladesh, the authors find that education has strong external effects on individual earnings. When a r...

  16. Geochemical modeling and assessment of leaching from carbonated municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi; Jamro, Imtiaz Ali; Li, Rundong; Li, Yanlong; Li, Shaobai; Luan, Jingde

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes are characterized by high calcium oxide (CaO) content. Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption by MSWI fly ash was discussed based on thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA), minerology analysis, and adapting the Stenoir equation. TG/DTA analysis showed that the weight gain of the fly ash below 440 °C was as high as 5.70 %. An adapted Stenoir equation for MSWI fly ash was discussed. The chloride in MSWI fly ash has a major impact on CO2 adsorption by MSWI fly ash or air pollution control (APC) residues. Geochemical modeling of the critical trace elements copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and antimony (Sb) before and after carbonation was performed using a thermodynamic equilibrium model for solubility and a surface complexation model for metal sorption. Leaching of critical trace elements was generally found to be strongly dependent on the degree of carbonation attained, and their solubility appeared to be controlled by several minerals. Adsorption on ferrum (Fe) and aluminum (Al) colloids was also responsible for removal of the trace elements Cd, Pb, and Sb. We used Hakanson's potential ecological risk index (HPERI) to evaluate the risk of trace element leaching in general. The results demonstrate that the ecological risk showed a V-shaped dependency on pH; the optimum pH of the carbonated fly ash was found to be 10.3-11, resulting from the optimum carbonation (liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio = 0.25, carbonation duration = ∼30-48 h). The dataset and modeling results presented here provide a contribution to assessing the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash under a wide range of conditions. PMID:26965281

  17. Research on Household Electricity Energy Efficiency Assessment Index and System Reduction Based on Rough Set Theory%基于粗糙集的家庭用电评估指标体系约简方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵长昊; 唐泉彬

    2014-01-01

    Household electric energy management is the starting point and the foothold of intelligent electricity which is part of the smart grid .In the light of it is facing the lack of index system ,complete important index cannot be quantified , the evaluation results are not objective enough problems ,this paper put forward a kind of household electricity evaluation index and system evaluation model based on rough set theory to provide reference for the household electrical energy man-agement .This paper uses data statistics and data mining method to design a preliminary index system of home energy effi-ciency assessment ;and through make use of attribute reduction method to determine index ,at last ,based on result set and degree of membership function to built "goodness" evaluation model to get the indicator system optimization model . Through processing and energy efficiency evaluation on real household electricity data ,verifies the correctness of the mod-el .%居民家庭电能管理是智能电网中智能用电环节的出发点和落脚点。针对目前家庭电能管理所面临的缺少完整的指标体系、重要指标不能量化、评估结果不够客观等问题,提出了一种基于粗糙集理论的家庭用电评估指标体系评价模型,为居民家庭电能管理提供了参考依据。采用数据统计和数据挖掘方法,设计了家庭电能效率评估的初步指标体系;利用粗糙集理论属性约简方法确定指标重要度,并对指标体系进行了指标筛选;以结果集和隶属度函数为依据构建“优度”评价模型,得出了指标体系优选模型。通过对真实家庭用电数据的处理以及电能效率评估,验证了该模型的正确性。

  18. Poverty Analysis of Rice Farming Households: A Multidimensional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenuga A. H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The official measurement and analysis of poverty in Nigeria has historically relied upon the single dimension, consumption based monetary approach with little attention on multidimensional poverty assessment. This study was therefore carried out to assess the multidimensional poverty index of rice farming households in Nasarawa/Benue Rice Hub, Nigeria. The study employed stratified random sampling technique to select 149 rice farming households in the study area. Descriptive statistics, the Alkire and Foster Multidimensional Poverty Index Methodology using two different cut-off points and the Tobit regression model were the main analytical tools employed for the study. The results of the multidimensional poverty index analysis revealed that female headed households were poorer than the male headed households. On the overall, 66 percent of the rice farming households was multidimensionally poor. The study also showed that the rice farming households were deprived in 48 percent of the dimensions. A multidimensional poverty index of 0.32 was obtained for the rice farming households in the study area with varying values obtained for the male and female headed households. The result of the Tobit regression model showed that gender of the household head, health, marital status and membership of association were the major determinants of multidimensional poverty of the rice farming households in the study area. The study concluded that the rice farming households in the study area were multidimensionally poor. It was recommended that the government should give priorities to the development of the rural areas with special consideration for women through the provision of essential infrastructural facilities.

  19. Proposal of an environmental performance index to assess solid waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Proposal of a new concept in waste management: Cleaner Treatment. ► Development of an index to assess quantitatively waste treatment technologies. ► Delphi Method was carried out so as to define environmental indicators. ► Environmental performance evaluation of waste-to-energy plants. - Abstract: Although the concern with sustainable development and environment protection has considerably grown in the last years it is noted that the majority of decision making models and tools are still either excessively tied to economic aspects or geared to the production process. Moreover, existing models focus on the priority steps of solid waste management, beyond waste energy recovery and disposal. So, in order to help the lack of models and tools aiming at the waste treatment and final disposal, a new concept is proposed: the Cleaner Treatment, which is based on the Cleaner Production principles. This paper focuses on the development and validation of the Cleaner Treatment Index (CTI), to assess environmental performance of waste treatment technologies based on the Cleaner Treatment concept. The index is formed by aggregation (summation or product) of several indicators that consists in operational parameters. The weights of the indicator were established by Delphi Method and Brazilian Environmental Laws. In addition, sensitivity analyses were carried out comparing both aggregation methods. Finally, index validation was carried out by applying the CTI to 10 waste-to-energy plants data. From sensitivity analysis and validation results it is possible to infer that summation model is the most suitable aggregation method. For summation method, CTI results were superior to 0.5 (in a scale from 0 to 1) for most facilities evaluated. So, this study demonstrates that CTI is a simple and robust tool to assess and compare the environmental performance of different treatment plants being an excellent quantitative tool to support Cleaner Treatment implementation.

  20. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...... demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada....... The tests of the usual symmetry conditions are rejected for two person households but not for one person households. We also show that income pooling is rejected for two person households. We then test for our collective setting conditions on the couples data. None of the collective setting restrictions...

  1. Online Investment Education: Listening to Learners to Develop an Effective Financial Literacy Program for Farm Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara; Porter, Nancy M.; Pankow, Debra; Schuchardt, Jane; Johnson, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A needs assessment was conducted for the adaptation of an existing online Cooperative Extension investment course for use by farm households. The theoretical model was Social Marketing Theory. Data about financial attitudes, practices, and learning preferences of farm households were collected through a telephone survey of 300 farm households and…

  2. HIV and severity of seasonal household food-related coping behaviors in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Price, L.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In-depth research was conducted to evaluate the seasonal food insecurity of HIV-positive and HIV-negative farm households in the Eastern Region, Ghana. A Coping Strategy Index (CSI) was used to assess household food-related coping behaviors. HIV-positive farm households often relied on both less sev

  3. Accelerating uptake of household latrines in rural communities in the Volta region of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Konradsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in four rural communities in Ghana to assess uptake of household latrines. A total of 156 household interviews, 16 focus group discussions and 8 in-depth interviews with key informants were conducted. Study findings show that only 8.5% of households were using improved sanitat...

  4. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Tharani Loganathan; Way-Seah Lee; Kok-Foo Lee; Mark Jit; Chiu-Wan Ng

    2015-01-01

    Background While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. Objectives We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. Methods A...

  5. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

  6. Factors enhancing production efficiency of farmer households who are members of saving groups in Upper Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aree Cheamuangphan; Aree Wiboonpongse; Yaovarate Chaovanapoonphol; Songsak Sriboonchitta

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to evaluate production efficiency of farmer households and to analyze factors affecting production efficiency of farmer households being saving group members in upper northern areas. The data are collected from 399 farmer households in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces and assessed by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Tobit model. The results reveal that farmer households have production efficiency in quite low level. Moreover, age of household head,...

  7. Changes in Household Fuel Expenditure Associated with Improvements in Building Energy Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, John; Pentecost, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper combines data on residential building energy performance certificates (EPC) and household energy expenditure to estimate expenditure equations (Engel curves) as a function of building energy efficiency and household characteristics. Engle curves for gas, oil, electricity, solid fuel, and aggregate fuel expenditure are estimated for a sample of 5,891 households in the Republic of Ireland. With building energy performance measured using a 7 point letter scale (A to G) our results fin...

  8. [Health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: findings of the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Badaloni, Chiara; Cernigliaro, Achille; Chiusolo, Monica; Parmagnani, Federica; Pizzuti, Renato; Scondotto, Salvatore; Cadum, Ennio; Forastiere, Francesco; Lauriola, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The SESPIR Project (Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants) assessed the impact on health of residents nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants in five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily). The assessment procedure took into account the available knowledge on health effects of waste disposal facilities. Analyses were related to three different scenarios: a Baseline scenario, referred to plants active in 2008-2009; the regional future scenario, with plants expected in the waste regional plans; a virtuous scenario (Green 2020), based on a policy management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through the reduction of production and an intense recovery policy. Facing with a total population of around 24 million for the 5 regions, the residents nearby the plants were more than 380,000 people at Baseline. Such a population is reduced to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and 170.000 inhabitants in the regional and Green 2020 scenarios, respectively. The health impact was assessed for the period 2008-2040. At Baseline, 1-2 cases per year of cancer attributable to MSW plants were estimated, as well as 26 cases per year of adverse pregnancy outcomes (including low birth weight and birth defects), 102 persons with respiratory symptoms, and about a thousand affected from annoyance caused by odours. These annual estimates are translated into 2,725 years of life with disability (DALYs) estimated for the entire period. The DALYs are reduced by approximately 20% and 80% in the two future scenarios. Even in these cases, health impact is given by the greater effects on pregnancy and the annoyance associated with the odours of plants. In spite of the limitations due to the inevitable assumptions required by the present exercise, the proposed methodology is suitable for a first approach to assess different policies that can be adopted in regional planning in

  9. Assessment of the apparent activation energies for gas/solid reactions-carbonate decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The guidelines for assessing the apparent activation energies of gas/solid reactions have been proposed based on the ex-perimental results from literatures. In CO2 free inlet gas flow, CaCO3 decomposition between 950 and 1250 K with thin sample layercould be controlled by the interfacial chemical reaction with apparent activation energy E = (215+10) kJ/mol and E = (200±10)kJ/mol at T = 813 to 1020 K, respectively. With relatively thick sample layer between 793 and 1273 K, the CaCO3 decompositioncould be controlled by one or more steps involving self-cooling, nucleation, intrinsic diffusion and heat transfer of gases, and E couldvary between 147 andl90 kJ/mol. In CO2 containing inlet gas flow (5%-100% of CO2), E was determined to be varied from 949 to2897 kJ/mol. For SrCO3 and BaCO3 decompositions controlled by the interfacial chemical reaction, E was (213+15) kJ/mol (1000-1350 K) and (305+15) kJ/mol (1260-1400 K), respectively.

  10. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection. PMID:19470539

  11. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  12. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel M Blake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is

  13. Acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e impactos na saúde de crianças residentes em assentamentos periurbanos de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Household solid waste bagging and collection and their health implications for children living in outlying urban settlements in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Santos Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta estudo do acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e o impacto na saúde de crianças, por meio de pesquisa realizada em nove assentamentos humanos localizados em área periurbana da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Como indicadores epidemiológicos foram utilizados, em 1.893 crianças entre 5 e 14 anos, a infecção por nematóides intestinais, expressa pela prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e ancilostomídeos, e em 1.204 crianças menores de cinco anos, a incidência de diarréia e o estado nutricional, este expresso por indicadores antropométricos. Os resultados apresentam a maior prevalência dos três nematóides nas crianças dos domicílios que não dispõem de acondicionamento adequado e de coleta de resíduos sólidos que naquelas de domicílios com acondicionamento adequado e coleta regular, sendo a diferença encontrada estatisticamente significante, mesmo quando outros fatores de risco sócio-econômicos, culturais, demográficos e ambientais são considerados. Resultado semelhante é também observado com relação aos indicadores epidemiológicos, incidência de diarréia e estado nutricional.This paper presents a study on the bagging and collection of household solid waste and the health implications for children. The research was conducted in nine human settlements on the outskirts of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Intestinal nematode infection, predominantly involving Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, was used as an epidemiological indicator in 1,893 children from 5 to 14 years of age. The study also included diarrhea incidence and nutritional status as shown by anthropometric indicators in 1,204 children less than 5 years of age. There was a higher prevalence of the three nematodes in children living in households without proper bagging/isolation and collection of household solid waste as compared to those in areas with regular garbage

  14. Quantitative assessment of solid waste treatment systems in the industrial ecology perspective by exergy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Jo P; Van Langenhove, Herman R

    2002-03-01

    Solid waste treatment options (recycling, incineration, and landfilling; the two latter processes both with co-generation of heat and electricity) have been studied for cardboard, newspaper, polyethylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), polypropylene, polystyrene, and poly(vinyl chloride) waste. The conversion processes have been analyzed in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The analysis allows calculating the exergy (useful energy) embodied in conversion products that can be obtained from the required inputs for the treatment processes. Taking into account the waste materials and the resources to convert them, it proved that recycling is the most efficient option for polyethylene with an efficiency of 62.5% versus 43.6% for incineration and 0.9% for landfilling. Next, waste treatment has been put into the broader perspective of industrial ecology. Exergetic efficiencies of industrial metabolic options have been calculated. Here resources for manufacturing and converting solid products have been considered. Furthermore, selection of one type of conversion excludes the generation of other potential conversion products. Therefore, it has to be taken into account that these latter products still have to be produced starting from virgin resources. Recycling proved to be the most efficient strategy: the ratio eta between exergy embodied in all delivered products on one hand, and all exergy withdrawn from the ecosphere or from waste materials on the other hand, is the highest. For polyethylene, eta proved to be 0.568, whereas eta is 0.503 and 0.329 for incineration and landfilling, respectively. On the other hand, if R the ratio between exergy of delivered products on one hand and exergy of virgin materials on the other hand is calculated, the differences between the industrial metabolic options are larger. Recycling polyethylene showed a ratio R of 0.936, whereas ratios of 0.772 and 0.531 were found for incineration and landfilling, respectively. It has been

  15. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account.Problem statementThe goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  16. Personal and Indoor PM2.5 Exposure from Burning Solid Fuels in Vented and Unvented Stoves in a Rural Region of China with a High Incidence of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Downward, George S.; Reiss, Boris; Xu, Jun; Bassig, Bryan A.; Hosgood, H Dean; Zhang, Linlin; Seow, Wei Jie; Wu, Guoping; Robert S. Chapman; Tian, Linwei; Wei, Fusheng; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The combustion of biomass and coal is the dominant source of household air pollution (HAP) in China, and contributes significantly to the total burden of disease in the Chinese population. To characterize HAP exposure related to solid fuel use and ventilation patterns, an exposure assessment study of 163 nonsmoking female heads of households enrolled from 30 villages was conducted in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, two neighboring rural counties with high incidence of lung cancer due to the burning of sm...

  17. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  18. 76 FR 33780 - Assessments for Mismatched Payments or Inadequate Payment Information for Geothermal, Solid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Amendments'' (73 FR 15885), with effective date April 25, 2008. This rule revised 30 CFR 1218.41 to comply... for Geothermal, Solid Minerals, and Indian Oil and Gas Leases AGENCY: Office of Natural Resources Revenue, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Regulations for geothermal, solid minerals, and Indian oil...

  19. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options.

  20. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. PMID:23201905

  1. Household Hazardous Waste. Management and stakeholder Involvement in Kuala Lumpur

    OpenAIRE

    Arleth, Karen Anne King Nash; Knudsen, May Ling Choong; Krogstrup, Ea

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses stakeholder involvement in waste management planning in Malaysia through a discussion and analysis of obstacles and possibilities for establishing a household hazardous waste management system in Kuala Lumpur, with exemplification in Petaling Jaya. The primary theoretical inspiration is the integrated waste management approach and the concept of participation, operationalised through the Integrated Sustainable Solid Waste Management approach - the main methodological too...

  2. Food security status of households in Appalachian Ohio with children in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, David H; McClincy, Megan C; Holcomb, John P; Dean, Kelly L; Walker, Caitlyn E

    2004-02-01

    This study measured food security and hunger of households involved in Head Start in a rural Appalachian county and assessed factors that could affect food security and hunger. A convenience sample of households with children enrolled in the Head Start program in Athens County, Ohio, were sampled (n=710), with adults from 297 (42%) households responding. The survey instrument included the 18-question US Household Food Security Survey Module for measuring hunger and food insecurity. Of those responding, 152 households (51.2%) were food secure and 145 (48.8%) were food insecure. Ninety (30.3%) had experienced hunger in the previous 12 months, and 41 (13.8%) households were classified as food insecure with childhood hunger. Hunger was related to a variety of household characteristics and associated with several factors, including participation in food banks, dependence on family members and friends outside of the household for food, lacking reliable transportation, and not having a garden.

  3. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, H.; Christenberger, S.; Schwarze, R.

    2011-02-01

    Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review - including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances - were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all - or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for people to invest in

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste: Multi-input versus multi-output perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, G; Ripa, M; Protano, G; Hornsby, C; Ulgiati, S

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyses four strategies for managing the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW) in terms of their environmental impacts and potential advantages by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. To this aim, both a multi-input and a multi-output approach are applied to evaluate the effect of these perspectives on selected impact categories. The analyzed management options include direct landfilling with energy recovery (S-1), Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) followed by Waste-to-Energy (WtE) conversion (S-2), a combination of an innovative MBT/MARSS (Material Advanced Recovery Sustainable Systems) process and landfill disposal (S-3), and finally a combination of the MBT/MARSS process with WtE conversion (S-4). The MARSS technology, developed within an European LIFE PLUS framework and currently implemented at pilot plant scale, is an innovative MBT plant having the main goal to yield a Renewable Refined Biomass Fuel (RRBF) to be used for combined heat and power production (CHP) under the regulations enforced for biomass-based plants instead of Waste-to-Energy systems, for increased environmental performance. The four scenarios are characterized by different resource investment for plant and infrastructure construction and different quantities of matter, heat and electricity recovery and recycling. Results, calculated per unit mass of waste treated and per unit exergy delivered, under both multi-input and multi-output LCA perspectives, point out improved performance for scenarios characterized by increased matter and energy recovery. Although none of the investigated scenarios is capable to provide the best performance in all the analyzed impact categories, the scenario S-4 shows the best LCA results in the human toxicity and freshwater eutrophication categories, i.e. the ones with highest impacts in all waste management processes.

  5. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250 kg of coal per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO(2) and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits in mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The "Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants (GB13223-2011)" implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO(2) and NO(x) emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China. PMID:22683228

  6. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. PMID:26926783

  7. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model. PMID:20381331

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste: Multi-input versus multi-output perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, G; Ripa, M; Protano, G; Hornsby, C; Ulgiati, S

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyses four strategies for managing the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW) in terms of their environmental impacts and potential advantages by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. To this aim, both a multi-input and a multi-output approach are applied to evaluate the effect of these perspectives on selected impact categories. The analyzed management options include direct landfilling with energy recovery (S-1), Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) followed by Waste-to-Energy (WtE) conversion (S-2), a combination of an innovative MBT/MARSS (Material Advanced Recovery Sustainable Systems) process and landfill disposal (S-3), and finally a combination of the MBT/MARSS process with WtE conversion (S-4). The MARSS technology, developed within an European LIFE PLUS framework and currently implemented at pilot plant scale, is an innovative MBT plant having the main goal to yield a Renewable Refined Biomass Fuel (RRBF) to be used for combined heat and power production (CHP) under the regulations enforced for biomass-based plants instead of Waste-to-Energy systems, for increased environmental performance. The four scenarios are characterized by different resource investment for plant and infrastructure construction and different quantities of matter, heat and electricity recovery and recycling. Results, calculated per unit mass of waste treated and per unit exergy delivered, under both multi-input and multi-output LCA perspectives, point out improved performance for scenarios characterized by increased matter and energy recovery. Although none of the investigated scenarios is capable to provide the best performance in all the analyzed impact categories, the scenario S-4 shows the best LCA results in the human toxicity and freshwater eutrophication categories, i.e. the ones with highest impacts in all waste management processes. PMID:26257056

  9. Household Assets and Rural Finance in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onafowokan O. Oluyombo

    2013-01-01

    The study assesses the roles played by the loan service of cooperatives on household assets acquisition among cooperative members in rural communities of Ogun State where there is no bank.Independent student test and one way analysis of variance were used to analyze the data collected through questionnaire from 302 members. The study shows that the following assets – land, generator, television, radio and refrigerator – were more likely to be acquired by members than non-members. This is an i...

  10. Household hazardous waste data for the UK by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Rebecca J; Bonin, Michael; Gronow, Jan R; Van Santen, Anton; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-04-01

    The amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) disposed of in the United Kingdom (UK) requires assessment. This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in three areas in southeast England involving over 500 households. Each participating householder was provided with a special bin in which to place items corresponding to a list of HHW. The amount of waste collected was split into nine broad categories: batteries, home maintenance (DIY), vehicle upkeep, pesticides, pet care, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, household cleaners, and printer cartridges. Over 1 T of waste was collected from the sample households over a 32-week period, which would correspond to an estimated 51,000 T if extrapolated to the UK population for the same period or over 7,000 T per month. Details of likely disposal routes adopted by householders were also sought, demonstrating the different pathways selected for different waste categories. Co-disposal with residual household waste dominated for waste batteries and veterinary medicines, hence avoiding classification as hazardous waste under new UK waste regulations. The information can be used to set a baseline for the management of HHW and provides information for an environmental risk assessment of the disposal of such wastes to landfill. PMID:17438817

  11. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation and...... determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... significantly among the studies and differ from one country to another. Here, we provide a consistent methodology for characterization of household food waste, so that data comparability and source information are ensured. In this study, residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from more than...

  12. Assessing catchment-scale erosion and yields of suspended solids from improved temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, G S; Krueger, T; Brazier, R E; Butler, P; Freer, J; Hawkins, J M B; Haygarth, P M; Macleod, C J A; Quinton, J N

    2010-03-01

    This paper quantifies the yields of suspended solids (SS) from a headwater catchment managed as improved temperate grassland, providing the first direct, catchment-scale evidence of the rates of erosion from this land-use in the UK and assessing the threat posed to aquatic ecosystems. High-resolution monitoring of catchment hydrology and the concentrations of SS and volatile organic matter (VOM) were carried out in the first-order channel of the Den Brook headwater catchment in Devon (UK) during the 2006-2007 hydrological season. The widely used 'rating curve' (discharge-concentration) approach was employed to estimate yields of SS, but as demonstrated by previous researchers, this study showed that discharge is a poor predictor of SS concentrations and therefore any yields estimated from this technique are likely to be highly uncertain. Nevertheless, for the purpose of providing estimates of yields that are comparable to previous studies on other land uses/sources, this technique was adopted albeit in an uncertainty-based framework. The findings suggest that contrary to the common perception, grasslands can be erosive landscapes with SS yields from this catchment estimated to be between 0.54 and 1.21 t ha(-1) y(-1). In terms of on-site erosion problems, this rate of erosion does not significantly exceed the commonly used 'tolerable' threshold in the UK ( approximately 1 t ha(-1) y(-1)). In terms of off-site erosion problems, it is argued here that the conventional expression of SS yield as a bulk annual figure has little relevance to the water quality and ecological status of surface waters and therefore an alternative technique (the concentration-frequency curve) is developed within this paper for the specific purpose of assessing the ecological threat posed by the delivery of SS into surface waters. This technique illustrates that concentrations of SS recorded at the catchment outlet frequently exceed the water quality guidelines, such as those of the EU

  13. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, Donald A.

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the normal'' municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan's programs. Focusing on the Plan's household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  14. Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the ``normal`` municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan`s programs. Focusing on the Plan`s household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

  15. Discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey assessing workplace and household productivity in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Jane T; Purcaru, Oana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The novel arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) was developed to estimate patient productivity limitations associated with arthritis within and outside the home, which is an unmet need in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The WPS has been validated in rheumatoid arthritis. This report assesses the discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the WPS in adult-onset PsA. Methods Psychometric properties were assessed using data from the RAPID-PsA trial (NCT01087788)...

  16. Use of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as an instrument to develop a solid waste management assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Batagarawa, Rabia; Williams, John Barry; Potts, Jonathan Stephenson; Brown, Julia Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a data collection instrument in developing a solid waste management assessment tool. AHP is a quantifying tool that provides an effective and precise means of choosing options evident in many disciplines such as waste management where priority scales measure elements in relative terms. The procedure is performed using Expert Choice software. A structured questionnaire survey was employed to obtain data...

  17. Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudkhani, Rouhallah; Valizadeh, Behzad; Khastoo, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. Methods In this paper the EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management method...

  18. SOLID WASTE LEACHING CHEMISTRY AND TESTING: A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO ASSESS FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, various anthropogenic activities generate hazardous solid wastes that are affluent in heavy metals, which can cause signficant damage to the environment and human health. The toxicity and the bioavailability of these metal contaminants depend on their reactivity and so...

  19. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process...

  20. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  1. Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management System in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, A.; Alamgir, M.; El-Sergany, M. M.; S. Shams; Rowshon, M. K.; N. N. Nik Daud

    2014-01-01

    This study represents a few basic steps of municipal solid waste management practiced in the six major cities of Bangladesh, namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal, and Sylhet. A six-month field study was conducted to identify the solid wastes management steps such as storage at source, separation, on-site storage, collection, transportation, treatment, reuse, recycling, and ultimate disposal. This study addresses the role of the city authority to meet the demand of the city dwe...

  2. Decomposition of Variability in Farm Household Assets and Debt

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Ashok K.; El-Osta, Hisham S.

    2005-01-01

    Farm families often hold large quantities of wealth and, like any other family, assess their financial progress by reviewing their net worth (or wealth) position periodically. Wealth has an impact on many decisions such as production, retirement, and succession of the farm. Households, in general, seek stability growth in wealth and, ideally, income as well. In the case of wealth, farm households will be better equipped to handle variability once the contributing sources are identified. This ...

  3. Household Location and Race: A Twenty-Year Retrospective

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Stuart A.; Gary D. Painter

    2011-01-01

    In a paper published in The Review of Economics and Statistics some 20 years ago, we sought to assess the disparate residential location choices of black and white households in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area (Gabriel and Rosenthal [1989]). The paper showed that simulated closure of large socio-economic gaps between blacks and whites did little to diminishprevailing high levels of residential segregation or otherwise enhance moves by black households to areas of educational, employmen...

  4. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Aioob Ghanbary; Ehsan Habibi; Arezou Abbaspour Darbandy

    2015-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention ac...

  5. Qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement - Second period 2011-2013. The Certificates of Energy Savings: an arrangement which catalyses decision by households for energy saving works. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After previous assessments on energy savings, costs, and potentials, this publication reports a qualitative assessment of the CEE arrangement (certificate of energy savings). The objective is to get a better insight into decision making by the final consumer. After a brief presentation of the survey methodology, the report describes the CEEs as a catalyst for higher performance works. The survey highlighted the incentive effect of the CEE premium, and the lever effect of advice and information. The report also outlines that the CEE is an additional tool to other public aids. It indicates that works are highly motivated by a search for energy savings, and are actually efficient to meet this objective

  6. Assessing the Challenges Affecting Solid Waste Management System in the Kumasi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fianko Otchere

    2014-03-01

    In every aspect of human life, several unwanted materials are generated and these materials are discarded simply because they are considered waste. Waste is a serious problem in developing countries where generation of waste per unit of output is much higher than that in the developed countries because of inefficiency in manufacturing processes, bad design, and ultimately, bad decision-making. The purposes of this paper were to identify the challenges facing solid waste management in Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly and its effects on solid waste management practices. This research is both exploratory and causal. Out of a total population of 350 a sample size of 200 was used. Self-Administered Questionnaire instrument was used to collection data for the study. Quantitative data analysis technique (such as mean, percentages, frequencies and standard deviation and qualitative data analysis technique (such as content analysis were used to analyse the collected data. It was found out that, all the challenges facing solid waste management practices only institutional arrangement and adequate solid waste management laws were found not to be major challenges. The rest are all major challenges facing solid waste management practices in the KMA. On the effects, seemingly, the effect of the challenges to waste management practices leads to inefficiency in the solid waste management practices. The correlation coefficient between them is 0.51 and correlation of determination is 0.26 0r 26% meaning the higher the challenges, the higher the inefficiency in the waste management system. However, this relationship seems moderate since 74% of the inefficiencies are accounted for by other factors than those identified in this study. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that, the management must put measures in place to overcome the challenges facing solid waste management practices.

  7. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  8. Impact of Tissue Culture Banana Technology on Farm Household Income and Food Security in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Nassul S. Kabunga; Dubois, Thomas; Qaim, Matin

    2011-01-01

    While tissue culture (TC) technology for vegetative plant propagation is gradually gaining in importance in Africa, rigorous ex post assessments of welfare effects for smallholder farm households is lacking. Using recent survey data and accounting for self-selection in technology adoption, we analyze the impacts of TC banana technology on household income and food security in Kenya. To assess food security outcomes, we employ the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) – a tool that ha...

  9. Analysis of Poverty Profiles and Socioeconomic Determinants of Welfare among Urban Households of Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Akerele and S.A. Adewuyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on assessment of household poverty and welfare among households in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling approach, a total of 80 households were selected and interviewed with the aid of well structured questionnaire. Data collected were subjected to analyses such as descriptive statistics, poverty index and multiple regression analysis. The result revealed the 38.30 percent of the households covered by the study were poor and would have to mobilize financial resources up to 41.80% of 1 US Dollar (N130 per day (for each household member to be able to escape poverty. Female headed households in the study area appear to be more vulnerable to income poverty with poverty incidence, depth and severity of values 0.221 and 0.239, 0.402 and 0.191, respectively. Highest levels of poverty were found among household with 7-9 dependants with values 1.00, 0.715 and 0.511 for the incidence, depth and severity of poverty respectively. Educational levels of household head and spouse, gender of household head and dependency ratio are factors that exact significance influence on household welfare. In order to reduce poverty and promote peoples’ welfare, policies that would promote employment opportunities; educational status of household head, spouse and household members as well as efforts to enhance women access to more productive resources and investment in infrastructural development are recommended.

  10. Analysis of Capability of Households to Finance Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasenko Yuliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses possibilities of financing higher education by households, it proves, using example of households of Ukraine and Russia, wish and capability of households to finance higher education. Analysis of such a capability of households reveals both possibilities for development of the education system and possibilities of overcoming problems in the structure of own finances. In the result of the analysis, the article identifies problems that require solution for adjustment of stable financing. One of the main problems is imbalance of household expenditures. The structure of these expenditures, which is individual for each country, should be taken into account when identifying cost of education, since household finances become one of the priority sources of financing higher education. Due to this, the article identifies a formula of the cost of education, which should be taken into account when it is established and which includes household capabilities. The article identifies a model, with the help of which it is possible to assess the quality of financing higher education when combining various sources of financing.

  11. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  12. Food discard practices of householders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Garde, S J; Woodburn, M J

    1987-03-01

    Food discard patterns and reasons were determined for a sample of 243 households in Oregon. Personal interviews were conducted, and 7-day records of discards were collected. Discards over a 3-day period also were collected from a subsample of 50. The householder's estimate of amount, converted from measures to grams using food composition tables, was found to be 97% of the actual grams of food, as weighed in the laboratory. Households discarded an average of 1,587 gm ($2.88) food in a 7-day period on the basis of the 79% completed usable records. Major reasons were poor quality for fruits and vegetables; storage time for meat, fish, and poultry; non-use of leftovers for combination dishes; and plate waste for cereals and dairy products. Twenty-nine percent of the discarded food (by cost) was considered to be unsafe to eat by the householder. Aesthetic factors dominated decisions by the 18- to 25-year age group, but experiences related to food storage were the basis for decisions by half of the respondents more than 65 years old. Discards increased with number of members in the household and were influenced by age of children. Household income was not linearly related to amount of discard. As household refrigerator temperatures increased from 1.7 degrees C to 20 degrees C, the amount of discards also increased. Consumers generally lacked criteria for evaluating the safety of foods. PMID:3819252

  13. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: development of the WASTED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, R; Warith, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models.

  14. Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management System in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a few basic steps of municipal solid waste management practiced in the six major cities of Bangladesh, namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Barisal, and Sylhet. A six-month field study was conducted to identify the solid wastes management steps such as storage at source, separation, on-site storage, collection, transportation, treatment, reuse, recycling, and ultimate disposal. This study addresses the role of the city authority to meet the demand of the city dwellers in solving this emerging socioenvironmental issue and the initiatives taken by some nongovernmental organizations and community based organizations. The problems and constraints of the solid wastes management system are also identified to find a sustainable management concept for the urban areas of Bangladesh.

  15. Households Headed by Women: Income, Employment and Household Organization

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHNAZ KAZI; BILQUEES RAZA

    1988-01-01

    The poverty of households headed by women has emerged as an important development issue in the recent past. Evidence from many developing countries, specially in Latin America and Africa, has underlined the economic vulnerability of this group and predicted an increasing incidence of female-headed households in developing societies [Buvinic and Youssef (1978); Kossaudji and Mueller (1983); Merrick and Schmink (1983)]. Among Asian countries sample surveys have revealed, a significant proportio...

  16. Assessing the Effectiveness of Learning Solid Geometry by Using an Augmented Reality-Assisted Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Chen, Mei-Chi; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates augmented reality (AR) technology into teaching activities to design a learning system that assists junior high-school students in learning solid geometry. The following issues are addressed: (1) the relationship between achievements in mathematics and performance in spatial perception; (2) whether system-assisted learning…

  17. Household crowding and psychosocial health among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Poor housing conditions experienced by many Indigenous peoples threaten their health and well-being. This study examines whether household crowding is associated with poorer psychosocial health among Greenlanders, and the mediating role of social support. It also assesses whether Inuit...... men and women are differently influenced by their housing conditions. METHODS: Data on more than 3,000 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit health in transition Greenland survey. Associations between household crowding and composition, and mental well-being and binge drinking were examined...... using logistic regression models, adjusting for individuals' characteristics. RESULTS: Household crowding was associated with poorer mental well-being. Binge drinking was more common among people living in households without children. These effects were more important for women than for men...

  18. Marriage in Rural Philippine Households

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Utilizing intergenerational data from a sample of rural households in Laguna Province, this article tests the proposition that rural families are responsive to economic conditions as choices are made regarding children’s educational needs, their location and occupation choices.

  19. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  20. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  1. Simulating Household Waste Management Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tucker; Andrew Smith

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports the outcome of research to demonstrate the proof of concept for simulating individual, collective and interactive household waste management behaviours to provide a tool for efficient integrated waste management planning. The developed model simulates whole communities as distributions of individual households engaged in managing their own domestic waste, through home composting or recycling activities. The research addresses the personal hierarchical ordering of these activ...

  2. Sale of electricity to households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)

  3. Assessment of a New Semilocal Density Functional on Molecules and Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yuxiang; Tao, Jianmin

    We have recently developed a new semilocal density functional based on the exchange hole (localized under a general coordinate transformation) from density matrix expansion, instead of imposing energy constraints to the functional or fitting it to a training set of properties. This functional is comprehensively evaluated on diverse properties of molecules and solids, including atomization energies for G2/97 (148 molecules), enthalpies of formation for G3-3 (75 molecules), ionization potentials for G3/99 (86 species), electron affinities for G3/99 (58 species), proton affinities (8 molecules), bond lengths for T-96R (96 molecules), vibrational frequencies for T-82F (82 molecules), 10 hydrogen bonded complexes, as well as lattice constants, bulk moduli, and cohesive energies for solids. Our tests show that the functional is remarkably accurate for these wide-ranging properties. This work was supported by NSF under Grant No. CHE-1261918.

  4. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods.

  5. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. PMID:27118738

  6. Assessing incentive-based environmental policies for reducing municipal solid waste disposal..

    OpenAIRE

    De Jaeger, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this PhD dissertation is to evaluate waste management policies to limit municipal solid waste (MSW) production and disposal of garbage. Understanding MSW production and disposal is of prime importance for communities to choose appropriate policy instruments to attain their garbage disposal targets. Notwithstanding the extensive interest of scholars during the last decades, new developments in the MSW market reveal important shortcomings in both empiric and theoretic research. In pa...

  7. R. Bruce Merrifield and Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Historical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R

    2007-12-04

    Bruce Merrifield, trained as a biochemist, had to address three major challenges related to the development and acceptance of solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The challenges were (1) to reduce the concept of peptide synthesis on a insoluble support to practice, (2) overcome the resistance of synthetic chemists to this novel approach, and (3) establish that a biochemist had the scientific credentials to effect the proposed revolutionary change in chemical synthesis. How these challenges were met is discussed in this article.

  8. Assessment of analytical techniques for predicting solid propellant exhaust plumes and plume impingement environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevepaugh, J. A.; Smith, S. D.; Penny, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of experimental nozzle, exhaust plume, and exhaust plume impingement data is presented. The data were obtained for subscale solid propellant motors with propellant Al loadings of 2, 10 and 15% exhausting to simulated altitudes of 50,000, 100,000 and 112,000 ft. Analytical predictions were made using a fully coupled two-phase method of characteristics numerical solution and a technique for defining thermal and pressure environments experienced by bodies immersed in two-phase exhaust plumes.

  9. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    OpenAIRE

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studie...

  10. A critical compilation and review of default soil solid/liquid partition coefficients, Kd, for use in environmental assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental assessments of the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analyses of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the geosphere, unconsolidated overburden and soil use models requiring solid/liquid partition coefficients (Kd) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the solid materials. This report presents element-specific soil solid/liquid partition coefficients based on a detailed survey of the literature. Values for clays, silt, sand and organic soils are summarized. Partition coefficients for the following elements are presented: americium, antimony, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, curium, europium, iodine, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, phosphorus, plutonium, polonium, radium, ruthenium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, tellurium, terbium, thorium, tin, tritium, uranium, zinc, and zirconium. The values compiled in this study are compared with earlier Kd value compendiums and are the values recommended for the use in the soil, deep sediment and overburden models for the Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

  11. Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2016-03-01

    Globally, 41% of households, over 2.8 billion people, rely on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating. In developing countries in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where these fuels are predominantly used, women who are customarily responsible for cooking, and their young children, are most exposed to the resulting air pollution. Solid fuels are still in widespread use and it appears that intervention efforts are not keeping pace with population growth in developing countries. Here we pinpoint the challenges and identify opportunities for addressing household air pollution while mitigating global climate change and promoting the sustainable development goals. We recommend the following actions: implementation of the WHO indoor air quality guidelines on household fuel combustion; effective promotion and dissemination of improved cookstoves through formation of country alliances for clean cookstoves; expansion of liquefied petroleum gas production facilities and distribution networks; harnessing renewable energy potential; promotion of biogas production at both household and community level; ensuring improved ventilation of homes through education and enforcement of building standards; and exploiting opportunities in the health and other sectors for changing health-damaging cooking behaviour.

  12. Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2016-03-01

    Globally, 41% of households, over 2.8 billion people, rely on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating. In developing countries in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where these fuels are predominantly used, women who are customarily responsible for cooking, and their young children, are most exposed to the resulting air pollution. Solid fuels are still in widespread use and it appears that intervention efforts are not keeping pace with population growth in developing countries. Here we pinpoint the challenges and identify opportunities for addressing household air pollution while mitigating global climate change and promoting the sustainable development goals. We recommend the following actions: implementation of the WHO indoor air quality guidelines on household fuel combustion; effective promotion and dissemination of improved cookstoves through formation of country alliances for clean cookstoves; expansion of liquefied petroleum gas production facilities and distribution networks; harnessing renewable energy potential; promotion of biogas production at both household and community level; ensuring improved ventilation of homes through education and enforcement of building standards; and exploiting opportunities in the health and other sectors for changing health-damaging cooking behaviour. PMID:26966333

  13. Environmental impact assessment of siting plan for near surface repository of low and intermediate level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to construct near surface repositories for the safe disposal of low and intermediate solid radioactive wastes (LIRW), because it is an effective way to reduce the environmental risks in managing LIRW as well as its impacts to the public and environment. Planning and siting near surface repositories on a whole county basis contribute to a rational distribution of repositories, good use of resources, and also the impact reduction of the public and environment. To reduce environmental impacts while implementing the siting plan, an environmental impact assessment (EIA) on The Siting Plan of LIRW Near Surface Repositories of China is needed. How to carry out this kind of assessment is discussed in this paper. (authors)

  14. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase...

  15. Contemporary virtual reality laparoscopy simulators: quicksand or solid grounds for assessing surgical trainees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Thijssen; M.P. Schijven

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A demand for safe, efficient laparoscopic training tools has prompted the introduction of virtual reality (VR) laparoscopic simulators, which might be used for performance assessment. The purpose of this review is to determine the value of VR metrics in laparoscopic skills assessment. DA

  16. A survey of the influencing factors and models for resident's household waste management behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The problem of household solid waste has been concerned and researched on by municipalities and researchers.At present, household solid waste has been changed to management problem from technical one. From the point view of management, the research on household solid waste is to study the factors which influence resident's behavior of managtng their waste. Based on the literature review, firstly, this paper summarizes those factors which have already been identified to have impact on resident's behavior of managing their waste. They are social-demographic variables,knowledge, environmental values, psychological factors, publicity and system design. Secondly, three typical models of the relationship between factors and behavior, which are factors determining task performance in waste management,conceptualization of waste management behavior and the theoretical model of repeated behavior on household waste management, are analyzed and the deficiencies of these models are also analyzed. Finally, according to the current situation in household waste management and the culture and resident's habits in China, this paper puts forward a research focus and suggestions about resident 's behavior of household solid waste management.

  17. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahama Saaka; Shaibu Mohammed Osman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), household dietary diversity score (HDDS), and food consumption score (FCS)...

  18. Household food insecurity and coping strategies in a poor rural community in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies to minimize food insecurity. Demographic, socioeconomic, expenditure and coping strategy data were collected from 200 women of poor households in a rural community in Malaysia. Households were categorized as either food secure (n=84) or food insecure (n=116) using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Foo...

  19. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, B. J.; Texeira, R. H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. Data were compiled on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region.

  20. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Assessing the full costs of water, liquid waste, energy and solid waste infrastructure in the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a newly drafted growth strategy developed by the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD) in British Columbia. It guides the sustainable growth, change and development of the region for the next 25 years and deals with air pollution, water quality, traffic congestion, affordable housing, employment, energy use, parks and green space. In particular, this case study develops a method to apply full cost accounting (FCA) to a growth strategy. FCA is the most appropriate way to approach a sustainable strategy because it considers economic, social and environmental issues. The study also includes the development of a software tool consisting of an ACCESS database and an ARCVIEW GIS file for compiling and analyzing detailed infrastructure profiles which can be used to assess the full costs of different growth scenarios. The following four issue categories of environmental and economic indicators of FVRD performance were addressed: solid waste, water and wastewater, energy, and infrastructure costs. Each issue category was then used to establish a set of 5 performance indicators that can be measured and assessed over time. These included solid waste, water consumption, wastewater, energy consumption and air emissions. The database and methodology developed for this project is suitable for other regions. The software can be viewed by contacting the Sheltair Group Resource Consultants Inc. in Vancouver

  2. Personal and indoor PM2.5 exposure from burning solid fuels in vented and unvented stoves in a rural region of China with a high incidence of lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Wei; Downward, George S.; Reiss, Boris; Xu, Jun; Bassig, Bryan A.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Zhang, Linlin; Seow, Wei Jie; Wu, Guoping; Chapman, Robert S.; Tian, Linwei; Wei, Fusheng; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The combustion of biomass and coal is the dominant source of household air pollution (HAP) in China, and contributes significantly to the total burden of disease in the Chinese population. To characterize HAP exposure related to solid fuel use and ventilation patterns, an exposure assessment study o

  3. Characterization of Maize Producing Households in Southern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is an important crop in the livelihood of Zambia’s most vulnerable populations. A huge challenge facing most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA countries like Zambia is to increase maize productivity of smallholder farmers, which has remained very low over the past decades. Through various breeding programmes, more than 50 new maize hybrids and open-pollinated varieties have been developed and provided to the farmers through seed companies and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs. However, the extent to which such varieties have been adopted remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the maize producing households and to assess adoption of improved maize varieties. Data were collected from randomly selected households in the maize-producing areas of Monze and Kalomo Districts in southern Zambia. Principal Components Analysis (PCA on asset ownership was used to generate a wealth index used to rank the survey households. The results confirm that poorly endowed households, most of whom are female-headed, are far less likely to adopt improved varieties than their well-off counterparts. Important maize variety attributes sought by farmers include early maturity (85% of households, tolerance to water stress (83%, yield potential (79%, pest/disease resistance (56%, better processing quality (56% and cob/grain size (50%. A larger proportion of well endowed households planted improved varieties, compared with their poorly endowed counterparts. These findings suggest that moving the poor households and female-headed households up the wealth ladder poses a considerable challenge and calls for targeting the key factors that could potentially improve their welfare.

  4. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy framework, which targets household budget, fuel collection workload, forest degradation, indoor air quality and health, renewable energy supply, and climate change. A household survey was used to determine how biogas affected consumption levels of crop residues, fuel wood, coal, LPG, and electricity. Biogas users were found to reduce consumption of biomass fuels but not coal. Although LPG is not a highly commonly used fuel in rural China, biogas users nearly cease to use it altogether. A big reduction in fuel wood consumption results in strongly reduced workload and forest degradation. Although household scale biogas has alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by Chinese policies, low quality fuel use remains abundant, even in households using biogas. Continued promotion of the construction of biogas installations is advisable, but additional policies are needed to ensure higher quality heating energy supply and cleaner uses of biomass fuels. - Highlights: ► Household biogas alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by policy. ► Biogas users consume less biomass fuels, much less LPG, but similar amounts of coal. ► Strongest sustainability effects are reduced workload and forest degradation. ► Household budget effects are slight as commercial cooking fuel use is limited. ► Low quality fuel use remains abundant and further policy efforts are needed

  5. Viruses at Solid-Water Interfaces: A Systematic Assessment of Interactions Driving Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanious, Antonius; Aeppli, Meret; Jacak, Ronald; Refardt, Dominik; Sigstam, Thérèse; Kohn, Tamar; Sander, Michael

    2016-01-19

    Adsorption to solid-water interfaces is a major process governing the fate of waterborne viruses in natural and engineered systems. The relative contributions of different interaction forces to adsorption and their dependence on the physicochemical properties of the viruses remain, however, only poorly understood. Herein, we systematically studied the adsorption of four bacteriophages (MS2, fr, GA, and Qβ) to five model surfaces with varying surface chemistries and to three dissolved organic matter adlayers, as a function of solution pH and ionic strength, using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The viruses were selected to have similar sizes and shapes but different surface charges, polarities, and topographies, as identified by modeling the distributions of amino acids in the virus capsids. Virus-sorbent interactions were governed by long-ranged electrostatics and favorable contributions from the hydrophobic effect, and shorter-ranged van der Waals interactions were of secondary importance. Steric effects depended on the topographic irregularities on both the virus and sorbent surfaces. Differences in the adsorption characteristics of the tested viruses were successfully linked to differences in their capsid surface properties. Besides identifying the major interaction forces, this work highlights the potential of computable virus surface charge and polarity descriptors to predict virus adsorption to solid-water interfaces. PMID:26636722

  6. Life cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies in a chlor-alkali production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo

    2011-06-01

    The waste management of a chlor-alkali and calcium chloride industrial facility from southern Chile was the object of this study. The main solid waste materials generated in these processes are brine sediments and calcium chloride sediments, respectively. Both residues are mixed in the liquid phase and filtered in a press filter, obtaining a final low humidity solid waste, called 'mixed sediments', which is disposed of in an industrial landfill as non-hazardous waste. The aim of the present study was to compare by means of LCA, the current waste management option of the studied chlor-alkali facility, namely landfill disposal, with two new possible options: the reuse of the mixed sediments as mineral additive in compost and the use of brine sediments as an unconventional sorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The functional unit was defined as 1 tonne of waste being managed. To perform this evaluation, software SimaPro 7.0 was used, selecting the Ecoindicator 99 and CML 2000 methodologies for impact evaluation. The obtained results indicate that the use of brine sediments as a novel material for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater (scenario 3) presented environmental benefits when compared with the waste management option of sediments landfilling (scenario 1). The avoided environmental loads, generated by the substitution of activated granular carbon and the removal of Cu and Zn from wastewater in the treatment process generated positive environmental impacts, enhancing the environmental performance of scenario 3. PMID:20699293

  7. Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae abundance in Austrian saline lakes, assessed with quantitative solid-phase cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Sonja; Jakwerth, Stefan; Bliem, Rupert; Baudart, Julia; Lebaron, Philippe; Huhulescu, Steliana; Kundi, Michael; Herzig, Alois; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    In order to elucidate the main predictors of Vibrio cholerae dynamics and to estimate the risk of Vibrio cholera-related diseases, a recently developed direct detection approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and solid-phase cytometry (CARD-FISH/SPC) was applied in comparison to cultivation for water samples from the lake Neusiedler See, Austria and three shallow alkaline lakes over a period of 20 months. Vibrio cholerae attached to crustacean zooplankton was quantified via FISH and epifluorescence microscopy. Concentrations obtained by CARD-FISH/SPC were significantly higher than those obtained by culture in 2011, but were mostly of similar magnitude in 2012. Maximum cell numbers were 1.26 × 10(6) V. cholerae per L in Neusiedler See and 7.59 × 10(7) V. cholerae per L in the shallow alkaline lakes. Only on a few occasions during summer was the crustacean zooplankton the preferred habitat for V. cholerae. In winter, V. cholerae was not culturable but could be quantified at all sites with CARD-FISH/SPC. Beside temperature, suspended solids, zooplankton and ammonium were the main predictors of V. cholerae abundance in Neusiedler See, while in the shallow alkaline lakes it was organic carbon, conductivity and phosphorus. Based on the obtained concentrations a first estimation of the health risk for visitors of the lake could be performed.

  8. Infectious risk assessment of unsafe handling practices and management of clinical solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Puvanesuaran, Vignesh R; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2013-01-31

    The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.

  9. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.

  10. An Assessment of Solid Waste Management System in the Kumasi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fianko Otchere

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste products arise from our ways of life and it is generated at every stage of the process of production and development. It spans all stages of human activities, from manufacturing to consumption. The purposes of this thesis were to identify the solid waste management practices in KMA. This research is exploratory research. A sample size of 200 was used out of a total population of the study was 350. Questionnaire was the main data collection instrument used for the study. Quantitative data analysis technique (such as mean, percentages, frequencies and standard deviation and qualitative data analysis technique (such as content analysis were used to analyse the collected data. It was found out that all the seven solid waste management practices identified and tested, only two; waste generation practices, and transfer and transport practices were moderately done well. This means that the rest: onsite handling, collection, sorting, disposal, and energy generation practices are not been done appropriately. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that, the management of KMA should adopt appropriate waste management practices such as conversion of waste into energy.

  11. Factors Associated with Backyard Composting Behavior at the Household Level

    OpenAIRE

    Park, William M.; Lamons, Kevin S.; Roberts, Roland K.

    2002-01-01

    Communities in most states are under pressure to reduce the amount of solid waste going into landfills. Many are making efforts to encourage their citizens to practice backyard composting. A logit regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with backyard composting of yard and food wastes in a case study area. Sample data were obtained through a September 1997 telephone survey of 865 households residing in single-family dwellings in Knox County, Tennessee. Findings indica...

  12. In Vitro Studies are Sometimes Better than Conventional Human Pharmacokinetic In Vivo Studies in Assessing Bioequivalence of Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Polli, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Human pharmacokinetic in vivo studies are often presumed to serve as the “gold standard” to assess product bioequivalence (BE) of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms. However, when this general assumption is re-visited, it appears that in vitro studies are sometimes better than in vivo studies in assessing BE of IR solid oral dosage forms. Reasons for in vitro studies to sometimes serve as the better method are that in vitro studies: (a) reduce costs, (b) more directly assess produ...

  13. Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste management in Sri Lanka and India in a life cycle perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikpura, S.N.M.; Bonnet, Sebastien; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment; Ministry of Education (Thailand). Center for Energy Technology and Environment

    2010-07-01

    At present, many Asian developing countries are practicing poor Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management methods such as open dumping and non-engineered landfilling. This creates severe burdens on the environment and threat to human health. The quantification of the environmental impacts resulting from such poor MSW management practices is necessary to serve as a baseline against which alternative treatment technology options can be assessed for implementation of more environmentally sustainable MSW management systems that are adapted to local situation. In this study, existing MSW management systems in Ski Lanka and India were evaluated in order to assess the severity of their environmental impacts with focus on global warming potential and abiotic resource depletion. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was followed to perform this investigation. Results from this study reveal that the existing MSW management methods used in both countries cause severe environmental damages. However, the situation in India is slightly better as compared to Sri Lanka since 24% of its MSW is being composted. The implementation of landfill with landfill gas recovery for energy was identified as an important initial step to overcome the existing environmental impacts assessed. The results obtained revealed that implementation of such systems would help substantially to reduce global warming potential and abiotic resources depletion. (orig.)

  14. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lu, Wenjing;

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery....... The current system, mainly involving the use of landfills, has manifested significant adverse environmental impacts caused by methane emissions from landfills and many other emissions from transfer stations. A short-term future scenario, where some of the landfills (which soon will reach their capacity...... because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts...

  15. Release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites and consumer exposure assessment - a forward-looking review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Foss Hansen, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    The European chemical legislation requires manufacturers and importers of chemicals to do consumer exposure assessment when the chemical has certain hazards associated to it (e.g. explosive, carcinogenicity, and hazardous to the aquatic environment), but the question is how this obligation can be met in light of the scientific uncertainty and technical challenges related to exposure assessment of nanomaterials. In this paper, we investigate to what extent the information and data in the literature can be used to perform consumer exposure assessment according to the REACH requirements and we identify and discuss the key data needs and provide recommendations for consumer exposure assessment of nanomaterials. In total, we identified 76 studies of relevance. Most studies have analyzed the release of Ag and TiO2 from textiles and paints, and CNT and SiO2 from nanocomposites. Less than half of the studies report their findings in a format that can be used for exposure assessment under REACH, and most do not include characterization of the released particles. Although inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures can be derived using the guidelines on how to complete consumer exposure assessments under REACH, it is clear that the equations are not developed to take the unique properties of nanomaterials into consideration. Future research is therefore needed on developing more generalized methods for representing nanomaterial release from different product groups at relevant environmental conditions. This includes improving the analytical methods for determining nanomaterial alteration and transformation, as well as quantification, which could subsequently lead to more nano-specific consumer exposure assessment models. PMID:26667577

  16. Household food waste recycling in Hong Kong : issues and potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yee-man; 陳懿雯

    2014-01-01

    The food waste problem has recently been put in the spotlight in Hong Kong and around the world. Food waste is the largest part of the municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, which accounts for more than a third of all solid waste. In 2011, there was approximately 3,600 tonnes of food waste generated everyday, with two-thirds coming from households and one-third from the commercial and industrial sector. The capacities of the three strategic landfills in Hong Kong are going to be exhausted soon. ...

  17. Have Labour Market Outcomes Affected Household Structure in South Africa? A Descriptive Analysis of Households

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Pirouz

    2005-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate how the demography of households relates to individual labour market outcomes. We comprehensively examine household size and structures in the October Household Surveys 1995, 1997, 1999 and the Labour Force Surveys September 2001 and 2002. Over the 1995-2002 period, the number of households has increased in the face of rising unemployment and the average household size has decreased signifi cantly. A rising proportion of single households mostly drives this res...

  18. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  19. Release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites and consumer exposure assessment - a forward-looking review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    be met in light of the scientific uncertainty and technical challenges related to exposure assessment of nanomaterials. In this paper, we investigate to what extent the information and data in the literature can be used to perform consumer exposure assessment according to the REACH requirements and we...... identify and discuss the key data needs and provide recommendations for consumer exposure assessment of nanomaterials. In total, we identified 76 studies of relevance. Most studies have analyzed the release of Ag and TiO2 from textiles and paints, and CNT and SiO2 from nanocomposites. Less than half...... REACH, it is clear that the equations are not developed to take the unique properties of nanomaterials into consideration. Future research is therefore needed on developing more generalized methods for representing nanomaterial release from different product groups at relevant environmental conditions...

  20. Impact of household practices on the nutritional profile of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivan Bahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is a common practice to process milk before consumption. Processing generally involves boiling, addition of sugar and/or condiments, dilution with water, etc. The boiled milk is stored for subsequent use either at room temperature or under refrigerated conditions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to see the effect of household practices on the nutritional profile of milk. Materials and Methods: Different types of pasteurized milk samples: standardized, double toned, full cream, and unpasteurized milk were analyzed. The effect of household practices on the nutritional profile of all these milk samples was studied using National/International methods. Results: Boiling of milk increased the concentration of most of the components and minerals except for vitamins A, B 3 , B 5 , and B 12 where the decrease observed was 21%, 13%, 3%, and 21%, respectively. Addition of water decreased the concentration of minerals and vitamins. Addition of sugar increased the energy and condiments increased total solids, carbohydrate and minerals content but led to a decrease in the vitamin content. Storage of milk led to a decrease in total solids by 19% and vitamins A, B 3 , B 5 , and B 12 by 26%, 17-19%, 23%, and 18-26%, respectively. The pH was not influenced by any of the household practices. Conclusion: Every step during household practices in the handling of milk reduces its nutritional profile and significantly affects the quality. Vitamins play a very important role in health and loss during household processing becomes an interesting attribute that requires further research in detail.

  1. An assessment of groundwater quality for agricultural use: a case study from solid waste disposal site SE of Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. G. Sayyed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution around the improperly constructed landfill areas of the growing cities has always been in the rising trend and hence its effects on the environment warrant a thorough monitoring. The seasonal variations in the quality of groundwater from the dug wells surrounding the solid waste disposal site from the SE of Pune city (India has been assessed by calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. The results indicate that the groundwater from the wells nearing the waste disposal site show consistent increase in the pollution from monsoon to summer through winter. The study further demonstrates that the wells near the site are severely polluted and the source is mainly the leachates emerging out of the decaying solid wastes. The recurrent addition of the solid waste in the dump site in the coming years would result in further exponential deterioration of the groundwater quality of the dug wells from the area and hence adequate steps are urgently needed to prevent further aggravation of the problem. Based upon the SAR values it is evident that most of the wells from the Hadapsar area have excellent groundwater for irrigation throughout the year; from Manjari area it is excellent to good; the Fursungi area has sub-equal proportions of excellent, good and fair groundwater, while in Mantarwadi, although most of the wells have excellent to good water, few wells have fair to poor quality water for irrigation purpose. In Uruli-Devachi about 50% wells have poor quality of water and hence can not be used for irrigation. Hence this study strongly suggests that most of the abstracted groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for irrigation except from Uruli Devachi area.

  2. Assessing the potential of coal ash and bagasse ash as inorganic amendments during composting of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Boojhawon, Anuksha; Sewhoo, Babita; Rungasamy, Selven; Somaroo, Geeta D; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2015-08-15

    This study investigates the potential of incorporating inorganic amendments such as coal and bagasse ashes in different composting mixes. 10 different composting mixes were assessed as follows: A-20% bagasse ash (BA) with unsorted municipal solid wastes (UMSW); B-40% BA with UMSW; C-UMSW; D-20% BA with sorted municipal solid wastes (SMSW); E-40% BA with SMSW; F-SMSW; G-20% coal ash (CA) with UMSW; H-40% CA with UMSW; I-20% CA with SMSW and J-40% CA with SMSW. The composting processes were carried out in rotary drum composters. Composting mixes D, F, G and I achieved a temperature above 55 °C for at least 3 days, with the following peak temperatures: D-62 °C, F-57 °C, G-62 °C and I-58 °C. D resulted in the highest average net Volatile solids (VS) degradation of 68.6% and yielded the highest average volume reduction of 66.0%. The final compost from D, G, I, C and F were within range for electrical conductivities (EC) (794-1770 μS/cm) and pH (6.69-7.12). The ashes also helped in maintaining high average water holding capacities within the range of 183-217%. The C/N ratio of sorted wastes was improved by the addition of 20% coal ash and bagasse ash. Higher germination indices, above 0.8 were obtained for the ash-amended compost (D, G, I), indicating the feasibility and enhancement of using bagasse and coal ash as inorganic amendment in the composting process. Regarding heavy metals content, the chromium concentration for the composting mix G was found to be the highest whereas mixes D and I showed compliance with the MS (Mauritian Standards) 164 standards.

  3. The Household Planning Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Louise; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Nyström, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Two common reasons why people end up in personal financial problems are either because they have not learned to manage a budget, or because they have unrealistic expectations of what they can afford to buy. To assess potential level for risk-seeking behavior in daily life, we created a novel test...... shopping or budget planning situation. The selection of a card was associated with a monetary reward, but the card selection was also associated with a risk of receiving a penalty, which could be greater than the reward. The aim was to win as much money as possible. Rewards and penalties were modelled...

  4. Power generation using fermentation of solids: ecological assessment; Stromproduktion aus Feststoff-Vergaerung: Oekobilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung, Baar (Switzerland); Edelmann, W. [Arbi GmbH, Maschwanden (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    As a result of the liberalisation of the electricity market, clients have the opportunity to choose between different power providers and qualities of products. One of them is 'eco-power', sold in Switzerland under the brand name 'naturemade star'. Biogas from the digestion of source-separated municipal solid waste is a potential energy source to produce 'naturemade star'. The goal of the present study was to evaluate under which prerequisites biogas from bio waste can fulfil the criteria set by the mentioned label. The life cycle analysis of three different systems of bio waste digestion have been compared with two types of 'composting' plants ('windrow' and 'hall composting'). The calculation was based on the power production of 1 kWh. For the comparison with 'composting' - which is an energy consumer - 1 kg of bio waste was taken as a unit. Usually, digestion is followed by a short aerobic post-treatment. In same installations, only a part of the bio waste, i.e. the wetter, protein-rich fraction, is digested whereas the lignin-rich fraction is composted. All calculations were based on real installations, however, it was assumed that the same amount of waste with an identical composition was treated (35% dry matter, 70% volatile solids, degradation rate 55%). The three anaerobic/aerobic systems digest 100%, 60% and 30% of the waste respectively. Composting includes only aerobic treatment. All the anaerobic systems are favoured when it comes to energy production whereas the windrow composting has lower methane emissions and the indoor composting decreased ammonia emissions. Compared to electricity from PV and wind, biogas has higher emissions of methane, ammonia and NO{sub x}, whereas CO{sub 2} is far lower thanks to the recycling into plant material. However, it is important to optimise combined heat and power generation with respect to flue gas emissions. Beside the direct comparison of the

  5. 寿命期内家用空调的环境影响评价及量化方法%Life Circle Environmental Assessment on Household Air Conditioning and Its Quantification Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓炜; 蔡亮; 张小松

    2012-01-01

    根据生命周期评价理论,介绍了各环境影响指标的量化方法.并以家用空调为例,分析其对人类健康、生态品质和资源消耗三大类环境方面的影响,同时得到家用空调在其寿命期内CO2等温室气体以及CS2等有害气体的排放量.结果表明:一台1.5P的家用空调在其寿命期内的环境影响评价指标总值为690Pt,系统在生态品质方面的影响指标最大,为502.65Pt,在人类健康方面的影响指标次之,为98.35Pt,对资源消耗的影响指标为89.46Pt.运行阶段由于电力的使用,对环境的影响指标最大,为681Pt,因此,要降低家用空调在寿命期内对环境的冲击和危害,应重点放在节约电力以及开发新能源的使用上.最后,分析结果得出:一台电力驱动的1.5P普通家用空调在其寿命期内的CO2排放量为1.89×104kg,同时排放SO气体78.017kg,以及其他少数有害气体.评价结果向空调产业部门提供了改善空调器的环境特性所需的必要信息,同时向消费者提供了进行环境决策而需要的有价值的信息资料,促使他们在考虑技术特性和费用的同时也考虑环境影响.%According to life circle assessment theory, the environmental effect indicators and corresponding quantification method were introduced in this paper. Then a household air conditioning was taken as an example, and its environmental effect on human health, ecosystem quality and resource consumption were analyzed. Meanwhile, emission of greenhouse gases and polluted gas were carried out. The results show that its total environment indicator score is 690 Pt. Score on ecosystem quality (502,65Pt) is the highest, and score on resource consumption (89.46Pt) is the lowest. Because of electrical power consumed, the operation phase has the most influence indicator score on environment, which reaches to 681 Pt. To reduce the environmental impact, more attention should be paid on power saving and new energy utilization. Finally

  6. Home gardens contribute significantly to dietary diversity in HIV/AIDS afflicted households in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Brouwer, I.D.; Price, L.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The study assessed the biodiversity in home gardens and evaluated its contribution to dietary diversity among HIV-positive and HIV-negative rural households in Eastern Region, Ghana. A cross-sectional survey of 32 HIV-positive and 48 HIV-negative households was conducted. Plant species cultivated in

  7. Impact of Ethiopia’s Community Based Health Insurance on household economic welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem); A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw); R.A. Sparrow (Robert); M. Dekker (Marleen); G. Alemu (Getnet ); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn 2011, the Government of Ethiopia launched a pilot Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI) scheme. This paper uses three rounds of household survey data, collected before and after the introduction of the CBHI pilot, to assess the impact of the scheme on household consumption, income,

  8. Development and Validation of a Scalable Next-Generation Sequencing System for Assessing Relevant Somatic Variants in Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Hovelson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS has enabled genome-wide personalized oncology efforts at centers and companies with the specialty expertise and infrastructure required to identify and prioritize actionable variants. Such approaches are not scalable, preventing widespread adoption. Likewise, most targeted NGS approaches fail to assess key relevant genomic alteration classes. To address these challenges, we predefined the catalog of relevant solid tumor somatic genome variants (gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutations, high-level copy number alterations, and gene fusions through comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of >700,000 samples. To detect these variants, we developed the Oncomine Comprehensive Panel (OCP, an integrative NGS-based assay [compatible with 95% accuracy for KRAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and BRAF mutation detection as well as for ALK and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions. Associating positive variants with potential targeted treatments demonstrated that 6% to 42% of profiled samples (depending on cancer type harbored alterations beyond routine molecular testing that were associated with approved or guideline-referenced therapies. As a translational research tool, OCP identified adaptive CTNNB1 amplifications/mutations in treated prostate cancers. Through predefining somatic variants in solid tumors and compiling associated potential treatment strategies, OCP represents a simplified, broadly applicable targeted NGS system with the potential to advance precision oncology efforts.

  9. Assessment of solid reactive mixtures for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Mainelli, Sara; Toro, Luigi

    2009-10-30

    Solid reactive mixtures were tested as filling material for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers for the treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters. Mixture selection was performed by taking into account the different mechanisms operating in sulphate and cadmium removal with particular attention to bioprecipitation and sorption onto the organic matrices in the mixtures. Suspensions of eight reactive mixtures were tested for sulphate removal (initial concentration 3 g L(-1)). Each mixture was made up of four main functional components: a mix of organic sources for bacterial growth, a neutralizing agent, a porous medium and zero-valent iron. The best mixture among the tested ones (M8: 6% leaves, 9% compost, 3% zero-valent iron, 30% silica sand, 30% perlite, 22% limestone) presented optimal conditions for SRB growth (pH 7.8 +/- 0.1; E(h)= -410 +/- 5 mV) and 83% sulphate removal in 22 days (25% due to bioreduction, 32% due to sorption onto compost and 20% onto leaves). M8 mixture allowed the complete abatement of cadmium with a significant contribution of sorption over bioprecipitation (6% Cd removal due to SRB activity). Sorption properties, characterised by potentiometric titrations and related modelling, were mainly due to carboxylic sites of organic components used in reactive mixtures.

  10. Assessment of municipal solid waste compost quality using standardized methods before preparation of plant growth media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, María Teresa Barral; Menduíña, Ana Moldes; Seijo, Yolanda Cendón; Viqueira, Francisco Díaz-Fierros

    2007-04-01

    The quality of compost and its suitability for agricultural application depend upon physical and chemical parameters such as water-holding capacity, porosity, pH, electrical conductivity, C/N ratio, available nutrients and the absence of toxic substances. In the present study a complete characterization of an industrial municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) based on standardized European methods (CEN) for soil improvers and growing media was obtained, and compared with the quality of other Spanish composted biowaste and conventional substrates such as peat and pine bark. The MSWC was obtained from the main composting plant in Galicia (Spain), which processes organic waste that has been separated at origin and collected from more than 100 000 inhabitants. The MSWC presented a lower C/N ratio (15) than peat (84) and composted pine bark (CPB) (211), but had a similar ratio to other marketed MSWC. The nutrients and heavy metals were extracted using different recommended solvents (water, CaCl2 + diethylen triamin pentaacetic acid, and aqua regia). The nutrient concentrations of composted urban waste or manure were much higher than those of peat, CPB or pine bark. On the basis of the results of the plant tolerance test, the MSWC could be employed directly as a soil improver, but would need to be diluted with other low-salt components such as peat or CPB before being used as a growing media. PMID:17439045

  11. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter.

  12. Assessing the power generation, pollution control, and overall efficiencies of municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the productivity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) by addressing the following questions: (1) to what extent should one further increase the production of power generation while maintaining the emission of noxious air at the current level?; (2) To what extent should one further decrease the emission of noxious air while maintaining the production of power generation at the current level?; and (3) To what extent should one increase the production of power generation and decrease the emission of noxious air simultaneously? To effectively address these questions to improve performance, the power generation and pollution control efficiencies are evaluated using TODEA (two-objective data envelopment analysis), as well as the overall efficiency evaluated using Tone's NS-overall model (slacks-based measure with non-separable desirable and undesirable outputs for evaluating overall efficiency). A MSWI case study in Taiwan with the panel data covering the period of 2004-2008 reveals that the power generation and overall efficiencies of build-operate-transfer are more efficient, on average, than those of public-own-operate and build-own-operate. However, the three building and operation types do not significantly differ in pollution control efficiency. - Research highlights: → The MSWIs implemented by private sectors are more effective than that by public sectors. → Policy makers should pay more attention to the reduction of CO during waste incineration. → Three alternatives for improving the performance of MSWIs can be made available.

  13. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of househo

  14. Making Psychology a Household Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  15. Households' recycling efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Halvorsen, Bente [Research Department, Statistics Norway, 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Nyborg, Karine [The Ragnar Frisch Centre of Economic Research, Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2002-11-01

    Households' recycling effort is often argued to be of an insignificant size. It is also frequently argued that this contribution, if significant, is not a cost to households, since it is voluntary. Thus households' use of time and energy are frequently disregarded in cost-benefit analyses of stricter recycling targets. In this survey, based on 1162 interviews, we find that sorting at source involves significant extra use of time and energy in the households. On average, each of those asked reported that they use close to half an hour a week for cleaning, sorting and transporting recyclable waste. On average, 185 h is used per tonne of waste. Four out of ten reported that they use warm or hot water to clean the materials. When investigating the motives for sorting waste, we find that many perceive sorting as mandatory, while some in fact find it a pleasant activity in itself. Moral motives for sorting at source are also widespread. A majority would prefer that a company took over the sorting if this were possible, and on average, the respondents are willing to pay US$ 20/year for this service.

  16. Assessment of statistical uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of solid samples in motion using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalin, L.M.; Gonzalez, A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Ruiz, J. [Department of Applied Physics I, University of Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Laserna, J.J., E-mail: laserna@uma.e [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Statistical uncertainty in the quantitative analysis of solid samples in motion by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been assessed. For this purpose, a LIBS demonstrator was designed and constructed in our laboratory. The LIBS system consisted of a laboratory-scale conveyor belt, a compact optical module and a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm. The speed of the conveyor belt was variable and could be adjusted up to a maximum speed of 2 m s{sup -1}. Statistical uncertainty in the analytical measurements was estimated in terms of precision (reproducibility and repeatability) and accuracy. The results obtained by LIBS on shredded scrap samples under real conditions have demonstrated that the analytical precision and accuracy of LIBS is dependent on the sample geometry, position on the conveyor belt and surface cleanliness. Flat, relatively clean scrap samples exhibited acceptable reproducibility and repeatability; by contrast, samples with an irregular shape or a dirty surface exhibited a poor relative standard deviation.

  17. Bio-economic Household Modelling for Agricultural Intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study contributes to the quest for sustainable agricultural intensification through the development of a quantitative bio-economic modelling framework that allows assessment of new technology and policy measures in terms of household welfare and sustainability indicators. The main aim of the st

  18. Household carbon dioxide emissions from peasants and herdsmen in northwestern arid-alpine regions, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed household CO2 emissions (related to the consumption of necessary and luxury goods and services) of peasants and herdsmen households in arid-alpine regions in Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia provinces, China. We also explored whether agriculture types, family income and family size have played any role in household CO2 emissions. In order to address these issues, we: (i) developed assessment indicators for household emissions; (ii) conducted semi-structured questionnaire household surveys; and (iii) employed input-output analysis (IOA). The results showed that, the average household CO2 emission per capita is 1.43 tons (t) CO2; the proportion of subsistence emissions (related to the consumption of necessary goods and services) accounts for 93.24%, whereas luxury emissions (generated due to consumption of specific goods and services that are consumed only when household income improves) only account for 6.76%t. Moreover, household CO2 emissions increase with family income and family size, but per capita emissions are inversely related to family size. The highest average household emissions were found in the alpine agricultural and pastoral region (6.18 t CO2), followed by the irrigated agricultural region (6.07 t CO2) and the rain-fed agricultural region (5.34 t CO2). In consideration of insignificant amount of household emissions from these poor and vulnerable groups of the society, this study suggests to follow the principle of fairness while making energy conservation, emission reduction and adaptation policies. - Highlights: ► Per capita emissions decrease as the household size increases. ► The subsistence emissions accounts for 93.24% of the total emissions. ► If heating related emissions are excluded, household emissions are negligible. ► The reduction of emissions below current levels is almost impossible. ► Poor and vulnerable groups should be given special consideration

  19. Solid Fuel in Kitchen and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Among Under Five Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    to the children from households using cleaner fuel (95 % CI 1.02, 3.14). This study found the use of solid fuel in the kitchen has as a risk factor for ARI among under five children in Nepal. Longitudinal studies with direct measurement of indoor air pollution and clinical ARI cases can be future research......This study assessed the association between use of solid fuel in kitchen and ARI among under five children in Nepal. The latest data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were used. A total of 4,802 under 5 de-jure children were included in this analysis. Cough accompanied by short...

  20. A review and assessment of some thermodynamic representations of solid solutions of the actinide oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of some of the published thermodynamic representations for binary, ternary and higher-order oxide systems of the actinide and lanthanide elements. These have been assessed by comparing calculated results with experimental values obtained from the literature. The incorporation of these models into the program SOL-GASMIX, which may be used to determine the phase relationships in a multicomponent system, is also described. (author)

  1. A new criterion to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral images of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacré, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pysacre@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Lebrun, Pierre [Arlenda S.A., Avenue de l’Hopital, 1, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chavez, Pierre-François; Bleye, Charlotte De; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Rozet, Eric [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Klinkenberg, Régis; Streel, Bruno [Galéphar Research Center M/F, rue du Parc Industriel 39, 6900 Marche-en-Famenne (Belgium); Hubert, Philippe; Ziemons, Eric [University of Liege (ULg), Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, CHU, B36, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • DHI has been developed to assess distributional homogeneity in hyperspectral maps. • This criterion has been tested with simulated maps of different homogeneity. • A linear relationship is observed between homogeneity and DHI value. • DHI methodology has been applied on real samples. • A linear relationship is observed between DHI and content uniformity values. - Abstract: During galenic formulation development, homogeneity of distribution is a critical parameter to check since it may influence activity and safety of the drug. Raman hyperspectral imaging is a technique of choice for assessing the distributional homogeneity of compounds of interest. Indeed, the combination of both spectroscopic and spatial information provides a detailed knowledge of chemical composition and component distribution. Actually, most authors assess homogeneity using parameters of the histogram of intensities (e.g. mean, skewness and kurtosis). However, this approach does not take into account spatial information and loses the main advantage of imaging. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new criterion: Distributional Homogeneity Index (DHI). DHI has been tested on simulated maps and formulation development samples. The distribution maps of the samples were obtained without validated calibration model since different formulations were under investigation. The results obtained showed a linear relationship between content uniformity values and DHI values of distribution maps. Therefore, DHI methodology appears to be a suitable tool for the analysis of homogeneity of distribution maps even without calibration during formulation development.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  3. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J.; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal. PMID:27760123

  4. Health Care Expenditure of Rural Households in Pondicherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Varadarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortcomings in healthcare delivery has led people to spend a substantial proportion of their incomes on medical treatment. World Health Organization (2005 estimates reveal that every year 25 million households are forced into poverty by illness and the struggle to pay for healthcare. Thus we planned to calculate the health care expenditure of rural households and to assess the households incurring catastrophic health expenditure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the service area of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital from May to August 2011. A total of 100 households from the 4 adjoining villages of our Institute were selected for operational and logistic feasibility. The household’s capacity to pay, out of pocket expenditure and catastrophic health expenditure were calculated. Data collection was done using a pretested questionnaire by the principal investigator and the analysis was done using SPSS (version 16. Results: The average income in the highest income quintile was Rs 51,885 but the quintile ratio was 14.98. The median subsistence expenditure was Rs 4,520. About 18% of households got impoverished paying for health care. About 81% of households were incurring out of pocket expenditure and 66% were facing catastrophic health expenses of 40%.Conclusion There was very high out of pocket spending and a high prevalence of catastrophic expenditure noted. Providing quality care at affordable cost and appropriate risk pooling mechanism are warranted to protect households from such economic threats.

  5. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spend a lot of time there). continue Cleaning Products and Other Household Chemicals Never put cleaning products in old soda ... poison on the floors of your home. Store household cleaning products and aerosol sprays in a high cabinet far ...

  6. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  7. Recent Refrigeration Cycle Technologies for Household Refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi

    The household refrigerator is one of the most important and the biggest energy-consuming home appliances. This paper summarize recent refrigeration cycle developments in the field of domestic household refrigerators based on a survey of publications.

  8. 住宅室内降尘中邻苯二甲酸酯污染特征及暴露评价%Pollution characteristics of phthalate esters derived from household dust and exposure assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王夫美; 陈丽; 焦姣; 张雷波; 姬亚芹; 白志鹏; 张利文; 孙增荣

    2012-01-01

    The 26 indoor dust samples from 13 households were collected during winter and summer in Tianjin. Using CH2C12 and ultrasonic extraction for extraction and separation, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied to analyze DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP, DOP. And then the pollution characteristics and assessment of human exposure to phthalate esters from indoor dust were studied. The results were as followed: The concentration for DEHP was the highest, and then came DBP in household dust in winter and summer, collectively accounting for more than 80% of the total concentrations in the samples. In winter, the concentrations of ∑ PAEs were from 1.498 to 32.587 μg/g, the average concentration was (6.772±8.154) μg/g; While in summer, ranging from 1.981 to 40.041 μg/g and (13.406±12.911) μg/g, respectively. The PAEs concentrations in household dust varied significantly, which were higher in summer than those in winter. The total exposures of PAEs (DBP, DEHP, DEP, BBP) for children and adults in summer were higher than those in winter, and also through the mouth than the skin. The exposures of phthalate esters for children were about 10 times higher than those for adults. For adults and children, the highest exposure of PAEs (DBP, DEHP, DEP, BBP) were both found in summer. The PAEs pollution in indoor dust and human exposure in Tianjin were lightly less than in Germany and USA; And in the same level with 6 Chinese cities for total exposure, except DEHP. The importance of young children's exposure to PAEs in indoor environment should be paid more attention.%利用CH2Cl2和超声对天津市13户家庭住宅冬季和夏季26个室内降尘样品中6种邻苯二甲酸酯(DMP、DEP、DBP、BBP、DEHP、DOP)进行提取分离,并采用气相色谱-质谱定量分析,研究了邻苯二甲酸酯污染变化特征和暴露风险.结果表明,冬夏两季,室内降尘样品均以DEHP浓度最大,DBP第二,且DBP和DEHP之和占ΣPAEs的比例达到80.0

  9. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  10. ICT and Household-Firm Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar; Wikström, Solveig

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses how ICT and emerging electronic commerce in consumer products influence the relative efficiency in production of households and firms, resulting in changes in the division of tasks between these two types of agents. Increased information and competence of households, in combination with stiffer competition among firms, will also increase the power of households relative to firms, at least in a long-term perspective with free entry of firms. Households will also get more p...

  11. Household Behavior and the Marriage Market

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca, Daniela; Flinn, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    There is some controversy in the field of household economics regarding the efficiency of household decisions. We make the point that a flexible specification of spousal preferences and the household production technology precludes the possibility of using revealed preference data on household time allocations to determine the manner in which spouses interact: efficiently or inefficiently. Under strong, but standard, assumptions regarding marriage market equilibria, marital sorting patterns c...

  12. Household Food Demand in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper explores rural household food consumption behaviour in China using a large household data set from Jilin Province. Data are classified into four main food groups?grain, vegetable products, animal products and other foods. A household food demand system, incorporating four household characteristics, is estimated using an LA-AIDS model, assuming a three-stage budgeting procedure. Expenditure elasticities for a range of food groups are estimated, with a particular...

  13. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  14. The Rural Households in the Process of Rapid Urbanization:Unwilling to Move,Floating and Migratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    I divide the rural households into three types:the rural households unwilling to move;the floating rural households;the migratory rural households.Through questionnaire survey of the married housewives in Anhui Province and Zhejiang Province,I conduct comparative analysis of income and expenditure,change in the status of family members,the couple’s housework time,the wives’ will to settle in the city and attitude towards life,related to these three types of rural households.Results show that promoting wives’ educational level and monthly family income will significantly make the wives in households unwilling to move,have stronger desire to make their children settle in the city;the housework time of the wives in the floating households is 3.4 times that of their husbands,the monthly income of the husbands in the floating households is significantly lower than that of the husbands in the migratory households,with heavy family burden assessed by themselves;the age of the wives in the migratory households is the smallest,and the educational level and income of them are the highest,but the monthly expenditure has not yet significantly expanded,and at the same time,the migratory households have the weakest desire to settle in the city.The recommendations concerning these three types of rural households are put forward as follows:promoting the skills of the members in the households unwilling to move,in agricultural cultivation,development of agricultural products and circulation of agricultural products;paying close attention to the floating rural households;promoting the government,enterprise,households to work together to stabilize the migratory households.

  15. Comparative evaluation of life cycle assessment models for solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jörg; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    This publication compares a selection of six different models developed in Europe and America by research organisations, industry associations and governmental institutions. The comparison of the models reveals the variations in the results and the differences in the conclusions of an LCA study done with these models. The models are compared by modelling a specific case - the waste management system of Dresden, Germany - with each model and an in-detail comparison of the life cycle inventory results. Moreover, a life cycle impact assessment shows if the LCA results of each model allows for comparable and consecutive conclusions, which do not contradict the conclusions derived from the other models' results. Furthermore, the influence of different level of detail in the life cycle inventory of the life cycle assessment is demonstrated. The model comparison revealed that the variations in the LCA results calculated by the models for the case show high variations and are not negligible. In some cases the high variations in results lead to contradictory conclusions concerning the environmental performance of the waste management processes. The static, linear modelling approach chosen by all models analysed is inappropriate for reflecting actual conditions. Moreover, it was found that although the models' approach to LCA is comparable on a general level, the level of detail implemented in the software tools is very different. PMID:17428652

  16. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  17. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...

  18. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 273.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household...

  19. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  20. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  1. Household food waste separation behavior and the importance of convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Two different strategies aiming at increasing household source-separation of food waste were assessed through a case-study in a Swedish residential area (a) use of written information, distributed as leaflets amongst households and (b) installation of equipment for source-segregation of waste with the aim of increasing convenience food waste sorting in kitchens. Weightings of separately collected food waste before and after distribution of written information suggest that this resulted in neither a significant increased amount of separately collected food waste, nor an increased source-separation ratio. After installation of sorting equipment in households, both the amount of separately collected food waste as well as the source-separation ratio increased vastly. Long-term monitoring shows that results where longstanding. Results emphasize the importance of convenience and existence of infrastructure necessary for source-segregation of waste as important factors for household waste recycling, but also highlight the need of addressing these aspects where waste is generated, i.e. already inside the household. PMID:24780762

  2. FOOD INSECURITY VULNERABILITY STATUS OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGER- DELTA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offiong Uma Ukpe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the vulnerability of farm households in Niger Delta to food insecurity. Four States were randomly selected from the region. Primary data were collected from 384 crop farmers, stratified into beneficiaries and non beneficiaries of microcredit schemes using multi-stage sampling technique. The data were analyzed using Vulnerability Index Analysis. The vulnerability indicators assessed in this study were: education, farm size, land ownership status of the farmer, access to remittance, household size, farm income, age of household head, asset value, dependent relatives and co-operative membership. Results show a high level of vulnerability among non- beneficiary households (0.55 and low level of vulnerability among beneficiary households (0.47. Based on the result, the study recommended among others, that the scope of microcredit should be expanded and the volume increased to reduce farmers’ vulnerability to food insecurity in the study area.

  3. Application of dispersion and dose assessment models to the solid and liquid wastes facilities of Ezeiza radioactive waste management area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a dose assessment of the critic group from the near surface facility for solid and liquid waste, located at Ezeiza Atomic Center in Argentina (Ezeiza Radioactive Waste Management Area-AGE). The calculations were made using several approaches about source term. The activities for each radionuclide and facility were taken from the National Atomic Energy Commission's Inventory that corresponds to the first trimester of 2005. The radioactive decay of each radionuclide was considered. The work was performed in two steps. In the first step, using the Nuclide Dispersion in Phreatic Aquifer Model (DRAF), the dispersion of the contaminants into the phreatic aquifer until the discharge point at a superficial water course was considered. In the second step, the Consequences of Releases to the Environment Assessment Methodology Program (PC CREAM) was used for the study of radionuclides dispersion in superficial water course and dose calculations. The results from this paper show that, for every studied radionuclide, the doses involved are significantly lower than the values established by current regulations. On the other hand, those results put in evidence the utility of simple models in estimating the order of magnitude of expected concentrations and doses. It is important to highlight that the obtained results can be used only in the context of the suppositions that were made. (author)

  4. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops.

  5. Economic impact of maternal death on households in rural china: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households during the year after maternal death. METHODS: A prospective cohort study matched 183 households who had suffered a maternal death to 346 households that experienced childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China. Surveys were conducted at baseline (1-3 months after maternal death or childbirth and one year after baseline using the quantitative questionnaire. We investigated household income, expenditure, accumulated debts, and self-reported household economic status. Difference-in-Difference (DID, linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the economic status between households with and without maternal death. FINDINGS: The households with maternal death had a higher risk of self-reported "household economy became worse" during the follow-up period (adjusted OR = 6.04, p<0.001. During the follow-up period, at the household level, DID estimator of income and expenditure showed that households with maternal death had a significant relative reduction of US$ 869 and US$ 650, compared to those households that experienced childbirth with no adverse event (p<0.001. Converted to proportions of change, an average of 32.0% reduction of annual income and 24.9% reduction of annual expenditure were observed in households with a maternal death. The mean increase of accumulated debts in households with a maternal death was 3.2 times as high as that in households without maternal death (p = 0.024. Expenditure pattern of households with maternal death changed, with lower consumption on food (p = 0.037, clothes and commodity (p = 0.003, traffic and communication (p = 0.022 and higher consumption on cigarette or alcohol (p = 0.014. CONCLUSION: Compared with childbirth, maternal death had adverse impact on household economy, including higher risk of self-reported "household economy became worse

  6. Effect of community participation on household environment to mitigate dengue transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannapong, N; Tipayamongkholgul, M; Bhumiratana, A; Boonshuyar, C; Howteerakul, N; Poolthin, S

    2014-03-01

    Due to the absence of dengue vaccination, vector control is the only measure to prevent dengue outbreaks. The key element of dengue prevention is to eliminate vector habitats. Clean household environment, preventive behaviors of household members and community participation in dengue prevention and control are key successful elements. This study aimed to investigate the associations between environmental factors, dengue knowledge, perception and preventive behaviors of household and collaboration of community members and household risk of dengue by using mixed methods. One dengue epidemic province was selected from each region of Thailand including Bangkok. Two districts, one from the highest and another from the lowest dengue incidence areas, were selected from those provinces. The household leaders, community members, and local authorities in highest dengue incidence areas were interviewed by using questionnaire and through group interviews. The environment of each selected household was observed. Of 4,561 households, 194 were reported having dengue case(s) in the past year and that outdoor solid waste disposal significantly influenced household risk of dengue (OR=1.62; 95% CI=1.16-2.29). In contrast, having gardening areas reduced dengue risk at household level by 32%. High level of community participation in dengue prevention and control in uninfected areas and the information from local authorities and community members reconfirmed that community participation was the key factor against dengue outbreaks. Sustainable process of encouraging community members to eliminate vector breeding sites such as outdoor solid waste disposal is likely to lead to an achievement in dengue prevention and control. PMID:24862055

  7. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where the unce......We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...... the uncertainty is described by a scenario tree generated from a vector auto-regressive process for equity returns and interest rate evolution. We find strong evidence of the importance of taking into account the multi-stage nature of the problem, as well as the need to consider the asset and liability sides...

  8. Collecting household water usage data: telephone questionnaire or diary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA, a modelling approach, is used to assess health risks. Inputs into the QMRA process include data that characterise the intensity, frequency and duration of exposure to risk(s. Data gaps for water exposure assessment include the duration and frequency of urban non-potable (non-drinking water use. The primary objective of this study was to compare household water usage results obtained using two data collection tools, a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI and a 7-day water activity diary, in order to assess the effect of different methodological survey approaches on derived exposure estimates. Costs and logistical aspects of each data collection tool were also examined. Methods A total of 232 households in an Australian dual reticulation scheme (where households are supplied with two grades of water through separate pipe networks were surveyed about their water usage using both a CATI and a 7-day diary. Householders were questioned about their use of recycled water for toilet flushing, garden watering and other outdoor activities. Householders were also questioned about their water use in the laundry. Agreement between reported CATI and diary water usage responses was assessed. Results Results of this study showed that the level of agreement between CATI and diary responses was greater for more frequent water-related activities except toilet flushing and for those activities where standard durations or settings were employed. In addition, this study showed that the unit cost of diary administration was greater than for the CATI, excluding consideration of the initial selection and recruitment steps. Conclusion This study showed that it is possible to successfully 'remotely' coordinate diary completion providing that adequate instructions are given and that diary recording forms are well designed. In addition, good diary return rates can be achieved using a monetary incentive

  9. Regional gross disposable household income

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Presents estimates published in May 2008, an overview of methodology used and future plans for regional economic dataThis article looks at estimates for regional gross disposable household income (GDHI) at current basic prices, published in May 2008. These data are published using the European Union Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) regions. Data are published for the NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels for the period 1995 to 2006. There is an overview of the methodology used ...

  10. Household Poverty Dynamics in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Bokosi, Fanwell Kenala

    2006-01-01

    This paper’s goal is to identify the sources of expenditure and poverty dynamics among Malawian households between 1998 and 2002 and to model poverty transitions in Malawi using a bivariate probit model with endogenous selection to address the "initial conditions' problem. The exogeneity of the initial state is strongly rejected and could result in considerable overstatement of the effects of the explanatory factors. The results of the bivariate probit model do indicate that education of th...

  11. Householder triangularization of a quasimatrix

    OpenAIRE

    Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2008-01-01

    A standard algorithm for computing the QR factorization of a matrix A is Householder triangularization. Here this idea is generalized to the situation in which A is a quasimatrix, that is, a “matrix” whose “columns” are functions defined on an interval [a,b]. Applications are mentioned to quasimatrix leastsquares fitting, singular value decomposition, and determination of ranks, norms, and condition numbers, and numerical illustrations are presented using the chebfun system.

  12. Assessment of environmental impact models in natural occurring radionuclides solid wastes disposal from the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work evaluates the behavior of wastes with naturally occurring radionuclides as generated by the mineral industry and their final disposal in landfills. An integrated methodology is used to predict the performance of an industrial landfill for disposal of wastes containing NORM/TENORM, and to define acceptable amounts that can be disposed at the landfill using long-term environmental assessment. The governing equations for radionuclide transport are solved analytically using the generalized integral transform technique. Results obtained for each compartment of the biogeosphere are validated with experimental results or compared to other classes of solutions. An impact analysis is performed in order to define the potential consequences of a landfill to the environment, considering not only the engineering characteristics of the waste deposit but also the exposure pathways and plausible scenarios in which the contaminants could migrate and reach the environment and the human population. The present work permits the development of a safety approach that can be used to derive quantitative waste acceptance criteria for the disposal of NORM/TENORM waste in landfills. (author)

  13. Inconsistent pathways of household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  14. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study.

  15. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved approaches are needed to rapidly and accurately assess the bioavailability of persistent, hydrophobic organic compounds in soils at contaminated sites. The performance of a thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) assay using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate polymer was compared to...

  16. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China:a review of studies in Xuanwei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jie Seow; Cuiju Wen; Nathaniel Rothman; Qing Lan; Wei Hu; Roel Vermeulen; HDean Hosgood III; George SDownward; Robert SChapman; Xingzhou He; Bryan ABassig; Christopher Kim

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the world’s population is exposed to household air polution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air polution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especialy in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas stil use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air polution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantialy between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The instalation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overal, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventualy move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity.

  17. Modeling of electricity savings in the Danish household sector using Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Baldini, Mattia

    In this paper we examine the investments in energy-efficient household appliances from an energy system perspective. We consider a set of ten appliances constituting the majority of the electricity consumption in the private household sector, and investigate whether investing in improved energy...... efficiency can compete with the cost of electricity supply from existing or new power plants. To assess the analysis, Balmorel, a linear optimization model for heat and power sectors, has been extended in order to assess the best possible investments in more efficient household appliances. The model is non...

  18. Gasoline taxes or efficiency standards? A heterogeneous household demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using detailed consumer expenditure survey data and a flexible semiparametric dynamic demand model, this paper estimates the price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity of gasoline demand at the household level. The goal is to assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and vehicle fuel efficiency standards on fuel consumption. The results reveal substantial interaction between vehicle fuel efficiency and the price elasticity of gasoline demand: the improvement of vehicle fuel efficiency leads to lower price elasticity and weakens consumers’ sensitivity to gasoline price changes. The offsetting effect also differs across households due to demographic heterogeneity. These findings imply that when gasoline taxes are in place, tightening efficiency standards will partially offset the strength of taxes on reducing fuel consumption. - Highlights: • Model household gasoline demand using a semiparametric approach. • Estimate heterogeneous price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity. • Assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and efficiency standards. • Efficiency standards offset the impact of gasoline taxes on fuel consumption. • The offsetting effect differs by household demographics

  19. The effects of household wealth on HIV prevalence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe – a prospective household census and population-based open cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensified poverty arising from economic decline and crisis may have contributed to reductions in HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe. Objectives: To assess the impact of the economic decline on household wealth and prevalent HIV infection using data from a population-based open cohort. Methods: Household wealth was estimated using data from a prospective household census in Manicaland Province (1998 to 2011. Temporal trends in summed asset ownership indices for sellable, non-sellable and all assets combined were compared for households in four socio-economic strata (small towns, agricultural estates, roadside settlements and subsistence farming areas. Multivariate logistic random-effects models were used to measure differences in individual-level associations between prevalent HIV infection and place of residence, absolute wealth group and occupation. Results: Household mean asset scores remained similar at around 0.37 (on a scale of 0 to 1 up to 2007 but decreased to below 0.35 thereafter. Sellable assets fell substantially from 2004 while non-sellable assets continued increasing until 2008. Small-town households had the highest wealth scores but the gap to other locations decreased over time, especially for sellable assets. Concurrently, adult HIV prevalence fell from 22.3 to 14.3%. HIV prevalence was highest in better-off locations (small towns but differed little by household wealth or occupation. Initially, HIV prevalence was elevated in women from poorer households and lower in men in professional occupations. However, most recently (2009 to 2011, men and women in the poorest households had lower HIV prevalence and men in professional occupations had similar prevalence to unemployed men. Conclusions: The economic crisis drove more households into extreme poverty. However, HIV prevalence fell in all socio-economic locations and sub-groups, and there was limited evidence that increased poverty contributed to HIV prevalence decline.

  20. Financial access to health care in Karuzi, Burundi: a household-survey based performance evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Herp Michel; Bachy Catherine; Reid Tony; Ponsar Frederique; Lambert-Evans Sophie; Philips Mit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. Methods An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection...

  1. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M; Mihelcic, James R

    2009-02-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  2. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. PMID:25649406

  3. Dispersion modeling and health risk assessment of dioxin emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator in Hangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jun MA; Xu-guang JIANG; Yu-qi JIN; Hong-mei LIU; Xiao-dong LI; Tong CHEN; Jian-hua YAN

    2012-01-01

    The emission of dioxins from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) has become a widespread concern.The effect of meteorological parameters (wind speed,atmospheric stability and mixing height) on the hourly ground level concentration (GLC) of dioxins was estimated using air dispersion models.Moreover,the health risks of dioxin exposure were evaluated for children and adults using the Nouwen equation.The total environmental exposure via air inhalation and food mgestion was calculated,based on linear fit equations.The results indicate that potentially severe pollution from dioxins occurs at a wind speed of 1.5 m/s with atmospheric stability class F.In addition,local residents in the study area are exposed to severe weather conditions most of the time,and the risk exposures for children are far higher than those for adults.The total exposure for children far exceeds the tolerable daily intake of dioxin recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 1-4 pg TEQ/(kg·d) under severe weather conditions.Results from modeling calculations of health risk assessment were consistent with dioxin levels obtained during actual monitoring of emissions.

  4. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. PMID:26347181

  5. Hyperspectral Imaging Coupled with Random Frog and Calibration Models for Assessment of Total Soluble Solids in Mulberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ru Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemometrics methods coupled with hyperspectral imaging technology in visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR region (380–1030 nm were introduced to assess total soluble solids (TSS in mulberries. Hyperspectral images of 310 mulberries were acquired by hyperspectral reflectance imaging system (512 bands and their corresponding TSS contents were measured by a Brix meter. Random frog (RF method was used to select important wavelengths from the full wavelengths. TSS values in mulberry fruits were predicted by partial least squares regression (PLSR and least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM models based on full wavelengths and the selected important wavelengths. The optimal PLSR model with 23 important wavelengths was employed to visualise the spatial distribution of TSS in tested samples, and TSS concentrations in mulberries were revealed through the TSS spatial distribution. The results declared that hyperspectral imaging is promising for determining the spatial distribution of TSS content in mulberry fruits, which provides a reference for detecting the internal quality of fruits.

  6. Assessment of the effectiveness of an industrial unit of mechanical-biological treatment of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, R; Morais, J de Araújo; Ducom, G; Achour, F; Rouez, M; Gourdon, R

    2010-03-15

    An assessment of the French municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) unit of Mende was performed in terms of mass reduction, biogas emissions reduction and biostability of the biologically treated waste. The MBT unit consists of mechanical sorting operations, an aerobic rotating bioreactor, forced-aeration process in open-air tunnels (stabilization), ripening platforms and a sanitary landfill site for waste disposal in separated cells. On the overall plant, results showed a dry matter reduction of 18.9% and an oxidative organic matter reduction of 39.0%. A 46.2% biogas production decrease could also be observed. Concerning the biotreatment steps, high reductions were observed: 88.1% decrease of biogas potential and 57.7% decrease of oxidative organic matter content. Nevertheless, the usually considered stabilization indices (biogas potential, respirometric index) remained higher than recommended by the German or Austrian regulation for landfilling. Mass balance performed on each step of the treatment line showed that several stages needed improvement (especially mechanical sorting operations) as several waste fractions containing potentially biodegradable matter were landfilled with very few or no biological treatment. PMID:19913357

  7. Assessment of the effectiveness of an industrial unit of mechanical-biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayard, R., E-mail: remy.bayard@insa-lyon.fr [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d' Ingenierie Environnementale LGCIE, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France); Araujo Morais, J. de; Ducom, G.; Achour, F.; Rouez, M.; Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d' Ingenierie Environnementale LGCIE, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-03-15

    An assessment of the French municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) unit of Mende was performed in terms of mass reduction, biogas emissions reduction and biostability of the biologically treated waste. The MBT unit consists of mechanical sorting operations, an aerobic rotating bioreactor, forced-aeration process in open-air tunnels (stabilization), ripening platforms and a sanitary landfill site for waste disposal in separated cells. On the overall plant, results showed a dry matter reduction of 18.9% and an oxidative organic matter reduction of 39.0%. A 46.2% biogas production decrease could also be observed. Concerning the biotreatment steps, high reductions were observed: 88.1% decrease of biogas potential and 57.7% decrease of oxidative organic matter content. Nevertheless, the usually considered stabilization indices (biogas potential, respirometric index) remained higher than recommended by the German or Austrian regulation for landfilling. Mass balance performed on each step of the treatment line showed that several stages needed improvement (especially mechanical sorting operations) as several waste fractions containing potentially biodegradable matter were landfilled with very few or no biological treatment.

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of an industrial unit of mechanical-biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the French municipal solid waste (MSW) mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) unit of Mende was performed in terms of mass reduction, biogas emissions reduction and biostability of the biologically treated waste. The MBT unit consists of mechanical sorting operations, an aerobic rotating bioreactor, forced-aeration process in open-air tunnels (stabilization), ripening platforms and a sanitary landfill site for waste disposal in separated cells. On the overall plant, results showed a dry matter reduction of 18.9% and an oxidative organic matter reduction of 39.0%. A 46.2% biogas production decrease could also be observed. Concerning the biotreatment steps, high reductions were observed: 88.1% decrease of biogas potential and 57.7% decrease of oxidative organic matter content. Nevertheless, the usually considered stabilization indices (biogas potential, respirometric index) remained higher than recommended by the German or Austrian regulation for landfilling. Mass balance performed on each step of the treatment line showed that several stages needed improvement (especially mechanical sorting operations) as several waste fractions containing potentially biodegradable matter were landfilled with very few or no biological treatment.

  9. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for residual solvent assessment in seized cocaine and heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Álvarez-Freire, Iván; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2016-09-01

    A simple sample pre-treatment method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized and validated for the assessment of 15 residual solvents (2-propanol, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, acetone, ethyl acetate, benzene, hexane, methylcyclohexane, methylcyclopentane, m-xylene, propyl acetate, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, and ethylbenzene) in seized illicit cocaine and heroin. DMSO and DMF as sample diluents were found to offer the best residual solvent transference to the head space for further adsorption onto the SPME fiber, and the developed method therefore showed high sensitivity and analytical recovery. Variables affecting SPME were fully evaluated by applying an experimental design approach. Best conditions were found when using an equilibration time of 5 min at 70 °C and headspace sampling of residual solvents at the same temperature for 15 min. Method validation, performed within the requirements of international guidelines, showed excellent sensitivity, as well as intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy. The proposed methodology was applied to 96 cocaine samples and 14 heroin samples seized in Galicia (northwestern Spain) within 2013 and 2014. PMID:27405875

  10. Richer and healthier, but not Greener? Choices concerning household energy use in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is among the world lowest per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, but rapid increases are expected. At the same time, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates show that 424,000 die prematurely in Indian households each year from air pollution exposure due to solid fuel use. We analyze GHG emissions and health through three policy scenarios for household energy, using projections for population, income and urbanization. In policy scenarios called Business as Usual (BAU), Improved Health, and Green Future, projected per capita household GHG emissions in 2026 increase by 169%, 164% and 139%, respectively, compared to 2001, whereas household mortality rates decrease by 45%, 67% and 45%, respectively. Due to income growth and urbanization, an increase in GHG emissions is likely inevitable, but can be slowed. For health, in contrast, improvements are expected and can be expanded.

  11. Assessment of Power Generation Potential from Municipal Solid Wastes: A Case Study of Hyderabad City, Sindh, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Safar Korai; Rasool Bux Mahar; Muhammad Aslam Uqaili

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to estimate the power generation potential through utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to overcome energy crisis, faced by country now a days. The waste-to-energy has proven itself to be an environment friendly solution for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Representative samples of the MSW were collected from the open dumping sites of solid wastes and analyzed for calorific value by using a Bomb Calorimeter in the laboratory. Net and gross calor...

  12. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trasias Mukama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Results. Food remains (38% and plastics (37% formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9% disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6% and compost (54.9% solid wastes. Conclusion. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices.

  13. A description of data sets to determine the innovative diversification capacity of farm households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fadden, Terence

    2016-09-01

    This data represents research activities carried out in Co. Offaly and Co. Mayo, Ireland, to identify farm household innovative diversification behavior and policy/institutional actor capacity roles in support. The data sets are overlain with household and agency data from the two study areas to describe levels of innovative diversification capacity by individual socio-economic farm household profile. The data sets summarize the public policy discussions on rural innovation and diversification and policy actor response requirements, and incorporate both qualitative and quantitative data set combinations. The data are used to assess policy/institutional actors' roles and farm households' capacity for innovation at the farm household/institution interface in support of sustainable rural business innovations on-farm and diversification. PMID:27508269

  14. A description of data sets to determine the innovative diversification capacity of farm households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fadden, Terence

    2016-09-01

    This data represents research activities carried out in Co. Offaly and Co. Mayo, Ireland, to identify farm household innovative diversification behavior and policy/institutional actor capacity roles in support. The data sets are overlain with household and agency data from the two study areas to describe levels of innovative diversification capacity by individual socio-economic farm household profile. The data sets summarize the public policy discussions on rural innovation and diversification and policy actor response requirements, and incorporate both qualitative and quantitative data set combinations. The data are used to assess policy/institutional actors' roles and farm households' capacity for innovation at the farm household/institution interface in support of sustainable rural business innovations on-farm and diversification.

  15. Households in the smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    It is a widespread assumption within the energy sector that the “smart grid” will be a crucial element of a future low-carbon energy system, and households are assigned an important role in this (particularly in relation to balancing consumption and production). However, this raises questions about...... the integration of consumers’ everyday life practices in this system. This paper introduces the ideas of the smart grid and review relevant demonstration projects. Special focus is on the role of consumers and electric vehicles. The paper ends with introducing major research questions and presents a new research...

  16. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  17. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe

    In response to continuous pressure on resources, and the requirement for secure and sustainable consumption, public authorities are pushing the efficient use of resources. Among other initiatives, the prevention, reduction and recycling of solid waste have been promoted. In this context, reliable...... data for the material and resource content of waste flows are crucial to establishing baselines, setting targets and tracking progress on waste prevention, reduction and recycling goals. Waste data are also a critical basis for the planning, development and environmental assessment of technologies...... the comparison of waste data with various objectives. Analysis revealed that Danish residual household waste constitutes mainly food waste (42 – 45% mass per wet basis). Misplaced recyclable materials in residual waste bins, such as paper, board, glass, metal and plastic, amounted to 20% (mass per wet basis...

  18. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Prével, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, S.; Castan, F; Coulibaly, D.; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, M.; Lange, M.; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity a...

  19. New York Household Travel Patterns: A Comparison Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    In 1969, the U. S. Department of Transportation began collecting detailed data on personal travel to address various transportation planning issues. These issues range from assessing transportation investment programs to developing new technologies to alleviate congestion. This 1969 survey was the birth of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed to the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. In addition to the number of sample households that the national NPTS/NHTS survey allotted to New York State (NYS), the state procured an additional sample of households in both the 1995 and 2001 surveys. In the 1995 survey, NYS procured an addition sample of more than 9,000 households, increasing the final NY NPTS sample size to a total of 11,004 households. Again in 2001, NYS procured 12,000 additional sample households, increasing the final New York NHTS sample size to a total of 13,423 households with usable data. These additional sample households allowed NYS to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas significantly smaller than for what the national NPTS and NHTS data are intended. Specifically, these larger sample sizes enable detailed analysis of twelve individual Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Furthermore, they allowed NYS to address trends in travel behavior over time. In this report, travel data for the entire NYS were compared to those of the rest of the country with respect to personal travel behavior and key travel determinants. The influence of New York City (NYC) data on the comparisons of the state of New York to the rest of the country was also examined. Moreover, the analysis examined the relationship between population density and travel patterns, and the similarities and differences among New

  20. Fuel choices in urban Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Economics, University of Lugano, (Switzerland); Pachauri, Shonali [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361, Laxenburg, (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    This paper applies an ordered discrete choice framework to model fuel choices and patterns of cooking fuel use in urban Indian households. The choices considered are for three main cooking fuels: firewood, kerosene, and LPG (liquid petroleum gas). The models, estimated using a large microeconomic dataset, show a reasonably good performance in the prediction of households' primary and secondary fuel choices. This suggests that ordered models can be used to analyze multiple fuel use patterns in the Indian context. The results show that lack of sufficient income is one of the main factors that retard households from using cleaner fuels, which usually also require the purchase of relatively expensive equipment. The results also indicate that households are sensitive to LPG prices. In addition to income and price, several socio-demographic factors such as education and sex of the head of the household are also found to be important in determining household fuel choice. (Author).

  1. On the validity of area-based income measures to proxy household income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Gillian E

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background This paper assesses the agreement between household-level income data and an area-based income measure, and whether or not discrepancies create meaningful differences when applied in regression equations estimating total household prescription drug expenditures. Methods Using administrative data files for the population of BC, Canada, we calculate income deciles from both area-based census data and Canada Revenue Agency validated household-level data. These deciles are then compared for misclassification. Spearman's correlation, kappa coefficients and weighted kappa coefficients are all calculated. We then assess the validity of using the area-based income measure as a proxy for household income in regression equations explaining socio-economic inequalities in total prescription drug expenditures. Results The variability between household-level income and area-based income is large. Only 37% of households are classified by area-based measures to be within one decile of the classification based on household-level incomes. Statistical evidence of the disagreement between income measures also indicates substantial misclassification, with Spearman's correlations, kappa coefficients and weighted kappa coefficients all indicating little agreement. The regression results show that the size of the coefficients changes considerably when area-based measures are used instead of household-level measures, and that use of area-based measures smooths out important variation across the income distribution. Conclusion These results suggest that, in some contexts, the choice of area-based versus household-level income can drive conclusions in an important way. Access to reliable household-level income/socio-economic data such as the tax-validated data used in this study would unambiguously improve health research and therefore the evidence on which health and social policy would ideally rest.

  2. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations.

  3. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  4. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations. PMID:26163336

  5. Exploring sustainability transitions in households: insights from real-life experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedeker, Carolin; Buhl, Johannes; Greiff, Kathrin; Hasselkuß, Marco; Liedtke, Christa; Lukas, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Societal transformation towards sustainable consumption and production, especially in urban areas, is a key challenge. The design and implementation of sustainable product service systems (PSS) might be the initial point, in which private households play a major role. The Sustainable LivingLab research infrastructure was developed as an experimental setting for investigating consumption and production patterns in private households, especially to explore socio-technical innovations which are helpful to guide sustainability transitions. The suggested presentation describes results of several real-life experiments conducted in German households, e.g. the project SusLabNRW (North-Rhine Westphalia as part of the European SusLabNWE-Project), the EnerTransRuhr project as well as the PATHWAYS project that explore patterns of action, time use, social practices and the related resource use in private households. The presentation gives an overview of the employed methods and analysed data (qualitative interviews, social network analysis, survey on household activities and inventories and a sustainability assessment (resource profiles - MIPS household analysis). Households' resource consumption was calculated in all fields of activity to analyse social practices' impact. The presentation illustrates how aggregated data can inform scenario analysis and concludes with an outlook onto transition pathways at household level and socio-technical innovations in the fields of housing, nutrition and mobility.

  6. Impact of Weather Shocks on MENA Households

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Liverani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Do households living in climate affected areas in the MENA region believe that changes in climate patterns and their environment are taking place? Have households been affected by extreme weather events, and if so to what extent and which events have had the largest impact? What are the coping strategies that households declare having used, or could be using to cope with climate change and...

  7. Demand for Nutrients: The Household Production Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Rebecca H.; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Brown, Mark G.

    1998-01-01

    This study uses the household production theory to study the demand for nutrients, i.e., households purchase a combination of food items from the market and produce the needed nutrients from these food items. By following the traditional household production approach, shadow prices for nutrients in food consumption are calculated. The cost function that generates the shadow prices appears plausible in terms of its elasticities of substitution and factor demand. After obtaining the calculated ...

  8. Spending time and money within the household

    OpenAIRE

    Martin BROWNING; Gørtz, Metter

    2006-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household) or receives less consumption (which seems to indicate differing intrahousehold preferences). We develop a simple parametric structural model with household production that is tested on survey data. We ...

  9. Education Financing of Rural Households in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua-shu; Moll, Henk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The ...

  10. Carbon Dioxide, Energy Taxes and Household Income

    OpenAIRE

    Cathal O'Donoghue

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a carbon tax on the income distribution in Ireland using the 1987 Household Budget Survey. Previous studies have focused on the direct impact of the carbon tax on expenditures on domestic fuels. This study however, drawing on previous work expands the analysis to cover the indirect impact of carbon taxes on other household purchases> A direct and indirect tax would have a less regressive effect on the income distribution than a simple direct tax on household ...

  11. Financial Satisfaction from Intra-Household Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Namkee Ahn; Victoria Ateca; Arantza Ugidos

    2007-01-01

    We address individuals’ financial satisfaction from the intra-household perspective. Our purpose is twofold. First, we want to contrast the hypothesis of relative income within the household. Does the income level of one individual relative to that of other members of the same household matter in his/her income satisfaction? Second, we want to test procedural utility hypothesis in that different sources of income may contribute differentially to individuals’ income satisfaction. In particular...

  12. The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Unit Pricing and Recycling Program Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Karen; Martinez, Salvador; Jenkins, Robin; Podolsky, Michael, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling has a significant and substantial positive effect on the percentage recycled of all fiv...

  13. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  14. Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste; the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractUsing a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has

  15. Bioenergy Consumption and Biogas Potential in Cambodian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Luukkanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Residential bioenergy consumption and bioenergy resources based on by-products of residential agricultural production and animal husbandry have been analyzed statistically, based on a nationwide residential livelihood and energy survey conducted in Cambodia in 2009. Furthermore, the potential for biomethanation, residential biogas consumption and small-scale power generation for non-electrified rural areas has been assessed. Household potential of biogas substrates in Cambodia, based on nationally representative data has not been presented earlier. This paper proposes mixtures of substrates for biogas production for various livelihood zones of Cambodia. The occurrence of biomass suitable for biomethanation is most favorable in unelectrified rural areas, except for fishing villages. The theoretical daily biogas potential from animal dung and rice husk appears to be promising for households in unelectrified rural villages, both for household digesters and units designed for small-scale electricity generation. Theoretical CH4 content of biogas was 63.9% and specific biogas yield 0.41 Nm3/kg for households in unelectrified villages. Based on the survey, the energy content of biogas potential is 25.5 PJ per year. This study shows that biogas has nationally significant technical potential in Cambodia.

  16. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Newman

    Full Text Available Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized.The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages.Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person.We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability.Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval of having 0-2, 3-6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6-19.3, 32.4% (31.0-33.9, and 49.6% (47.8-51.4, respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education.About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability.

  17. Market Participation among Poor Rural Households in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Olwande, John; Mathenge, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Kenya’s smallholder agriculture remains a major engine of rural growth and livelihood improvement, yet it is largely semi-subsistence. Therefore, any pathway that can lift large numbers of the rural poor out of poverty will require some form of transformation of smallholder agriculture into a more commercialized production system. This study used a three-year panel household data set collected in 2000, 2004 and 2007 and across nine agroecological zones of Kenya to assess the extent of market ...

  18. The Anthropometric Status of Farming households in Kogi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adewumi, Matthew Olaniyi; Babatunde, Raphael O.; Olufunke, Ayodele

    2010-01-01

    A country needs a well nourished population of children for a productive future. Malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child morbidity and mortality; therefore, combating malnutrition in our communities should be an issue to policy makers. With the use of anthropometric indices derived from survey data collected from 150 randomly selected children from 150 farming households in Kabba Bunu Local Government Area of Kogi State, this study assessed malnutrition of children in the Cent...

  19. Assessment of tbe Performance of Ablative Insulators Under Realistic Solid Rocket Motor Operating Conditions (a Doctoral Dissertation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heath Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ablative insulators are used in the interior surfaces of solid rocket motors to prevent the mechanical structure of the rocket from failing due to intense heating by the high-temperature solid-propellant combustion products. The complexity of the ablation process underscores the need for ablative material response data procured from a realistic solid rocket motor environment, where all of the potential contributions to material degradation are present and in their appropriate proportions. For this purpose, the present study examines ablative material behavior in a laboratory-scale solid rocket motor. The test apparatus includes a planar, two-dimensional flow channel in which flat ablative material samples are installed downstream of an aluminized solid propellant grain and imaged via real-time X-ray radiography. In this way, the in-situ transient thermal response of an ablator to all of the thermal, chemical, and mechanical erosion mechanisms present in a solid rocket environment can be observed and recorded. The ablative material is instrumented with multiple micro-thermocouples, so that in-depth temperature histories are known. Both total heat flux and thermal radiation flux gauges have been designed, fabricated, and tested to characterize the thermal environment to which the ablative material samples are exposed. These tests not only allow different ablative materials to be compared in a realistic solid rocket motor environment but also improve the understanding of the mechanisms that influence the erosion behavior of a given ablative material.

  20. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  1. Applicability assessment of ceramic microbeads coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic composite earthplus™ to the eradication of Legionella in rainwater storage tanks for household use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oana, Kozue; Kobayashi, Michiko; Yamaki, Dai; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Nagano, Noriyuki; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Water environments appear to be the habitats of Legionella species. Legionellosis is considered as a preventable illness because bacterial reservoirs can be controlled and removed. Roof-harvested rainwater has attracted significant attention not only as a groundwater recharge but also as a potential alternative source of nonpotable water. We successfully developed ceramic microbeads coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic composite earthplus™ using the thermal spraying method. The ceramic microbeads were demonstrated to have bactericidal activities against not only Legionella but also coliform and heterotrophic bacteria. Immersing the ceramic microbeads in household rainwater storage tanks was demonstrated to yield the favorable eradication of Legionella organisms. Not only rapid-acting but also long-lasting bactericidal activities of the ceramic microbead were exhibited against Legionella pneumophila. However, time-dependent attenuation of the bactericidal activities against Legionella were also noted in the sustainability appraisal experiment. Therefore, the problems to be overcome surely remain in constantly managing the Legionella-pollution by means of immersing the ceramic microbeads. The results of our investigation apparently indicate that the earthplus™-coated ceramic microbeads would become the favorable tool for Legionella measures in household rainwater storage tanks, which may become the natural reservoir for Legionella species. Our investigation would justify further research and data collection to obtain more reliable procedures to microbiologically regulate the Legionella in rainwater storage tanks. PMID:26346201

  2. Lighting and social practices - what role does lighting play for low energy house (LEH) households and LED frontrunners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    dimensions influence how people use and relate to lighting. Assessing how very distinctive contexts of households (that diverge from an exemplary kind of household), such as low energy houses and LED frontrunner households, use and understand lighting, may give some insight into what may trigger or hamper......As lighting in Danish households consume approximately 1.3 TWh every year, reducing electricity consumption from lighting is important. Studies have shown that a mere substitution of inefficient lighting technologies towards more efficient ones may not be possible, as many social and cultural...

  3. Patterns of Stove Usage after Introduction of an Advanced Cookstove: The Long-Term Application of Household Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pillarisetti, Ajay; Vaswani, Mayur; Jack, Darby; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bates, Michael N.; Arora, Narendra K; Smith, Kirk R.

    2014-01-01

    Household air pollution generated from solid fuel use for cooking is one of the leading risk factors for ill-health globally. Deployment of advanced cookstoves to reduce emissions has been a major focus of intervention efforts. However, household usage of these stoves and resulting changes in usage of traditional polluting stoves is not well characterized. In Palwal District, Haryana, India, we carried out an intervention utilizing the Philips HD4012 fan-assisted stove, one of the cleanest bi...

  4. The rationality and reliability of expectations reported by British households: micro evidence from the British household panel survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, James; Martin R. Weale

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of individuals' expectations of their financial circumstances, as reported in the British Household Panel Survey, as predictors of outcomes and identifies what factors influence their reliability. As the data are qualitative bivariate ordered probit models, appropriately identified, are estimated to draw out the differential effect of information on expectations and realisations. Rationality is then tested and we seek to explain deviations of realisations from...

  5. Social class related inequalities in household health expenditure and economic burden: evidence from Kerala, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Delampady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure in the south Indian state of Kerala and provides evidence on the consequent financial burden inflicted upon households in different caste groups. Methods Using data from a 2003-2004 panel survey in Kottathara Panchayat that collected detailed information on health care consumption from 543 households, we analysed inequality in per capita out-of-pocket health expenditure across castes by considering households' health care needs and types of care utilised. We used multivariate regression to measure the caste-based inequality in health expenditure. To assess health expenditure burden, we analysed households incurring high health expenses and their sources of finance for meeting health expenses. Results The per capita health expenditures reported by four caste groups accord with their status in the caste hierarchy. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after controlling for health care needs and influential confounders. Households with high health care needs are more disadvantaged in terms of spending on health care. Households with high health care needs are generally at higher risk of spending heavily on health care. Hospitalisation expenditure was found to have the most impoverishing impacts, especially on backward caste households. Conclusion Caste-based inequality in household health expenditure reflects unequal access to quality health care by different caste groups. Households with high health care needs and chronic health care needs are most affected by this inequality

  6. Social class related inequalities in household health expenditure and economic burden: evidence from Kerala, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure in the south Indian state of Kerala and provides evidence on the consequent financial burden inflicted upon households in different caste groups. Methods Using data from a 2003-2004 panel survey in Kottathara Panchayat that collected detailed information on health care consumption from 543 households, we analysed inequality in per capita out-of-pocket health expenditure across castes by considering households' health care needs and types of care utilised. We used multivariate regression to measure the caste-based inequality in health expenditure. To assess health expenditure burden, we analysed households incurring high health expenses and their sources of finance for meeting health expenses. Results The per capita health expenditures reported by four caste groups accord with their status in the caste hierarchy. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after controlling for health care needs and influential confounders. Households with high health care needs are more disadvantaged in terms of spending on health care. Households with high health care needs are generally at higher risk of spending heavily on health care. Hospitalisation expenditure was found to have the most impoverishing impacts, especially on backward caste households. Conclusion Caste-based inequality in household health expenditure reflects unequal access to quality health care by different caste groups. Households with high health care needs and chronic health care needs are most affected by this inequality. Households in the most

  7. Solid fuel in kitchen and acute respiratory tract infection among under five children: evidence from Nepal demographic and health survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the association between use of solid fuel in kitchen and ARI among under five children in Nepal. The latest data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were used. A total of 4,802 under 5 de-jure children were included in this analysis. Cough accompanied by short/rapid breath and chest problem within 2 weeks before survey was considered as the symptoms of ARI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds of being suffered from ARI among the children from households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel. About 84.6% of the families used solid fuel as a primary fuel. Approximately 4.5% children had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks before the survey. About 3.4 and 4.9% of children from the families using cleaner fuel and solid fuel respectively had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks preceding survey. After adjusting for age, sex, birth order, urban/rural residence, ecological zone, development region, economic status, number of family members, mother's smoking status and mother's education, odds of suffering from ARI was 1.79 times higher among the children from the households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel (95% CI 1.02, 3.14). This study found the use of solid fuel in the kitchen has as a risk factor for ARI among under five children in Nepal. Longitudinal studies with direct measurement of indoor air pollution and clinical ARI cases can be future research priority.

  8. Consumption of wood fuels in households in Serbia: Present state and possible contribution to the climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research in wood fuels consumption for house-hold needs in Serbia. Research was performed during the period from October 2010 until April 2011, i. e. in the period of heating season in order to get the actual situation regarding the presence of certain fuel types in the consumption of households with special highlight on types and amounts of wood fuels. For this purpose, an adequate methodological concept was defined with the aim to primarily get relevant and reliable data on wood fuels consumption and afterwards, by using FAO WISDOM methodology and adequate GIS software packages to perform their analysis, mapping, and graphic representation. One of the most significant elements of the adopted methodological concept was field research-questionnaire of households which was conducted on the sample of 36.946 households out of which 20.725 urban and 16.221 rural in 22 municipalities in Serbia, which was 1.46% of the total number of households in Serbia. Results of the survey showed that 23.2% of the total number of households in Serbia used district heating system (based on conventional fossil fuels as dominant, 25.3% used electricity, and 10.6% used gas for heating purposes. Most households (40.9% used solid fuels such as fuelwood, coal, briquettes, pellets, agricultural residues and combinations of solid and other fuels.

  9. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  10. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on nee

  11. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  12. Household income distribution in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Costas J.; Wearne, Adam

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present an alternative model for the distribution of household incomes in the United States. We provide arguments from two differing perspectives which both yield the proposed income distribution curve, and then fit this curve to empirical data on household income distribution obtained from the United States Census Bureau.

  13. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  14. Does Income Taxation Affect Partners’ Household Chores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Stancanelli, E.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of income taxation on both partners‟ allocation of time to market work and unpaid house work in households with two adults. We estimate a structural household utility model in which the marginal utilities of leisure and house work of both partners are modelled as random coefficie

  15. Measuring Individual Skills in Household Waste Recycling: Implications for Citizens' Education and Communication in Six Urban Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafaro, Paola; Bacciu, Anna; Caggianelli, Ilaria; Castaldi, Viviana; Fucci, Eleonora; Ritondale, Deborah; Trabalzini, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the analysis of six urban contexts in which a practical tool measuring individual skills concerning household waste recycling was tested. The tool is a structured questionnaire including a simulation task that assesses respondents' abilities to sort household waste adequately in a given context/municipality. Results indicate…

  16. Positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumours criteria for quantitative analysis of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography for treatment response assessment in metastasised solid tumours: All that glitters is not gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Annelieke E C A B; Vlenterie, Myrella; van Herpen, Carla M L; van Erp, Nielka P; van der Graaf, Winette T A; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Oyen, Wim J G

    2016-03-01

    For solid tumours, quantitative analysis of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography potentially can have significant value in early response assessment and thereby discrimination between responders and non-responders at an early stage of treatment. Standardised strategies for this analysis have been proposed, and the positron emission tomography response criteria in solid tumours (PERCIST) criteria can be regarded as the current standard to perform quantitative analysis in a research setting, yet is not implemented in daily practice. However, several exceptions and limitations limit the feasibility of PERCIST criteria. In this article, we point out dilemmas that arise when applying proposed criteria like PERCIST on an expansive set of patients with metastasised solid tumours. Clinicians and scientists should be aware of these limitations to prevent that methodological issues impede successful introduction of research data into clinical practice. Therefore, to deliver on the high potential of quantitative imaging, consensus should be reached on a standardised, feasible and clinically useful analysis methodology. This methodology should be applicable in the majority of patients, tumour types and treatments. PMID:26808297

  17. Spatially Referenced Statistical Assessment of Dissolved-Solids Load Sources and Transport in Streams of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Terry A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Buto, Susan G.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2009-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) discharges more than 6 million tons of dissolved solids annually, about 40 to 45 percent of which are attributed to agricultural activities. The U.S. Department of the Interior estimates economic damages related to salinity in excess of $330 million annually in the Colorado River Basin. Salinity in the UCRB, as measured by dissolved-solids load and concentration, has been studied extensively during the past century. Over this period, a solid conceptual understanding of the sources and transport mechanisms of dissolved solids in the basin has been developed. This conceptual understanding was incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) surface-water quality model to examine statistically the dissolved-solids supply and transport within the UCRB. Geologic and agricultural sources of dissolved solids in the UCRB were defined and represented in the model. On the basis of climatic and hydrologic conditions along with data availability, water year 1991 was selected for examination with SPARROW. Dissolved-solids loads for 218 monitoring sites were used to calibrate a dissolved-solids SPARROW model for the UCRB. The calibrated model generally captures the transport mechanisms that deliver dissolved solids to streams of the UCRB as evidenced by R2 and yield R2 values of 0.98 and 0.71, respectively. Model prediction error is approximated at 51 percent. Model results indicate that of the seven geologic source groups, the high-yield sedimentary Mesozoic rocks have the largest yield of dissolved solids, about 41.9 tons per square mile (tons/mi2). Irrigated sedimentary-clastic Mesozoic lands have an estimated yield of 1,180 tons/mi2, and irrigated sedimentary-clastic Tertiary lands have an estimated yield of 662 tons/mi2. Coefficients estimated for the seven landscape transport characteristics seem to agree well with the conceptual understanding of the role they play in the

  18. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. • The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. • The physicochemical characteristics were determined. • The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. • The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories – urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in

  19. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  20. Capitalization of Local Products through Agro- Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In every household there are many family activities that provide the necessary income or living foods. Some activities are related to cultivation of land, others for breeding other means services provided by the vilagers. The products of the own household must cover 40% of meals offered to tourists. These products are produced by the householder work in their household, the tourist having the opportunity to observe how the products are produced and participate effectively in this production. Specific rural household products can be recovered through tourism by both indirect and direct ways. Both variants can generate increased profitability and interest of the tourist business activity and impose a sense of satisfaction for quality benefit, issues that may be, in turn, assumptions favorable to the extension of this work.

  1. Identification of junk buyers' contribution to recycling of household waste in Hanoi, Vietnam, through a physical composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Saburo; Dong, Nguyen The

    2012-07-01

    Even in developing countries, the amount of containers and packaging waste are increasing in line with population concentration and lifestyle changes in urban areas. This can cause serious problems for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Through a physical composition analysis of household waste in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, this study aimed to identify the contribution made by junk buyers to recycling. Interviews on the handling of recyclable waste by households were conducted. About 232 kg of recyclable waste was sampled from a total of 115 households, and about 230 kg of municipal solid waste was sampled from a total of 101 households and sorted into 69 categories for measurement by volume and weight. The interview survey revealed that a high proportion of households tended to routinely store recyclable waste for sale or donation to junk buyers. Junk buyers accounted for 8.8% of recycling by weight or 26.0% by volume according to the results of the physical composition analysis. In addition, the results suggested that containers and packaging waste accounted for the largest proportion of household waste by volume. Junk buyers recycled 25.5% by weight of containers and packaging waste. In the formulation of new plans for municipal solid waste management to improve the current situation and handle future challenges, the role of the informal sector should be monitored carefully and reliable data on recyclable waste should be collected continuously.

  2. Identification of junk buyers' contribution to recycling of household waste in Hanoi, Vietnam, through a physical composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Saburo; Dong, Nguyen The

    2012-07-01

    Even in developing countries, the amount of containers and packaging waste are increasing in line with population concentration and lifestyle changes in urban areas. This can cause serious problems for the disposal of municipal solid waste. Through a physical composition analysis of household waste in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, this study aimed to identify the contribution made by junk buyers to recycling. Interviews on the handling of recyclable waste by households were conducted. About 232 kg of recyclable waste was sampled from a total of 115 households, and about 230 kg of municipal solid waste was sampled from a total of 101 households and sorted into 69 categories for measurement by volume and weight. The interview survey revealed that a high proportion of households tended to routinely store recyclable waste for sale or donation to junk buyers. Junk buyers accounted for 8.8% of recycling by weight or 26.0% by volume according to the results of the physical composition analysis. In addition, the results suggested that containers and packaging waste accounted for the largest proportion of household waste by volume. Junk buyers recycled 25.5% by weight of containers and packaging waste. In the formulation of new plans for municipal solid waste management to improve the current situation and handle future challenges, the role of the informal sector should be monitored carefully and reliable data on recyclable waste should be collected continuously. PMID:22584265

  3. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities. PMID:25022547

  4. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities.

  5. Impact of Improved Maize Adoption on Welfare of Farm Households in Malawi: A Panel Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bezu, Sosina; Kassie, Girma; Shiferaw, Bekele; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses improved maize adoption in Malawi and examines the link between adoption and household welfare using a three-year household panel data. The distributional effect of maize technology adoption is also investigated by looking at impacts across wealth and gender groups. We applied control function approach and IV regression to control for endogeneity of input subsidy and improved maize adoption. We found that modern maize variety adoption is positively correlated with the hous...

  6. Concentration of Trichloroethylene in Breast Milk and Household Water from Nogales, Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Luik, Catherine E.; Abrell, Leif; Campos, Swilma; Martínez, María Elena; Sáez, A. Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-l...

  7. Making the link: households and small business activity in a multi-ethnic context

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Monder; Tahir ABBAS; Sanghera, Balihar; Barlow, Gerald; Jones, Trevor

    2001-01-01

    The ‘family’ is frequently mentioned in assessments of the apparent distinctiveness of ethnic minority enterprise. Family involvement can account for the ‘success’ of some ethnic groups, and low rates of small business activity in others. Implicitly, such debates are recognition of the importance of the nature of the household and small business. However, few studies in Britain make explicit the link between household dynamics and ethnic minority business activity. This paper e...

  8. Clean Energy for Development: The Environmental and Socioeconomic Benefits of Ethanol as a Household Cooking Fuel In Ethiopia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debebe, M.; Lambe, F. (Gaia Association, Bole Subcity, P.O.Box 13493, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)). e-mail: gaiaassociation@ethionet.et

    2008-10-15

    The overwhelming dependence of the household sector on traditional fuels (solid biomass) and kerosene for cooking is having a hugely negative impact on health, the environment and the economy in Ethiopia. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and deforestation associated with harvesting biomass for cooking, are contributing to climate change and environmental degradation. Moreover, indoor air pollution from the burning of traditional fuels indoors causes numerous serious health problems for those exposed - in most cases, women and children. Ethiopian families cook using these fuels because they have no alternatives. Gaia Association, an Ethiopian NGO, and its partners are working to increase access to ethanol fuelled cooking stoves for households at all income levels and have conducted an extensive pilot study to assess the impact of the ethanol fuelled CleanCook stove on Ethiopian homes in a variety of locations. The favourable study results were used to inform a detailed business plan outlining the strategies for local commercialisation of the stove and fuel. Adoption of this alternative clean cooking technology has been shown to address the health, environmental and socioeconomic problems associated with heavy reliance on traditional cooking fuels.

  9. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Miles A; Nagel, Corey L; Rosa, Ghislaine; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Zambrano, Laura Divens; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-11-15

    Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Widespread faecal contamination was present, and only 24.9% (95% CI 20.9-29.4%, n=217) of household samples met WHO Guidelines of having no detectable TTC contamination, while 42.5% (95% CI 38.0-47.1%, n=361) of samples had >100TTC/100mL and considered high risk. Sub-national differences were observed, with poorer water quality in rural areas and Eastern province. In multivariate analyses, there was evidence for an association between detectable contamination and increased open waste disposal in a sector, lower elevation, and water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled. Risk factors for intermediate/high risk contamination (>10TTC/100mL) included low population density, increased open waste disposal, lower elevation, water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled, and occurrence of an extreme rain event the previous day. Modelling suggests non-household-based risk factors are determinants of water quality in this setting, and these results suggest a substantial proportion of Rwanda's population are exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water.

  10. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Miles A; Nagel, Corey L; Rosa, Ghislaine; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Zambrano, Laura Divens; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-11-15

    Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Widespread faecal contamination was present, and only 24.9% (95% CI 20.9-29.4%, n=217) of household samples met WHO Guidelines of having no detectable TTC contamination, while 42.5% (95% CI 38.0-47.1%, n=361) of samples had >100TTC/100mL and considered high risk. Sub-national differences were observed, with poorer water quality in rural areas and Eastern province. In multivariate analyses, there was evidence for an association between detectable contamination and increased open waste disposal in a sector, lower elevation, and water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled. Risk factors for intermediate/high risk contamination (>10TTC/100mL) included low population density, increased open waste disposal, lower elevation, water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled, and occurrence of an extreme rain event the previous day. Modelling suggests non-household-based risk factors are determinants of water quality in this setting, and these results suggest a substantial proportion of Rwanda's population are exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water. PMID:27470017

  11. Rural livelihoods and household adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsholapheko, M. R.; Kgathi, D. L.; Vanderpost, C.

    Adaptation to flooding is now widely adopted as an appropriate policy option since flood mitigation measures largely exceed the capability of most developing countries. In wetlands, such as the Okavango Delta, adaptation is more appropriate as these systems serve as natural flood control mechanisms. The Okavango Delta system is subject to annual variability in flooding with extreme floods resulting in adverse impacts on rural livelihoods. This study therefore seeks to improve the general understanding of rural household livelihood adaptation to extreme flooding in the Okavango Delta. Specific objectives are: (1) to assess household access to forms of capital necessary for enhanced capacity to adapt, (2) to assess the impacts of extreme flooding on household livelihoods, and (3) to identify and assess household livelihood responses to extreme flooding. The study uses the sustainable livelihood and the socio-ecological frameworks to analyse the livelihood patterns and resilience to extreme flooding. Results from a survey of 623 households in five villages, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and review of literature, indicate that access to natural capital was generally high, but low for financial, physical, human and social capital. Households mainly relied on farm-based livelihood activities, some non-farm activities, limited rural trade and public transfers. In 2004 and 2009, extreme flooding resulted in livelihood disruptions in the study areas. The main impacts included crop damage, household displacement, destruction of household property, livestock drowning and mud-trapping, the destruction of public infrastructure and disruption of services. The main household coping strategies were labour switching to other livelihood activities, temporary relocation to less affected areas, use of canoes for early harvesting or evacuation and government assistance, particularly for the most vulnerable households. Household adaptive strategies included

  12. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassays carried out on solid and liquid substrates: assessing the factor "indicator microorganism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosiadis Ioannis

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful application of growth inhibition techniques for quantitative determination of bacteriocins relies on the sensitivity of the applied indicator microorganism to the bacteriocin to which is exposed. However, information on indicator microorganisms' performance and comparisons in bacteriocin determination with bioassays is almost non-existing in the literature. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the parameter "indicator microorganism" in bioassays carried out on solid -agar diffusion assay- and liquid -turbidometric assay- substrates, applied in the quantification of the most studied bacteriocin nisin. Results The performance of characterized microorganisms of known sources, belonging to the genera of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Leuconostoc, has been assessed in this work in the assays of plate agar diffusion and turbidometry. Dose responses and sensitivities were examined and compared over a range of assay variables in standard bacteriocin solutions, fermentation broth filtrates and processed food samples. Measurements on inhibition zones produced on agar plates were made by means of digital image analysis. The data produced were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA technique and pairwise comparisons tests. Sensitivity limits and linearity of responses to bacteriocin varied significantly among different test-microorganisms in both applied methods, the lower sensitivity limits depending on both the test-microorganism and the applied method. In both methods, however, only two of the nine tested microorganisms (Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436 and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 25740 were sensitive to very low concentrations of the bacteriocin and produced a linear-type of response in all kinds of samples used in this work. In all cases, very low bacteriocin concentrations, e.g. 1 IU/ml nisin, were more accurately determined in the turbidometric assay. Conclusion The present work shows that in

  13. Applicability assessment of ceramic microbeads coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic composite earthplus™ to the eradication of Legionella in rainwater storage tanks for household use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kozue Oana,1,2 Michiko Kobayashi,1 Dai Yamaki,3 Tsukasa Sakurada,3 Noriyuki Nagano,1,2 Yoshiyuki Kawakami1,2 1Division of Infection Control and Microbiological Regulation, Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, 3Shinshu Ceramics Co., Ltd., Kiso, Nagano, Japan Abstract: Water environments appear to be the habitats of Legionella species. Legionellosis is considered as a preventable illness because bacterial reservoirs can be controlled and removed. Roof-harvested rainwater has attracted significant attention not only as a groundwater recharge but also as a potential alternative source of nonpotable water. We successfully developed ceramic microbeads coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic composite earthplus™ using the thermal spraying method. The ceramic microbeads were demonstrated to have bactericidal activities against not only Legionella but also coliform and heterotrophic bacteria. Immersing the ceramic microbeads in household rainwater storage tanks was demonstrated to yield the favorable eradication of Legionella organisms. Not only rapid-acting but also long-lasting bactericidal activities of the ceramic microbead were exhibited against Legionella pneumophila. However, time-dependent attenuation of the bactericidal activities against Legionella were also noted in the sustainability appraisal experiment. Therefore, the problems to be overcome surely remain in constantly managing the Legionella-pollution by means of immersing the ceramic microbeads. The results of our investigation apparently indicate that the earthplus™-coated ceramic microbeads would become the favorable tool for Legionella measures in household rainwater storage tanks, which may become the natural reservoir for Legionella species

  14. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS).

  15. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS)

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX SOLIDS WITH LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.

    2011-11-11

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). In the summer of 2011, Tank 50H contained two standard slurry pumps and two quad volute slurry pumps. Current requirements for mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste moved both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that were failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to mix solids with liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX), SRNL computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Tank 50H operating experience, and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters of pumps needed to mix the solid particles with the liquid in Tank 50H. The analysis determined pump requirements to suspend the solids with no 'dead zones', but did not determine the pump requirements to produce a homogeneous suspension. In addition, the analysis determined the pump requirements to prevent the accumulation of a large amount of solid particles under the telescoping transfer pump. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) The analysis shows that three Quad Volute pumps should be able to suspend the solid particles expected ({approx}0.6 g/L insoluble solids, {approx}5 micron) in Tank 50H. (2) Three standard slurry pumps may not be able to suspend the solid particles in Tank 50H; (3) The ability of two Quad Volute pumps to fully suspend all of the solid particles in Tank 50H is marginal; and (4) One standard slurry pump should be able to

  17. Household Consumption Characteristics of Cookies: The Case of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shengfei; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Nambiar, Padmanand Madhavan; Resurreccion, Anna V.A.; Chinnan, Manjeet S.

    2013-01-01

    The cookie consumption and purchase characteristics of households were investigated in six cities in Uganda using household survey data. Cookies can be fortified with vitamins to improve child nutrition. The application of a Logit model permitted the identification of factors significantly affecting household decision to eat cookies. They are household food buyer/preparer’s age, employment status, education level, household monthly income, household location, number of children from 4 to 18 y...

  18. Material Footprint of Low-Income Households in Finland—Consequences for the Sustainability Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Lähteenoja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses the material footprints of households living on a minimum amount of social benefits in Finland and discusses the consequences in terms of ecological and social sustainability. The data were collected using interviews and a questionnaire on the consumption patterns of 18 single households. The results are compared to a study on households with varying income levels, to average consumption patterns and to decent minimum reference budgets. The low-income households have lower material footprints than average and most of the material footprints are below the socially sustainable level of consumption, which is based on decent minimum reference budgets. However, the amount of resources used by most of the households studied here is still at least double that required for ecological sustainability. The simultaneous existence of both deprivation and overconsumption requires measures from both politicians and companies to make consumption sustainable. For example, both adequate housing and economic mobility need to be addressed. Measures to improve the social sustainability of low-income households should target reducing the material footprints of more affluent households. Furthermore, the concept of what constitutes a decent life should be understood more universally than on the basis of standards of material consumption.

  19. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law. PMID:15927933

  20. Financial access to health care in Karuzi, Burundi: a household-survey based performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Herp Michel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. Methods An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection was through a cross-sectional household survey of the catchment areas of 10 public health centres. A questionnaire was used to determine the accuracy of the community-identification method, households' access to health care, and costs of care. Household socioeconomic status was determined by reported expenditures and access to land. Results Financial access to care at the nearest health centre was ensured for 70% of the population. Of the remaining 30%, half experienced financial barriers to access and the other half chose alternative sites of care. The community-based assessment increased the number of people of the population who qualified for fee exemptions to 8.6% but many people who met the indigent criteria did not receive a card. Eighty-eight percent of the population lived under the poverty threshold. Referring to the last sickness episode, 87% of households reported having no money available and 25% risked further impoverishment because of healthcare costs even with the financial support system in place. Conclusion The flat fee policy was found to reduce cost barriers for some households but, given the generalized poverty in the area, the fee still posed a significant financial burden. This report showed the limits of a programme of fee exemption for indigent households and a flat fee for others in a context of widespread poverty.