WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing food chain

  1. Are Local Food Chains More Sustainable than Global Food Chains? Considerations for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main findings of the GLAMUR project which starts with an apparently simple question: is “local” more sustainable than “global”? Sustainability assessment is framed within a post-normal science perspective, advocating the integration of public deliberation and scientific research. The assessment spans 39 local, intermediate and global supply chain case studies across different commodities and countries. Assessment criteria cover environmental, economic, social, health and ethical sustainability dimensions. A closer view of the food system demonstrates a highly dynamic local–global continuum where actors, while adapting to a changing environment, establish multiple relations and animate several chain configurations. The evidence suggests caution when comparing “local” and “global” chains, especially when using the outcomes of the comparison in decision-making. Supply chains are analytical constructs that necessarily—and arbitrarily—are confined by system boundaries, isolating a set of elements from an interconnected whole. Even consolidated approaches, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, assess only a part of sustainability attributes, and the interpretation may be controversial. Many sustainability attributes are not yet measurable and “hard” methodologies need to be complemented by “soft” methodologies which are at least able to identify critical issues and trade-offs. Aware of these limitations, our research shows that comparing local and global chains, with the necessary caution, can help overcome a priori positions that so far have characterized the debate between “localists” and “globalists”. At firm level, comparison between “local” and “global” chains could be useful to identify best practices, benchmarks, critical points, and errors to avoid. As sustainability is not a status to achieve, but a never-ending process, comparison and deliberation can be the basis of a

  2. Life cycle assessment and the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2012-01-01

    Our food consumption is responsible for a major part of the environmental impact related to our total consumption. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a product-oriented tool that can be used efficiently to identify improvement options within the food chain covering a product’s life cycle from cradle...... of resource use and emissions associated with a product’s life cycle can be aggregated into impact categories (e.g., nonrenewable energy use, land occupation, global warming, acidification, etc.) and further aggregated into overall damage impacts (e.g., impacts on biodiversity, human health, and resource...... may change the ranking of different foods regarding environmental impact, but above all it will typically enhance differences between foods of animal and plant origin, and particularly regarding the impact on global warming....

  3. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst; Lotte Peeters; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE...

  4. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems. SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure a step change in operational practices, which will improve the efficiency and sustainability of supply chain logistics. In the paper we present the first results of this project. Aim of this paper is (1 to present a sustainability research framework for food supply chains logistics including drivers, strategies, performance indicators, metrics and improvement opportunities to measure and potentially enhance sustainability performances; and (2 to analyse and diagnose the current status of Dutch food & drinks companies and logistics service providers using this framework. Results are found via a literature review, web-based research and structured interviews with Dutch food and logistics service industry.

  5. Biosphere assessment due to radionuclide release in waste disposal repository through food chain pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal is assessed by the consequence analysis of radionuclides release, of which the final step is carried out by the biosphere assessment. the radiation dose is calculated from the food chain modeling which especially necessitates site-specific input database and exposure pathways. A biosphere model in consideration of new exposure pathways has been analyzed, and a program for food chain calculation has been developed. The up-to-data input data are reflected and the new exposure pathways are considered in the program, so the code shows more realistic and reliable results

  6. Presentation of a general algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning. II Terrestrial food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; Slooff W; Canton JH

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier report, a simple algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals was presented. This algorithm (MAR = NOEC/BCF) was drawn up by analyzing an aquatic food chain. In the present study it was tested whether this algorithm can be used equally well for effect-a

  7. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  8. An environmental assessment of food supply chains: a case study on dessert apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andy

    2002-10-01

    The contemporary food system provides consumers with convenience, extensive choice, and the year-round availability of fresh produce. In this paper these achievements are recognized within the context of the associated environmental impacts. While many analyses have considered the energy and material efficiency of various options for food production and packaging, very few studies have investigated the environmental impacts of the transport components of food supply chains. This is surprising, given that the global sourcing of food produce, centralized distribution systems, and shopping by car have become prevalent in recent decades and have contributed to an increase in the distance between producer and consumer or "food miles." In a case study the transport energy consumption is calculated for all possible ways in which dessert apples can be supplied to the UK consumer. The aim is to assess the environmental performance of the predominant fresh produce supply chains and to investigate claims that localized systems are more environmentally efficient. The main criteria used to compare the environmental efficiency in alternative food supply chains are the transport-related fossil-fuel energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide emissions. Analysis of the empirical data shows that transportation is now responsible for a considerable fraction of the total energy consumption in the life cycle of fresh apples, and in most cases exceeds the energy consumed in commercial apple cultivation. By developing local production and marketing systems for fresh products, transport demand can be reduced and many of the environmental impacts associated with existing supply chains can be avoided. The results of the study are then discussed in relation to the wider issues of transport policy, international trade, food security, and product-related environmental information for consumers. PMID:12481922

  9. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G

  10. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

  11. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by

  12. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  13. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Peeters, L.; Bloemhof, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustain

  14. Risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (Biesbosch, The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Gestel, van C.A.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated bi

  15. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nica Dragos V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH, relative shell height (RSH, and whorl number (WN. Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability

  16. Assessment of key sustainability indicators in a UK fast food supply chain: a life cycle perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Alireza; Oglethorpe, David; Nabhani, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the understanding of businesses and end consumers of key sustainability measures in the UK fast food Supply Chain. A quantitative method was used in which two sets of well-structured questionnaires were designed separately for fast food businesses and end consumers. The data analysis was conducted through “cluster analysis”. It was found that social responsibility was scored as the most important fast food sustainability concern for businesses, wh...

  17. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  18. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses

  19. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  20. Assessing the food safety concepts within the dairy production chain: an application of conjoint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Conjoint analysis was performed in the Dutch dairy chain to obtain the relative contribution to increased food safety of more than 100 attributes. Results from the conjoint analysis show among others that 'chemical hazards procedures and instructions for compound feed production' and 'quality assura

  1. Evaluation of food chain transfer of the antibiotic oxytetracycline and human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsaner, Maliwan; Hawker, Darryl W

    2013-10-01

    There has been recent concern regarding the possibility of antibiotics entering the aquatic food chain and impacting human consumers. This work reports experimental results of the bioconcentration of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) by the Asian watermeal plant (Wolffia globosa Hartog & Plas) and bioaccumulation of OTC in watermeal and water by the seven-striped carp (Probarbus jullieni). They show, for the first time, the extent to which OTC is able to transfer from water to plant to fish and enter the food chain. The mean bioconcentration factor (dry weight basis) with watermeal was 1.28 × 10(3) L kg(-1). Separate experiments were undertaken to characterize accumulation of OTC by carp from water and watermeal. These showed the latter pathway to be dominant under the conditions employed. The bioconcentration and biomagnification factors for these processes were 1.75 L kg(-1) and 2 × 10(-4) kg g(-1) respectively. Using an aqueous concentration range of 0.34-3.0 μg L(-1), hazard quotients for human consumption of contaminated fish of 1.3 × 10(-2) to 1.15 × 10(-1) were derived.

  2. Final report on the project research 'assessment of radiation exposure of the public to radioactivities related to the environment and food chain'. April 1988 - March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the collection of the reports on the project research 'Assessment of Radiation Exposure of the Public to Radioactivities Related to the Environment and Food Chain'. The 16 of the reports are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  4. CASCADE - Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain. A network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeberg, M.; Haakansson, H. [Karolinska Institutet, Insitute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pongratz, I.; Gustavsson, J.Aa. [Karolinska Institutet, Dept. of Biosciences, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Harmful effects of chemical contaminants in food are of major health concern in Europe today. Lack of integration between basic research, risk assessment, and education severely hampers the efforts to reach European excellence in this area. The research activities that are carried out are small in scale and are not well integrated into a coherent structure. To tackle the fragmentation problems and to achieve synergistic effects and full European research potential, the European Commission has initiated a Network of Excellence called CASCADE or ''Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain: a network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education'' The contract is running for five years and is worth over 14 million with partners from eighteen research centres. The network has the potential and goal to be a world force in knowledge on health issues related to chemical contaminants in food. Focus is on chemical residues that act via and/or interfere with cell regulation at the level of nuclear receptors. The risk assessment integration parts of the network aim to increase the awareness among scientists and others of the need to bring multiple aspects of scientific information into use in risk assessment.

  5. Risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (Biesbosch, The Netherlands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, Timo [Wageningen University, Toxicology Group, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: timo.hamers@ivm.falw.vu.nl; Berg, Johannes H.J. van den [Wageningen University, Toxicology Group, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Vrije Universiteit, Department of Animal Ecology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schooten, Frederik-Jan van [Maastricht University, Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Murk, Albertinka J. [Wageningen University, Toxicology Group, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. Common shrew (Sorex araneus) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were selected as representative small mammal species for the carnivorous and herbivorous food chain, respectively, and earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) and snails (Cepaea nemoralis) as representative prey species for the carnivorous food chain. Metals contributed most to the total risk for small mammals and earthworms. PCBs, but not PAHs, contributed to the overall risk for S. araneus at regularly flooded locations. The carnivorous food chain appeared most at risk given the higher exposure levels and bioaccumulating potency found for contaminants in S. araneus. - In polluted floodplain areas, dietary exposure to metals poses a larger risk for small mammals in a carnivorous than in a herbivorous food chain.

  6. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  7. The food chain and dose submodel, CALDOS, for the assessment of Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The food chain and dose submodel, CALDOS, for assessing Canada's nuclear fuel management (NFWM) concept of disposal in a vault deep in the Canadian Shield is presented. Together with the surface water, soil and atmosphere submodels, CALDOS is integrated into a comprehensive, probabilistic biosphere model for post-closure assessment. This model is representative of the Canadian Shield in Ontario and CALDOS is fully generic. CALDOS calculates radionuclide transfer through the environment to make dose predictions for man. It considers 68 radionuclides explicitly and takes into account another 28 short-lived daughters in the dose calculations. Nine potentially toxic elements are also considered. CALDOS is of the multiplicative chain type for most of the radionuclides, but some, such as 3H, 129I and 222Rn, are treated specially. The model accounts for all the major internal exposure pathways, including root uptake, leaf deposition, terrestrial animal's drinking water, terrestrial animal soil ingestion, freshwater fish ingestion, human drinking water, human soil ingestion and human inhalation. External exposure from air immersion, water immersion, ground and building materials are also considered. Dose predictions are based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP 26) methodologies, ICRP reference man (ICRP 23) and the critical group concept. CALDOS considers ingrowth of some radioactive daughters, radionuclide availability in soil, recycling and depletion. The model has numerous parameters, some element, radionuclide or food type specific. Sensitivity analysis is used to assess parameter importance in dose prediction. Quality assurance is addressed through general literature, model and parameter evaluations, specifically designed for environmental assessment models. This also involves validation and code comparison studies. (author). 43 refs., 36 tabs., 24 figs

  8. Towards biotracing in food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran;

    2011-01-01

    Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly, the int......Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly......, and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several SMEs...

  9. Developing sustainable food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, B. Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into so...

  10. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  11. Robust food supply supply chains : an integrated framework for vulnerability assessment and disturbance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of supply chains (SCs) has for many years been focused on efficiency, leanness and responsiveness. This has resulted in reduced slack in operations, compressed cycle times, increased productivity and minimised inventory levels along the SC. Combined with tight tolerance settings for th

  12. Finnish food chain impacts on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Kurppa, Sirpa; Virtanen, Yrjö

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of the food chain’s environmental impacts was conducted using an environmentalaccounting model developed specifically for the Finnish food chain. The model is based on production and environmental impact data from year 2005. The model considers both Finnish production and Finnish imports in addition to their transport. The targets of the evaluation were the environmental impacts, in 2005, stemming from production. Environmental impacts of the end-use phase were not assessed....

  13. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables.

  14. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. PMID:26446198

  15. Use of the food-chain model FOOD III and the soil model SCEMR to assess irrigation as a biosphere pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrigation of contaminated water onto crop land is a relatively direct pathway for radionuclides to deliver a radiation dose to man. Irrigation was not originally included in the SYVAC assessment model for the Precambrian Shield because no irrigation is currently practised in the region. This report re-evaluates this decision. An analysis of meteorological data shows that crop yield in northern Ontario would benefit from irrigation. Thus, incentives are present for subsistence-scale, and perhaps commercial-scale, irrigation of surface or well water. A food-chain analysis indicated that irrigation with contaminated water could deliver a dose comparable to direct consumption (drinking) of the same water, for some radionuclides. Long-term contamination of soil through irrigation was predicted to be a substantial hazard, even when soil leaching was incorporated into the food-chain model. This report presents parameter estimates that could be used to incorporate irrigation as a pathway in the SYVAC code and will constitute the basis for further decisions concerning this pathway

  16. Robust food supply supply chains : an integrated framework for vulnerability assessment and disturbance management

    OpenAIRE

    Vlajic, J.V.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of supply chains (SCs) has for many years been focused on efficiency, leanness and responsiveness. This has resulted in reduced slack in operations, compressed cycle times, increased productivity and minimised inventory levels along the SC. Combined with tight tolerance settings for the realisation of logistics and production processes, this has led to SC performances that are frequently not robust. SCs are becoming increasingly vulnerable to disturbances, which can decrease the...

  17. An Assessment of Consumer Satisfaction for Food Retail Chains: A Case Study from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar, Goksel; Gul, Mevlut; Gulcan, Sinem

    2011-01-01

    Consumer oriented marketing concept appeared to be effective in accordance to the shift from the traditional marketing approach to the modern marketing approach. This process brings about the concept of customer value in retail food sector as it is the case in other sectors. The rise in number and variety of shopping units that operate in the retail market drives firms into value based marketing concept. Due to the positive effect on the relationship between customer value and customer satisf...

  18. Assessment of survival of food-borne microorganisms in the food chain by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Henrik; Arneborg, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, many data on food–borne microorganisms are obtained as an average of a whole population, under the assumption that the individual cells are clonal and therefore identical. However, it is now acknowledged that there may be a large heterogeneity within an isogenic population, and con......Traditionally, many data on food–borne microorganisms are obtained as an average of a whole population, under the assumption that the individual cells are clonal and therefore identical. However, it is now acknowledged that there may be a large heterogeneity within an isogenic population......, and consequently new methods focus on the individual cells. This mini-review will give an overview of the response of food-borne microorganisms; i.e. pathogenic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts, at a single-cell level to various food-related stress conditions, comprising acid-, disinfection-, salt...

  19. TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS OF SELECTED BUSINESS ENTITIES OF FOOD CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Krotowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was technical and economic assessment of organizational improvements and use of resources of the examined business entities within the frames of their economic activity. The measurement of economic effi ciency was done with the use of commonly accepted profi tability indices (ROE, profi t margin and RONA. The technical assessment was based on the DEA method, taking into account the model: CRS, VRS and the scale of production. The variables applied in the model w ere operating incomes, as well as expenditures, i.e. UR area, labour input, value of fi xed assets and expenditure connected with energy and materials consumption. The research results proved that there were not signifi cant diff erences between the examined groups (Z and N as far as calculated indices were concerned.

  20. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). PMID:22632631

  1. Risk assessment of lead contamination for small mammal food chains (case studyfor shooting ranges)

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar; Tome, Davorin; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2010-01-01

    Pb levels were measured in tissues of small mammals (Microtus agrestis, Apodemus flavicollis, Sorex araneus and Crocidura leucodon), inhabiting shooting ranges of the Slovenian Army (Apače, Bač, Bloška polica, Crngrob, Mačkovec, Poček); in addition, Pb content was analysed in their diet as well. The present research was performed with the aim to confirm the use of small mammals as bioindicators of Pb contamination of shooting ranges and to performthe risk assessment of military shooting range...

  2. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131I its rather short half life, for 137Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  3. Sustainable Food Supply Chain Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Companies operating in the food sector are confronted with i) accelerating environmental and social impact assessment policies and standards, ii) an emerging concept of extended producer responsibility supporting the shift from ‘seed to meat’ to ‘cradle to cradle’ and iii) increasing preoccupation i

  4. Assessing the Impact of Sustainability Improvement Options on the Agri-food Supply Chain Governance Structures: Development of an Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.

  5. Food safety objective: an integral part of food chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorris, L.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of food safety objective has been proposed to provide a target for operational food safety management, leaving flexibility in the way equivalent food safety levels are achieved by different food chains. The concept helps to better relate operational food safety management to public healt

  6. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to dev...

  7. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    . The purpose of paper 1 was to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods enriched with omega-3 ingredient as a case. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) (Schwarzer, 1992) was applied as the theoretical framework. The qualitative study has demonstrated partial usefulness of the HAPA......This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision...

  8. The Official Control beyond the Official Control. How To Plan And Schedule Controls Starting From Risk Assessment Along The Agro-Food Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panunzio, M F; Caporizzi, R; Lagravinese, D; Conversano, M

    2015-01-01

    Every year the Italian Ministry of Health, on the basis of regional data, draws up the "Report on Official Controls" to be submitted to the Parliament. The report contains abundant data, diagrams and charts and illustrates the number and type of official controls (OC) performed by the pertinent Bodies (Ministry of Health, Regional and Local Health Authorities) over the previous year on Food Business Operators (FBO), in accordance with the EC Regulation 882/2004. The trend - which has consolidated over the years - relates to the multiplicity of OC and shows a decrease of such controls compared to an increase in "non-conformities". OC frequency is established by the Regional Authorities on the basis of the categorisation of both a "generic risk" for companies calculated taking into account the probability of occurrence of a "non-conformity", and a "specific" risk, assessed on the basis of the results of the OC actually performed on a given "Operatore del Settore Alimentare" (Food Sector Operator, in Italian: OSA). Thus, categorisation (i.e. the probability of occurrence of non-conformities) is the main driver of the OC scheduling and planning process. We have been asking ourselves whether the current OC planning/scheduling method is still suitable for ensuring food safety in the face of internalisation of the food supply chain. As a matter of fact, food safety is now becoming increasingly variable due to the globalization of consumption where "farm to fork", rather than "border to fork", food safety must be ensured. On the basis of these considerations, a different OC planning /scheduling method is being proposed based on the assessment of risks and the estimation of the occurrence of the same along the agro-food chain. PMID:26051149

  9. Qualitative methodology for efficient food chain design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Meerdink, G.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to efficiently design food supply chains. The goals of quality, cost and environmental load are looked at independently of each other. Food chains are made up of links and are designed to deliver a particular product with consumer-specified attributes. These attribu

  10. Cutting Food Waste through Cooperation along the Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Göbel; Nina Langen; Antonia Blumenthal; Petra Teitscheid; Guido Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Food produced but not used for human consumption is a waste of natural resources. In order to prevent and reduce food waste, the main causes have to be identified systematically along the food supply chain (FSC). The aim of this study is (1) to shed light on the causes and effects of food waste through the analysis of 44 qualitative expert interviews examining the processes and intermediaries along the German food chain and (2) to find methods to reduce it. Results indicate that food waste o...

  11. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain....

  12. Towards effective food chains : models and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Top, J.L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain management research can help in the analysis and redesign of value creation and the product flow throughout the chain from primary producer down to the consumer. The aim is to meet consumer and societal requirements effectively at minimal cost. In the Wageningen UR strategic research prog

  13. On robustness in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Peach Nectar: a comparative analysis between conventional and bioenergy-from-waste integrated food chains

    OpenAIRE

    Menna, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Modern food systems are characterized by a high energy intensity as well as by the production of large amounts of waste, residuals and food losses. This inefficiency presents major consequences, in terms of GHG emissions, waste disposal, and natural resource depletion. The research hypothesis is that residual biomass material could contribute to the energetic needs of food systems, if recovered as an integrated renewable energy source (RES), leading to a sensitive reduction of the impact...

  15. CHINESE FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN AND FOOD SAFETY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyze the food safety problem that happened in different supply chains in China. In addition, the aim was to give a general view of why people do not trust food producers in China these days. In this thesis there were two different cases, Huangtaiji and Sanlu milk powder The purpose of these two cases was to show two types of food producers in China.

  16. Exploring hybridity in food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, William; Kirwan, James

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a number of dynamic aspects of food supply chains have attracted great interest among social scientists investigating rural restructuring and change. These include: the expansion of organic agriculture; the development of new value added enterprises at farm level and the revitalisation of traditional and new-old artisanal production practices; the expansion from a low base of the market share of alternative short supply chains, such as farmers markets; and the so-called quali...

  17. On Diagnostic Index and Method of Healthy Wetland Food Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Juan Cui; Xin-sheng Zhao; Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Wetland food chain is the channel of the matter and energy transfer or flow in the wetland ecosystem. From wetland food chain scission mechanism, the structure and functional characteristics of the wetland food chain scission were analyzed, while building a healthy wetland food chain diagnostic index system. Depending on wetland ecosystem health research results, this study brought forward the wetland food chain structure stability and functions of wetland energy measures and their quantitati...

  18. Transparency in complex dynamic food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Food supply chains are increasingly complex and dynamic due to (i) increasing product proliferation to serve ever diversifying and globalising markets as a form of mass customisation with resulting global flows of raw materials, ingredients and products, and (ii) the need to satisfy changing and var

  19. Environmental innovation in chains and networks : assessing determinants and performance implications in Dutch food and beverage firms

    OpenAIRE

    Grekova, E.

    2014-01-01

    Challenged by the increasing scale of environmental degradation and corresponding stakeholders’ pressure, firms are increasingly integrating environmental concerns into their operations and into the relationships with external partners. Mainly through the theoretical lens of the Resource-based view and its spins-offs, this dissertation focuses on environmental innovation and environmental management (EM) that involves supply chain partners as means of promoting sustainable industry grow...

  20. The sustainability of communicative packaging concepts in the food supply chain. A case study: part 1. Life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobon, A.; Cordero, P.; Kreft, F.; Ostergaard, S.R.; Robertsson, M.; Smolander, M.; Hortal, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In recent years, a new perspective for food packaging has emerged as a result of several issues like quality, safety, competitive prices or providing of useful information to consumers. This new perspective is called communicative packaging. Communicative packaging may influence consumers/co

  1. Food safety management systems performance in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a performance measurement of implemented food safety management system (FSMS) along the lamb chain using an FSMS-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI) and a Microbiological Assessment Scheme (MAS). Three slaughterhouses, 1 processing plant and 5 butcher shops were evaluated. All the a

  2. Arsenic contamination in the food chain and its risk assessment of populations residing in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Heng, Savoeun; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Wong, Ming Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, we investigated the potential arsenic exposure of Cambodian residents from their daily food consumption. Environmental and ecological samples such as paddy soils, paddy rice (unhusked), staple rice (uncooked and cooked), fish and vegetables were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After acid-digestion, digestates were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the means of total arsenic concentration ([As]tot) in paddy soils and paddy rice from Kandal were significantly higher than those from Kampong Cham province (t-test, psoils and paddy rice was found (r(14) = 0.826, parsenic intake from food consumption indicated that the upper end of the range of the daily dose of inorganic arsenic for Kandal residents (0.089-8.386 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.) was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 is equal to 3.0 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.). The present study suggests that the residents in Kandal are at risk of arsenic intake from their daily food consumption. However, the residents in Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces are less likely to be exposed to arsenic through their daily dietary intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report estimating the daily intake and daily dose of inorganic arsenic from food consumption in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:22818591

  3. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Per Engelseth

    2016-01-01

    The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Finding...

  4. Restructuring international food chains: Building sustainable and all-inclusive food chains at the primary stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambewa, E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tilburg, van A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that effective inclusion of small-scale primary producers in international chains is crucial for alleviating poverty in developing countries, few insights exist about how to build sustainable and all-inclusive food chains especially those based on scarce natural res

  5. Advanced planning methodologies in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Poorya

    The food industry is an important sector both because of its direct impacts on the daily lives of people and its large share of GDP compared with other economic sectors. This thesis discusses and develops advanced planning methodologies to optimize operations in food supply chains. From a supply...... mathematical models are developed, which represent the main characteristics of this industry, including product quality considerations. The models are solved through tailor-made algorithms and managerial insights based on numerical results are discussed. The last chapter of the thesis summarizes the scientific...

  6. Food-chain competition influences gene's size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembska, Marta; Dudek, Mirosław R.; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2006-11-01

    We have analyzed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nucleotide fraction from its equilibrium value was playing the role of the fitness parameter, B, in Bak-Sneppen model. Our finding is, that the higher is the value of the threshold fitness, during the evolution course, the more frequent are large fluctuations in number of species with strongly differentiated nucleotide content; and it is more often the case that the oldest species, which survive the food-chain competition, might have specific nucleotide fraction making possible generating long genes.

  7. Simulation modelling and risk assessment as tools to identify the impact of climate change on microbiological food safety – The case study of fresh produce supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Devlieghere, F.; Leemans, R.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current quality assurance and control tools and methods to prevent and/or to control microbiological risks associated with fresh produce are challenged due to the following pressures upon the food supply chain, i.e. changing consumption patterns, globalization and climate change. It demonstrates

  8. A tentative assessment of cesium 137 direct and indirect transfer rates in a simplified fresh water food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the direct transfer of cesium from water to carps and the indirect transfer via the food. In a first experiment on chronic contamination of carps by water, the kinetics and distribution of cesium in the organs of the carps were studied. Equilibrium was not reached on the 56th day, 4% of the initial water activity had been retained by the carps and the concentration factor was below 10. The highest specific activities were found in the transit organs. In a second experiment, the water activity varied by alternating contamination and decontamination. A fluctuating equilibrium was reached on the 22nd day. The concentration factor was of the same order of magnitude than in the previous experiment. Indirect contamination of fish by ingestion of contaminated daphnids was studied in a third experiment. Cesium levels in carps increased with the cumulated activities in meals, and the uptake rate in fish was 4%. Both decorporation and biological half-lives (30-40 days) were independent of the contamination routes. The respective significance of the transfer pathways is discussed taking into account the biomass pyramids to be found in the nature. It is estimated that in a cesium environment, 70% of the carp activity should come from the diet and 30% from the water. The concentration factor would then be 75 instead of 22 when only direct transfer of cesium from water to fish is considered

  9. Food-chain competition influences gene's size

    OpenAIRE

    Dembska, Marta; M. R. Dudek; Stauffer, D.

    2006-01-01

    We have analysed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nu...

  10. Concentration of actinides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable concern is now being expressed over the discharge of actinides into the environment. This report presents a brief review of the chemistry of the actinides and examines the evidence for interaction of the actinides with some naturally-occurring chelating agents and other factors which might stimulate actinide concentration in the food chain of man. This report also reviews the evidence for concentration of actinides in plants and for uptake through the gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  11. Biofortification of food chain with selenium

    OpenAIRE

    Seppänen, Mervi; Kontturi, Juha; Hartikainen, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals which is circulated to food chain via crop plants. Agronomic biofortification with Se is used in areas where the soil Se content is low and Se deficiency causes health problems. Brassica species are efficient in accumulation of soil Se and therefore an attractive choice of species for biofortification. Se uptake and translocation was studied in B. rapa and B. napus in field experiments applied with 0, 6 or 20 mg...

  12. Invasive alien species in the food chain: Advancing risk assessment models to address climate change, economics and uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Kriticos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pest risk maps illustrate where invasive alien arthropods, molluscs, pathogens, and weeds might become established, spread, and cause harm to natural and agricultural resources within a pest risk area. Such maps can be powerful tools to assist policymakers in matters of international trade, domestic quarantines, biosecurity surveillance, or pest-incursion responses. The International Pest Risk Mapping Workgroup (IPRMW is a group of ecologists, economists, modellers, and practising risk analysts who are committed to improving the methods used to estimate risks posed by invasive alien species to agricultural and natural resources. The group also strives to improve communication about pest risks to biosecurity, production, and natural-resource-sector stakeholders so that risks can be better managed. The IPRMW previously identified ten activities to improve pest risk assessment procedures, among these were: “improve representations of uncertainty, … expand communications with decision-makers on the interpretation and use of risk maps, … increase international collaboration, … incorporate climate change, … [and] study how human and biological dimensions interact” (Venette et al. 2010.

  13. Assessment of local food distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmark, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in local food, as consumers feel confidence in such food. Local food has good opportunities to fulfil quality aspects/requirements of transparency and traceability in the supply chain due to the possibilities for direct interaction between producers and consumers. However, local food producers often face logistics challenges due to their small scale, decentralisation and integration difficulties with larger supply chains. This necessitates analysis of specific log...

  14. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Huq, S.M. Imamul; Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibilit...

  15. Restructuring international food chains: Building sustainable and all-inclusive food chains at the primary stages

    OpenAIRE

    Kambewa, E.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Trijp, van, J.M.P.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tilburg, van, P.J.A.; Boekel, van, R.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that effective inclusion of small-scale primary producers in international chains is crucial for alleviating poverty in developing countries, few insights exist about how to build sustainable and all-inclusive food chains especially those based on scarce natural resources. In order to address challenges that marketing and development policy and institutions as well as small-scale primary producers in the agro-ecological sector face in promoting sustainable pr...

  16. SUPPLY CHAINS IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CONDRAȚCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of production and supply chain is increasing worldwide due of the growing consumer concerns over foodsafety and quality together with retailer demands for large volumes of consistent and reliable product. In developedcountries, product losses (post harvest losses are generally small during processing, storage and handling becauseof the efficiency of the equipment, better storage facilities, and control of critical variables by a skilled and trainedstaff. Recently, the concept of Agricultural and Food production has been under development as more effective andefficient management system is required for the food production planning, physical collection of primary producefrom fields and homesteads, processing and storage at various levels, handling, packaging, and distribution of finalproduct.

  17. Relocalising the food chain: the role of creative public procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Kevin; Morely, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    The conventional food chain presents a challenge to sustainable development, containing hidden costs such as health bills, environmental damage and economic costs to the rural economy. This report argues for the development of local food chains, which would bring the 'multiple dividend' of healthier diets, local markets for local producers, lower food miles and better understanding between producers and consumers. Barriers to the growth of local food chains include EU procurement regulati...

  18. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN AGRI-FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Victoria

    1998-01-01

    High-tech information systems can offer competitive advantages to agri-food firms when the systems support a supply chain strategy that suits the demand for the product. This article discusses differences between supply chains for functional versus innovative products and the relevance for managers in agri-food firms. Unique characteristics of agriculture and food products and economic concentration in food industries affect the appropriate supply chain approach.

  19. INNOVATION THROUGH (INTERNATIONAL) FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN DEVELOPMENT: A RESEARCH AGENDA

    OpenAIRE

    Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.; VAN HAGEN, J M; Omta, S.W.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a research agenda on innovation through (international) food supply chains and networks in developing countries. It derives major topics from a multi-perspective view on international food chains (economic, technology, social/legal and environment) and from different theoretical streams dealing with chains and networks (Supply Chain Management, Industrial Organization theory and Network Theory). Three agri-supply chain projects in developing countries (Thailand, South-Afri...

  20. Nutrient use efficiency in the food chain of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2014-01-01

      Key words: Nitrogen, phosphorus, food chain, food pyramid, food system, food security, food cost, environmental impacts, nutrient cycling, nutrient management

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer applications have greatly contributed to the increased

  1. Integration of logistics network in local food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Bosona, Techane

    2013-01-01

    The demand for locally produced food is increasing as global food supply system has considerably affected the confidence of consumers by increasing tonne-kilometres, food safety risk, environmental impact, and disconnecting local food producers and consumers. However, local food suppliers are not in the position to compete with large scale food supply systems due to high logistics costs. The overall objective of this study was to improve the logistics management of local food supply chains. I...

  2. The Complexity of Food Systems: Defining Relevant Attributes and Indicators for the Evaluation of Food Supply Chains in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Gamboa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging literature on food systems provides multiple perspectives and world views. Various stakeholders define food and food systems in non-equivalent ways. The perception of the performance of food systems is determined by these specific perspectives, and a wide variety of policies responding to different aims are proposed and implemented accordingly. This paper sets out to demonstrate that the pre-analytical adoption of different narratives about the food system leads to non-equivalent assessments of the performance of food supply chains. In order to do so, we (i identify a set of relevant narratives on food supply chains in Spanish and Catalan contexts; (ii identify the pertinent attributes needed to describe and represent food supply chains within the different perspectives or narratives; and (iii carry out an integrated assessment of three organic tomato supply chains from the different perspectives. In doing so, the paper proposes an analysis of narratives to enable the analyst to characterize the performance of food supply chains from different perspectives and to identify the expected trade-offs of integrated assessment, associating them with the legitimate-but-contrasting views found among the social actors involved.

  3. A conceptual framework for supply chain governance: An application to agri-food chains in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Chinese agri-food chains consist of the millions of small scale farmers, who are not well structured and organized in the supply chain. Owing to market liberalization and globalization, one of the most challenging issues along agri-food chains in China is becoming the issue of how to link

  4. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Engelseth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Findings reveal that since these chains are transparent, reciprocal interdependency is abundant mainly because human perception creates a sufficient understanding of the operations management issues pertinent within this simple inter-organisational structure. Local foods supply chains are similar to service supply chains. This includes that both are short in nature and associated with bi-directional interaction between the customer and supplier. Developing short supply chains in local foods supply is associated with improving the exchange economy found in short supply chains. This also implies that development of local foods supply is associated with two paths which may be complementary. First, the use of improved intensive technology associated with reciprocal interdependency to develop efficiencies in the bi-directional and somewhat complex interaction. Alternatively local foods suppliers may seek to reduce this form of reciprocal interdependency thereby increasing the impact of pooled interdependencies and enabling using mediating technology involving standardising interaction such as through increased standardised products and packaging as well as automation of information connectivity.

  5. Myco-Heterophytes and Parasitic Plants in Food Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Advocates including plants at several trophic levels when studying food chains. Presents background information on parasitic plants, myco-heterophytes (saprophytes), and carnivorous plants. Contains 20 references. (WRM)

  6. Ethical Traceability for Improved Transparency in the Food Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2010-01-01

    Some practices in the agri-food sector worry consumers. Consumers might for instance be concerned about animal welfare, health, environmental issues, transparency of the food chain and so forth. A question, which confronts consumers today, is how they can become capable of acting upon such ethical...... an opportunity for two-way communication along food chains, allowing the views of consumer-citizens to be taken into account along the length of the chain. As food traceability retells the history of a food, it can address the ethical aspects of that history, enabling more informed food choice. Secondly, it can...... act as a (democratizing) means for enabling food consumers to participate more fully as citizens in the shaping of the contemporary food supply chain....

  7. Virtualization of food supply chains with the internet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Rialland, A.

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies allow supply chains to use virtualizations dynamically in operational management processes. This will improve support for food companies in dealing with perishable products, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements. Virtualiza

  8. Efficiency and Integration in the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Jarzebowski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of the food supply chain, an increase of the integration's degree in the chain may be an important aspect in the context of increasing the efficiency of agri-food companies. Therefore, exploring the relationships among these variables was found as an important research area and adopted as the goal of the paper. The paper is focused mainly on the theoretical background showing the relationship between integration and performance. A description of the theoretical and methodological aspects of performance measurement and its extension (including the integration aspect was also made within the framework of the paper.For an empirical illustration of the analyzed relationships two steps were made. Firstly, the integration's degree in the food chain was measured. Secondly, the efficiency of the companies from the cereals processing industry in Europe was assessed. The SFA models (e.g. Translog and Cobb-Douglas functional form were used for assessment of efficiency. By using stochastic method (e.g. the SFA, Stochastic Frontier Analysis, one may show the influence of external variable (the integration in the supply chain on the efficiency performance of enterprises. Efficiency of economic entities is not an unambiguous term. There are several different concepts of efficiency, its measurement and expressions. Within the framework of efficiency, many terms of similar meaning may be applied. However, these concepts are not identical. The actual concept of efficiency is derived from the structure of the production function, therefore it is conditioned by changes in the productivity of production factors and their remuneration and refers to the allocation of production factors in the most technically efficient way.

  9. Effect of parity on productivity and sustainability of Lotka-Volterra food chains: bounded orbits in food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarelli, Nicole; Hoffman, Kathleen; Previte, Joseph P

    2014-12-01

    Hairston, Slobodkin, and Smith conjectured that top down forces act on food chains, which opposed the previously accepted theory that bottom up forces exclusively dictate the dynamics of populations. We model food chains using the Lotka-Volterra predation model and derive sustainability constants which determine which species will persist or go extinct. Further, we show that the productivity of a sustainable food chain with even trophic levels is predator regulated, or top down, while a sustainable food chain with odd trophic levels is resource limited, which is bottom up, which is consistent with current ecological theory. PMID:24362648

  10. Effect of parity on productivity and sustainability of Lotka-Volterra food chains: bounded orbits in food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarelli, Nicole; Hoffman, Kathleen; Previte, Joseph P

    2014-12-01

    Hairston, Slobodkin, and Smith conjectured that top down forces act on food chains, which opposed the previously accepted theory that bottom up forces exclusively dictate the dynamics of populations. We model food chains using the Lotka-Volterra predation model and derive sustainability constants which determine which species will persist or go extinct. Further, we show that the productivity of a sustainable food chain with even trophic levels is predator regulated, or top down, while a sustainable food chain with odd trophic levels is resource limited, which is bottom up, which is consistent with current ecological theory.

  11. Study on Safety Management of Food Traceability Based on Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Xiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the frequent occurrence of food safety problems in recent years, it is urgent to solve safety management problem of food traceability. In this study, with an overview of the food supply chain, it explores the significant meaning of safety management of food traceability as well as the traceability types of supply chains, discussing the construction measures and procedures of safety management of food traceability as well as the technical designing demand on food traceability system.

  12. Defending the Food Supply Chain: Retail Food, Foodservice and their Wholesale Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Jean D.; Kaynts, Kateryna; Ghosh, Koel

    2007-01-01

    This report details the activities and findings of a three year research project funded by The National Center for Food Protection and Defense at the University of Minnesota, a Homeland Security Center of Excellence. The project was conducted by three universities each taking responsibility for collecting data on a different part of the food supply chain. The overall goal was to ascertain the food defense practices and readiness of food firms along the food supply chain to defend their food a...

  13. Acceptance of the most common quality attributes of organic food in the Finnish food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Nuutila, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the degree of the acceptance of organic food production and food in the Finnish food chain. The organic food system in Finland is poorly developed and one of the many reasons is that the food chain stakeholders are not committed and do not share common objectives for organic food and its production. A survey was carried among 1527 respondents from agriculture, industry, retail, catering and consumers to establish their opinions on safety and healthiness ...

  14. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so...... at supermarkets should not be ignored....

  15. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay fo

  16. Costs of food waste along the value chain: evidence from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman, Anton; de Lange, Willem

    2013-11-01

    In a previous paper (Nahman et al., 2012), the authors estimated the costs of household food waste in South Africa, based on the market value of the wasted food (edible portion only), as well as the costs of disposal to landfill. In this paper, we extend the analysis by assessing the costs of edible food waste throughout the entire food value chain, from agricultural production through to consumption at the household level. First, food waste at each stage of the value chain was quantified in physical units (tonnes) for various food commodity groups. Then, weighted average representative prices (per tonne) were estimated for each commodity group at each stage of the value chain. Finally, prices were multiplied by quantities, and the resulting values were aggregated across the value chain for all commodity groups. In this way, the total cost of food waste across the food value chain in South Africa was estimated at R61.5 billion per annum (approximately US$7.7 billion); equivalent to 2.1% of South Africa's annual gross domestic product. The bulk of this cost arises from the processing and distribution stages of the fruit and vegetable value chain, as well as the agricultural production and distribution stages of the meat value chain. These results therefore provide an indication of where interventions aimed at reducing food waste should be targeted. PMID:23910243

  17. The circular economy of a local organic food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuexian; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Egelyng, H.

    2008-01-01

    The local organic food market in China is growing and socalled leisure agriculture has been widely accepted and advocated in urban areas as a positive means of relaxation. This paper presents an analysis of a local organic food chain based on leisure agriculture and seeks to explain development...... of organic food in Urban China using the theoretical frame of the Circular Economy. The study uses a local organic food chain involving Xiedao Ecological Holiday Village as a case. In conclusion, the paper provides an estimate of the energy use efficiency of the chain....

  18. Healthy growth in mid-scale values based food chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kvam, Gunn-Turid

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a literature review of studies of mid-scale food values based food chains and healthy growth processes in the organic food sector. By midscale values based food chains we mean productions that are growing out of the niche/small scale market into larger volumes and sales. Previous research have shown that niche market chains might have inherent problems in moving from niche to volume, while mainstream large-scale markets have inherent problems in securing and advancing organic va...

  19. Safety in Agri-food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Vlieghere, de F.; Verhé, R.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing public demand for adequate and safe food supply has led to extensive development in the field of plant-animal production, food processing, quality and safety procedures, food analysis and control and regulations. However, safety of food can only be guaranteed by the integration of control

  20. Study on the Traceability System Establishment of Safety-Objective-Oriented Food Logistics Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Liu; Wen Cheng; Jianmin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Due to food safety issues, traceability is becoming a method of controlling food safety and connecting suppliers and consumers. The aim of this study is to build up a food logistics supply chain traceability system which can control food safety and connect suppliers and consumers. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability system based on the Structured Query Language (SQL) Server, uses the failure mode and effect analysis to assess key indicators of the system. The result shows, ...

  1. The dynamics of the transnational food chain regulatory governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The need for food safety and food quality standards is acknowledged by public regulators, private actors, and the society. The purpose of this paper is to identify the types of actors in the multilevel transnational food chain regulatory governance and how their interlinking affects...... dynamics of the interactions among public and private actors operate within the transnational food standards setting process. The study identifies the groups of interdependent actors (public and private) that interact within the transnational food chain regulatory process and develop public...

  2. Sustainability metrics for agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitán Cremaschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing sustainability in food production requires knowledge about the economic, environmental and social performance of the various stages of agri-food supply chains. An integrated indicator can provide synthetized information about the extent to which food products are sustainably produced and c

  3. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and

  4. Iron Quadrangle, Brazil: Assessment of the health impact caused by mining pollutants through the chain food applying nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minas Gerais, a Brazilian state, is rich in mineral occurrences, mainly in the so-called Iron Quadrangle considered one of the richest mineral-bearing regions in the world. Many studies have been carried out indicating that mineral exploitation and correlated activities, including the 'garimpo' - small scale mining - are the main sources of metal contamination in water courses, river sediment and fish. According to these studies, there is strong evidence of contamination exactly in this area because of high concentrations of arsenic determined in surface water, sediment, soil and children's urine. Most investigations were concerned with determining only As and Hg in water, sediment and fish. No study to determine other important elements has been carried out so far. It is highly important to investigate contamination by other mining pollutants in different matrixes - mainly foodstuff - to determine how much human health could be affected by long-term exposure to such elements. The importance of this study consists in not only providing a scientific basis for better understanding of element transported from the pollutant source to the chain food, but also in revealing the health impact on the population. The people who live around the mining areas consume local water and grow vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants for their own use. It is relevant to state that there are no data about the contamination levels in such foodstuffs. The work plan during the first year will define the specific and strategic sampling sites. Water, soil, plants, food and airborne particulate matter will be collected in the regions both close to and far from the mining area. The samples will be prepared for analysis mainly by means of k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-INAA). (author)

  5. Responsibility and Sustainability in a Food Chain: A Priority Matrix Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caracciolo; Maria Teresa Gorgitano; Pasquale Lombardi; Giuliana Sannino; Fabio Verneau

    2011-01-01

     This paper shows the results of empirical research conducted to assess the sustainability of a typical food supply chain, suggesting feasible solutions to satisfy inter-dimensional requisites of durable development. The analysis was conducted with reference to the supply chain of the San Marzano tomato (SMZ), a typical local food. The product is endowed with an origin certification label (PDO), meeting demand within high-value market niches. The SMZ is a flagship product in the Italian ...

  6. Contract-farming in staple food chains: the case of rice in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Vande Velde, Katrien; Maertens, Miet

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain upgrading in domestic and staple food chains in developing countries is important for a more efficient supply to growing urban markets. Little research is done on institutional innovations, such as contract-farming, in these chains. Research on the impact of smallholder contract-farming largely focuses on export-oriented high-value commodities. In this paper, we assess the welfare implications of smallholder contract-farming in the rice sector in Benin, using farm-household surve...

  7. On the Distribution of Net Benefits from Sustainability Initiatives in Agri-Food Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Brent; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Ross, Kara L.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability initiatives are frequently imposed on upstream supply chain members by their more powerful downstream partners. This paper assesses the challenges of estimating costs and benefits for participants and the difficulties associated with identifying their locations and effects in the supply chain. The paper argues that the success and endurance of agri-food supply chains that purport to pursue sustainability objectives depend critically on the distribution of the associated costs a...

  8. Research principles for developing country food value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, M.I.; Barrett, C.B.; Buck, L.E.; Groote, H. de; Ferris, S.; Gao, H.O.; McCullough, E.; Miller, D.D.; Outhred, H.; Pell, A.N.; Reardon, T.; Retnanestri, M.; Ruben, R.; Struebi, P.; Swinnen, J.; Touesnard, M.A.; Weinberger, K.; Keatinge, J.D.H.; Milstein, M.B.; Yang, R.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Food value chains (FVCs) comprise all activities required to bring farm products to consumers, including agricultural production, processing, storage, marketing, distribution, and consumption. FVCs are changing rapidly in developing countries (DCs), because of population and income growth; urbanizat

  9. Virtualization of food supply chains with the internet of things

    OpenAIRE

    Verdouw, Cor N.; Wolfert, Sjaak; Beulens, Adrie J.M.; Rialland, Agathe Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Internet technologies allow supply chains using virtualizations dynamically in operational management processes. This will improve support for food companies in dealing with perishable products, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements. Virtualization enables supply chain actors to monitor, control, plan and optimize business processes remotely and in real-time through the Internet, based on virtual objects instead of observation on-site. This ...

  10. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  11. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach – This work has been designed as an exploratory case study in three fresh food supply chains, milk, fresh fish, and fresh poultry, in the Nordic countries. The cases are based on interviews and data from the databases of the companies involved. Each case focuses on analyzing...... and sustainability from an integrated supply chain perspective. This paper links data sharing with the sustainability performance of the supply chain as a whole....

  12. Review of the ecological parameters of radionuclide turnover in vertebrate food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological studies of radionuclides in the environment have a long tradition in developing the capability to identify and predict movement and concentration of nuclides in agricultural food chains leading to man. Food chain pathways and transfer coefficients for the nonagricultural portions of natural and managed ecosystems characteristic of affected habitats adjacent to nuclear facilities have not been adequately characterized to establish reliable models for radionuclide releases. This information is necessary in order to assess the impact that such installations will have on the biota of natural ecosystems. Since food chains are the major processes transferring elements from one trophic level to another in terrestrial ecosystems, information is needed on the (a) food-chain transfer pathways, (b) bioconcentration by each trophic component and (c) turnover rates by receptor organisms. These data are prerequisite inputs for food-chain transport models and can be correlated with species characteristics (e.g., body weight and feeding habits), to provide indices for predictive calculations. Application of these models for radionuclide transfer can aid in the assessment of radioactive releases from nuclear reactor facilities to terrestrial nonagricultural food chains

  13. Ethical Traceability for Improved Transparency in the Food Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2010-01-01

    concerns. Information is often seen as an answer to the mentioned consumer concerns. Paradoxically, although consumers are bombarded with information on food - from the media, the food industry, food authorities, NGOs and interest groups – details about how foods are actually produced is often hard to find....... Much of the information available is superficial, conflicting or partial, and it is hard for consumers seeking to make informed food choices on ethical matters to know which information to trust. Food traceability, which provides a record of the history and journey of a given food, and which...... act as a (democratizing) means for enabling food consumers to participate more fully as citizens in the shaping of the contemporary food supply chain....

  14. PHYSICAL METHODS IN AGRO-FOOD CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical additives (fertilizers and plant protection preparations are largely used for improving the production yield of food produce. Their application often causes the contamination of raw materials for food production, which can be dangerous for the health of consumers. Alternative methods are developed and implemented to improve and ensure the safety of on-farm production. The substitution of chemical fertilizers and soil additives with alternative treatment methods, such as irradiation, ultrasound and the use of electromagnetic energy are discussed. Successful application of physical methods in different stages of food-preparation is recommended.

  15. Quinolone resistance in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, Anna; Sánchez-Céspedes, Javier; Soto, Sara; Vila, Jordi

    2008-04-01

    Antimicrobials are used in pet animals and in animal husbandry for prophylactic and therapeutic reasons and also as growth promoters, causing selective pressure on bacteria of animal origin. The impact of quinolones or quinolone-resistant bacteria on the management of human infections may be associated with three different scenarios. (i) Quinolone-resistant zoonotic bacterial pathogens are selected and food is contaminated during slaughter and/or preparation. (ii) Quinolone-resistant bacteria non-pathogenic to humans are selected in the animal. When the contaminated food is ingested, the bacteria may transfer resistance determinants to other bacteria in the human gut (commensal and potential pathogens). And (iii) quinolones remain in residues of food products, which may allow the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria after the food is consumed. In this review, we analyse the abovementioned aspects, emphasising the molecular basis of quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. PMID:18308515

  16. PHYSICAL METHODS IN AGRO-FOOD CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN; KAKANAKOVA, Andriana

    2009-01-01

    Chemical additives (fertilizers and plant protection preparations) are largely used for improving the production yield of food produce. Their application often causes the contamination of raw materials for food production, which can be dangerous for the health of consumers. Alternative methods are developed and implemented to improve and ensure the safety of on-farm production. The substitution of chemical fertilizers and soil additives with alternative treatment methods, such as irradiation,...

  17. Risk Management in Agri-food Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2012-01-01

    This paper incorporates the interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics and presents a comprehensive framework for analyzing the risk management in agri-food sector. First, it specifies the diverse (natural, technical, behavioral, economic, policy etc.) type of agri-food risks, and the (market, private, public and hybrid) modes of their management. Second, it defines the efficiency of risk management and identifies (personal, institutional, dimensional, technological, natural) factors of go...

  18. Understanding the behavior of foodborne pathogens in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Mataragas, Marios; Jespersen, Lene;

    2011-01-01

    In recent years and with the significant advancements in instrumentation for molecular biology methods, the focus of food microbiologists, dealing with pathogenic microorganisms in foods, is shifting. Scientists specifically aim at elucidating the effect that the food composition, as well...... as the commonly employed preservation/storage techniques throughout the food chain, have on the virulence of pathogens. Quantitative PCR and microarrays are, nowadays, powerful tools used for such determinations. The application of these approaches for the determination of the gene expression in situ, is a new...... field of research for food microbiologists and provides new information regarding virulence potential of foodborne pathogens. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd....

  19. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Bertazzoli; Rino Ghelfi; Sergio Rivaroli; Antonella Samoggia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different ...

  20. Microbial performance of food safety management systems implemented in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Santillana, S.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    The actual microbial status of the lamb production chain at three slaughterhouses, one processing plant, and five butcher shops selling whole or cut lamb carcasses to consumers was assessed with a previously developed microbial assessment scheme. All studied establishments had a food safety manageme

  1. The quality turn in the Danish food scape: new food chains emerging – new territorial impacts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Noe, Egon

    2013-01-01

    social or physical geographies of such food chains. This study is focused on exploring whether the utilisation of different notions of quality in emerging producer–consumer networks also translates into new patterns of rural development. This paper is based on data on various sub-sectors of Danish food......Accounts of the ‘quality turn’ in agro-food literature suggest that there is a potential for growth in the market for ‘high-quality’ food, which utilises distinct notions like ‘quality’ and ‘place.’ These food chains are typically described as ‘alternative.’ Alterity might stem from alternative...... chains on municipality scale for the period 2000–2005. Specifically, this study seeks to identify whether this is the case in the Danish context. First, the analysis considers the economic geography of Danish food chains on national level. Second, a deviant case on a regional level is considered, which...

  2. OVERCOMING BARRIERS OF FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN IN MALAYSIA BY JAPANESE FOOD COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radzi, Rafisah; Saidon, Intan Marzita; Ghani, Nadzri Ab

    2015-01-01

    The food manufacturing industry in Malaysia plays a significant role in the economy. Since the industry is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, the local food manufacturing sector is not able to satisfy increasing demand. Malaysia has experienced a persistent food trade imbalance as the demand for food items has risen faster than their supply. In helping Malaysia become more self-sufficient in its food requirements, improvements in the supply chain are important. Given that Japan ...

  3. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...

  4. Market Access for Local Food through the Conventional Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Abate-Kassa, Getachew; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines relationships and linkages between the conventional supply chain actors (wholesalers and retailers) and local food producers based on a study conducted in Southeast Michigan. A case study approach was employed to examine chain actors’ operations and to explore their roles, experiences and perceptions about local foods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the owners and managers of eleven retailers and six wholesalers. The study found differences in local food p...

  5. Food waste within food supply chains: quantification and potential for change to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    PARFITT Julian; Barthel, Mark; Macnaughton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Food waste in the global food supply chain is reviewed in relation to the prospects for feeding a population of nine billion by 2050. Different definitions of food waste with respect to the complexities of food supply chains (FSCs)are discussed. An international literature review found a dearth of data on food waste and estimates varied widely; those for post-harvest losses of grain in developing countries might be overestimated. As much of the post-harvest loss data for developing countries ...

  6. Food chain modelling for Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioecological food-and dose module in the ARGOS decision support system was tested in EcoDoses phase one, and found useful and suited for predicting radiological consequences of nuclear fallout. Further work with the model has indicated need to adjust and change a number of model assumptions and parameters from default values based on Central European conditions to those characteristic for Nordic countries, e.g. growing seasons, harvest times, crop yields, animal feeding regimes, human habits. (au)

  7. Cooperation and competence in global food chains : perspectives on food quality and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Boselie, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Supermarket chains, retailers and wholesalers have made food safety and food quality an integral element of their business strategies. What does this mean for producers in the South, who have to comply with international standards for good agricultural practices as well as with strict food safety re

  8. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market

  9. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  10. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska

  11. ARRRG/FOOD, Doses from Radioactive Release to Food Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: ARRRG calculates radiation doses to humans for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim, or boat. FOOD calculates radiation doses to humans from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. With both programs, doses may be calculated for either a maximum- exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute, one-time, exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an 'infinite' flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness, and a modifying factor is used to compensate for finite extent in the shoreline calculations. The radionuclide concentrations in aquatic and irrigated food products are based on the radionuclide concentration in the contaminated water, which is based on the release rate of radioactive contamination and the characteristics of the receiving water body. Concentration of radionuclides in plants depends on the concentrations in the soil, air, and water. Concentration of radionuclides in farm animal products, such as milk, meat, or eggs, depends on the animal's consumption of feed, forage, and water containing radionuclides. For persons swimming in contaminated water, the dose is calculated assuming that the body of water is an infinite medium relative to the range of emitted radiations. Persons boating on the water are assumed to be exposed to a dose rate half that of swimmers. Internal doses are calculated as a function of

  12. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals food Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Bertazzoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different food chain stages. The analysis is carried out on primary and secondary data: around 2400 financial statements concerning 480 enterprises from 2003 to 2007 and stakeholders’ interviews. Results show that value is usually created in the processing and distribution stages, to the detriment of the primary sector, and that the retail managing practices tend to impose damaging structural changes on farms whose profitability is at times becoming sustainable only thanks to European subsidies. To conclude, there is evidence of inadequate definition of strategic and network alliance along the chain. Competitiveness is still a concept achieved by single food chain stages against others and food chain internal competition entails a declining sustainability of small farms and enterprises.

  13. Hopf bifurcation for simple food chain model with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider a chemostat-like model for a simple food chain where there is a well stirred nutrient substance that serves as food for a prey population of microorganisms, which in turn, is the food for a predator population of microorganisms. The nutrient-uptake of each microorganism is of Holling type I (or Lotka-Volterra form. We show the existence of a global attractor for solutions of this system. Also we show that the positive globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point of the system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation when the dynamics of the microorganisms at the bottom of the chain depends on the history of the prey population by means of a distributed delay that takes an average of the microorganism in the middle of the chain.

  14. SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS – BENEFITS FOR CONSUMERS AND FOOD PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kawecka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalization of food markets, short supply chains are the reversion to traditional food distribution systems. A large group of consumers is willing to reach for local food, frequently also buyers of organic food delivered directly from food producers. The paper presents the characteristics of short food supply chains, food distribution system is shown by: markets, direct purchases from producers and modern forms of providing consumers with local products. Qualitative study was conducted among organic food markets participants – exhibitors (food producers, and visitors (customers. Consumers notice many benefi ts from buying and consuming local food, among others, higher quality of products, favorable price-quality performance ratio, and assurance of purchased products origin. Producers for the most important fi nd greater share in the total price of products and receiving feedback information from consumers. Short supply chains are also resulting signifi cant environmental benefi ts eg. limited transport. A new approach to the subject of local foods and the benefi ts of shortening the supply chain is refl ected in the policy of the European Union – including through programs on rural development.

  15. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  16. The Application of Fuzzy Evaluation Model in the Risk Assessment of Food Supply Chain Management%模糊评价模型在食品供应链管理风险中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琪

    2011-01-01

    基于食品供应链风险评价指标体系,建立模糊评价模型,并运用该模型对食品供应链风险进行综合评价,实证分析得出:快餐巨无霸麦当劳在供应链管理中的风险较低。%With implementing supply chain management,the enterprises are also faced with a series of risks brought about by supply chain management.This paper establishes evaluation index system of food supply chain risk and fuzzy evaluation model,carries out comprehensive evaluation of food supply chain risk,and finally analyzes risk of McDonald's supply chain management.

  17. Measuring the Sustainability of the UK Food Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Andrew Peter; McVittie, Alistair

    2006-01-01

    Recent policy interest has been directed at the sustainability of food industries, in particular the post-farm gate food chain. This comprises of manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing and catering. In order to measure sustainability Byerlee and Murgai (2001) have argued that productivity measures, alongside key indicators of resource quality trends, should be used to indicate sustainable growth. This paper adopts this approach by presenting Fisher indexes of both Total Factor Productivity (TF...

  18. IMPLICATIONS OF FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR DISASTER FOR JAPANESE AGRI-FOOD CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabrin Bachev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few English publications on various impacts of Fukushima nuclear disaster on agri-food secor in Japan. This paper fills the gap and presents results of a study on implications of Fukushima nuclear disaster for Japanese agri-food chains. Firsly, immediate and short-term radiation effects, and effects on nearby population, safety regulation and inspection system, markets and consumer’s behavior, agrarian and food products, health, and economic impacts on farming and agri-businesses, are assessed. Next, overall shorter and longer-term impacts on agriculture, food industries, and consumers in Fukushima region, neighboring regions, and other parts of Japan are estimated.

  19. Study on the Traceability System Establishment of Safety-Objective-Oriented Food Logistics Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to food safety issues, traceability is becoming a method of controlling food safety and connecting suppliers and consumers. The aim of this study is to build up a food logistics supply chain traceability system which can control food safety and connect suppliers and consumers. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability system based on the Structured Query Language (SQL Server, uses the failure mode and effect analysis to assess key indicators of the system. The result shows, the largest Risk Priority Number (RPN is the precision risk of information. Moreover, with fuzzy synthetic evaluation model and intensity weighted average method, this paper ranks the importance of the three factors of the food logistics supply chain traceability system and finds that the depth is the most important factor. Lastly, it uses a case of Green Pork Company to calculate economics effect to prove the feasibility of the system.

  20. Assessing food security in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker, Olivier; Breisinger, Clemens; McCool, Christen; DIAO, Xinshen; Funes, Jose; You, Liangzhi; Yu, Bingxin

    2010-01-01

    The lack of updated information about food security is of concern to many countries, especially during and after economic crises, natural disasters, and conflicts. In this paper we present an analytical framework for assessing the effects of such crises on food security. This methodology can compensate for the lack of recent data in the aftermath of various crisis situations and thus provide important information to policymakers. We apply this methodology to Yemen, a country where the recent ...

  1. Detection of food hazards in foods: comparison of real time polymerase chain reaction and cultural methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonilauri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodstuffs should not contain microorganisms or their toxins or metabolites in quantities suggesting an unacceptable risk for human health. The detection of food hazards in foods is performed by several tests that produce results dependent on the analytical method used: an analytical reference method, defined as standard, is associated with each microbiological criterion laid down in Regulation 2073/2005/EC, but, analytical methods other than the reference ones, in particular more rapid methods, could be used. Combined screening methods performed by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR are currently validated as alternative methods according to the ISO 16140:2003 and certified by the Association Française de Normalisation. However, the positive results obtained with these alternative methods, the investigated molecular relations that resulted positive have to be confirmed with cultural methods using the same enrichment media in which the molecular screening was performed. Since it is necessary to assess if these testing schemes provide equivalent guarantees of food safety, the aim of this retrospective study is to analyse the data collected, from 2012 to 2014 by Emilia Romagna Region in the field of Piano Regionale Alimenti (Food Regional Plan during official controls monitoring food samples of animal and other than animal origin. Records performed by combined methods of molecular screening of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and thermophilic Campylobacter and cultural confirmation results were gathered together and the results were compared in order to assess the sensitivity of the methods. A total of 10,604 food samples were considered in this study: the comparison of the data revealed that the RT-PCR method detected Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and thermophilic Campylobacter in 2.18, 3.85 and 3.73% of the samples, respectively, whereas by using cultural method these pathogens were isolated in 0.43, 1.57 and 1.57% of samples

  2. A Consistent Food Demand Framework for International Food Security Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Beghin, John C.; Meade, Birgit; Rosen, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We present a parsimonious demand modeling approach developed for the annual USDA-ERS International Food Security Assessment. The assessment focuses on chronic food insecurity. The approach incorporates price effects, food quality variation across income deciles, and consistent aggregation over income deciles and food qualities. The approach is based on a simple demand approach for four food categories. It relies on the existing sparse data available for the Assessment, complemented ...

  3. Remarks on antipredator behavior and food chain dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, S.; Gragnani, A.; de Monte, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    to predation. Thus, the main characteristics of the standard Rosenzweig-MacArthur tritrophic food chain (logistic resource and Holling type 11 consumer and predator) remain valid also when consumers have weak antipredator behavior. Moreover, through numerical analysis, we show that in a particular...

  4. Making the organic food service chain work and survive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Netterstrøm, Sune; He, Chen;

    2009-01-01

    works and thus it seems not enough to implement organic food once and for all. The organic supply chain is dynamic being challenged by influences as price premiums, supply shortages and problems of convenience level. This paper investigates three Danish municipalities focusing on important elements...

  5. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) throughout the food production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant with adverse effects on human health. Since dietary intake plays an important role in human exposure, the transfer of PFOS throughout the food chain needs further investigation. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of PFOS c

  6. Ecological consequences of global bifurcations in some food chain models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, van G.A.K.; Kooi, B.W.; Boer, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain models of ordinary differential equations (ode’s) are often used in ecology to gain insight in the dynamics of populations of species, and the interactions of these species with each other and their environment. One powerful analysis technique is bifurcation analysis, focusing on the chan

  7. Transformations in Agri-food Chains: Theory and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Kuiper, W.E.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We apply the classic agency model to investigate chain reversal in a food marketing channel, using time series analysis. We show that if the principal is risk-neutral and the agent is risk-averse, then a linear contract can still be optimal if the fixed payment is negative. Empirical result

  8. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  9. Discussions on the human health risk assessment by food-chain exposure pathways%食物链途径人体健康风险评估的关键内容探讨∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 高阳俊; 耿春女

    2015-01-01

    problems are likely to occur at each step of the improper handling. Farmland as the cornerstone of a food supply source is the pool of other pollutants from air, water, etc. With urban development, human economic activity leads to increased pollution to farmland. Pollutant exposure through food intake, justas ingestion through oral, respiratory, skin, should be given indispensable considerations in human health risk assessment. Food safety has now become a very serious issue. In January 2010 the former Ministry of Health established a “Food Safety Risk Assessment Regulations” ( Trial) according to“Food Safety Law”, which setup an overall process to assess food risk from the soil to table. But it was not into the details and thus difficult to put into practice. In 2014 Ministry of Environmental Protection issued a“Risk Assessment of Contaminated Sites Technical Guidelines”, which provided detailed approaches on assessment of the human health risk caused by soil pollution. However, although the Guidelines considered exposure pathways like oral, skin, respiratory, drinking groundwater, food exposure was missing. In this paper, CLEA ( contaminated and environmental assessment ) of England and HHRAP ( human health risk assessment protocol for hazardous waste combustion facilities ) of America are discussed in⁃depth in order to provide a framework of “Food Chain Pathway Exposure Risk Assessment Guidelines”.

  10. Responsibility and Sustainability in a Food Chain: A Priority Matrix Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  This paper shows the results of empirical research conducted to assess the sustainability of a typical food supply chain, suggesting feasible solutions to satisfy inter-dimensional requisites of durable development. The analysis was conducted with reference to the supply chain of the San Marzano tomato (SMZ, a typical local food. The product is endowed with an origin certification label (PDO, meeting demand within high-value market niches. The SMZ is a flagship product in the Italian region of Campania and has benefited from several regionally funded interventions, such as genetic research and support for the application for EU certification of origin. Two key findings emerged from the research. First, the results allowed us to define a Stakeholder Priority and Responsibilities’ Matrix (SPRM, and monitor the sustainability trend of SMZ food supply chains. Second, the consistency between the adoption of quality strategy (brand of origin and sustainable development of the sector was evaluated. Despite its intrinsic characteristics and its organized, well-defined structure, the SMZ food supply chain is unable to address sustainable objectives without considerable public intervention and support. In terms of sustainability, to be able to show desirable food chain characteristics, the existence of a fully collaborative relationship between the actors has to be ascertained. Identifying shared goals is essential to assign and implement coordinated actions, pooling responsibility for product quality into social and environmental dimensions.

  11. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Vorst, van der, H.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chainsThe overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and effective method to analyse and redesign the SC to improve SC performance.BackgroundThe background and rationale of this thesis are discussed in Chapter 1. Interest in SCM has been spurred by recent socio-e...

  12. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Corinna, ed.

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in...

  13. Understanding Alternative Food Networks: Exploring the Role of Food Supply Chains in Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, H.; Marsden, T.; Banks, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the development and incidence of alternative food networks within a European-wide context. By developing a consistent definition of short food supply chains, we address both the morphology and the dynamics of these, and then examine empirical evidence concerning their incide

  14. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    2000-01-01

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the identifica

  15. The role of food chain traceability in food risk mitigation: expert and consumer outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kher, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The European Union has enforced mandatory traceability for food business operators for effective monitoring and management of risks associated with food and feed chains. The implementation of such a system needs to take account of stakeholder priorities and expectations. Expert stakeholders (such as

  16. Microbiological risk assessment for safe food design & management

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Andrés; Busschaert, Pieter; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2010-01-01

    An important element of microbiological risk analysis, is risk assessment; a process in which the dynamics of microbiological hazards in the food chain are identified and characterized, and the exposure of consumers to the particular hazards is estimated. The current focus of microbiological risk assessment studies is “how it can best be utilized in food safety management to understand the magnitude of prevailing risk regarding a pathogen/product combination, to design risk ...

  17. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: terrestrial food chain and total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent manmade radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. The survey consisted mainly of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates over the islands of each atoll. The logistical support for the entire survey was designed to accommodate this operation. As a secondary phase of the survey, shore parties collected appropriate terrestrial and marine samples to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to those individuals residing on the atolls, who may in the future reside on some of the presently uninhabited atolls, or who collect food from these atolls. Over 5000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern water and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef and pelagic fish, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. The concentration data for 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239240Pu, and 241Am in terrestrial food crops, fowl, and animals collected at the atolls or islands are summarized. An assessment of the total dose from the major exposure pathways including external gamma, terrestrial food chain including food products and drinking water, marine food chain, and inhalation is provided. Radiological doses at each atoll or island are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in the terrestrial foods, marine foods, etc. assuming the average daily intake for each food item

  18. Consumer perception of safety in the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2006-01-01

    consumer research. To this end, consumer motivation for food choice and a classical model of consumer decision-making with related information processing concepts and influencing factors are set forth. Particular attention is paid to the potential role of risk perception in shaping consumer attitudes...... on consumer behaviour with respect to food safety issues, this chapter both provides some basic principles of consumer behaviour and a selection of topical case studies. First, this chapter envisages introducing basic principles of consumer behaviour and consumer decision-making that are applicable in food...... budget and, in accordance with perceived product value, consumers pay prices that makes up the profit of all previous agri-food chain participants. Hence, understanding consumer behaviour is critical to making the right managerial and marketing decisions, including strategic choices with respect to risk...

  19. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  20. Risk assessment and management logistics chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vikulov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the context of economic globalization and increasing complexity of economic relations enterprises need methods and techniques to improve and sustain their position on the global market. Integration processes offer business new opportunities, but at the same time present new challenges for the management, including the key objectives of the risk management. Method: On the basis of analysis tools known from the pertinent literature (Supply Chain Management and Supply Chain Risk Management methods, methods of probability theory, methods of risk management, methods of statistics the authors of this paper proposed their own risk assessment method and the method of management of logistics chains. The proposed tool is a specific hybrid of solutions known from the literature. Results: The presented method has been successfully used within the frames of economic-mathematical model of industrial enterprises. Indicators of supply chain risks, including risks caused by supplier are considered in this paper. Authors formed a method of optimizing the level of supply chain risk in the integration with suppliers and customers. Conclusion: Every organization, which starting the process of integration with supplier and customers, needs to use tools, methodologies and techniques for identification of "weak links" in the supply chain. The proposed method allows to fix risk origin places in various links of the supply chain and to identify "weak links" of a logistic chain that may occur in the future. The method is a useful tool for managing not only risks and risk situations, but also to improve the efficiency of current assets management by providing the ability to optimize the level of risk in the current assets management of the industrial enterprise.

  1. Certification of Markets, Markets of Certificates: Tracing Sustainability in Global Agro-Food Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur P. J. Mol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability systems for sustainability in agro-food supply chains. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyze the prevalence of four different traceability systems to guarantee sustainability; to identify the factors that determine the kind of traceability systems applied in particular supply chains; and to assess what the emergence of economic and market logics in traceability mean for sustainability. Two conclusions are drawn. Globalizing markets for sustainable agro-food products induces the emergence of book-and-claim traceability systems, but the other three systems (identity preservation, segregation and mass balance will continue to exist as different factors drive traceability requirements in different supply chains. Secondly, traceability itself is becoming a market driven by economic and market logics, and this may have consequences for sustainability in agro-food supply chains in the future.

  2. Finite Time Blowup in a Realistic Food-Chain Model

    KAUST Repository

    Parshad, Rana D.

    2013-05-19

    We investigate a realistic three-species food-chain model, with generalist top predator. The model based on a modified version of the Leslie-Gower scheme incorporates mutual interference in all the three populations and generalizes several other known models in the ecological literature. We show that the model exhibits finite time blowup in certain parameter range and for large enough initial data. This result implies that finite time blowup is possible in a large class of such three-species food-chain models. We propose a modification to the model and prove that the modified model has globally existing classical solutions, as well as a global attractor. We reconstruct the attractor using nonlinear time series analysis and show that it pssesses rich dynamics, including chaos in certain parameter regime, whilst avoiding blowup in any parameter regime. We also provide estimates on its fractal dimension as well as provide numerical simulations to visualise the spatiotemporal chaos.

  3. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...... directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...... of FFSCs, decision support tools based on real-time data, hybrid planning and control strategies and lean in the FFSC. Research limitations/implications The study is based on a literature study. The proposed findings give an overview over the topics in P&C in FFSC and are useful in defining future research...

  4. CARBON FOOTPRINT IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD CHAIN AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR FOOD CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Konieczny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Freshness, sensory attributes and food safety are currently indicated as main criteria in respect to food purchasing decisions. However, growing number of consumers are ready to choose also environmentally friendly food products. Carbon Footprint (CF expressed in CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gas emission seems to be an innovative indicator useful to evaluate environmental impacts associated with production and distribution of food. The review carried out in this study is based mainly on data presented in papers and reports published in recent decade, including some opinions available on various internet websites. In this study are discussed some examples of CF values calculated both, production of primary raw materials, food processing stages, final products transporting and activities taken during food preparation in the household, as well. The CF indicator offers also a new tool to promote disposition of food products distributed e.g. through big international supermarket chains. Mostly due to the suggestion of ecological institutions, direct comparison of CF values for different food products leads even to postulate almost total elimination of less eco-friendly animal origin food (like red meat from the diet of typical consumer. So, improving the state of consumers education in respect to environmental issues of whole food chain might effect not only their eating habits but also their health.

  5. Labour Quality Model for Organic Farming Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, B.; Freyer, B.; Leitner, H.

    2008-01-01

    The debate on labour quality in science is controversial as well as in the organic agriculture community. Therefore, we reviewed literature on different labour quality models and definitions, and had key informant interviews on labour quality issues with stakeholders in a regional oriented organic agriculture bread food chain. We developed a labour quality model with nine quality categories and discussed linkages to labour satisfaction, ethical values and IFOAM principles.

  6. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  7. A New Advanced Logistics Supply Chain for Food Management Based on Green Logistics Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanqing Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the advanced logistics supply chain for food management using green logistics. To protect the food logistics environment and prevent the environmental pollution, it is crucial to establish powerful modern supply chains to support the food management in transportation. The construction speed of the food companies is very fast; however, the food supply lags behind the food companies. As a result, the environmental pollution caused in the food logistics becomes severe. To improve this situation, a new logistics supply chain for food management using the environmental logistics theory is proposed in this study. The design and analysis of the proposed food supply chain system has been introduced. By the use of advanced environmental logistics theory, the food supply can be operated in an effective and green manner. Hence, the proposed new logistics supply chain can reduce the environmental pollution of the food logistics and improve the food market environment.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN IN MANAGING HALAL FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays environmental issues persuade companies to pursue conditions whereby the needs of the present are met without compromising the resources of future generations. So, implementing green rules and regulations gain more and more attentions. In spite of benefits of implementing green practices, many companies are not understood why they should invest on it. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine what drivers encourage companies to move towards implementing green practices in their supply chains. To achieve the objectives of this study a survey was designed and distributed to 300 halal food companies in Malaysia. A total of 61 usable replies were received. The results of this study revealed that performance and quality improvement, waste and cost reduction are the important drivers of implementing Green Supply Chain (GSC practices in the halal food companies. It is interesting that having ISO 14000 certificates are reported as the least important driver of implementing GSC practices among these companies. Therefore, it can be concluded that internal benefits mostly motivate halal food companies to implement GSC practices. Since there is little documentation regarding the application of GSC practices in the halal food industries, understanding these issues is identified as a gap in the existing literature.

  9. A New Advanced Logistics Supply Chain for Food Management Based on Green Logistics Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lanqing Liu

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the advanced logistics supply chain for food management using green logistics. To protect the food logistics environment and prevent the environmental pollution, it is crucial to establish powerful modern supply chains to support the food management in transportation. The construction speed of the food companies is very fast; however, the food supply lags behind the food companies. As a result, the environmental pollution caused in the food logistics becomes seve...

  10. Long-term impact of sewage irrigation on soil properties and assessing risk in relation to transfer of metals to human food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Ramu; Datta, S P; Golui, Debasis; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C

    2016-07-01

    A case study was undertaken to assess the risk of sewage-irrigated soils in relation to the transfer of trace elements to rice and wheat grain. For this purpose, peri-urban agricultural lands under the Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme (KEIS) of Delhi were selected. These agricultural lands have been receiving irrigation through sewage effluents since 1979. Sewage effluent, groundwater, soil, and plant (rice and wheat grain) samples were collected with GPS coordinates from this peri-urban area. Under wheat crop, sewage irrigation for four decades resulted into a significant buildup of zinc (141 %), copper (219 %), iron (514 %), nickel (75.0 %), and lead (28.1 %) in sewage-irrigated soils over adjacent tube well water-irrigated ones. Under rice crop, there was also a significant buildup of phosphorus (339 %), sulfur (130 %), zinc (287 %), copper (352 %), iron (457 %), nickel (258 %), lead (136 %), and cadmium (147 %) in sewage-irrigated soils as compared to that of tube well water-irrigated soils. The values of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of trace toxic elements by humans through consumption of rice and wheat grain grown on these sewage-irrigated soils were well within the safe permissible limit. The variation in Zn, Ni, and Cd content in wheat grain could be explained by solubility-free ion activity model (FIAM) to the extent of 50.1, 56.8, and 37.2 %, respectively. Corresponding values for rice grain were 49.9, 41.2, and 42.7 %, respectively. As high as 36.4 % variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by solubility-FIAM model. Toxic limit of extractable Cd and As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard associated with consumption of rice grain by humans was established. A similar exercise was also done in respect of Cd for wheat. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of extractable metals and metalloid in soils with respect to soil properties and human health hazard under the

  11. From Short Food Supply Chains to Sustainable Agriculture in Urban Food Systems: Food Democracy as a Vector of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiffoleau Yuna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized nations, local food networks have generally been analyzed through alternative food systems, in spite of the fact that they are much more diverse than this would imply. In France, ‘short food chains’ are both a continuation of a long tradition and a recent trend which now extends beyond activists, to consumers and producers as well. This paper will explore the conditions under which these chains can change the practices and knowledge of ordinary actors in urban food systems, from producers to urban consumers and policy-makers, in the area of agriculture and sustainability. It will consider the case study of the creation and development of an urban open-air market which has been analyzed using intervention research with input from economic sociology. We will highlight how personal relations, which are encouraged by a participatory context, support the evolution of practices and knowledge. We will also illustrate how a system of produce labelling has emerged as a mediation resource, and has increased changes as well as participation within the re-territorialization of the urban food system. By describing a concrete expression of food democracy which is spreading in France via a free collective trademark, and by showing its role in the transition of ‘ordinary’ actors towards a more sustainable agriculture, this paper will shine new light onto local food chains as well as traditional short food chains, and will call for more research on the subject.

  12. Traceability in the food animal industry and supermarket chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, R G

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact of recent food scares in the UK, where scrutiny of the food industry has led to the introduction of new controls at all stages of production. Animal feed manufacture, livestock production, slaughter and the use or disposal of animal by-products are now controlled in ways unimagined prior to the identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the late 1980s. Traceability has become an important issue for consumers and, by proxy, for the multiple retailers that service consumer needs. Retailers have increasingly managed the food chain to ensure high standards that can be proven by audit. The retailers have also found that a commercial advantage can be gained from certain aspects of source verification. In order to maximise sales in a depressed market, producer groups have themselves developed a multiplicity of assurance schemes.

  13. Neptun: an interactive code for calculating doses to man due to radionuclides in acquatic food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flexible and interactive code, NEPTUN, has been written in FORTRAN IV for the PDP-10 computer to assess the impact on man of radionuclides in aquatic food chains. NEPTUN is based on an equilibrium model of the linear-chain type, and calculates aquatic food concentrations and doses to man. A decay term is included for the holdup time of the various food types. A total of seven food types can be selected, which include drinking water, freshwater and salt-water plants, inverebrates and fish. Thirty different diets can be implemented and five different dose factor files can be chosen. These include dose conversion factors for infants and adults based on ICRP 2 and ICRP 26 methodologies. All dose factors involve a dose commitment of 50 years, or equivalently, 50 years of chronic exposure. To date, only stochastic ICRP 26 dose caluclations have been implemented. The basic concentration factor file contains data for 211 different radionuclides; the dose factor files are less comprehensive. However, all files can be readily expanded. The output includes tables of concentrations and doses for individual radionuclides, as well as summaries for groups of radionuclides. Existing aquatic food chain models and the sources of currently-used generic concentration factors are briefly reviewed, and dose factors based on ICRP 2 and ICRP 26 methodologies are contrasted. (auth)

  14. [Social inequities and food: an ecological study of the food sales of a supermarket chain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Sigler, D; Márquez Calderón, S; Colomer Revuelta, C

    1994-01-01

    With the aim of finding out the pattern of food consumption in different socioeconomic areas of the city of Valencia and examining if the sales data from the supermarkets make up an information source which is capable of detecting inequalities and revealing trends, the sales figures of a chain of supermarkets, referring to 10 food products during 1989 and 1990 were studied. Foods were considered as "healthier" (fruit, vegetables, skimmed milk, fresh fish and chicken), "less healthy" (pork, butter and cakes) and foods indicative of a "new style of eating" (pre-cooked frozen foods and frozen food products). The ratio of between "healthier" food sales and sales of "less healthy" foods is directly related to the socio-economic level of the population. The higher the socioeconomic level, the higher, the ratio of proportions of "healthier" and less healthy" food. This pattern was similar for 1989 (2.78 in lower level districts and 3.32 in higher level districts, and in 1990 (2.92 and 4.09 respectively) (p < 0.01). From these results, we deduce the need for developing different activities for the promotion of healthy foods according to social groups.

  15. Ecological consequences of global bifurcations in some food chain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voorn, George A K; Kooi, Bob W; Boer, Martin P

    2010-08-01

    Food chain models of ordinary differential equations (ode's) are often used in ecology to gain insight in the dynamics of populations of species, and the interactions of these species with each other and their environment. One powerful analysis technique is bifurcation analysis, focusing on the changes in long-term (asymptotic) behaviour under parameter variation. For the detection of local bifurcations there exists standardised software, but until quite recently most software did not include any capabilities for the detection and continuation of global bifurcations. We focus here on the occurrence of global bifurcations in four food chain models, and discuss the implications of their occurrence. In two stoichiometric models (one piecewise continuous, one smooth) there exists a homoclinic bifurcation, that results in the disappearance of a limit cycle attractor. Instead, a stable positive equilibrium becomes the global attractor. The models are also capable of bistability. In two three-dimensional models a Shil'nikov homoclinic bifurcation functions as the organising centre of chaos, while tangencies of homoclinic cycle-to-cycle connections 'cut' the chaotic attractors, which is associated with boundary crises. In one model this leads to extinction of the top predator, while in the other model hysteresis occurs. The types of ecological events occurring because of a global bifurcation will be categorized. Global bifurcations are always catastrophic, leading to the disappearance or merging of attractors. However, there is no 1-on-1 coupling between global bifurcation type and the possible ecological consequences. This only emphasizes the importance of including global bifurcations in the analysis of food chain models.

  16. Ecological consequences of global bifurcations in some food chain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voorn, George A K; Kooi, Bob W; Boer, Martin P

    2010-08-01

    Food chain models of ordinary differential equations (ode's) are often used in ecology to gain insight in the dynamics of populations of species, and the interactions of these species with each other and their environment. One powerful analysis technique is bifurcation analysis, focusing on the changes in long-term (asymptotic) behaviour under parameter variation. For the detection of local bifurcations there exists standardised software, but until quite recently most software did not include any capabilities for the detection and continuation of global bifurcations. We focus here on the occurrence of global bifurcations in four food chain models, and discuss the implications of their occurrence. In two stoichiometric models (one piecewise continuous, one smooth) there exists a homoclinic bifurcation, that results in the disappearance of a limit cycle attractor. Instead, a stable positive equilibrium becomes the global attractor. The models are also capable of bistability. In two three-dimensional models a Shil'nikov homoclinic bifurcation functions as the organising centre of chaos, while tangencies of homoclinic cycle-to-cycle connections 'cut' the chaotic attractors, which is associated with boundary crises. In one model this leads to extinction of the top predator, while in the other model hysteresis occurs. The types of ecological events occurring because of a global bifurcation will be categorized. Global bifurcations are always catastrophic, leading to the disappearance or merging of attractors. However, there is no 1-on-1 coupling between global bifurcation type and the possible ecological consequences. This only emphasizes the importance of including global bifurcations in the analysis of food chain models. PMID:20447411

  17. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system. PMID:24685399

  18. Mercury bioaccumulation in pike (Esox lucius) food chain from Anzali Lagoon, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemzadeh, Gholamreza

    2006-01-01

    A number of wide-ranging monitoring studies have been performed in order to estimate the degree of mercury (Hg) contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Knowledge regarding contamination of different levels of the food chain is necessary for estimation of total pollutant input fluxes and subsequent partitioning among different phases in the aquatic system. The growing international concern about this environmental data is closely related to the strongly developing ecological risk assessment ac...

  19. Sense and Non-Sense of Local–Global Food Chain Comparison, Empirical Evidence from Dutch and Italian Pork Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Oostindie, Henk; Broekhuizen, van, J.C.; Roest; Belletti, Giovanni; Arfini, Filippo; Menozzi, Davide; Hees, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Priority setting between local versus global food chains continues to be subject of debate among food, rural and agricultural scholars with an interest in how to support more sustainable food provision and consumption patterns. Recently the FP7 European GLAMUR project targeted to assess and compare the performances of local versus global food chains in a systematic way covering multiple performance dimensions. Especially drawing on empirical research on the performances of three Italian and t...

  20. Vertical price transmission in the Danish food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Møller, Anja Skadkær

    2005-01-01

    considered? These questions are analysed theoretically and empirically using econometric analysis. 6 food chains are investigated: pork, chicken, eggs, milk, sugar and apples. Preliminary empirical results suggest that for most commodities, price transmission tends to be upward asymmetric, i.e. stronger...... in every case except one. Price transmission for commodities subject to price regulation tends to be less asymmetric than for commodities without price regulation. The degree of industry concentration seems to influence both the degree and asymmetry of price transmission, but the influence differs between...

  1. Towards a More Sustainable Food Supply Chain: Opening up Invisible Waste in Food Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Derqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Future challenges to the global food supply chain are complex. In order to embrace sustainability, companies should change their management practices towards more efficient resource use. Food waste being a misuse of resources, we identify its causes and possible ways of minimising it. To achieve this goal, we conducted explorative research with qualitative and quantitative data through in-depth semi-structured interviews and an open questionnaire with top Spanish food service companies. Results show that most businesses mainly tend to minimise food waste according to economic criteria, without taking into account the social, ethical or environmental factors. As a consequence, just “visible” food waste that has an economic impact on the results is minimised. Nevertheless, visibility of real waste is often low. At the same time, awareness of (and therefore initiatives to reduce food waste that does not directly affect a firm’s profit can be increased through multi-stakeholder collaboration. Opportunities for reducing food waste therefore arise from increasing the visibility of food that is discarded as well as addressing plate waste. We identify best practices that could lead to a reduction of the amount of food waste generated in the out of home channel in Spain.

  2. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ye-ming; Yin, Fang-Fang; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2010-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry, the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry. However, information sharing is the basis of supply chain management. For this purpose, on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management, the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail. It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of in...

  3. Local Food Supply Chains Use Diverse Business Models To Satisfy Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Hand, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies of mainstream and local food supply chains reveal the variety of ways that food products move from farms to consumers. Farms in local food supply chains maintain a diverse portfolio of products and market outlets, which may help defray large fixed costs across multiple revenue streams. Local food supply chains are more likely to provide consumers with detailed information about where and by whom products were produced.

  4. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    OpenAIRE

    Valeeva, N.I.; M.P.M. Meuwissen; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue in improving the food safety level, but little is known about its economic aspects. This paper reviews important issues in this field, namely the definition of safe food, the nature of food safety...

  5. Research on food-chain algorithm and its parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifei YU; Dingwei WANG

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of colony emer-gence of artificial organisms, their dynamic interaction with the environment, and the food-chain crucial to the life system, the rules of local activities of artificial organ-isms at different levels are defined. The article proposes an artificial life-based algorithm, which is referred to as the food-chain algorithm. This algorithm optimizes computa-tion by simulating the evolution of natural ecosystems and the information processing mechanism of natural organ-isms. The definition, idea and flow of the algorithm are introduced, and relevant rules on metabolic energy and change in the surroundings where artificial-life individuals live are depicted. Furthermore, key parameters of the algorithm are systematically analyzed. Test results show that the algorithm has quasi-life traits that include being autonomous, evolutionary, and self-adaptive. These traits are highly fit for optimization problems of life-like sys-tems such as the location-allocation problem of a distri-bution network system.

  6. The chaos and control of a food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose a chaotic food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator. • Local and global stability conditions are derived in presence of additional food. • Chaos is controlled only by increasing quantity of additional food. • System enters into periodic region and depicts Hopf bifurcations supplying additional food. • This an application of non-chemical methods for controlling chaos. -- Abstract: The control and management of chaotic population is one of the main objectives for constructing mathematical model in ecology today. In this paper, we apply a technique of controlling chaotic predator–prey population dynamics by supplying additional food to top-predator. We formulate a three species predator–prey model supplying additional food to top-predator. Existence conditions and local stability criteria of equilibrium points are determined analytically. Persistence conditions for the system are derived. Global stability conditions of interior equilibrium point is calculated. Theoretical results are verified through numerical simulations. Phase diagram is presented for various quality and quantity of additional food. One parameter bifurcation analysis is done with respect to quality and quantity of additional food separately keeping one of them fixed. Using MATCONT package, we derive the bifurcation scenarios when both the parameters quality and quantity of additional food vary together. We predict the existence of Hopf point (H), limit point (LP) and branch point (BP) in the model for suitable supply of additional food. We have computed the regions of different dynamical behaviour in the quantity–quality parametric plane. From our study we conclude that chaotic population dynamics of predator prey system can be controlled to obtain regular population dynamics only by supplying additional food to top predator. This study is aimed to introduce a new non-chemical chaos control mechanism in a predator–prey system with the

  7. Back tracing environmental toxicants in animal-derived food chain based on food metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Erwan; Ratel, Jérémy; Planche, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    Food-producing animals are exposed to toxic micropollutants via their environment and feeds. These micropollutants represent a chemical human health hazard because they are capable of entering the animals and being transferred to edible tissues 1 . Most current approaches to assessing contamination levels in foods are based on high performance analytical methods designed to determine the concentration of targeted micropollutant residues present down to trace levels in the food. Alternative...

  8. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  9. SUSTAINABILITY OF SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS: ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY IN MILAN PUBLIC SCHOOL CATERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.

  10. Exploring the food chain. Food production and food processing in Western Europe, 1850-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.; Segers, Y.; Buyst, E.

    2009-01-01

    Until the late 19th century the food industry was restricted to a few activities, usually based on small scale industries. The links between agriculture and food processing were very tight. Due to increased purchasing power, population growth and urbanisation, the demand for food grew substantially.

  11. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    . The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria in the food chain is a major concern as food-producing animals may constitute a huge reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, food animals and food of animal origin is traded worldwide, which means that the occurrences of antimicrobial resistance...... in the food supply of one country is currently potentially a problem for all countries....

  12. Economics of food safety in chains: a review of general principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The increased demand for safer food has resulted in the development and introduction of new food safety standards and regulations to reach a higher level of food safety. An integrated approach of controlling food safety throughout the entire food chain (`farm to table`) has become an important issue

  13. Management options in the food chain for accidental radionuclide deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland with four other countries participated in the European Union's network project FARMING in 2000 - 2004. The aim of the project was to invite participants from each country representing the food supply chain in a stakeholder group and advance with the groups the networking in building preparedness for accidental contamination of the food production systems. The task of the groups was to evaluate the practicability of management options suggested for reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, and for disposal of waste generated in implementation of these options. The criteria for practicability were effectiveness in reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, technical feasibility, capacity, costs for implementation, secondary costs for waste disposal, socio-economic impact, and acceptability concerning ecology and protection of environment and landscape. Practicable management options aimed at sustainable restoration of food production systems after accidental contamination. The Finnish stakeholder group represented farm production, processing industry, food marketing, catering, advisor organisations for households and agriculture, consumers, nature conservation, the media, experts on environmental impact and authorities responsible for production, safety and security of foodstuffs, food supply and feedstuffs. The group was expected to examine the effect of the Finnish, and, also more generally, northern production conditions on the practicability of the suggested management options. The stakeholder group members first familiarized themselves with intervention after accidental contamination of a large milk production area and thereafter with practicability of individual management options. The evaluation was based on the group members' complementary expertise that very well covered the chain 'from field to fork' whether the issue was related to legislation, production methods, logistics, environmental impacts, or the issues of consumers and

  14. Scotland’s Food and Drink Policy Discussion: Sustainability Issues in the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is two-fold. First, to identify the main sustainability issues that Scottish food supply chain actors are concerned with and any differences that exist between primary producers, processors and distributors and consumers; and second, to explore the implications of respondents’ views for the direction of food and drink policy in Scotland. The analysis was based on a dataset assembled from the written responses to the National Food Policy discussion in Scotland, which contains opinions on the different dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental and social from a broad range of individuals and organizations representing different segments of the Scottish population. The empirical analyses involved comparing the responses according to two criteria: by food supply chain stakeholder and by geographical region. The results indicated that whilst there were differences among the studied groups, the importance of social and economic sustainability were strongly evident in the foregoing analysis, highlighting issues such as diet and nutrition, the importance of local food, building sustainability on sound economic performance, the market power of supermarkets, and regulation and support in building human and technical capabilities.

  15. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.

  16. Simulation modelling for food supply chain redesign; integrated decision making on product quality, sustainability and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.O.; Zee, van der D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food supply chains are confronted with increased consumer demands on food quality and sustainability. When redesigning these chains the analysis of food quality change and environmental load of new scenarios is as important as the analysis of efficiency and responsiveness requirements. Simulation to

  17. Food chain design using multi criteria decision making, an approach to complex design issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Apaiah, R.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a food supply chain for a completely new product involves many stakeholders and knowledge from disciplines in natural and social sciences. This paper describes how Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) facilitated designing a food supply chain in a case of Novel Protein Foods. It made the

  18. LIMCAL: a comprehensive food chain model for predicting radiation exposure to man in long-term nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A food chain model, LIMCAL, has been designed to aid in the assessment of the effects of long-term nuclear waste management on man far into the future. LIMCAL is particularly suited to the evaluation of an underground vault. Energy budgets, a basic feature of food chains, have been introduced in LIMCAL to help overcome uncertainties imposed by long time spans. LIMCAL includes all the ingestion pathways leading to man, which comprise terrestrial, fresh-water and saltwater food types and man's and animals' drinking water. The terrestrial pathways include both root uptake and leaf deposition. The basic input terms for LIMCAL are annual average radionuclide concentrations in soil, fresh water and saltwater. Annual average air concentrations can be calculated from soil concentrations by using the resuspension factor or the mass-loading approach. Many of the equations in LIMCAL are similar to those in FOOD II and NEPTUN, existing food chain models for contemporary assessments. The basic output of LIMCAL consists of radionculide concentrations in various food types and drinking water, and the resulting ICRP 26 50-year committed effective dose equivalents for infant and adult man. Dose/ concentration ratios can also be calculated readily by LIMCAL. LIMCAL is best described as a deterministic generic quasi-equilibrium assessment model of the linear-chain type. The parameters of LIMCAL have been reviewed in detail in a separate document

  19. Analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Lan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Food cold chain is very important for ensuring food safety and decreasing the loss in the supply process. It is also benefit for the citizen, because cold chain could promise the food safety and the demand of the special cold food. Beijing, as the capital, the level of food chain is high, compared to other cities, and analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing is necessary, it could direct the scientific and health development of cold chain all over our country. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, in accordance with the investigation, we analysis the demand status of food cold chain from two aspects, then according to the status, we forecast the demand of refrigerated cars and warehouse for food cold chain in Beijing with the multivariate statistics. Findings: From the analysis of the paper, we can see that the need of cold chain logistics grows rapidly, but most consumers are lack of the awareness of the importance of the cold chain and many companies cannot bear the huge investment, it make the gap of the resources of cold chain logistics large and cannot meet the normal need of cold chain logistics in Beijing. Originality/value: The result of this paper could support the relative enterprise to run business in terms of the refrigerated car and warehouse. 

  20. Towards sustainability in cold chains: Development of a quality, energy and environmental assessment tool (QEEAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Brown, T.; Leducq, D.; Verlinden, B.E.; Evans, J.; Van Der Sluis, S.; Wissink, E.B.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Thuault, D.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; M. Nicolai, B.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of the impact of refrigeration technologies in terms of the quality of refrigerated food, energy usage, and environmental impact is essential to assess cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present a software tool QEEAT (Quality, Energy and Environmental Assessment Tool) for ev

  1. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry,the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry.However,information sharing is the basis of supply chain management.For this purpose,on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management,the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail.It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of information-sharing mechanisms in the food industry green supply chain management and operation process and analyzes the necessity of using information sharing mechanism among the members of the food industry green supply chain management mode by game theory,so as to strengthen the competitiveness of enterprises through supply chain management.

  2. Sustainable Food Security Futures: Perspectives on Food Waste and Information across the Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Irani, Z; Sharif, A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is seeking to signpost the genesis of food security and associated factors such that organisations, enterprises, policy makers and interested stakeholders can seek to explore and understand this important societal issue. The challenges that food security poses are eclectic in nature and cut through country, society, organisation and individual boundaries. Only through identifying these factors – hence identifying underlying factors of food waste and usage of information wi...

  3. Adaptation of ECOSYS for Nordic food chain modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ECOSYS model is the basic food chain model in the current European state-of-the-art systems for decision-aiding in connection with major nuclear accidents. To apply this model optimally in the decision process in a Nordic country contaminated due to an accident, it is necessary to change a number of the default parameters in ECOSYS to reflect Nordic, national or regional conditions. A number of potentially problematic parameters are identified and examined in this context. The importance of obtaining adequate parameters for, e.g., human consumption habits, animal feeding regimes, crop development dynamics and soil-plant transfer processes are discussed. Also the generic importance of considering particle size in connection with deposition modelling is demonstrated. (au)

  4. Simulation modelling for food supply chain redesign; Integrated decision making on product quality, sustainability and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst; Tromp, Seth; Van Der Zee, Durk-Jouke

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Food supply chains are confronted with increased consumer demands on food quality and sustainability. When redesigning these chains the analysis of food quality change and environmental load of new scenarios is as important as the analysis of efficiency and responsiveness requirements. Simulation tools are often used for supporting decision-making on supply chain (re)design when logistic uncertainties are in place, building on their inherent modelling flexibility. Mostly, ...

  5. SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN IN SARDINIA: FORMS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN PRIMARY PRODUCERS AND FINAL CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazzette

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of the short food supply chains in Sardinia, at present, is not the same as in other Italian regions. Several structural and economic conditions of the Regional food supply chain, prevent an extensive diffusion. Forms of cooperation between primary producers and final consumers, as the responsible buying groups, will promote the shortening of the food supply chain, offering to the primary producers an alternative way of marketing for the wide array of locally grown farm produce.

  6. Sustainability of processed foods supply chain: Social, economic and territorial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beber Caetano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global market, food companies engaged in sustainable development must now integrate the economic and social component. However the tools to assess it are lacking. Several theoretical frameworks have been developed to define social sustainability and its implementation. The attributional approaches, pathways or capabilities methods have emerged, based on a functional unit of a good or service along the supply chain. This paper proposes a new method to assess social economic and territorial performances of a food chain as a whole on a Territory. It is divided into four components: (i dignity and well-being of workers, (ii contribution to local life, (iii fairness and integrity of business practices, and (iv creation of material and intangible wealth. 50 criteria are used according to international, national or sectoral references. This generic method applicable to any sector of processed food products aims to identify where are the areas of improvement to qualify the sector as socially sustainable. An application to the wine Beaujolais and Burgundy wine was performed from surveys of 35 production and trade operators in 2014. The results show that the sector is particularly effective for the promotion of the territory, local life participation, loyalty and integrity of business practices; some improvement is still possible for the welfare of workers and the creation of material wealth. This method can be coupled with the environmental performance determined by the life cycle analysis in order to assess the sustainability in its entirety.

  7. Chinese Multiple Food Retail Chains: Understanding Power In Supply Chains And The Impact Of Culture On Business Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, A; Chicksand, D; Yang, T

    2005-01-01

    This paper applies power regime methodology to provide an alternative wav of understanding the options available for supply chain management within the Chinese multiple food retail market. It helps international and local retailers to select the most appropriate supply chain approach for China. The paper suggests that short-term supplier selection is not always the appropriate sourcing approach for multiple food retailers. They should consider proactive collaborative relationships with their ...

  8. Drivers of food waste and policy responses to the issue: The role of retailers in food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Alina

    2015-01-01

    One third of the entire food produced for our consumption is either lost or wasted at some point of the food supply chain. The problem of food waste does not only intensify the elementary problem of food insecurity in wasting precious nourishment - originally intended to be consumed - connected with its economic value, but the processing and disposal of food also wastes scarce resources such as water, agricultural land and energy, as well as increasing CO2 emissions. Recent studies identify c...

  9. Parameter values for the long-term nuclear waste management food chain model LIMCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen parameters of LIMCAL, a comprehensive food chain model for predicting ICRP 26 50-year committed effective dose equivalents to man due to long-term nuclear waste management are reviewed. The parameters are: soil bulk density, plowlayer depth, soil surface layer depth, resusupension factor, atmospheric dust load, deposition velocity, plant interception fraction, plant environmental half-time, translocation factor, time of above-ground exposure, plant yield, holdup time, animals' feed consumption rate, animals' water consumption rate, man's water consumption rate, food type calorie conversion factors, man's total caloric intake rate and food type calorie fractions. LIMCAL has both traditional and unique parameters. The former occur in most of the currently used assessment models for nuclear installations, whereas the latter do not. For each of the parameters of LIMCAL, a suitable generic value for long-term nuclear waste management was determined. Thus, the general literature and the values currently used or recommended by various agencies were reviewed

  10. Cycles of undesirable substances in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group ''Carry over of undesirable substances in animal feed'' at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry (BMELV) in cooperation with the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI) performed on 27 and 28 October 2011 in Braunschweig a workshop on ''cycles of undesirable substances in Food Chain ''. The aim of the workshop was to present the latest findings of research and Carry over Recommendations of the Carry over - Working Group on undesirable substances in feed and production processes of the feed industry, to evaluate and discuss about this with representatives from science, business and management and to work out the further research and action need. The focus of the considerations were the pathways, the carry over and the Exposure to dioxins and other halogenated hydrocarbons, the effects of Mycotoxins in feed and starting points for preventive measures, the soil contamination and the exposure of humans and animals by cadmium and case studies on Nitrite in feed, antibiotics in plants and residues of pesticides and radionuclides in feed. Furthermore the risks associated with specified manufacturing processes of feed are considered, especially the used materials that come into contact with animal feed, and the risks from nanotechnology.

  11. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise. PMID:21624916

  12. A general model for the transfer of radioactive materials in terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general methodology for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in the food chains to man is described. The models are dynamic in nature so that the long-term time dependence of processes in environmental materials can be represented, for example, the build-up of activity concentrations in soils during continuous deposition from atmosphere. Modules for radionuclide migration are described in well-mixed (cultivated) soil and undisturbed soil (pasture). The methods by which the transfer coefficients used in plant and animal modules are derived are also given. The foodstuffs considered are those derived from green vegetables, grain, and root vegetables together with meat and liver products from the cow and sheep and cow dairy products. The dynamic model permits the time dependence of food chain transfer processes to be represented for different land contamination scenarios; in particular, the model can be adapted to represent behaviour following a single deposit. Using the sensitivity of results to the variation of transfer parameters the model can be used to determine the parts of the food chain where improved data would be most effective in increasing the reliability of radiological assessments; a worked example is given. (author)

  13. Chain-wide consequences of transaction risks and their contractual solutions : managing interdependencies in differentiated agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formu

  14. Asymptotic stability of tri-trophic food chains sharing a common resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoč, Ivo; Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-12-01

    One of the key results of the food web theory states that the interior equilibrium of a tri-trophic food chain described by the Lotka-Volterra type dynamics is globally asymptotically stable whenever it exists. This article extends this result to food webs consisting of several food chains sharing a common resource. A Lyapunov function for such food webs is constructed and asymptotic stability of the interior equilibrium is proved. Numerical simulations show that as the number of food chains increases, the real part of the leading eigenvalue, while still negative, approaches zero. Thus the resilience of such food webs decreases with the number of food chains in the web. PMID:26498384

  15. An optimization approach for managing fresh food quality throughout the supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2011-01-01

    degradation in such a way that it can be integrated in a mixed-integer linear programming model used for production and distribution planning. The resulting model is applied in an illustrative case study, and can be used to design and operate food distribution systems, using both food quality and cost......One of the most challenging tasks in today's food industry is controlling the product quality throughout the food supply chain. In this paper, we integrate food quality in decision-making on production and distribution in a food supply chain. We provide a methodology to model food quality...

  16. Price transmission along the food supply chain in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bukeviciute, Lina; Dierx, Adriaan; Fabienne ILZKOVITZ; Roty, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural commodities and consumer food prices have experienced strong variations over the last 2 years, both upwards and downwards. This increased volatility, combined with long-term prospects of rising food prices, highlights the necessity to increase the efficiency of the food supply chain to ensure consumer food prices reflect the evolution of inputs prices. This paper aims at better understanding price transmission mechanisms along the chain across European Union Member States. Signif...

  17. Towards the Development of Innovative Strategies for Traditional Food Chains in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienn Molnár

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations no longer compete as independent entities, but as chains (Christopher, 1998; Cox, 1999; Lambert, Cooper, 2000. Consequently, chain strategies became more important in creating competitive advantage (Vickery et al., 2003; Gunasekaran et al., 2004. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of chain strategies, many chains active in the agri-business sector still face difficulties in developing common chain strategies and implementing them collaboratively to generate additional mutual gains and savings. Chains lacking a chain strategy and having short-term perspectives face difficulties in envisaging and implementing cooperative solutions to problems they cannot manage alone. Despite this recognition, the actual development of such chain strategies lags behind because of some particular issues which still need to be addressed (e.g. vision, mission, values or action plans. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to identify and consolidate chain members’ goals, to select a minimum set of key goals and to confront these chain goals with consumer preferences. This way, the paper develops the vision of traditional food chains in the EU, as a first step of strategy development. First, chain members goals are identified and consolidated with the help of approximately 100 stakeholders (suppliers, focal companies, customers from three European countries representing 5 traditional food product categories (cheese, beer, dry ham, dry sausage and white pepper. The most important goals of traditional food chains are to maintain traditionalism, to improve responsiveness, to maintain superior quality and to create chain balance. These chain goals are tested against the perception of 4828 consumers from six European countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. As a result, the vision of traditional food chains is developed: the European traditional food sector envisions a competitive sector maintaining the traditional

  18. Approaches to risk assessment in food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Hattersley, S.; Buck, J.;

    2009-01-01

    modelling is considered to be the most promising approach for use in population risk assessment (which is a particular focus for risk managers). For all approaches, further improvement of input data is desirable, particularly data on consumption patterns/food choices in food allergic consumers, data...... the area forward. Three possible approaches to safety assessment and risk assessment for allergenic foods were presented and discussed: safety assessment using NOAEL/LOAEL and uncertainty factors, safety assessment using Benchmark Dose and Margin of Exposure (MoE), and risk assessment using probabilistic...... models. The workshop concluded that all the three approaches to safety and risk assessment of allergenic foods should continue to be considered. A particular strength of the MoE and probabilistic approaches is that they do not rely on low-dose extrapolations with its inherent issues. Probabilistic...

  19. Key Factors Influencing Economic Relationships and Communication in Finnish Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    LÀhdesmÀki, Merja; Viitaharju, Leena; Suvanto, Hannele; Valkosalo, Pauli; Kurki, Sami; Rantala, Sanna-Helena; Hartmann, Monika; Fischer, Christian; Reynolds, Nikolai; Bavorova, Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this report is to discuss the role of the relationship type and communication in two Finnish food chains, namely the pig meat-to-sausage (pig meat chain) and the cereal-to-rye bread (rye chain) chains. Furthermore, the objective is to examine those factors influencing the choice of a relationship type and the sustainability of a business relationship. Altogether 1808 questionnaires were sent to producers, processors and retailers operating in these two chains of which 224 usable qu...

  20. Development of a ECOREA-II code for human exposures from radionuclides through food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides from nuclear facilities following an accident into air results in human exposures through two pathways. One is direct human exposures by inhalation or dermal absorption of these radionucles. Another is indirect human exposures through food chain which includes intakes of plant products such as rice, vegetables from contaiminated soil and animal products such as meet, milk and eggs feeded by contaminated grasses or plants on the terrestial surface. This study presents efforts of the development of a computer code for the assessment of the indirect human exposure through such food chains. The purpose of ECOREA-II code is to develop appropriate models suitable for a specific soil condition in Korea based on previous experimental efforts and to provide a more user-friendly environment such as GUI for the use of the code. Therefore, the current code, when more fully developed, is expected to increase the understanding of environmental safety assessment of nuclear facilities following an accident and provide a reasonable regulatory guideline with respecte to food safety issues

  1. Agricultural Supply Chain Risk Assessment in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    ARIAS CARBALLO, DIEGO; Laura, dos Reis

    2013-01-01

    A rapid agricultural supply chain risk assessment, recently developed by the World Bank, constitutes a useful tool for a system-wide approach to identify risks, risk exposure, the severity of potential loses, and options for risk management either by supply chain participants (individually or collectively) or by third parties (government). Supply chain risk management is the systematic pro...

  2. Key environmental challenges for food groups and regions representing the variation within the EU, Ch.3 Salmon Aquaculture Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G., Ólafsdóttir; Andrade, Grace Patricia Viera; Nielsen, Thorkild;

    2013-01-01

    The report is aimed to give a thorough review of different environmental impacts that the food and drink sector are producing along the whole chain, from fork to farm and to assess which of them are the key environmental challenges for Europe. A representative range of product groups have been ch...... chosen: • Orange juice • Beef and dairy • Aquaculture (salmon)...

  3. Quantifying the agri-food supply chain: proceedings of the Frontis workshop on quantifying the agri-food supply chain, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 22-24 October 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    Due to globalization and internationalization of agri-food production, the arena of competition and competitive advantage is moving from individual firms operating on spot markets towards supply chains and networks. Therefore, coordination between firms within the chain becomes more important. Topic

  4. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  5. A Food Chain Algorithm for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Recycling in Reverse Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Gao, Xuexia; Santos, Emmanuel T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces the capacitated vehicle routing problem with recycling in reverse logistics, and designs a food chain algorithm for it. Some illustrative examples are selected to conduct simulation and comparison. Numerical results show that the performance of the food chain algorithm is better than the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization as well as quantum evolutionary algorithm.

  6. LOGISTICS INFORMATION SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR ORGANIZATIONS IN THE FOOD CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Srećko Ćurčić; Sida Milunović; Ivan Savović; Milena Đurić

    2008-01-01

    With the establishment of an environmental management logistics system, organizations in the production chain of food products should provide evidence of their ability to control safety and environmental dangers. Logistics systems should be applicable to all organizations, regardless of their size, which are involved in any aspect of the food chain, from production preparation to waste management.

  7. LOGISTICS INFORMATION SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR ORGANIZATIONS IN THE FOOD CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Ćurčić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the establishment of an environmental management logistics system, organizations in the production chain of food products should provide evidence of their ability to control safety and environmental dangers. Logistics systems should be applicable to all organizations, regardless of their size, which are involved in any aspect of the food chain, from production preparation to waste management.

  8. Effective use of product quality information in food supply chain logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food supply chains have inherent characteristics, such as variability in product quality and quality decay, which put specific demands on logistics decision making. Furthermore, food supply chain organization and control has changed significantly in the past decades by factors such as scale intensif

  9. Quality assurance in food and agribusiness supply chains: developing successful partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.; Trienekens, J.

    1999-01-01

    Specific market and production characteristics of food supply chains are motives for vertical coordination in order to gain competitive advantage. Quality assurance systems will only contribute as a facilitating factor. The actual competitiveness of the food supply chain will be determined by the ab

  10. Food supply chain disruption due to natural disaster: Entities, risks and strategies for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resilience of food supply chain (FSC) to disruptions has not kept pace with the extended, globalized and complex network of modern food chain. This chapter presents a holistic view of the FSC, interactions among its components, risks and vulnerabilities of disruption in the context of natural d...

  11. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane;

    2014-01-01

    System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains...

  12. The Marine Food Chain in Relation to Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R.G. Price

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity provides “raw materials” for the food chain and seafood production, and also influences the capacity of ecosystems to perform these and other services. Harvested marine seafood species now exceed 100 million t y -1 and provide about 6% of all protein and 17% of animal protein consumed by humans. These resources include representatives from about nine biologically diverse groups of plants and animals. Fish account for most of the world’s marine catches, of which only 40 species are taken in abundance. Highest primary productivity and the richest fisheries are found within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ. This narrow strip (200 nautical mile/370 km wide is not only the site of coastal “food factories” but also the area associated with heaviest perturbation to the marine environment. Structural redundancy is evident in marine ecosystems, in that many species are interchangeable in the way they characterise assemblage composition. While there is probably functional redundancy within groups, the effects of species loss on ecosystem performance cannot be easily predicted. In particular, the degree to which biodiversity per se is needed for ecosystem services, including seafood/fishery production, is poorly understood. Many human activities, including unsustainable fishing and mariculture, lead to erosion of marine biodiversity. This can undermine the biophysical cornerstones of fisheries and have other undesirable environmental side effects. Of direct concern are “species effects”, in particular the removal of target and non-target fishery species, as well as conservationally important fauna. Equally disrupting but less immediate are “ecosystem effects”, such as fishing down the food web, following a shift from harvested species of high to low trophic level. Physical and biological disturbances from trawl nets and dynamite fishing on coral reefs can also severely impact ecosystem structure and function.

  13. Research on Fresh Produce Food Cold Chain Logistics Tracking System Based on RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Yan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of food cold chain is associated with people's lives, there’s distance between the current level of cold chain logistics construction and social development, but food quality and safety problems caused by uncontrollable logistics sectors are also intensified increasingly. In this study, we discusses the application of RFID in the cold chain logistics of fresh products in all aspects of production, processing, storage, transportation, sales and proposed RFID-based fresh produce cold chain traceability system from the view of food safety by combing the development of fresh produce cold chain logistics and related literature. We expect fresh produce cold chain traceability system can ensure fresh produce safety from farm to the table, which may be a reference to the development of China's food industry.

  14. The Chain Information Model: a systematic approach for food product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The chain information model has been developed to increase the success rate of new food products. The uniqueness of this approach is that it approaches the problem from a chain perspective and starts with the consumer. The model can be used to analyse the production chain in a systematic way. This r

  15. Effective use of product quality information in food supply chain logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Rijpkema, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Food supply chains have inherent characteristics, such as variability in product quality and quality decay, which put specific demands on logistics decision making. Furthermore, food supply chain organization and control has changed significantly in the past decades by factors such as scale intensification and globalization. In practice, these characteristics and developments frequently lead to supply chain problems, such as high levels of product waste, product quality problems, and high log...

  16. Future of Supply Chain Management in Various food Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Tyagi,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyse the case of any production system and the structure of supply chain has evolved progressively over the time of sequential supply chain, to global supply chain. This evolution has reflected the change in business environment from static to dynamic. So the purpose of this paper is to propose an agenda for future research in supply chain management. We also measure the effect of FDI in India to the existing production industries in India.

  17. Analysis of information on food chain in Europe and Piedmont region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pattono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food chain information (FCI is an innovation of the new European regulation. Its purpose is to enhance the concept of food security. FCI includes specifications such as: health status, information on treatments and diseases, analytical reports on control plans, zoonoses or environmental contaminants, production performance, etc. The aim of this article is to compare the different European guidelines and analyse the situation in Piedmont in order to assess potential problems and propose solutions. European guidelines are similar one another, but they have been tailored to the epidemiological situations of each state. Except for Spain and Germany, FCI models are different for each species and the poultry sector is the most detailed. Unfortunately, Italy has not provided guidelines yet, and this has generated considerable differences. Overall, the number of FCI models with incomplete information is the largest group compared to the models not completed for each entry. The main deficiencies are related to pharmacological treatments. The health status of the farm is listed consistently regarding the compulsory eradication plans, but other national voluntary or accreditation plans are rarely mentioned. The situation is similar in other European countries. In conclusion, FCI is an effective tool if applied with consistency and reason. Only in this way the collection of data will be effective and representative of the food chain.

  18. Research on Cooperation Strategy of Enterprises’ Quality and Safety in Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Jining Wang; Tingqiang Chen; Junyong Wang

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent and control risk factors which harm the quality and safety of the food supply chain effectively and reduce the probability of food safety incidents, this paper investigated on some problems of the upstream and downstream enterprises of the food supply chain under the three different forms of cooperation based on the neoclassic economics and game theory method. These problems include the effectiveness of the quality and safety efforts, the profits, the effect of the losses ...

  19. Market power: Modeling issues and identification problems. An investigation of selected Hungarian food chains

    OpenAIRE

    Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Ferto, Imre; Hockmann, Heinrich; Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr

    2009-01-01

    In recent years increasing number of contractual arrangements in food chains are observed. There are several reasons for this phenomenon. Improving food quality often requires significant specific investments. Given high asset specificity, investors find it difficult to appropriate the returns on investment and thus have incentives to integrate. However, besides this transaction costs related argument, the ongoing vertical integration can result from structural developments in food chains whi...

  20. Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain--are we prepared to tackle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Premanandh; Bin Salem, Samara

    2015-11-01

    Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes has been increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, the significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions have been presented. Although the concept of substantial equivalence satisfies the technical and nutritional requirements of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animals in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as this will be a valuable tool if a global consensus is not reached on policy regulation.

  1. Risk assessment and management logistics chains

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Vikulov; Andrey Butrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the context of economic globalization and increasing complexity of economic relations enterprises need methods and techniques to improve and sustain their position on the global market. Integration processes offer business new opportunities, but at the same time present new challenges for the management, including the key objectives of the risk management. Method: On the basis of analysis tools known from the pertinent literature (Supply Chain Management and Supply Chain R...

  2. Assessing responsiveness of a volatile and seasonal supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Hvolby, Hans Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    ‘‘market responsive’’ and ‘‘physically efficient’’ supply chains constitutes the backbone of this assessment. Four risk-influencing determinants—forecast uncertainty, demand variability, contribution margin, and time window of delivery are found suitable to assess the responsiveness of the toy supply chain......This paper describes a structural approach to assess the responsiveness of a volatile and seasonal supply chain. It is based on a case study in an international toy company. Fisher’s (Harvard Bus. Rev. 75(2) (1997) 105–117) Model of ‘‘innovative’’ and ‘‘functional’’ products and the corresponding...... with volatility, and to design for a responsive supply chain. These findings have also enabled the extension of Fisher’s Model to volatile supply chains. This new product differentiation model adds a physically responsive supply chain for ‘‘intermediate’’ products into the Fisher’s Model....

  3. Local fall-out and the animal food chain; Retombees locales et chaine alimentaire animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit

  4. Supply chain quality and its managerial challenges: Insights from Ukrainian agri-food business

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Jon; Gagalyuk, Taras

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the effect of the East-European business environment on quality management as a means of operationalising chain management strategies. The particular focus on the Ukrainian agri-food business in combination with fifteen in-depth expert interviews reveals the infancy of chain (quality) management in transition economies. General mechanisms of chain management are primarily installed by foreign enterprises acting as focal companies in their supply chain networks. At the sa...

  5. Chain-wide consequences of transaction risks and their contractual solutions : managing interdependencies in differentiated agri-food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formula used to calculate the price in a farmer-processor transaction, may reduce incentives for farmers to produce high quality products. This can increase the risks that low quality products are excha...

  6. HACCP and the Risk Assessment of Cold-chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang QingYing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that cold-chain involves lots of complicated operations which suffer from various uncertain factors during the process of implementing, it is inevitable to establish a sound and detailed risk assessment principle or means to guarantee the safety of cold-chain. HACCP, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, is chosen to be a useful tool to analyze the processes of cold-chain, assess the potential risks for each operation link, and then identify the critical control points and give the appropriate risk weights, so as to ensure the safety, quality and reliability of the cold-chain.

  7. On Power and Weakness, Capacity and Impotence: Rigidity and Flexibility in Food Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der J.D.; Frouws, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the significance of organic food production in the Netherlands. It critically examines the social and political construction of food markets in the context of the dominance of industrial and corporate retailer‐led food supply chains. Two cases are used to illustrate counter or a

  8. Intercomparison of the terrestrial food chain models FOOD-MARC and ECOSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-dependent food chain models, FOOD-MARC and ECOSYS, have been developed independently at the NRPB and at the GSF respectively. Both models are compared with respect to the model assumptions and the parameters used. A further point of this study is the analysis of the influence of actual differences in agricultural conditions in the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany on the results. A single deposition of 1 Bq/m2 was assumed of selected radionuclides on an area in agricultural use. The endpoints considered are the resulting activity concentrations in plant and animal foodstuffs as a function of time after deposition. The cumulative concentrations integrated over 50 years are calculated. A deposition in winter (January 1) and another one in summer (July 1) are considered separately to point out the seasonal influence on the contamination of foodstuffs. In this comparison, the products vegetables, grain, roots, milk, meat, and the radionuclides Sr-89/90, Ru-106, Cs-134/137, I-129/131/133, and Pu-239 are taken into account. The activity concentrations in food products are calculated for the times 7 d, 30 d, 100 d, 200 d, 1 a, 2 a, 5 a, 10 a, 20 a, and 50 a after the single deposition on January 1 or July 1. (orig./HP)

  9. The FRISBEE tool, a software for optimising the trade-off between food quality, energy use, and global warming impact of cold chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Leducq, D.; Brown, T.; Verlinden, B.E.; Bekele, E.; Aregawi, W. Evans, J.; Foster, A.; Duret, S.; Hoang, H.M.; Sluis, S. van der; Wissink, E.; Hendriksen, L.J.A.M.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Le Page, J.F.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; Nicolai, B.M.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Food quality (including safety) along the cold chain, energy use and global warming impact of refrigeration systems are three key aspects in assessing cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present the framework of a dedicated software, the FRISBEE tool, for optimising quality of refrigerated

  10. Private food law : governing food chains through contracts law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the turn of the Millennium, world-wide initiatives from the private sector have turned the regulatory environment for food businesses upside down. For the first time in legal literature this book analyses private law initiatives relating to the food chain, often referred to as private (volunta

  11. Analysis of the Supply Chain and Logistics Practices of Warqe Food Products in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Chaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Warqe (Enset is a multipurpose perennial plant, domesticated and grown as a food crop only in Ethiopia. Kocho, bulla, and amicho are food products of warqe. This study analysed the supply chain and logistics practices of warqe foods. Supply chain management concept was used to analyse the warqe-based food chain. Eight supply chain actors were identified. It was observed that the supply chain of warqe foods and the relationship between chain actors was very complex, long and overlapping. The major constraints identified in the chain were poor information flow, poor transportation system, using perishable packaging, lack of cooperation between actors, a poor infrastructure such as road and warehouse services, and poor policies concerning the warqe market. There is a need for cooperation and coordination between the chain actors to create an effective information sharing system. Shared warehouses need to be built near producers and market places. Transportation, packaging and handling need to be improved. Research is required to develop an integrated, efficient and effective logistics for warqe supply and marketing chain.

  12. Scope and precision of sustainability assessment approaches to food systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schader

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With sustainability within food systems becoming an increasingly important issue, several approaches that claim to assess the sustainability of farms, farming systems, and supply chains have been developed. Looking more closely at these sustainability impact assessment approaches, we discerned considerable differences between them in terms of scope, the level of assessment, and the precision of indicators used for impact assessment. Our aim was to classify and analyze a range of available sustainability impact assessment approaches with respect to scope and precision. From a total of 35 sustainability assessment approaches, we selected 6 for a detailed comparison. From our analysis, we concluded that there are 3 different types of trade-offs in these approaches: between different kinds of scope, between different indicators for precision and trade-offs, and between the scope and precision. Thus, one-size-fits-all solutions, with respect to tool selection, are rarely feasible. Furthermore, as indicator selection determines the assessment results, different and inconsistent indicators can lead to contradictory assessment results that may not be comparable. To overcome these shortcomings, sustainability impact assessments should include a precise definition of the notion of “sustainability” along with a description of the methodological approach and the indicator sets and should aim for harmonization of indicators and assumptions. Global initiatives such as the Sustainability Assessment in Food and Agriculture Systems (SAFA Guidelines are a helpful step toward shedding light on the differences of these approaches and making the assessment results more comparable.

  13. Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

  14. Food-Safety Hazards in the Pork Chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sophie Fahrion

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.

  15. An adaptation of human food chain models to predicting internal exposure of biota: the Faster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an acknowledged lack of available data to derive parameters describing the transfer of many radionuclides from soil to wild species. Furthermore, many approaches to estimating the internal exposure of biota assume equilibrium transfer from soil to biota. However, as environmental impact assessments may need to be conducted for many scenarios (e.g. chronic or acute releases to air and ground waters) assumptions of equilibrium soil to biota transfer many be neither sufficient nor conservative. Much effort has previously been devoted to derive semi-mechanistic models to enable the transfer of radionuclides through human food chains to be predicted dynamically. A logical first step to addressing the data gaps in our ability to predict internal activity concentrations of biota is to consider adapting these models for wild species. Here we describe the development of a semi-mechanistic model to estimate activity concentrations in wild mammals by adaptation of existing human food chain models. Interception, weathering, plant uptake and soil migration parameters are derived from previously published models or collations such as IAEA Technical Report Series No. 364. Allometric relationships dependent on body mass are used to estimate wild animal parameters including, for most radionuclides, biological half-life. Comparison of predictions with observed data allows limited comment on the validity of model predictions. For instance, predicted Cs values are within observed ranges, and an increase in Cs activity concentrations from prey-carnivore as observed by many authors is predicted. Predicted values for 90Sr, 226Ra and U also appear reasonable whilst those for the actinide elements are low compared with the limited available data. To date a simple source-grass-herbivore-carnivore food chain has been considered; the potential for further development of the model is discussed. (author)

  16. Workable methods for risks control in the food chain production.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucilla Iacumin; Cristina Giusto; Marisa Manzano; Giuseppe Comi

    2008-01-01

    Several food pathologies due to new or already known micro-organisms occur all over the world every year. Food concerned are more and more frequently traditional typical, ethnical products coming from fast or slow food systems. Most of food-borne pathologies develop through neurological, gastrointestinal (watery, bloody or persistent diarrhoea) abdominal pain, sickness and vomiting. The causes of these epidemics, apart from the concerned pathogen, are linked to the contaminated first matter o...

  17. Supply Chain Maturity Assessment of Coca Cola Ghana Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteh, Quaye

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the supply chain process management of Coca Cola Ghana Ltd; this research is of importance due to its potential to point out processes that can yield higher performance of the supply chain and those processes that can be enhanced for higher per-formance levels. The sample for this study was selected using purposive sampling; five supply chain man-agement practitioners in the company were used for the data extraction. Questionnaires were sent to these five respond...

  18. Responsible chain management: a capability assessment framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, de Frank; Nijhof, André

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to issues of responsibility across the entire product lifecycle. Responsible behaviour of organizations in the product chain is dependent on the actions of other parties such as suppliers and customers. Only through co-operation and close interactio

  19. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane;

    2014-01-01

    but will not be sufficient to address all environmental im-pacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage......System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains...

  20. Food value chain analysis: A review of selected studies for Pakistan and guidelines for further research

    OpenAIRE

    ul Haq, Zahoor

    2012-01-01

    The study of value chains comprises of two key concepts: value and chain. The term value is synonym to “value added†in the Value Chain Analysis (VCA) as it characterizes the incremental value of a resultant product produced from processing of a product. For agricultural products, value addition can also take place through differentiation of a product based on food safety and food functionality. Price of the resultant product shows its incremental value. The term chain refers to a supply c...

  1. Marketing Strategic Benefit-risk Analysis: Transgenic Poultry Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of marketing strategic benefit-risk of transgenic poultry food supply chain in china, we analyze the role that benefits and risks play in the formation of the decision-making process of transgenic poultry food participants. This study discusses the ways and strategies of transgenic poultry food supply chain from the following aspects: a, the food's safety concerning producers, marketing participants and consumers’ risk behaviour at three stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. b, all these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and avoid disruption or catastrophic economic consequences for all stages of the transgenic poultry food supply chain. c, the identification, analysis, determination and understanding of the benefit-risk trade-offs of market participants in transgenic poultry food market may help policy makers, financial analysts and marketers to make well informed and effective corporate marketing strategies in order to deal with highly uncertain and risky situations. We hope these can accelerate the construction of marketing strategic benefit-risk trade-offs of transgenic poultry food supply chain, promote sustained and rapid growth of transgenic poultry food industry in china.

  2. Performance indicators in agri-food production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Kooten, van O.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing interest in indicators of supply-chain performance. A large number of various performance indicators have been used to characterize supply chains, ranging from highly qualitative indicators like customer or employee satisfaction to quantitative indicators like

  3. Depleted uranium in the food chain at south of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D U, ranges between (0.02-1.1) and (0.01-.0.2) Bq/kg respectively. These values indicated that meat and milk are uncontaminated with D U. The water samples collected from wells in the same region are below the detection limit of the system. All these results indicated that the food chain was not contaminated with D U at the time of measurements

  4. The Fearne Report: Sustainable Food and Wine Value Chains – Opportunity or Imperative for Australian Agrifood and Wine?

    OpenAIRE

    Mugford, Annabel; Ronan, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Released in September 2009, Sustainable Food and Wine Value Chains is the final report of a 12 month residency in South Australia by Adelaide’s 14th Thinker in Residence, Professor Andrew Fearne. The paper overviews the residency journey and its outcomes, including a value chain research report, Vine to Dine; local food and wine enterprise/chain case studies, and the final report and its recommendations. Supply chains and value chains are differentiated as a basis for building value chain cap...

  5. Enhancing the design and management of a local organic food supply chain with Soft Systems Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2012-01-01

    not adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems...... hoc, pragmatic and less structured approaches. The major benefits are of thought, intervention and change, as well as action-oriented, meaningful and participatory decision making.......Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do...

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Herman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages. A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, George; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23812024

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in the food chain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, George; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve

    2013-06-28

    Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance.

  9. Changing attitudes to irradiation throughout the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of consumer attitudes in the United States indicate an increased willingness to purchase irradiated food in order to have a safer product. The reasons for the change in attitude are discussed. Basic consumer buying habits are considered and how these fit in with marketing irradiated food. Food retailers, restaurants and producers have attitudes of their own, and these can sometimes be the most difficult to change. The key to this puzzle can be found in their basic motivations, including the fear of activists. Recommendations are made as to how this information can be used to promote the development of food irradiation. (author)

  10. How many consumer levels can survive in a chemotactic food chain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LIU; Chunhua OU

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect and the impact of predator-prey interactions, diffusivity and chemotaxis on the ability of survival of multiple consumer levels in a predator-prey microbial food chain. We aim at answering the question of how many consumer levels can survive from a dynamical system point of view. To solve this standing issue on food-chain length, first we construct a chemotactic food chain model. A priori bounds of the steady state populations are obtained. Then under certain sufficient conditions combining the effect of conversion efficiency, diffusivity and chemotaxis parameters, we derive the co-survival of all consumer levels, thus obtaining the food chain length of our model. Numerical simulations not only confirm our theoretical results, but also demonstrate the impact of conversion efficiency, diffusivity and chemotaxis behavior on the survival and stability of various consumer levels.

  11. Trace elements in the aquatic bird food chain at the North Ponds, Texaco Refinery, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to determine nesting success of aquatic birds, trace element concentrations in the aquatic food chain, and whether trace elements...

  12. Bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS): A carrier of heavy metals in the marine food-chain

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhaskar, P.V.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The ecological implications of metal binding properties of bacterial EPS and its possible role in the bioaccumulation of pollutants in the marine food-chain was investigated using a partially purified and chemically characterized microbial EPS...

  13. Research on Demand Prediction of Fresh Food Supply Chain Based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Demand prediction of supply chain is an important content and the first premise in supply management of different enterprises and has become one of the difficulties and hot research fields for the researchers related. The paper takes fresh food demand prediction for example and presents a new algorithm for predicting demand of fresh food supply chain. First, the working principle and the root causes of the defects of particle swarm optimization algorithm are analyzed in the study; Second, the study designs a new cloud particle swarm optimization algorithm to guarantee the effectiveness of particles in later searching phase and redesigns its cloud global optimization searching method and crossover operation; Finally, a certain fresh food supply chain is taken for example to illustrate the validity and feasibility of the improved algorithm and the experimental results show that the improved algorithm can improve prediction accuracy and calculation efficiency when used for demand prediction of fresh food supply chain.

  14. Global asymptotic properties for a Leslie-Gower food chain model

    OpenAIRE

    Korobeinikov, Andrei; Lee, William T.

    2011-01-01

    We study global asymptotic properties of a continuous time Leslie-Gower food chain model. We construct a Lyapunov function which enables us to establish global asymptotic stability of the unique coexisting equilibrium state.

  15. Supply chain performance measurement: the case of the traditional food sector in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellynck, X.; Molnar, A.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a sound measurement instrument of traditional food supply chain performance integrating the perspectives of different stakeholders. Therefore first, stakeholders’ goals are generalized via focus groups and individual interviews. Second, stakeholders’ goals a

  16. Business process modelling in demand-driven agri-food supply chains : a reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: Business process models; Supply chain management; Information systems; Reference information models; Market orientation; Mass customisation; Configuration; Coordination; Control; SCOR; Pot plants; Fruit industry Abstract The increasing volatility and diversity of demand urge agri-food

  17. CHAIN FOOD ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COMPETITIVENESS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLES GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Pawlewicz; Piotr Szamrowski

    2015-01-01

    One of the important problems of Polish agriculture is insuffi cient state horizontal integration of agricultural producers. Identifi cation of factors that affect the improvement of the competitiveness of producer groups in the food chain can help in the development of such entities. The aim of the publication is to present activities that should improve competitiveness in the food chain which are undertaken by groups of raw materials producers on the example of fruit and vegetable producers...

  18. Food and Wine Value Chains: The Fearne Residency in the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ronan, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Andrew Fearne, Professor of Food Marketing and Supply Chain Management and a Director of the dunnhumby Academy of Consumer Research at Kent University, UK, is a current Thinker in the Adelaide Thinkers in Residence (ATIR) program. Professor Fearne is the 14th person to undertake a Thinkers appointment. The residency theme, Food and Wine Value Chains: Prosperity through Collaboration, has provided a timely opportunity for partners, including wine companies, government agencies, universities, a...

  19. Moving towards Sustainability in Food Chains: Dealing with Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Schiefer; Jivka Deiters

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability concerns are receiving increasingly attention by society and in turn, the food sector and consumers as the food sector’s final customers. Investments towards improvements in sustainability along the chain are usually not evenly distributed along the chain which affects the balance in the distribution of costs and returns. Transparency is a means for supporting an appropriate link between costs and returns. Various alternatives are being discussed. The chapter utilizes a c...

  20. Collaboration and Sustainable Agri-Food Suply Chain: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Prima Dania Wike Agustin; Xing Ke; Amer Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining collaboration among the entire stages in the agri-food supply chain to achieve sustainability is complex. All the stakeholders involved in the activities have to prioritize their financial benefits without putting aside social development and environmental responsibilities. Some scholars have paid attention to this topic. The objective of this paper is to review current research on sustainable supply chain and collaboration model in agri-food industry. Sustainability aspects that ...

  1. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  2. Workable methods for risks control in the food chain production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilla Iacumin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Several food pathologies due to new or already known micro-organisms occur all over the world every year. Food concerned are more and more frequently traditional typical, ethnical products coming from fast or slow food systems. Most of food-borne pathologies develop through neurological, gastrointestinal (watery, bloody or persistent diarrhoea abdominal pain, sickness and vomiting. The causes of these epidemics, apart from the concerned pathogen, are linked to the contaminated first matter or to contaminations occurred during food processing and consequently due to the lack of employment of the most fundamental sanitary measures and to non-control of the critical points of the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point systems. The pre-requirements to promote food health consist of the implementation of good agriculture husbandry and production practices, the use of HACCP systems, the training of the workers employed in the different productive rows and in the adoption of identification and traceability systems. The EU implemented the so-called hygiene pack, that is a list of rules imposing food control in each processing, marketing and consumption phase, from husbandry or cropping to consumer’s table, to promote health in food (circulating all over Europe.

  3. Modelling of radiocesium transfer in the lichen-reindeer/caribou-wolf food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Holleman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental contaminate radiocesium (cesium-137 has been shown to be of value as a marker in food selection and intake studies. Its greatest potential value as a food marker is in the subarctic/arctic regions, particularly in the lichen to reindeer/caribou to wolf food chain. A kinetic model describing the movement of radiocesium through the food chain has been developed using the SAAM computer program and is presented here. The program has been written so that the various paramenters affecting the transfer of radiocesium in the food chain can be altered more realistically to describe the system being modeled. The values of the parameters as given in this example are realistic for interior Alaska, however caution should be exercised in the application of the present results to regions that may be vastly different from the Alaskan interior without first evaluating the parameters and assumptions of the model.

  4. Modeling and Optimization of Food Cold-chain Intelligent Logistics Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuxue Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at improving the efficiency of food cold-chain logistics network, shortening the logistic time of food and reducing the logistics cost of food, this study analyzes the optimization strategy and various cost factors of the supply network of food cold chain and establishes and expands a kind of logistics network model adapting to the food cold-chain logistics. We use an improved genetic algorithm to solve the model and design an effective coding scheme, through the modified adaptive crossover probability and mutation probability, we integrate them into the elitism strategy, which has effectively avoided the prematurity of the algorithm and improved the operation efficiency of the algorithm. In the same instance, compared with the simple genetic algorithm, this study puts forward that the average running time and the average iteration number of the improved genetic algorithm have reduced nearly 50%, which has proved the feasibility and the effectiveness of the model and the algorithm.

  5. Managing Food Quality Risk in Global Supply Chain: A Risk Management Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Jose Arevalo Chavez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, the food sector is one of the sectors most vulnerable to intentional contamination by debilitating agents [1]. Some cases of contaminated food have indicated that product quality risk is one of the vulnerabilities in the global supply chain. A series of company scandals, affecting reputation and causing the recall of products and increasing costs have hit the food industry. The obvious problem is that even a minor incident in one part of the chain can have disastrous effects on other parts of the supply chain. Thus, risks are transmitted through the chain. Even though the dangers from members in the supply chain are small, the cumulative effect becomes significant. The aim of this study is to propose an integrated supply chain risk management framework for practitioners that can provide directions for how to evaluate food quality risk in the global supply chain. For validating the proposed model in‐depth, a case study is conducted on a food SME distributor in Central America. The case study investigates how product quality risks are handled according to the proposed framework.

  6. Insects in the human food chain: global status and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Muenke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul;

    2014-01-01

    Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the high...... efficiency at which they can convert feed into food. This article outlines the potential of insects as a food for humans as well as a feedstock for animals and fish. The majority of insects consumed in developing countries today are harvested in nature from wild populations. In Western countries, the disgust...... factor in considering insects as food, combined currently with their limited availability on the market, and a lack of regulations governing insects as food and feed, are major barriers for their further expansion. However, the biggest opportunity may well lie in the production of insect biomass...

  7. Relationships between food producers and retail chains seen as shared meanings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a new theory on relationships between producers and retail chains. This theory is a result of a project which investigated the cooperation between Danish abattoirs and food processors, and retail chains in four countries. The new theory's main point is that relationships betwe...

  8. Effects of climate change on food safety hazards in the dairy production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of climate change on emerging food safety hazards in the dairy production chain. For this purpose, a holistic approach was used to select critical factors from inside and outside the production chain that are affected by climatic factors. An expert judg

  9. Exergy analysis : a tool to study the sustainability of food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kooi, van der H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of using exergy analysis to study and compare the environmental impact of food supply chains. The method identifies the links where exergy destruction takes place and shows where improvements are possible to minimize this destruction. The supply chains of three prod

  10. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Weiser, Armin A.; Christian Thöns; Matthias Filter; Alexander Falenski; Bernd Appel; Annemarie Käsbohrer

    2016-01-01

    FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of...

  11. Radioecology of human food chains and forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing of radioactive fallout also signifies that contributions of various foodstuffs to the human ingestion dose will change with time. The long-term contamination of forest vegetation has motivated studies on contribution of wild food to dietary radiocaesium and radiostrontium. Consumption rates of these foodstuffs have shown variation by geographical regions in Finland, the loss of radiocaesium during cooking of mushrooms has been found significant, and the approximation of the loss using survey data on the actual practices in households was also shown important for dietary assessment. Forest industry needs information for planning its own emergency response, particularly concerning production of acceptable timber after contamination of forests by radioactive fallout. In recent years experimental evidence has been obtained for the mitigating effect of forest management methods, namely soil preparation and fertilisation, on radioactive contamination of forest vegetation. Thereby realistic options for intervention have been suggested. Further testing will improve the information on effectiveness of different methods and duration of management influence in different types of forests. Results from systematic field experiments have also provided data and conceptual views for forest modelling, e.g. for RODOS, a European decision support system for off-site emergency preparedness. The future topics in terrestrial radioecology will altogether support production of safe foodstuffs and safe use of forests after contamination of rural areas. Evaluation of practicability of countermeasures will greatly benefit from measured radioecological parameters in the contaminated areas and from additional field tests. Natural radionuclides and their connection to both agricultural and semi-natural dose pathways ought to be studied. Radiation impact due to bioenergy production and use of ash is close to forest ecosystem studies. Returning of wood ash to forests will maintain and

  12. Supply chain management for small business--how to avoid being part of the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtges, J P; Watts, C A

    2000-08-01

    A supply chain is a series of customer and supplier relationships that extend throughout and beyond the company. It is an interwoven set of links that together form a chain supplying our customers in a seamless and integrated fashion delivering a high level of customer satisfaction. Supply chain management (SCM) integrates all activities so they are focused on customer satisfaction (both internally and externally). One of the things this article will attempt to accomplish is to provide a clear understanding of SCM's positive impact on customer service as well as on improving profitability, cash flow, product cycle times, and communication. Whether we go forward in the supply chain to the final end-user or backward in the supply chain to our supplier's suppliers, SCM will significantly improve our ability to serve our customers.

  13. The Priority position paper: Protecting Europe's food chain from prions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensson, Krister; Korth, Carsten; Zurzolo, Chiara; Simmons, Marion; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Aguzzi, Adriano; Andreoletti, Olivier; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Böhm, Reinhard; Brown, Karen; Calgua, Byron; del Río, José Antonio; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Girones, Rosina; Godsave, Sue; Hoelzle, Ludwig E.; Knittler, Michael R.; Kuhn, Franziska; Legname, Giuseppe; Laeven, Paul; Mitrova, Eva; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Nuvolone, Mario; Peters, Peter J.; Raeber, Alex; Roth, Klaus; Schmitz, Matthias; Schroeder, Björn; Sonati, Tiziana; Stitz, Lothar; Taraboulos, Albert; Torres, Juan María; Yan, Zheng-Xin; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) created a global European crisis in the 1980s and 90s, with very serious health and economic implications. Classical BSE now appears to be under control, to a great extent as a result of a global research effort that identified the sources of prions in meat and bone meal (MBM) and developed new animal-testing tools that guided policy. Priority (www.prionpriority.eu) was a European Union (EU) Framework Program 7 (FP7)-funded project through which 21 European research institutions and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) joined efforts between 2009 and 2014, to conduct coordinated basic and applied research on prions and prion diseases. At the end of the project, the Priority consortium drafted a position paper (www.prionpriority.eu/Priority position paper) with its main conclusions. In the present opinion paper, we summarize these conclusions. With respect to the issue of re-introducing ruminant protein into the feed-chain, our opinion is that sustaining an absolute ban on feeding ruminant protein to ruminants is essential. In particular, the spread and impact of non-classical forms of scrapie and BSE in ruminants is not fully understood and the risks cannot be estimated. Atypical prion agents will probably continue to represent the dominant form of prion diseases in the near future in Europe. Atypical L-type BSE has clear zoonotic potential, as demonstrated in experimental models. Similarly, there are now data indicating that the atypical scrapie agent can cross various species barriers. More epidemiological data from large cohorts are necessary to reach any conclusion on the impact of its transmissibility on public health. Re-evaluations of safety precautions may become necessary depending on the outcome of these studies. Intensified searching for molecular determinants of the species barrier is recommended, since this barrier is key for important policy areas and risk assessment. Understanding the structural basis

  14. The Priority position paper: Protecting Europe's food chain from prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Jesús R; Kristensson, Krister; Korth, Carsten; Zurzolo, Chiara; Simmons, Marion; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Aguzzi, Adriano; Andreoletti, Olivier; Benestad, Sylvie L; Böhm, Reinhard; Brown, Karen; Calgua, Byron; Del Río, José Antonio; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Girones, Rosina; Godsave, Sue; Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Knittler, Michael R; Kuhn, Franziska; Legname, Giuseppe; Laeven, Paul; Mabbott, Neil; Mitrova, Eva; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Nuvolone, Mario; Peters, Peter J; Raeber, Alex; Roth, Klaus; Schmitz, Matthias; Schroeder, Björn; Sonati, Tiziana; Stitz, Lothar; Taraboulos, Albert; Torres, Juan María; Yan, Zheng-Xin; Zerr, Inga

    2016-05-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) created a global European crisis in the 1980s and 90s, with very serious health and economic implications. Classical BSE now appears to be under control, to a great extent as a result of a global research effort that identified the sources of prions in meat and bone meal (MBM) and developed new animal-testing tools that guided policy. Priority ( www.prionpriority.eu ) was a European Union (EU) Framework Program 7 (FP7)-funded project through which 21 European research institutions and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) joined efforts between 2009 and 2014, to conduct coordinated basic and applied research on prions and prion diseases. At the end of the project, the Priority consortium drafted a position paper ( www.prionpriority.eu/Priority position paper) with its main conclusions. In the present opinion paper, we summarize these conclusions. With respect to the issue of re-introducing ruminant protein into the feed-chain, our opinion is that sustaining an absolute ban on feeding ruminant protein to ruminants is essential. In particular, the spread and impact of non-classical forms of scrapie and BSE in ruminants is not fully understood and the risks cannot be estimated. Atypical prion agents will probably continue to represent the dominant form of prion diseases in the near future in Europe. Atypical L-type BSE has clear zoonotic potential, as demonstrated in experimental models. Similarly, there are now data indicating that the atypical scrapie agent can cross various species barriers. More epidemiological data from large cohorts are necessary to reach any conclusion on the impact of its transmissibility on public health. Re-evaluations of safety precautions may become necessary depending on the outcome of these studies. Intensified searching for molecular determinants of the species barrier is recommended, since this barrier is key for important policy areas and risk assessment. Understanding the structural basis for

  15. Productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size have no influence on food chain length in seasonally connected rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Warfe

    Full Text Available The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of productivity (indicated by nutrient concentrations, disturbance (indicated by hydrological isolation and ecosystem size, and how they may be affected by food web architecture. We show that variation in food chain length was unrelated to these classic environmental determinants, and unrelated to the trophic role of the top predator. This finding is a striking exception to the literature and is the first published example of food chain length being unaffected by any of these determinants. We suggest the distinctive seasonal hydrology of northern Australia allows the movement of fish predators, linking isolated food webs and potentially creating a regional food web that overrides local effects of productivity, disturbance and ecosystem size. This finding supports ecological theory suggesting that mobile consumers promote more stable food webs. It also illustrates how food webs, and energy transfer, may function in the absence of the human modifications to landscape hydrological connectivity that are ubiquitous in more populated regions.

  16. NEW FOOD FRAUDS IN SEAFOOD CHAIN: TUB GURNARD OR PANGASIUS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Campagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a case of food fraud occurred in the Lazio region. Using the Isoelectrofocusing we revealed the substitution of tub-gurnard, with the less valuable commercial fish, pangasius.

  17. Nitrogen flows in the food production chain of Hungary over the period 1961–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yong; Ma, Lin; Sárdi, Katalin; Sisák, István; Ma, Wenqi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) emissions from food production can cause serious environmental problems. Mitigation strategies require insights of N cycles in this complex system. A substance flow analysis for N in the Hungary food production and processing chain over the period 1961–2010 was conducted. Our results

  18. Modeling food logistics networks with emission considerations: the case of an international beef supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysal, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic characteristics of food products and processes along with growing sustainability concerns lead to the need for decision support tools that can integrate economic considerations with quality preservation and environmental protection in food supply chains. In this study, we develop a multi-o

  19. Context factors affecting design and operation of Food Safety Management Systems in the fresh produce chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Nanyunja, J.; Jacxsens, L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Luning, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent food-borne outbreaks and cases of non-compliances to maximum residue limits of pesticides, indicated that food safety management systems (FSMS) in fresh produce chain are not yet performing in a satisfactory manner. However, the system output is not only dependent on the system design and ope

  20. Agency Problem and Hedging in Agri-Food Chains: Model and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Kuiper, W.E.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The last 4 decades have seen the transformation of food supply chains from being supply driven to becoming much more closely integrated with consumer demand. With this development, the transaction mechanism in food marketing channels has changed from an open-market mechanism to coordination through

  1. Lifestyles and Energy Use in Human Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Heilig, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    The supply of food is one of the most energy consuming tasks in a society. Even in highly industrialized countries more fossil energy is spent in the food sector than in industry. Usually some 30% of the overall fossil energy consumption is used just for feeding the population. This, however, includes everything -- from the production of fertilizers and agricultural machinery to the fueling of irrigation pumps and drainage systems; from energy use in cultivation and harvesting, to energy cons...

  2. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Accorsi; Lorenzo Versari; Riccardo Manzini

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) according to a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental...

  3. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  4. Contribution of Plant Breeding Efforts to the Safety of the Cereal-based Food Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zoltán (B)edo; Mariann Rakszegi; László Láng; Peter Shewry

    2006-01-01

    @@ A comprehensive food safety strategy requires the establishment of a farm-to-fork traceability system, which allows each step in the food chain to be followed and identified. This policy requires a multidisciplinary scientific approach including the wide range of technological knowledge necessary to maintain the safety of the whole food chain. With the introduction of the sustainability concept considerable changes have taken place in food production.New priorities have been raised nowadays due to increasing concern for environmental protection and healthy food production. These new priorities, which have led to the agricultural sector developing a more multifunctional character,are based on new social demands in relation to food production, where the essential criteria are to provide nutritious foodstuffs free of dangerous substances and to use environment-friendly technologies which ensure sustainability.

  5. DNA markers as a tool for genetic traceability of primary product in agri-food chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Scarano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The agri-food components of the Made in Italy are well known all over the world, therefore they may significantly contribute to the Italian economy. However, also owing to a large number of cases of improper labelling, the Italian agro-food industry faces an ever-increasing competition. For this reason, there is a decline of consumers’ confidence towards food production systems and safety controls. To prevent erroneous classification of products and to protect consumers from false instore information, it is important to develop and validate techniques that are able to detect mislabelling at any stage of the food-chain. This paper describes some examples of genetic traceability of primary products in some important plant food chains such as durum wheat, olive and tomato, based on DNA analysis both of raw material and of processed food (pasta, olive oil, and peeled tomato.

  6. Improving food safety in the supply chain: Integrating traceability in production and distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    on production and distribution planning. Here, we develop a methodology for production and distribution planning in food supply chains which minimizes production and logistics costs and at the same time reduces food safety concerns, limits the size of potential recalls, and satisfies product quality......After a number of food safety crises, the design and implementation of traceability systems became an important focus of the food industry. As a result, food product traceability ranks high on senior management agendas for supply chain activities. In the literature, numerous studies deal...... with traceability from the viewpoint of information system development and technology development such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and DNA-based techniques. However, traceability and its implications for food safety are thus far not incorporated in the standard operations management literature...

  7. Nanotechnology in food processing sector-An assessment of emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana Sastry, R; Anshul, Shrivastava; Rao, N H

    2013-10-01

    Use of nanoscience based technology in the food industry is fast emerging as new area for research and development. Several research groups including private companies in the industry have initiated research programmes for exploring the wide scope of nanotechnology into the value chain of food processing and manufacturing. This paper discusses the current focus of research in this area and assesses its potential impacts. Using the developed relational database framework with R&D indicators like literature and patent documents for assessment of the potential of nanotechnology in food sector, a model to organize and map nanoresearch areas to the food processing sector was developed. The study indicates that the about five basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food sector, include food processing, packaging, nutraceuticals delivery, food safety and functional foods.

  8. Collaboration and Sustainable Agri-Food Suply Chain: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Dania Wike Agustin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining collaboration among the entire stages in the agri-food supply chain to achieve sustainability is complex. All the stakeholders involved in the activities have to prioritize their financial benefits without putting aside social development and environmental responsibilities. Some scholars have paid attention to this topic. The objective of this paper is to review current research on sustainable supply chain and collaboration model in agri-food industry. Sustainability aspects that consist of economic, environment, and social and the model of sustainable supply chain in agri-food industry are analyzed. Moreover, collaboration in sustainable agri-food supply chain management is also studied thoroughly from vertical and horizontal perspectives. The result shows that there are few studies focusing on the integrated collaboration to achieve sustainable supply chain system. Additionally, not all sustainable aspects are covered thoroughly. The scholars pays more attention to economic and environmental aspects than social aspects. Furthermore, some studies only focus on one type of collaboration in sustainable agri-food supply chain. Often, these studies do not even consider all elements in the triple bottom line.

  9. Risk assessment of malicious biocontamination of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Daniel

    2005-06-01

    Throughout the last decades of the 20th century, the biological threat evolved from primarily a government-controlled weapon to a tool of terrorism. One of the consequences of this trend is the near impossibility of foreseeing when and how an act of bioterrorism will occur. The suitability of food products for such an act stems from the multitude of microorganisms that may be used for contamination and the vulnerability of the products during and after processing. Tests that would enable the detection of a large variety of microorganisms quickly, reliably, and economically should also provide satisfactory means to prevent acts of malicious biocontamination of food products. Until such means become available, a priority-based approach to the problem is probably the most practical. Priorities should be determined based on a systematic risk assessment to define the relative likelihood of a certain microorganism being used in an act of malicious food contamination. Criteria to be evaluated are availability, weaponization processes, delivery of an effective dose, probability of early detection, and the microorganism's resistance to the conditions to which it will be exposed. Because the results of such an assessment may vary according to prevailing conditions, the assessment must be based on the existing circumstances. The results of the assessment should then be applied to the various procedures of food processing, which should further reduce the number of potential microbial threats. Existing methods of screening food for contaminating microorganisms and existing food safety and security procedures such as hazard analysis and critical control point programs may have to be modified to become suitable for the detection of acts of bioterrorism.

  10. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Serra-Majem, L.; Coppens, P.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more a

  11. Supply chain management, 3rd party logistics & food quality & safety: evidence from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Ilias; Dimitropoulos, Exarxos

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether or not the efficiency of the supply chain management affect the food quality & safety. We focused upon transportation, warehousing, and inventory management. We also examined why food companies choose to outsource logistics functions such as transportation and warehousing and to what extent outsourcing affected food quality & safety. We conducted a large scale quantitative survey during January to March 2005. We faxed 400 questionnaires to Gree...

  12. What is value for food retail chains? Theoretical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    2000-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that creating value for customers (in the eyes of the customers) is a very important source of competitive advantage. But, no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, in this study, building on a solid theoretical background...

  13. What is value for food retail chains? Theoretical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    It is a well-established fact that creating value for customers (in the eyes of the customers) is a very important source of competitive advantage. But, no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, in this study, building on a solid theoretical background...

  14. What shapes food value chains? Lessons from aquaculture in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Kelling, I; Ponte, Stefano;

    2014-01-01

    in this growth. We examine the main forms of coordination found along these value chains and the role that institutional frameworks play in governing them. We observe that negative publicity, driven by NGO and media campaigns, has led to increased use of third-party certification and the adoption of public...

  15. Research on Cooperation Strategy of Enterprises’ Quality and Safety in Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent and control risk factors which harm the quality and safety of the food supply chain effectively and reduce the probability of food safety incidents, this paper investigated on some problems of the upstream and downstream enterprises of the food supply chain under the three different forms of cooperation based on the neoclassic economics and game theory method. These problems include the effectiveness of the quality and safety efforts, the profits, the effect of the losses that the food safety incidents caused on the quality efforts’ efficacy, and the social welfare comparison. Meanwhile, we constructed evolutionary game model to analyze the macro and micro factors that influenced the cooperation strategy and demonstrated the effect of diversity of decision-making parameters on evolution results based on numerical simulation. By the theoretical and simulation analysis, we found that (1 the quality efforts’ efficacy, the profits, the sensitivity coefficient of the quality efforts efficiency to the losses, and the social welfare without thinking about the externality all met their maximum under the full cooperation situation; (2 strengthening supervision over the source of the food supply chain can reduce the probability of food safety incidents; (3 macro and micro environment will be the important basis for companies’ decision-making on cooperation strategy in the food supply chain.

  16. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case

  17. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muriana, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.muriana@unipa.it

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  18. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic

  19. Food innovation: Perspectives for the poultry chain in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ferreira, G. C.; Vieira, L. M.;

    a multinational company from the poultry sector in Brazil, aiming to investigate its innovative positioning in the market. Visual observation of innovative poultry products was held at retail stores. Results indicate an opportunity for companies to invest in food innovations in the Brazilian market, since...

  20. The Hidden Benefits of Short Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bimbo, F.; Bonanno, Alessandro; Viscecchia, R.; Nardone, G.

    2015-01-01

    As more farmers adopt short distribution channels, consumers may benefit from them insofar as they increase access to healthier food options. This may lead to potential societal benefits via a reduction in obesity rates. The relationship between the presence of farmers’ markets and adult Italians’ B

  1. Market power behaviour in the danish food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and demonstrates an econometric approach to analysing food industry firms' market pricing behaviour within the framework of translog cost functions and based on firm-level accounts panel data. The study identifies effects that can be interpreted as firms' market power behaviour...

  2. Insects in the human food chain: global status and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halloran, A.; Muenke, C.; Vantomme, P.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the high

  3. 40 CFR 264.276 - Food-chain crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cumulative application of cadmium from waste must not exceed 5 kg/ha if the waste and soil mixture has a pH... such crops, that hazardous constituents other than cadmium: (i) Will not be transferred to the food or... grown on untreated soils under similar conditions in the same region. (2) The owner or operator...

  4. Multivariate data analysis as a tool in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, R.; van den Berg, F.; Thybo, A.;

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes some recent advances in mathematical modeling of relevance in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain. Using chemometrics-multivariate data analysis - it is illustrated how to tackle problems in food science more efficiently and, moreover, solve problems...... processing, and will cover areas such as analysis of variance, monitoring and handling of sampling variation, calibration, exploration/data mining and hard modeling. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... that could not otherwise be handled before. The different mathematical models are all exemplified by food related subjects to underline the generic use of the models within the food chain. Applications will be given from meat, storage, vegetable characterization, fish quality monitoring and industrial food...

  5. EFFICIENCY OF RAW MATERIAL INVENTORIES IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE of CV. FIVA FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artadi Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and number of processed food industries have slightly increased; as a result, the companies must compete to maximize their profits by conducting their efficient production process. CV. Fiva Food is one of the companies in the field of processed foods, especially in processed meat that has implemented supply chain management. It is necessary for the company to take measurements of its performance and efficiency for the entire supply chain such as procurement of raw materials. The purposes of this study were to analyze the performance of the company's supply chain and determine the most efficient  method of procurement for its raw materials as well as and to provide recommendations for the company to improve its performance of entire supply chain. This study used SCOR in analyzing the performance of supply chain and EOQ and POQ method to be compared with the method that the company uses to determine which method of procurement for raw materials is the most efficient one. The result showed that based on the matrix, the company's performance is unfavorable when it was compared to the benchmark performance of inventory days of supply. In addition, this study showed that the POQ method produces the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp6.647.015 for raw materials of MDM whereas EOQ method produced the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp222.153,78 for raw materials of FQ85CL. Keywords: performance suppy chain, SCOR, fiva food, EOQ, POQ

  6. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-01

    Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case. PMID:25863767

  7. A Novel Evaluation Indicator System and Evaluation Method for Supply Chain Performance of Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Xiyao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain performance evaluation is a research hotspot and lies in the core status in supply chain management. The study presents a new evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm for supply chain performance. First, the balanced score card is used to construct an evaluation indicator system for supply chain performance evaluation through analyzing the basic principle and connotation characteristics of supply chain management; Second analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation algorithms are combined to satisfy the dynamic, subjective and transitional characteristics of evaluation indicators and improve evaluation accuracy. Thirdly the evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm are used in supply chain performance evaluation of fresh food products and the experimental results shows that the presented evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm has satisfied validity and feasibility.

  8. GREENING THE REALM SUSTAINABLE FOOD CHAINS AND THE PUBLIC PLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Public procurement is one of the most powerful, yet paradoxical, functions of the state in Britain: powerful, because it deploys a purchasing budget of *150 billion per annum; paradoxical, because its economic significance is inversely related to its political status.Through the prism of the school food service, this article explores the scope for, and the barriers to green procurement - one of the most underrated ways in which governments can help to fashion a more sustai...

  9. Cerium Biomagnification in a Terrestrial Food Chain: Influence of Particle Size and Growth Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-07-01

    Mass-flow modeling of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) indicates that a major fraction of released particles partition into soils and sediments. This has aggravated the risk of contaminating agricultural fields, potentially threatening associated food webs. To assess possible ENM trophic transfer, cerium accumulation from cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) and their bulk equivalent (bulk-CeO2) was investigated in producers and consumers from a terrestrial food chain. Kidney bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris var. red hawk) grown in soil contaminated with 1000-2000 mg/kg nano-CeO2 or 1000 mg/kg bulk-CeO2 were presented to Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis), which were then consumed by spined soldier bugs (Podisus maculiventris). Cerium accumulation in plant and insects was independent of particle size. After 36 days of exposure to 1000 mg/kg nano- and bulk-CeO2, roots accumulated 26 and 19 μg/g Ce, respectively, and translocated 1.02 and 1.3 μg/g Ce, respectively, to shoots. The beetle larvae feeding on nano-CeO2 exposed leaves accumulated low levels of Ce since ∼98% of Ce was excreted in contrast to bulk-CeO2. However, in nano-CeO2 exposed adults, Ce in tissues was higher than Ce excreted. Additionally, Ce content in tissues was biomagnified by a factor of 5.3 from the plants to adult beetles and further to bugs.

  10. Cerium Biomagnification in a Terrestrial Food Chain: Influence of Particle Size and Growth Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-07-01

    Mass-flow modeling of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) indicates that a major fraction of released particles partition into soils and sediments. This has aggravated the risk of contaminating agricultural fields, potentially threatening associated food webs. To assess possible ENM trophic transfer, cerium accumulation from cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) and their bulk equivalent (bulk-CeO2) was investigated in producers and consumers from a terrestrial food chain. Kidney bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris var. red hawk) grown in soil contaminated with 1000-2000 mg/kg nano-CeO2 or 1000 mg/kg bulk-CeO2 were presented to Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis), which were then consumed by spined soldier bugs (Podisus maculiventris). Cerium accumulation in plant and insects was independent of particle size. After 36 days of exposure to 1000 mg/kg nano- and bulk-CeO2, roots accumulated 26 and 19 μg/g Ce, respectively, and translocated 1.02 and 1.3 μg/g Ce, respectively, to shoots. The beetle larvae feeding on nano-CeO2 exposed leaves accumulated low levels of Ce since ∼98% of Ce was excreted in contrast to bulk-CeO2. However, in nano-CeO2 exposed adults, Ce in tissues was higher than Ce excreted. Additionally, Ce content in tissues was biomagnified by a factor of 5.3 from the plants to adult beetles and further to bugs. PMID:26690677

  11. Modern Systems of Information Transmission on Agro & Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Global food commodity diversification requires the application of new methods of data identification, monitoring, collection and processing in the production or distribution area. Classical systems of information transmission are currently widely used, but also present some inconvenience addressed by the emergence of new generations of information carriers. Current requirements for technical processes monitoring, quality assurance, traceability and customer orientation led to the emergence and evolution of modern identification systems based on dynamic information transmission and global databases development. The development of computer technology and the Internet are factors that allowed the development of these systems.

  12. Mobile application for presentation of traceability and cold chain data in food supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Pavuna, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Food traceability is becoming more and more important for both business and consumers, but is still inadequate in terms of treated scope of information and communication technologies. We have a plurality of devices connected on the internet or via mobile network, which can get us the needed informations that are available to us. We have reviewed some of the solutions, which are enabling us to access informations about the food we buy. The RFID-F2F pilot traceability system solution for fish w...

  13. CARBON FOOTPRINT IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD CHAIN AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR FOOD CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Konieczny; Ewelina Mroczek; Magda Kucharska

    2013-01-01

    Freshness, sensory attributes and food safety are currently indicated as main criteria in respect to food purchasing decisions. However, growing number of consumers are ready to choose also environmentally friendly food products. Carbon Footprint (CF) expressed in CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gas emission seems to be an innovative indicator useful to evaluate environmental impacts associated with production and distribution of food. The review carried out in this study is based mainly on data...

  14. Research on Athletic Food Safety Assessment and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlei Ci

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the current state and problem of China’s food safety risk assessment and food safety supervision by drawing on the experience of developed countries Combined with Chinese situations. It provides suggestions for establishing a well-structured food safety supervision system. This study frames a Chinese food safety risk assessment system.

  15. Business Process Modelling in Demand‐Driven Agri‐Food Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Verdouw, Cor N.; Beulens, Adriaan J.M.; Trienekens, Jacques H.; Wolfert, Sjaak

    2010-01-01

    Agri‐food companies increasingly participate in demand‐driven supply chains that are able to adapt flexibly to changes in the marketplace. The objective of this presentation is to discuss a process modelling framework, which enhances the interoperability and agility of information systems as required in such dynamic supply chains. The designed framework consists of two parts: an object system definition and a modelling toolbox. The object system definition provides a conceptual definition of ...

  16. CHAIN FOOD ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE COMPETITIVENESS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLES GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Pawlewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems of Polish agriculture is insuffi cient state horizontal integration of agricultural producers. Identifi cation of factors that affect the improvement of the competitiveness of producer groups in the food chain can help in the development of such entities. The aim of the publication is to present activities that should improve competitiveness in the food chain which are undertaken by groups of raw materials producers on the example of fruit and vegetable producers groups operating in Kujawsko-Pomorskie region. In studies the method of participant observation interview were used. The measurement was conducted in late April and May 2013 and included 19 leaders of producer groups. According to them the most important factor infl uencing the market position of the groups in the food chain, was the high quality of the manufactured goods in farms affi liated farmers. Few respondents identifi ed marketing as an opportunity to strengthen the competitive advantage of producer groups in the food supply chain. This is due to the fact that farmers are far removed in the supply chain from consumers with whom they have contact only in the form of market random retail.

  17. Changes in sodium levels in chain restaurant foods in Canada (2010−2013): a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several restaurant chains have committed to reducing sodium levels in their foods; however, how much sodium levels have changed over the past few years is unknown. The objective was to measure changes in sodium in restaurant foods from 2010 to 2013. Methods Data for the serving size, calorie and sodium level of 3878 foods were collected from the websites of 61 Canadian restaurant chains in 2010 and 2013. A longitudinal study of changes in sodium levels in foods available from the restaurants in 2010 and 2013 (n = 2198) was conducted. Levels in newly reported and discontinued foods were also investigated. Results Sodium levels (mg/serving) decreased in 30.1% of foods, increased in 16.3% and were unchanged in 53.6%. The average change in foods with a decrease in sodium was –220 (standard deviation [SD] ± 303) mg/serving (a decline of 19% [SD ± 17%]), whereas the average change in foods with an increase in sodium was 251 (SD ± 349) mg/serving (a 44% [SD ± 104%] increase). The prevalence and magnitude of change varied depending on the restaurant and food category. Overall, there was a small, yet significant, decrease in sodium per serving (–25 [SD ± 268] mg, p < 0.001); however, the percentage of foods exceeding the daily sodium adequate intake (1500 mg) and tolerable upper intake level (2300 mg) remained unchanged. Interpretation The observed increases and decreases in sodium show that industry efforts to voluntarily decrease sodium levels in Canadian restaurant foods have produced inconsistent results. Although the lower levels in some foods show that sodium reduction is possible, the simultaneous increase in other foods demonstrates the need for targets and timelines for sodium reduction in restaurants. PMID:25553327

  18. Realising Future Internet Potentials for Food Chain SMEs: A Hierarchy of Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sundmaeker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The EC funded FI‐PPP programme is currently elaborating a large set of enabling technologies that shall help to overcome challenges towards a sustainable networked society of tomorrow. This up‐front investment can highly facilitate access to such Internet potentials by food chain SMEs. Nevertheless, SMEs require a systematic support for being able to decide on which technological enablers are relevant at which moment of their business evolution. To characterise a decision reference, a hierarchy of needs of food chain SMEs is presented that can serve asbaseline when aiming at the usage of the FI‐PPP results in an SME environment.

  19. A NEW FOOD CHAIN APPROACH: UNI EN ISO 22005:2008 VOLUNTARY CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work summarize an experience of auditing according to new UNI EN ISO 22005:2008. This new food chain certification scheme, arisen from two different European schemes of internal and external traceability certification, requires companies to build up their own check plans considering all components in food chain processing. This new approach, also derived from the European legislation, wants to verify if traceability system is under control and to verify if corrective actions to warrant hygienic production standards are built up.

  20. Application of a Capacitated Centered Clustering Problem for Design of Agri-food Supply Chain Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Boudahri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain of agricultural products has received a great deal of attention lately due to issues related to public health. Something that has become apparent is that in the near future the design and operation of agricultural supply chains will be subject to more stringent regulations and closer monitoring, in particular those for products destined for human consumption (agri-foods. This work is concerned with the planning of a real agri-food supply chain for chicken meat for the city of Tlemcen in Algria. The agri-food supply chain network design is a critical planning problem for reducing the cost of the chain. More precisely the problem is to redesign the existing supply chain and to optimize the distribution planning. As mentioned in our paper, the entire problem is decomposed into two problems, and each problem is solved in sequential manner, to get the final solution. LINGO optimization solver (12.0 has been used to get the solution to the problem.

  1. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaime Berti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the conventional agri-food system has and continues to be contested within both academic and public institutions. For small farms, the unsustainability of the food system is even more serious; farms’ declining share of profit and the cost-price squeeze of commodity production has increased barriers to market access with the inevitable effect of agricultural abandonment. One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri-food systems, aligning with Kramer and Porter’s concept of shared value strategy. Through a critical literature review, this paper presents “regional and local food hubs” as innovative organizational arrangements capable of bridging structural holes in the agri-food markets between small producers and the consumers—individuals and families as well as big buyers. Food hubs respond to a supply chain (or supply network organizational strategy aiming at re-territorialising the agri-food systems through the construction of what in the economic literature are defined as values-based food supply chains.

  2. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  3. Tools for the assessment of short food supply chains’ sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Grando, Stefano; Jahrl, Ingrid; Hegger, Els; Ortolani, Livia; Carey, Joy; Hochberg, Katrin; Marolf, Brigitte; van den Bosch, Drees Peter; di Pierro, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The following represents a summary of tools applied in a working group (WP5) of the EU‐project SUPURBFOOD (“Towards sustainable modes of urban and peri‐urban food provisioning”, www.supurbfood.eu). Within WP5, three research partners, three SME’s of short food supply chains and one food consultancy from Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK commonly explored logistical strategies that aim to make regional food delivery systems more sustainable while remaining economically viable, inc...

  4. Gender relations in global agri-food value chains – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumacher, Kim Philip

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the research literature on gender relations in global agri-food value chains. The main focus is on the production side in countries of the Global South, with most examples from sub-Saharan Africa. After a short presentation of the underlying concepts and a review of the existing research literature, an outline is given of the major insights the analysis of gender issues in global value chains has offered. What is striking is the heterogeneity of the findings and proposed actions, as well as the scarcity of conceptual approaches that would integrate gender analyses further into the concept of global value chains.

  5. Sustainable supply chain management : The influence of local stakeholder expectations in China's agri-food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Pao T.; Redekop, William; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Multinational food processing corporations are facing rapid growth in emerging markets like China and a concurrent need for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). These firms attempt to address supply risk and threat to the triple bottom line through managing suppliers and inputs, and at the same time need to overcome the uncertainty raised by the unfamiliar host environment. An exploratory qualitative case study of two multinational food processing corporations in China finds their SSCM...

  6. Innovations and Knowledge Transfer for the Food Supply Chain Sustainability: Challenges in the Czech Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ratinger, Tomas; Bošková, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    A mobilisation of research, knowledge transfer and innovation to deal with the current challenges as raising world food demand while protecting natural resources is a priority area of the EU. The effective knowledge transfer and innovation activities in the agri-food supply chain may push all producers in the vertical to improve their competitiveness while saving resources. In the paper we examine the current level of innovation activities and knowledge transfer in milk processing industry in...

  7. Food supply chain network robustness : a literature review and research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Vlajic, J.V.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Vorst, van de, GAL Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Today’s business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness. However, lean supply chain networks (SCNs) become more vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. Food SCNs have to become robust, i.e. they should be able to continue to function in the event of disruption as well as in normal business environment. Current literature provides no explicit clarification related to robustness issue in food SCN...

  8. Firms' strategies and voluntary traceability: an empirical analysis in Italian food chains

    OpenAIRE

    Stranieri, Stefanella; BANTERLE Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    In international food markets, voluntary traceability systems have increased their role in guaranteeing high safety and quality standards for the consumer. Such systems are also among the strategies firms employ to differentiate products and strengthen competitive advantage in both the national and international market. Voluntary traceability has significant implications on the organisation of economic relationships within food supply chains. This paper focuses on this aspect and analyses the...

  9. Genetically modified and non-genetically modified food supply chains : co-existence and traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Bertheau, Yves

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union nations, and other countries including Japan, Australia and Malaysia, it is a legal requirement that food products containing genetically modified organism (GMO) materials are labelled as such in order that customers may make informed purchasing decisions. For manufacturers and consumers to be confident about these assertions, systems must be in place along the entire food chain which support the co-existence of GM and non GM materials whilst maintaining a strict segrega...

  10. Innovation in a multiple-stage, multiple-product food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Alister Derek; Christensen, Tove

    of market power in a single chain generally reproduce those delivered by previous authors. The impacts of market power in related chains are found to depend on linkages between chains in terms of interactions in consumer demand. Interactions between products in costs (economies of scope) generate......A model of a 3-stage food marketing chain is presented for the case of two products. Its extension of existing work is its capacity to examine non-competitive input and output markets in two marketing chains at once, and have them related by demand and cost interactions. The simulated impacts...... an interesting result in that a possible market failure is identified that may be offset by the exercise of market power. The generation of farm-level innovation is seen to be largely unaffected by market power, but where market power is exercised the benefits are extracted from farmers and consumers...

  11. Radiation and environment. Study of uranium transfer to humans by the food chain: experiment design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During years, scientific assessments had considered plants, animal and other living organism as part of the environment in which radionuclides become dispersed. They were further seen as resources which, when contaminated, may contribute to human radiation exposure since some plants and animals are elements of food chains and represent pathways for the transfer of radionuclides to humans. Today, the assessments are development reflected the generally accepted position that priority should be given to evaluating the potential consequences for humans, which are among the most radiosensitive mammalian species. The transfer of radioisotopes from food to humans is still a well debated issue, because experimental results are even scarce. As a contribution to this issue, the Linear Accelerator Laboratory of the Physics Institute at the Sao Paulo University jointed to other institute of Brazil and Cuba development a project for study of uranium in the food-chain: food-animal/vegetables-human. This project involves experimentation with mammalians (wistar rats and beagles dogs), fishes and vegetables, plus extrapolation to humans by means of the General Multiple-Compartments Model. The pilot experiments in animal and vegetables are well described in the paper. As first results were obtained the transfer coefficients of uranium to the organs of animals as a function of the uranium concentration present in the administered food and the transfer coefficients of uranium for each part of the plant, as function of both growing time and uranium concentration in the nutrients solution. With this data it would be possible to evaluate the uranium ingestion by humans from animal products and plants, given their dietary habits, to infer human absorption of uranium associated with prolonged intake of uranium contained in food and estimates the content of uranium transferred to humans organs, thus allowing the evaluation of internally localized doses and the radiobiological damage and

  12. Copper transfer and influence on a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edding, M.; Tala, F. [Universidad Catolica del Norte, Coquimbo (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    Copper is an essential element, required for normal growth by all plants and animals; and a regular constituent in the environment (Lewis and Cave 1982; Lewis 1994). This heavy metal is an essential micronutrient that at higher concentrations can be deleterious to algae and other aquatic biota (Chang and Sibley 1993). Copper toxicity to algae depends upon the individual species, their physiological and environmental conditions, and the chemical forms of metal in the medium (Sunda and Gullard 1976). When copper is accumulated by phytoplankton it can be transferred and may produce toxic effects on zooplankton (Wikfors and Ukeles 1982). Different species of microalgae present different capacities of resistance to copper. Cyanophyceae pre-cultured in a Cu-enriched medium (635 {mu}gCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1}) showed an EC{sub 50} that could reach 318 {mu}gCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} for Plectonema radiosum and 339 {mu}gCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} in Phormidium sp. (Takamura et al. 1990). Scenedesmus, Selenastrum and Chlorella were reported able to accumulate copper and other metal ions with an efficiency of 67-98% (Brady et al. 1994). Also, Dunaliella resisted concentrations form 0.38 mgCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} (D. minuta) up to 50.8 mgCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} (D. acidophila), depending on the pH of the medium (Grimmler et al. 1991). One the microalgae are copper-enriched, the copper that is part of the cell can be transferred to the surrounding water and to its predator producing uncertain effects. This study observed the effect of copper on the growth of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Isochrysis galbana that are currently used as food for hatchery-grown scallop larvae (Argopecten purpuratus). We observed the path of copper form the water column into the microalgal cell and the effect of copper-enriched food on the scallop larvae. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A

    2000-01-01

    Intakes of partially hydrogenated fish oil and animal fats have declined and those of palm, soybean, sunflower, and rapeseed oils have increased in northern Europe in the past 30 y. Soybean and rapeseed oils are currently the most plentiful liquid vegetable oils and both have desirable ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. However, soybean and rapeseed oils are commonly partially hydrogenated for use in commercial frying to decrease susceptibility to oxidative degradation. This process leads to selective losses of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Intake of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) has risen in many northern European countries. In the United Kingdom, intakes have increased from approximately 10 g/d in the late 1970s to approximately 15 g/d in the 1990s. The intake of alpha-linolenic acid is estimated to be approximately 1-2 g/d but varies with the type of culinary oil used. There are few reliable estimates of the intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, but those are generally approximately 0.1-0.5 g/d. The increased use of intensive, cereal-based livestock production systems has resulted in a lower proportion of n-3 fatty acids in meat compared with traditional extensive production systems. Overall, there has been a shift in the balance between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids over the past 30 y. This shift is reflected in the declining concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and rising concentrations of linoleic acid in breast milk. PMID:10617968

  14. Transfer of 137Cs through the food chain to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition, concentrations in diet, and body burdens of 137Cs have been measured since 1954 at various sites throughout the world. This report is a compilation and updating of various fallout 137Cs measurements and an interpretation of transfer properties of 137Cs from deposition to diet and from diet to man. An empirical model is used to correlate deposition and diet data. Direct foliar contamination, stored food supplies, and uptake from soil contribute to the dietary levels of 137Cs. The accumulation of 137Cs by man is described by a single exponential model. The inferred biological half-times, 200 to 400 days, are somewhat greater than the half-time of about 100 days obtained from shorter term studies. Differences in body burdens due to sex, age, and weight are discussed. During the period 1954 to 1974, the internal dose from fallout 137Cs, based on average body burdens, is estimated to be 4 to 5 percent of the 21 year radiation dose from 40K

  15. Management traceability information system for the food supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendriss, S.; Benabdelhafid, A.; Boukachour, J.

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, the traceability was applied only for management reasons, but with the advent of new communication and information technologies more and more used in the logistic medium, the notion of the traceability became new extensive to meet the new market needs in term of information by ensuring accessibility the data characteristic or been dependent on the product throughout its life cycle. On the basis of this postulate, we tried to raise some questions of research, beginning by the presentation of the progress achieved, assumptions and objective relating to the traceability, in the second time we mentioned principal work by showing how evolved the scientific question especially the information systems integrating the traceability were developed very little in the literature. Based on what was developed in the first part, we present our generic modeling approach of communicating product "smart object", able to take into account the various essential elements for its traceability: the product in its various states, various operations carried out on the product, resources used, its localization, and interactions between the product and its environment carried out on the basis of whole of service. In order to validate our generic modeling, a case of study representing an application in a context of food industry is presented.

  16. Radioecological studies on terrestrial food chain analysis for accidental release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk [and others

    2000-03-01

    For investigating the contamination pathways of major radionuclides in staple food crops, greenhouse experiments in which rice, Chines cabbage and radish were exposed to mixed {gamma} radionuclides of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85, Ru-103 and Cs-134 and H-3 at different growth stages, were conducted to generate data on parameters concerning the direct contamination of those crops. Experiments of the exposure to iodine gas were also performed for rice and radish at their various growth stages to obtain contamination parameters of elemental iodine. Based on data obtained from the experiments mentioned above, a database program was constructed to make it possible to search parameter values for different radionuclides, crops and deposition times in an easy way have an graphic output of the variation in the contamination parameter with deposition times. Paddy-field soils were collected from 5 or 6 places around Kori and Youngkwang NPPs and physicochemical properties and background radioactivity levels of the soils were investigated. Soil-to-rice transfer factors of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the collected soils were determined for different RI application times. For Kori soils, transfer factors were also measured in the second year to investigate the yearly variation. In addition, the conceptual design of an automatized experimental greenhouse was performed to be used as a basic material for a detailed design for the construction in the future.

  17. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g. pri

  18. Junk food or genuine nourishment: The nutritional value of some of South African fast-food chains

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Van den Honert

    2003-01-01

    Integer programming is used to test the nutritional completeness of two fast-food chains operating in South Africa. McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken. It is shown that a fully nutritional and varied daily diet can be made up from McDonald's menu items, but the same is not true for Kentucky Fried Chicken. This exercise is highly suited to introduce students to mathematical programming: skills learned include formulating mathematical programming problems, mastering linear programming softwa...

  19. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...

  20. Risk, Information, and Trust in the Food Chain: Factors Explaining Consumer Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Latvala

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed factors contributing to consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for increased quality information. The empirical scope of the study was restricted to beef, because the beef labelling system enables reliable tracing of quality attributes. The results showed that consumer perceptions of specific risks in food partly explain their WTP. Also negative experiences heard from other people increased the probability of WTP. Trust seems to be extremely significant factor in WTP models. This study implies that the majority of the respondents trust the food safety authorities and the co-operation of all stakeholders in the food chain.

  1. Nanotechnology in food processing sector-An assessment of emerging trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Sastry, R.; Anshul, Shrivastava; Rao, N. H.

    2012-01-01

    Use of nanoscience based technology in the food industry is fast emerging as new area for research and development. Several research groups including private companies in the industry have initiated research programmes for exploring the wide scope of nanotechnology into the value chain of food processing and manufacturing. This paper discusses the current focus of research in this area and assesses its potential impacts. Using the developed relational database framework with R&D indicators li...

  2. Trends and advances in food analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihah, Nur Thaqifah; Hossain, Mohammad Mosharraf; Lubis, Hamadah; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2016-05-01

    Analyses to ensure food safety and quality are more relevant now because of rapid changes in the quantity, diversity and mobility of food. Food-contamination must be determined to maintain health and up-hold laws, as well as for ethical and cultural concerns. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a rapid and inexpensive quantitative method to detect the presence of targeted DNA-segments in samples, helps in determining both accidental and intentional adulterations of foods by biological contaminants. This review presents recent developments in theory, techniques, and applications of RT-PCR in food analyses, RT-PCR addresses the limitations of traditional food analyses in terms of sensitivity, range of analytes, multiplexing ability, cost, time, and point-of-care applications. A range of targets, including species of plants or animals which are used as food ingredients, food-borne bacteria or viruses, genetically modified organisms, and allergens, even in highly processed foods can be identified by RT-PCR, even at very low concentrations. Microfluidic RT-PCR eliminates the separate sample-processing step to create opportunities for point-of-care analyses. We also cover the challenges related to using RT-PCR for food analyses, such as the need to further improve sample handling.

  3. Trends and advances in food analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihah, Nur Thaqifah; Hossain, Mohammad Mosharraf; Lubis, Hamadah; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2016-05-01

    Analyses to ensure food safety and quality are more relevant now because of rapid changes in the quantity, diversity and mobility of food. Food-contamination must be determined to maintain health and up-hold laws, as well as for ethical and cultural concerns. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a rapid and inexpensive quantitative method to detect the presence of targeted DNA-segments in samples, helps in determining both accidental and intentional adulterations of foods by biological contaminants. This review presents recent developments in theory, techniques, and applications of RT-PCR in food analyses, RT-PCR addresses the limitations of traditional food analyses in terms of sensitivity, range of analytes, multiplexing ability, cost, time, and point-of-care applications. A range of targets, including species of plants or animals which are used as food ingredients, food-borne bacteria or viruses, genetically modified organisms, and allergens, even in highly processed foods can be identified by RT-PCR, even at very low concentrations. Microfluidic RT-PCR eliminates the separate sample-processing step to create opportunities for point-of-care analyses. We also cover the challenges related to using RT-PCR for food analyses, such as the need to further improve sample handling. PMID:27407185

  4. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.

  5. PERSISTENCE AND STABILITY IN A RATIO-DEPENDENT FOOD-CHAIN SYSTEM WITH TIME DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuRui; FengHanying; YangPinghua; WangZhiqiang

    2002-01-01

    A delayed three-species ratio-dependent predator-prey food-chain model without dominating instantaneous negative feedback is investigated. It is shown that the system is permanent under some appropriate conditions, and sufficient conditions are obtained for the local asymptotic stability of a positive equilibrium of the system.

  6. ALMOST PERIODIC SOLUTION OF A NONAUTONOMOUS DIFFUSIVE FOOD CHAIN SYSTEM OF THREE SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoGuilie

    1999-01-01

    In this paper,the almost periodic nonautonomous diffusive food chain system of threespecies is discussed. By using the comparison theorem and V-function method,the author provesthe existence and uniqueness of a positive almost periodic solution,and its stability under disturbances from the hull.

  7. Stability in a diffusive food chain model with Michaelis-Menten functional response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhigui; Pedersen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of positive solutions to a reaction-diffusion system with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions describing a three species food chain. A sufficient condition for the local asymptotical stability is given by linearization and also a sufficient condition...

  8. Optimal harvesting for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-xue; DU Ming-yin

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal harvesting policy for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative solution of the system are proved using the fixed point theorem. By Mazur's theorem, the existence of optimal control strategy is demonstrated and optimality conditions derived by means of normal cone.

  9. Transfer and effects of 1,2,3,5,7-pentachloronaphthalene in an experimental food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slootweg, Tineke; Segner, Helmut; Mayer, Philipp;

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to gain insights into the biomagnification and effects of 1,2,3,5,7-pentachloronaphthalene (PeCN52) in an experimental food chain consisting of benthic worms and juvenile rainbow trout. Worms were contaminated with PeCN52 by passive dosing from polydimethylsiloxane silicone. The contaminated...

  10. A framework for early warning and proactive control systems in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Kramer, M.R.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is inherent to food supply chain networks that performance deviations occur occasionally due to variations in product quality and quantity. To reduce losses, one wants to be informed about such deviations as soon as possible, preferably even before they occur. Then it is possible to take actions

  11. In situ Treatment with Activated Carbon Reduces Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Food Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupryianchyk, D.; Rakowska, M.I.; Roessink, I.; Reichman, E.P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In situ activated carbon (AC) amendment is a new direction in contaminated sediment management, yet its effectiveness and safety have never been tested on the level of entire food chains including fish. Here we tested the effects of three different AC treatments on hydrophobic organic chemical (HOC)

  12. Food supply chain network robustness : a literature review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today’s business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness. However, lean supply chain networks (SCNs) become more vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. Food SCNs have to become robust, i.e. they shoul

  13. Food producers' product development: With regard to the requirements of retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    of technology evolution'. This model has been extended by theories on organizational identity, organizational fields, plausibility, and construction of meaning. Founded on a grounded theory approach the model was subsequently used for analysing the cooperation between Danish food producers and retail chains...

  14. Relationships between food producers and retail chains: From a constructivist perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    the cooperation between Danish food producers and retail chains in four countries regarding trade in pork and pork-based products. The paradigmatic outset in the project was the constructivist paradigm. Based on theories on organisational identity, organisational image, organisational fields, plausibility...

  15. A chain information model for structured knowledge management: Towards effective and efficient food product improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Geerts, R.F.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    New food products often fail, because they are not designed according to consumers' wishes or not produced efficiently. Frequently, the information required for an effective and efficient product development process is not relayed to the appropriate actor in the chain. This article presents a concep

  16. A chain information model for structured knowledge management: towards effective and efficient food product improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Geerts, R.F.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.; Cnossen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    New food products often fail, because they are not designed according to consumers' wishes or not produced efficiently. Frequently, the information required for an effective and efficient product development process is not relayed to the appropriate actor in the chain. This article presents a concep

  17. An updated generic architecture describingcompliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, J.W.; Robbemond, R.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this report a generic architecture is presented comprising an inventory of the most important actors, roles, processes and information that are relevant in the processes of standardisation, certification and compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. This architecture becomes part of an architectural

  18. Existence of Positive Periodic Solutions to -Species Nonautonomous Food Chains with Harvesting Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongkun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By using Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory and some skills of inequalities, we establish the existence of at least positive periodic solutions for -species nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type food chains with harvesting terms. An example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  19. Nitrogen surplus: An environmental performance indicator for sustainable food supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen pollution and negative impacts on human and environmental health are embodied in crop commodities traded domestically and internationally. Food supply chain companies can play a catalytic role in reducing that burden by helping to decrease the environmental nitrogen load from agriculture. T...

  20. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korsman, J.C.; Schipper, A.M.; Vos, de M.G.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Vethaak, A.D.; Voogt, de Pim; Hendriks, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation

  1. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Korsman; A.M. Schipper; M.G. de Vos; M.J. van den Heuvel-Greve; A.D. Vethaak; P. de Voogt; A.J. Hendriks

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation mod

  2. Impacts of the EU Biofuel directive implementation on the EU food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van H.; Banse, M.A.H.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the impact of the EU Biofuels Directive (BFD) on the EU agri-food supply chain using the computable general equilibrium model of the world economy named LEITAP. LEITAP is an extended version of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model including an improved land market mo

  3. Impact of the EU Biofuels Directive on the EU food supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.; Banse, M.A.H.; Meijl, van H.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the impact of the EU Biofuels Directive (BFD) on the EU agri-food supply chain using a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy, LEITAP. LEITAP is an extended version of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model including improved land market modeling, sub

  4. Business Process Modelling in Demand-Driven Agri-Food Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wolfert, J.

    2010-01-01

    Agri-food companies increasingly participate in demand-driven supply chains that are able to adapt flexibly to changes in the marketplace. The objective of this presentation is to discuss a process modelling framework, which enhances the interoperability and agility of information systems as require

  5. Opportunities and realities of supply chain integration : the case of food manufacturers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Akkerman, Renzo; van der Vaart, Taco

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is theoreti

  6. IMPACTS OF EFFECT IN SUPPLY CHAIN WHIP OF FOOD INDUSTRY OF SãO PAULO

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Claudio Gonçalves; Carlos Vital Giordano

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the impacts caused by the bullwhip effect in a São Paulo State food supply chain. In order to reach this objective, it used bibliographical research and a case study. The main factors that would cause that effect were analyzed, so that it would be possible to present some proposals seeking to soften the referred phenomenon

  7. Microplastics in aquatic food chain : sources, measurement, occurrence and potential health risks

    OpenAIRE

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Bouwmeester, H.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with plastics is a growing problem, and is expected to persist for hundreds to thousands of years. As a result microplastics, plastic particles with size smaller than 5 mm, are ubiquitously present in the aquatic food chain. The present literature review shows that the information needed for such an evaluation is not available yet

  8. Microplastics in aquatic food chain : sources, measurement, occurrence and potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Bouwmeester, H.; Peters, R.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with plastics is a growing problem, and is expected to persist for hundreds to thousands of years. As a result microplastics, plastic particles with size smaller than 5 mm, are ubiquitously present in the aquatic food chain. The present literature review shows that the i

  9. Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Schlundt, J

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms have a long history of use in food production, e.g. in the production of sausages, cheeses, etc. Roughly one quarter of all food products rely on microbiological processes, and the safe use of microorganisms for food production is essential. The transfer of novel traits to food microorganisms through recombinant gene technology will result in new potential food safety issues. This requires the elaboration of criteria for safety assessment of foods derived from genetic microorga...

  10. Moving towards Sustainability in Food Chains: Dealing with Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Schiefer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability concerns are receiving increasingly attention by society and in turn, the food sector and consumers as the food sector’s final customers. Investments towards improvements in sustainability along the chain are usually not evenly distributed along the chain which affects the balance in the distribution of costs and returns. Transparency is a means for supporting an appropriate link between costs and returns. Various alternatives are being discussed. The chapter utilizes a case study approach for elaborating on the possibilities of regaining costs through price premiums, the communication of sustainability to consumers and the cooperation through horizontal and vertical networking alternatives that could support developments towards sustainability through gains in efficiency and concerted engagements in dealing with sustainability, costs and returns along the chain

  11. Contrasting Attitudes towards Animal Welfare Issues within the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems have facilitated the production of animal-based products at relatively low prices. On one hand, these methods have been increasingly considered to be responsible for a dramatic reduction in animal welfare, as indicated by the high prevalence of stereotypies in sows, brittle bones in hens, lameness in broilers and short life span in dairy cattle. As a consequence, large segments of animal welfare-sensitive consumers have been identified. On the other hand, price conscious consumers, if accepting higher prices, are more likely to require explicit justification of returns in quality. Therefore, scientifically validated monitoring systems for assessing the welfare of farm animals have been developed in order to provide a certification system, allow the differentiation of animal-based products through constant and reliable signaling systems, and promote animal welfare friendly farming systems.

  12. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on risks for public health related to the presence of chlorate in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Following a request from the European Commission, the risks to human health related to the presence of chlorate in food were assessed by the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel). The presence of chlorate in food can arise from the use of chlorinated water for food processing...... and the disinfection of food-processing equipment. Inhibition of iodine uptake in humans was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to chlorate. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 3 µg chlorate/kg body weight (b.w.) was set by read-across from a TDI of 0.3 µg/kg b.w. derived for this effect...... for perchlorate, multiplied by a factor of 10 to account for the lower potency of chlorate. Formation of methaemoglobin was identified as the critical acute effect of chlorate. An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 36 µg chlorate/kg b.w. was derived from a no-observed-effect-level for chlorate in a controlled...

  13. Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M J; Burns, D T; Elliott, C T; Gowland, M H; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting. If we fail to realise the promise of current risk assessment and risk management of food allergens through lack of the ability to measure food allergens reproducibly and with traceability to an international unit of measurement, the analytical community will have failed a significant societal challenge. Three distinct but interrelated areas of analytical work are urgently needed to address the substantial gaps identified: (a) a coordinated international programme for the production of properly characterised clinically relevant reference materials and calibrants for food allergen analysis; (b) an international programme to widen the scope of proteomics and genomics bioinformatics for the genera containing the major allergens to address problems in ELISA, MS and DNA methods; (c) the initiation of a coordinated international programme leading to reference methods for allergen proteins that provide results traceable to the SI. This article describes in more detail food allergy, the risks of inapplicable or flawed allergen analyses with examples and a proposed framework, including clinically relevant incurred allergen concentrations, to address the currently unmet and urgently required analytical requirements. Support for the

  14. ePedigree Traceability System for the Agricultural Food Supply Chain to Ensure Consumer Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability relies on the environmental, social and economical systems: the three pillars of sustainability. The social sustainability mostly advocates the people’s welfare, health, safety, and quality of life. In the agricultural food industry, the aspects of social sustainability, such as consumer health and safety have gained substantial attention due to the frequent cases of food-borne diseases. The food-borne diseases due to the food degradation, chemical contamination and adulteration of food products pose a serious threat to the consumer’s health, safety, and quality of life. To ensure the consumer’s health and safety, it is essential to develop an efficient system which can address these critical social issues in the food distribution networks. This research proposes an ePedigree (electronic pedigree traceability system based on the integration of RFID and sensor technology for real-time monitoring of the agricultural food to prevent the distribution of hazardous and adulterated food products. The different aspects regarding implementation of the proposed system in food chains are analyzed and a feasible integrated solution is proposed. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the proposed ePedigree system’s impact on the social sustainability in terms of consumer health and safety is presented.

  15. Accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine food chains: Field measurements and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, K.; Hendriks, J.; Huijbregts, M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Vethaak, D.

    2005-01-01

    Food chain accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in estuarine and marine environments is compared to model estimations and fresh water field data. The food chain consists of herbivores, detritivores and primary and secondary carnivores i.e. fish, fish-eating birds and marin

  16. Food quality assessment by NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Martin B.; Millar, Samuel J.; Chau, Astor

    2010-04-01

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is well established in the food industry for rapid compositional analysis of bulk samples. NIR hyperspectral imaging provides new opportunities to measure the spatial distribution of components such as moisture and fat, and to identify and measure specific regions of composite samples. An NIR hyperspectral imaging system has been constructed for food research applications, incorporating a SWIR camera with a cooled 14 bit HgCdTe detector and N25E spectrograph (Specim Ltd, Finland). Samples are scanned in a pushbroom mode using a motorised stage. The system has a spectral resolution of 256 pixels covering a range of 970-2500 nm and a spatial resolution of 320 pixels covering a swathe adjustable from 8 to 300 mm. Images are acquired at a rate of up to 100 lines s-1, enabling samples to be scanned within a few seconds. Data are captured using SpectralCube software (Specim) and analysed using ENVI and IDL (ITT Visual Information Solutions). Several food applications are presented. The strength of individual absorbance bands enables the distribution of particular components to be assessed. Examples are shown for detection of added gluten in wheat flour and to study the effect of processing conditions on fat distribution in chips/French fries. More detailed quantitative calibrations have been developed to study evolution of the moisture distribution in baguettes during storage at different humidities, to assess freshness of fish using measurements of whole cod and fillets, and for prediction of beef quality by identification and separate measurement of lean and fat regions.

  17. Transfer data for radio-cesium in the food chain feed/meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to have some knowledge of the behaviour of radioactive material in the food chain to be able to assess the radiation exposure of humans via the ingestion path way. The transfer factor has to be defined precisely because there is a linear dependence of the radiation dose on the transfer factor in the mathematical models for calculating the annual radiation doses. Knowledge of the animal-specific cesium retention, of the biological half-life as well as of the distribution system is required for an accurate calculation of the transfer-data of the particularly important radionuclide cesium 137. After having studied the original literature thoroughly the following transfer factors have been found as an average: cattle 0.03 +- 0.02, calf 0.43 +- 0.06, goat 0.20, sheep 0.11 +- 0.02, swine 0.26 +- 0.01, chicken 3.23 +- 1.41, reindeer 0.31 +- 0.07. (MG)

  18. MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE IN WILD BIRD POPULATIONS: IMPORTANCE OF THE FOOD CHAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andreia; Simões, Romeo; Oliveira, Manuela; Vaz-Pires, Paulo; Brandão, Ricardo; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2015-12-01

    The presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli has recently been reported in wild birds (gulls and birds of prey) that had no apparent exposure to antimicrobials. Little work has been done to assess the role of the food chain in the emergence and spread of MDR E. coli . In this study, we evaluated the presence of MDR E. coli in 29 fecal samples collected from wild birds living in a rehabilitation center (the center receives injured animals found in their natural habitat) and in eight feed samples. In total, 166 E. coli isolates were obtained: 129 from cloacal swabs and 37 from raw feed samples. The antimicrobial resistance profile of these isolates was determined, and we found that 75 isolates showed resistance to five or more drugs, resulting in a total of 38 different antimicrobial resistance patterns. Subsequently, the molecular characterization of 36 isolates, performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, revealed a great similarity between isolates collected from various species of birds and also between these last ones and the ones found in their feed samples. PMID:26667528

  19. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

  20. Development and evolution of risk assessment for food allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevel, R.W.R.; Baumert, J.L.; Baka, A.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Luccioli, S.; Taylor, S.L.; Madsen, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    The need to assess the risk from food allergens derives directly from the need to manage effectively this food safety hazard. Work spanning the last two decades dispelled the initial thinking that food allergens were so unique that the risk they posed was not amenable to established risk assessment

  1. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Localizing Food Systems: The Case of Dairy Supply Chains in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Charles F; He, Xi; Gómez, Miguel I; Gao, H O; Hill, Elaine

    2015-10-20

    We developed and evaluated an empirical model of the U.S. dairy supply chain with a high degree of spatial and product disaggregation to assess the impacts of increasing localization of the northeast region's fluid milk supply on food miles, supply chain costs, greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, economic activity, and employment. Evaluation included comparison to regional production values and sensitivity analysis of demand and unit cost assumptions. Our analysis compares a baseline to two localization scenarios based on state boundaries and multiple-state subregions. Localization scenarios increased total distances fluid milk traveled by 7-15%, overall supply chain costs by 1-2%, and emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 equivalent) criteria pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm associated with fluid milk transportation by 7-15% per month. The impacts of localization on employment and economic activity are positive, but changes are small on a percentage basis. Our analyses indicate that the definition used for localization has an impact on outcomes and that efforts to localize food systems may benefit from a more systems-oriented approach.

  2. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Localizing Food Systems: The Case of Dairy Supply Chains in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Charles F; He, Xi; Gómez, Miguel I; Gao, H O; Hill, Elaine

    2015-10-20

    We developed and evaluated an empirical model of the U.S. dairy supply chain with a high degree of spatial and product disaggregation to assess the impacts of increasing localization of the northeast region's fluid milk supply on food miles, supply chain costs, greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, economic activity, and employment. Evaluation included comparison to regional production values and sensitivity analysis of demand and unit cost assumptions. Our analysis compares a baseline to two localization scenarios based on state boundaries and multiple-state subregions. Localization scenarios increased total distances fluid milk traveled by 7-15%, overall supply chain costs by 1-2%, and emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 equivalent) criteria pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm associated with fluid milk transportation by 7-15% per month. The impacts of localization on employment and economic activity are positive, but changes are small on a percentage basis. Our analyses indicate that the definition used for localization has an impact on outcomes and that efforts to localize food systems may benefit from a more systems-oriented approach. PMID:26401757

  3. Intervention of Anti-monopoly Law in Food Safety:From the Perspective of Food Value Chain%食品安全的反垄断法干预--食品价值链视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于连超

    2014-01-01

    食品量的供给、食品价格波动以及食品质量保障三方面构成反垄断法视域下食品安全的基本内容。农产品生产环节中的知识产权滥用,食品加工销售环节的涉嫌垄断协议以及食品零售环节的食品安全私营标准是反垄断法干预食品安全问题的重点。对食品价值链各环节市场进行反垄断法评估与干预,对保障食品数量、价格与质量安全具有重要意义,也有利于保护食品价值链中之消费者、中小供应商等弱势群体的利益。%In the anti-monopoly law,the basic elements of food safety consist of the amount of food supply,food price volatility and food quality assurance.The emphasis of anti-monopoly law interven-tion in food safety includes three aspects:the abuse of intellectual property in the agricultural produc-tion,the alleged monopoly agreements in food processing and marketing chain and,private standards of food safety in food retail sectors.The assessment and intervention of anti-monopoly laws to the mar-kets of food value chain are important to the protection of food safety of quantity,price and quality.At the same time,this assessment and intervention may help to protect the interests of vulnerable groups including consumers,small and medium suppliers in food value chain.

  4. Intervention of Anti-monopoly Law in Food Safety:From the Perspective of Food Value Chain%食品安全的反垄断法干预--食品价值链视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于连超

    2014-01-01

    In the anti-monopoly law,the basic elements of food safety consist of the amount of food supply,food price volatility and food quality assurance.The emphasis of anti-monopoly law interven-tion in food safety includes three aspects:the abuse of intellectual property in the agricultural produc-tion,the alleged monopoly agreements in food processing and marketing chain and,private standards of food safety in food retail sectors.The assessment and intervention of anti-monopoly laws to the mar-kets of food value chain are important to the protection of food safety of quantity,price and quality.At the same time,this assessment and intervention may help to protect the interests of vulnerable groups including consumers,small and medium suppliers in food value chain.%食品量的供给、食品价格波动以及食品质量保障三方面构成反垄断法视域下食品安全的基本内容。农产品生产环节中的知识产权滥用,食品加工销售环节的涉嫌垄断协议以及食品零售环节的食品安全私营标准是反垄断法干预食品安全问题的重点。对食品价值链各环节市场进行反垄断法评估与干预,对保障食品数量、价格与质量安全具有重要意义,也有利于保护食品价值链中之消费者、中小供应商等弱势群体的利益。

  5. Linking urban consumers and rural farmers in India: A comparison of traditional and modern food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Minten, Bart; Reardon, Thomas; Vandeplas, Anneleen

    2009-01-01

    "Food supply chains are being transformed in a number of developing countries due to widespread changes in urban food demand. To better anticipate the impact of this transformation and thus assist in the design of appropriate policies, it is important to understand the changes that are occurring in these supply chains. In a case study of India, we find that overall urban consumption is increasing; the urban food basket is shifting away from staples toward high-value products; and modern marke...

  6. Differences of small-scale farmers and the related short agri-food value chains An empirical evidence from Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Benedek, Zsófia; Fertő, Imre; Baráth, Lajos; Tóth, József

    2014-01-01

    Recently, short food supply chains have been thoroughly studied in some countries; however, data are sparse from others. In Hungary, the local food movement has been developing very fast and an outburst in the number of farmers markets has happened, due to the changes of the legal environment. The paper addresses the question whether farmers selling at various short food supply chains are different based on their socio-demographic, farm- and production-related characteristics, expectations an...

  7. THE ROLE OF SHEEP AS CARRIER OF ZOONOSES IN THE MEAT FOOD CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Flores Rodas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the results regarding the presence of common food pathogens in ovine carcasses immediately after slaughtering and in a derived traditional product in order to collect informations for risk assessment and management

  8. Ocena tveganja zaradi prehoda svinca (Pb) iz tal prek prehranjevalne verige v male sesalce (na primeru pehotnih strelišč): Risk assessment of lead contamination for small mammal food chains (case study for shooting ranges):

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar; Pokorny, Boštjan; Tome, Davorin

    2010-01-01

    Pb levels were measured in tissues of small mammals (Microtus agrestis, Apodemus flavicollis, Sorex araneus and Crocidura leucodon), inhabiting shooting ranges of the Slovenian Army (Apače, Bač, Bloška polica, Crngrob, Mačkovec, Poček); in addition, Pb content was analysed in their diet as well. The present research was performed with the aim to confirm the use of small mammals as bioindicators of Pb contamination of shooting ranges and to performthe risk assessment of military shooting range...

  9. The Prevalence of Food Addiction as Assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Peter Stanwell; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Clare E. Collins; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global issue and it has been suggested that an addiction to certain foods could be a factor contributing to overeating and subsequent obesity. Only one tool, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been developed to specifically assess food addiction. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of food addiction diagnosis and symptom scores, as assessed by the YFAS. Published studies to July 2014 were included if they reported the YFAS diagnosis or symptom score and were publi...

  10. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food.

    OpenAIRE

    Niederhauser, C; Candrian, U; Höfelein, C; M. Jermini; Bühler, H P; Lüthy, J

    1992-01-01

    A previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (B. Furrer, U. Candrian, C. Höfelein, and J. Lüthy, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 70:372-379, 1991) was used to analyze food for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. Food samples were artificially contaminated to develop two procedures to detect the organism following enrichment steps. Procedure A was based on dilution of the enrichment broth followed by lysis of the bacteria and direct analysis of the lysate with PCR. With procedure A and...

  11. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M. F.; Schwartz, G. J. B.; Singaram, S.; Tjeerdema, R. S. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mielbrecht, E. E. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences; Sowby, M. L. [California State Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the impact of dispersing agents on petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation and metabolic transformation of a model PH, ({sup 1}4C)naphthalene, were measured and compared with Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527, and undispersed preparations of PBCO. The model food chain consisted of a primary algae producer and a primary rotifer consumer. Results showed that uptake of naphthalene increased significantly in the presence of a dispersant in algae. A significant increase in uptake was also recorded in rotifers via trophic transfer. Trophic transfer played a significant, sometimes even dominant, role in uptake and bioaccumulation. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Radio-ecological studies on the air-soil-vine-wine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the results of the first three years (1983-85) of the radio-ecological studies on wine which were performed on eight sites from major German wine-growing regions involving red and white wine varieties typical of their region. The radionuclides of tritium, carbon 14, strontium 90, cesium 137, radium 226 and sodium 40 were examined for their contents and presence in the food chain of air-soil-vine-wine in order to determine the pollution situation in grapes and wine and to gain information on their behaviour in the food chain. A number of soil parameters important for nutrient uptake were determined to describe the site. (orig./MG)

  13. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of corrosion products from radioactive stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine if corrosion products from radioactive Type 347 stainless steel could be biologically transferred from sediment through a marine food chain, and whether corrosion products dissolved in seawater could be bioaccumulated and then eliminated. Corrosion products containing /sup 60/Co and /sup 63/Ni from the radioactive stainless steel were introduced into marine sediments. Infaunal polychaete worms exposed to these sediments bioaccumulated the radionuclides. The feeding of these worms to shrimp and fish resulted in a trophic transfer of the radioactive products across a one-step food chain. The magnitude of the transfers are described in terms of transfer factors. Dissolved corrosion products as measured by the radionuclides were also bioaccumulated by shrimp and fish concentrating more than fish. Concentration factors were calculated.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes cross-contamination of cheese: risk throughout the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauders, B D; D'Amico, D J

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been the most common microbial cause of cheese-related recalls in both the United States and Canada in recent years. Since L. monocytogenes is inactivated by pasteurization, the majority of these cases have been linked to environmental and cross-contamination of fresh-soft, soft-ripened, and semi-soft cheeses. Cross-contamination of foods with L. monocytogenes is a continuous risk throughout the food supply chain and presents unique challenges for subsequent illness and outbreak investigations. Reports on outbreaks of listeriosis attributed to cross-contamination downstream from primary processing help highlight the critical role of epidemiological investigation coupled with coordinated molecular subtyping and surveillance in the recognition and investigation of complex foodborne outbreaks. Despite their complexity, environmental sampling throughout the supply chain coupled with improved genotyping approaches and concomitant analysis of foodborne illness epidemiological exposure data are needed to help resolve these and similar cases more rapidly and with greater confidence. PMID:27435307

  15. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of corrosion products from radioactive stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine if corrosion products from radioactive Type 347 stainless steel could be biologically transferred from sediment through a marine food chain, and whether corrosion products dissolved in seawater could be bioaccumulated and then eliminated. Corrosion products containing 60Co and 63Ni from the radioactive stainless steel were introduced into marine sediments. Infaunal polychaete worms exposed to these sediments bioaccumulated the radionuclides. The feeding of these worms to shrimp and fish resulted in a trophic transfer of the radioactive products across a one-step food chain. The magnitude of the transfers are described in terms of transfer factors. Dissolved corrosion products as measured by the radionuclides were also bioaccumulated by shrimp and fish concentrating more than fish. Concentration factors were calculated

  16. Complex dynamics in a food chain with slow and fast processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of the dynamic behavior of a three-species food chain model, in which two predators compete for the same prey while one of the predators feeds on the other. Under the assumption that the time responses of the three trophic levels are extremely diversified, the model is proved to have homoclinic orbit. We firstly use geometric singular perturbation method to detect singular homoclinic orbits as well as parameter combinations for which these orbits exist. Then, we show, numerically, that there exist also nonsingular homoclinic orbits that tend toward the singular ones for slightly different parameter values. This analysis is particularly helpful to understanding the chaotic behavior of the food chains.

  17. Junk food or genuine nourishment: The nutritional value of some of South African fast-food chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Van den Honert

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Integer programming is used to test the nutritional completeness of two fast-food chains operating in South Africa. McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken. It is shown that a fully nutritional and varied daily diet can be made up from McDonald's menu items, but the same is not true for Kentucky Fried Chicken. This exercise is highly suited to introduce students to mathematical programming: skills learned include formulating mathematical programming problems, mastering linear programming software and exploring the Internet for relevant data.

  18. Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    The pre-market safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops is carried out according to the consensus approach of "substantial equivalence", in other words: the comparative safety assessment. Currently, the safety assessment of genetically modified foods is harmonized at the in

  19. Joint Effects of Nutrients and Contaminants on the Dynamics of a Food Chain in Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Bacelar, Flora S.; DUERI Sibylle; Hernández-García, Emilio; Zaldívar, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the joint effect of contaminants and nutrient loading on population dynamics of marine food chains by means of bifurcation analysis. Contaminant toxicity is assumed to alter mortality of some species with a sigmoidal dose–response relationship. A generic effect of pollutants is to delay transitions to complex dynamical states towards higher nutrient load values, but more counterintuitive consequences arising from indirect effects are described. In particular, the top predator seems...

  20. Oceanic arsenic detoxication: the path of arsenic in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenate appears to be readily metabolized by all marine algae. Its metabolism and mechanisms for biodegradation of the accumulated arsenolipids was investigated. The objective was to acquire sufficient understanding of the paths of arsenic in marine food chains to be able to evaluate the problems it might present to marine organisms and their effective productivity and the hazards its intermediates might present in marine products for human nutrition

  1. Urbanization affects water and nitrogen use in the food chain in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, W; Ma, L.(School of Physics, Shandong University, Shandong, China); Zhang, F.S.; Oenema, O.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urbanization and agriculture are highly coupled. However, the impacts of urbanization(e.g. transformation in urban and rural population and change in diet) on water and nitrogen (N) use remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study are to quantify water flows in the food chain of China, to analyze the complex relationship between urbanization and water and N use efficiency, and to project water and N demand in China via various scenarios, using a combination of water footpri...

  2. IMPACTS OF EFFECT IN SUPPLY CHAIN WHIP OF FOOD INDUSTRY OF SãO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Gonçalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the impacts caused by the bullwhip effect in a São Paulo State food supply chain. In order to reach this objective, it used bibliographical research and a case study. The main factors that would cause that effect were analyzed, so that it would be possible to present some proposals seeking to soften the referred phenomenon

  3. Characteristics of loyal customers for trade chains in the German food retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Olearius, Gotz; Roosen, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    In this paper customer loyalty will be examined with the help of budget ratios (budget shares). We address the question whether sociodemographic groups differ in their shopping behavior and their store loyalty. Loyalty is analyzed with regard to the ten largest food retail chains in Germany in 2002. It is shown that the loyalty of customers depends on the lifecycle stage of the household and household size for the most part. Older and single households are more loyal than younger families.

  4. Dynamics of a Nonautonomous Leslie-Gower Type Food Chain Model with Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Weiguo Wang; Hongying Lu

    2011-01-01

    A nonautonomous Leslie-Gower type food chain model with time delays is investigated. It is proved the general nonautonomous system is permanent and globally asymptotically stable under some appropriate conditions. Furthermore, if the system is periodic one, some sufficient conditions are established, which guarantee the existence, uniqueness, and global asymptotic stability of a positive periodic solution of the system. The conditions for the permanence, global stability of system, and the ex...

  5. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as it threatens the health of men and animals. This project looked at a chain-wide approach to reduce Fusarium Mycotoxins.

  6. Post-harvest control strategies: Minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David

    2007-01-01

    Contamination of cereal commodities by moulds and mycotoxins results in dry matter, quality, and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. Most grain is harvested, dried and then stored on farm or in silos for medium/long term storage. Cereal quality is influenced by a range of interacting abiotic and biotic factors. In the so-called stored grain ecosystem, factors include grain and contaminant mould respiration, insect pests, rodents and the key environmental ...

  7. Quality policy, market structure and investment behavior in the food marketing chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    This thesis, consisting of four articles, analyzes quality in relation to consumer demand and market structure, and the potential problem of asset fixity at primary level. All four articles, directly or indirectly, relate to different parts of the food marketing chain. Article I examines country of origin as a quality cue from a consumer perception perspective. This is an empirical article applied to the market for fresh meat in Sweden where the characteristics of consumers are related to how...

  8. Price transmission in the agri-food value chain - from a farmer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Price transmission in the agri-food value chain - when changes in one price cause another price downstream to change - is an important issue for farmers, markets and the economy as an efficient market price setting is crucial for all market players. However, there are numerous examples of price t...... at the same time, gain access to segments with higher margins and greater market power....

  9. Activism and Trust: Animal Rights vs. Animal Welfare in the Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.; Ortega, Adriana; Cook, Marquesa; Concepcion, Marian; Kimmons, Tina; Ralph, Kelly; Ponce, Joanna; Miller, Hannah; Lam, Michelle; Baldwin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Animals such as poultry and cattle have been used for production and human consumption throughout the history of agriculture. This work defines and analyzes the concepts of animal rights and animal welfare. It compares and contrasts the viewpoints of animal rights and animal welfare organizations in an effort to portray a comprehensive perspective of this ethical concept as it relates to agriculture and the supply chain for food. These organizations have had significant impacts by urging gove...

  10. Test what you eat. Monitoring of radioactivity in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2013, the total beta activity in animal feed products being exported to Belarus shall be lower than 600 Becquerel per kilogram. The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN carries out these checks on behalf of the professional association of compound feed manufacturers in Belgium. The article discusses work conducted by SCK-CEN relating to the monitoring of radioactivity in the food chain.

  11. Anticipation of future notifications to EFSA of microbial taxonomic units intentionally introduced into the food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available EFSA requested the preparation and prioritisation of a list of microorganism species likely to be notified to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the future in the regulatory context of food and feed additives, food enzymes and food flavourings by consulting the following EFSA scientific Units (Food Ingredients and Packaging (FIP, FEED, Genetically Modified Microorganisms (GMO, Pesticides. This list is intended to be considered for the annual updates and reviews of the Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS recommended list of biological agents. EFSA’s QPS assessment has entered EU law only recently with the publication of a new Commission Implementing Regulation No 562/2012 regarding specific data required for risk assessment of food enzymes having regard to Regulation (EC No 1331/2008 establishing a common authorising procedure for food additives, food enzymes and food flavourings and to the EFSA guidance on data requirements for the evaluation of food enzyme applications. An EFSA internal working group (WG prepared a list of microorganism species that maybe likely to be notified to EFSA in the near future based on available information relevant in the legal framework. A high number of application dossiers for risk assessment of enzymes are expected to be submitted until March 2015 in the context of enzyme safety evaluation to the FIP Unit and Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel. It is therefore recommended to consider the list as soon as possible by the annual QPS WG of the Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ Panel to avoid where possible any unnecessary toxicity testing for taxonomic units which would potentially receive a QPS recommendation.

  12. Green Food Packaging in Supply Chain: Case Studies on Nestlé and Kraft Foods

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Problems concerning the environment are some of the most pressing issues our modern society faces, and such problems come in a variety of forms; climate change, deforestation, air pollution and water pollution. Packaging is one contributor to these environmental issues, as it involves results in waste, pollution and depletion of resources. As such, the food industry, an industry heavily reliant on packaging, has been forced to change its philosophy and become ‘green’. This paper will exam...

  13. Effect of feeding selectivity on the transfer of methylmercury through experimental marine food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jingxian; Chen, Jieru; Wei, Jie; Zhao, Wen; Liu, Qing; Sun, Huiling

    2013-08-01

    The present study established an experimental marine food chain of three levels (microalgae → zooplankton → fish) to investigate the effect of feeding selectivity on the transfer of methylmercury (MeHg) through the food chain. Total Hg concentrations in Chlorella sp., Nitzschia closterium and Isochrysis galbana exposed to 1 μg L(-1) MeHg for three days were 27.91, 32.74 and 40.03 μg g(-1) respectively and were significantly different (p Moina mongolica and Artemia sp. primarily selected Chlorella sp. as the sole diet, though the Artemia sp. partly grazed on I. galbana as well. Harpacticus uniremis, however, preferred to graze N. closterium and I. galbana and avoided Chlorella sp. The varying concentration of Hg in the microalgae species as well as the selectivity of zooplankton to the algal diet resulted in varying Hg accumulation in three zooplankton species (M. mongolica P. olivaceus > F. rubripes with total Hg concentrations of 0.0042, 0.0031 and 0.0020 μg g(-1), respectively). These investigations suggested feeding selectivity plays a key role in the transfer of MeHg along marine food chains. PMID:23702096

  14. Mercury in the food chain of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Baseline δ15N derived from primary consumers improves estimation of trophic position. • Trophic position explains better methyl-mercury biomagnification than raw δ15N data. • Trophic magnification factor of methyl-mercury in the Lagoon biota is about 10. • Benthic bivalves accumulate more mercury than other animals at the same trophic level. - Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Sediments and biota samples were collected in a restricted area of the Lagoon of Venice and analysed for total mercury, monomethyl mercury (MMHg), and nitrogen and carbon isotopes. Results were used to examine mercury biomagnification in a complex food chain. Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) proved to be a major source of nutrients and mercury to primary consumers. Contrary to inorganic mercury, MMHg was strongly biomagnified along the food chain, although the lognormal relationship between MMHg and δ15N was less constrained than generally reported from lakes or coastal marine ecosystems. The relationship improved when log MMHg concentrations were plotted against trophic positions derived from baseline δ15N estimate for primary consumers. From the regression slope a mean MMHg trophic magnification factor of 10 was obtained. Filter-feeding benthic bivalves accumulated more MMHg than other primary consumers and were probably important in MMHg transfer from sediments to higher levels of the food chain

  15. Implications for the human food chain of models of cadmium accumulation in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical limits for cadmium in parts of the human food chain are considered to have too small margins of safety and some limits are regularly exceeded. There is concern about the exposure of some sections of the population to cadmium in the human food chain, in particular regarding offal, which is a major source of cadmium to some sectors. The kidney is the first organ of sheep to reach the limit of fitness for human consumption. A model (based on a meta-analysis) predicts that this would occur after a mean of just 130 days of feeding sheep the maximum permitted cadmium concentration in feed (in the European Union) in the organic form. Thus it is not surprising that sheep organs are found routinely to exceed cadmium limits. Since reduction of maximum cadmium levels in sheep feed or of the duration of their exposure are not economically viable measures of control, routine removal of liver and kidney from older sheep from the food chain is recommended as the best option to reduce human dietary cadmium intake from sheep origin

  16. Topological invariants in the study of a chaotic food chain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno

    2008-06-01

    The study of ecological systems has generated deep interest in exploring the complexity of chaotic food chains. The role of chaos in ecosystems is not entirely understood. One approach to have a better comprehension of ecological chaos is by analyzing it in mathematical models of basic food chains. In this article it is considered a classical chaotic food chain model from the literature. We use the theory of symbolic dynamics to study the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of kneading sequences associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the model dynamics. The topological entropy allows us to distinguish different chaotic states in some realistic system parameter region. Another numerical invariant is introduced in order to characterize isentropic dynamics. Studying a set of maps with the same topological entropy, we exhibit numerical results about the relation between the second topological invariant and each of the control parameters in consideration. This work provides an illustration of how our understanding of ecological models can be enhanced by the theory of symbolic dynamics.

  17. Relationship Quality and Innovation Capacity of Chains: The Case of the Traditional Food Sector in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Gellynck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore how the perceived relationship quality is related to the innovation capacity in chains of the traditional food sector. Based on suggestions from theory and previous studies, empirical evidence is drawn from a survey of 90 traditional food chains including 270 chain partners from three European countries in four traditional food product categories. Heterogeneity across these chains is first examined based on cluster analysis that identifies three distinct clusters interpreted as reflecting three levels of intensity in innovation capacity: high, medium, and low. Next, we define measures of the chain relationship quality through characteristics such as trust, conflict and reputation. Results suggest that various aspects of chain relationship quality and relationship directions are differently important for the innovation capacity levels in traditional food chains. In particular the perception of the relationship quality between the food manufacturer and its supplier (and vice versa is explored to be important. The better this relationship is perceived by one chain partner, the higher is the innovation capacity of the whole chain. Thus, our results strengthen the emerging conclusion that firms benefit from participating in networks but depend on its partner’s choices and perceptions. In future research, it should be explored how different national and cultural environments facilitate or hamper the innovation capacity in traditional food chains. It is also suggested to extend the complexity of the investigated system and to apply our novel approach to other food sectors, than the traditional food sector, in order to improve its generalizability.

  18. Safety Assessment and Countermeasures of Genetically Modified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science-biotechnology, the safety of genetically modified organisms has become some of the most controversial issues in our society. This study aims to review the safety assessment and countermeasures of Genetically Modified (GM foods. Firstly, the research status and the main contents of GM foods safety assessment are discussed. What’s more, the countermeasures of GM foods safety assessment are proposed. This study tries to summarize and discuss the safety assessment of GM foods.

  19. Risk assessment and emerging chemicals hazards in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Moscato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The main beliefs relating to the risk assessment of chemicals in foods, new chemicals in raw material as well as in food processing are briefly presented. Evaluation reviews of representative chemicals found in traditional and novel foods are given. Old and new processes or newly recognized compounds, that require careful assessment in terms of their potential human health impact, are discussed. As example of processing-related contaminants, a risk assessment for acrylamide, is described, providing two different approaches in food safety assessment and the management of carcinogenic contaminants.

  20. Assessment, Development and Implementation of Training Materials for Food Defense/Safety, Biosecurity, and Traceability within the Catfish Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Anna F.; Williams, J. Byron; Crist, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research and subsequent training sessions was to assess food defense in the catfish industry, promote awareness and educate catfish farmers and processors on the principles of food defense, biosecurity and traceability of agricultural commodities and ingredients used in human food production. In the catfish processing chain, preliminary investigations have indicated that there are areas throughout production, processing and distribution that are susceptible to potential ...

  1. Food Safety Management in a Global Environment: The Role of Risk Assessment Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Pila, Joaquin; Jimeno, Vicente; Manzano, Amparo; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos; Mar Fernandez, Maria Del

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment models are playing a minor role in the development of the new EU legal framework for food safety. There is a tendency of the EU institutions to apply the precautionary principle versus the predisposition of the USA institutions to rely on risk analysis. This paper provides a comparison of the role played by quantitative risk assessment models in the development of new policies on food safety in the EU and in the USA, focusing on a study case: the supply chain of s...

  2. Genetically modified plants and food hypersensitivity diseases: usage and implications of experimental models for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Vanessa E; Hogan, Simon P

    2006-08-01

    The recent advances in biotechnology in the plant industry have led to increasing crop production and yield that in turn has increased the usage of genetically modified (GM) food in the human food chain. The usage of GM foods for human consumption has raised a number of fundamental questions including the ability of GM foods to elicit potentially harmful immunological responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. To assess the safety of foods derived from GM plants including allergenic potential, the US FDA, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), and the EU have developed approaches for evaluation assessment. One assessment approach that has been a very active area of research and debate is the development and usage of animal models to assess the potential allergenicity of GM foods. A number of specific animal models employing rodents, pigs, and dogs have been developed for allergenicity assessment. However, validation of these models is needed and consideration of the criteria for an appropriate animal model for the assessment of allergenicity in GM plants is required. We have recently employed a BALB/c mouse model to assess the potential allergenicity of GM plants. We have been able to demonstrate that this model is able to detect differences in antigenicity and identify aspects of protein post-translational modifications that can alter antigenicity. Furthermore, this model has also enabled us to examine the usage of GM plants as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic diseases. This review discusses the current approaches to assess the allergenic potential of GM food and particularly focusing on the usage of animal models to determine the potential allergenicity of GM foods and gives an overview of our recent findings and implications of these studies. PMID:16364445

  3. Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Food and Beverage Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radji, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the specificity of invA primers for detection of Salmonella as confirmed by biochemical and serological assay. The results of this study revealed that PCR was a rapid and useful tool for detection of Salmonella in food and beverage samples.

  4. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. PMID:26996261

  5. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation

  6. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Armin A; Thöns, Christian; Filter, Matthias; Falenski, Alexander; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons) and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available. PMID:26985673

  7. Selecting low carbon technologies for heavy goods vehicles: a case study in the UK fast food supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Velazquez Abad, Anthony; Cherrett, Tom; Waterson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The fast food supply chain is facing increased operating costs due to rising food and energy prices. Based on a case study of a major fast food logistics operator, this paper uses a metaheuristic evolutionary algorithm to find the optimal combination of low carbon vehicle, powertrain and transport refrigeration technologies that minimise net present costs for a heterogeneous fleet of heavy goods vehicles operating in the chilled and frozen food sector. Based on the financial and operatio...

  8. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g. primary inputs, operations) in different stages of FSCN. By applying Data Mining (DM) methods on those data sets, managers can identify the causes of encountered new problems, and also predict and pre...

  9. Risk management and risk assessment of novel plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Søborg, Inge; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted;

    2008-01-01

    and definitions to be used in determining novelty of a plant food and also propose a safety assessment approach for novel plant food with no or limited documented history of safe consumption. A 2-step management procedure is recommended for a smooth introduction of fruits and vegetables; first to establish...... food supply in other parts of the world may be considered novel in Europe. Novel food regulation is already in force in the European Community, Australia/New Zealand and in Canada where the novel plant foods need to go through a premarket assessment procedure. This paper propose criteria...

  10. Assessment of the environmental risk of long chain alcohols (LCOH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, Scott; Sanderson, Hans; Fisk, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    An environmental assessment of long-chain alcohols (LCOH) has recently been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Aliphatic Alcohols Consortium. LCOH are used primarily as intermediates, as a precursor...... on a toxic units (TU) approach were determined for various scenarios of exposure and effects extrapolation. The global average TU ranged from 0.048 to 0.467 depending on the scenario employed suggesting a low risk to the environment. The fact that environmental exposure calculations include large fractions...... to alcohol-based surfactants and as alcohol per se in a wide variety of consumer product applications. Global production volume is approximately 1.58 million metric tonnes. The OECD HPV assessment covers linear to slightly branched LCOH ranging from 6 to 22 alkyl carbons (C). LCOH biodegrade exceptionally...

  11. Application of elements of microbiological risk assessment in the food industry via a tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerwen, Suzanne J C; Gorris, Leon G M

    2004-09-01

    Food safety control is a matter for concern for all parts of the food supply chain, including governments that develop food safety policy, food industries that must control potential hazards, and consumers who need to keep to the intended use of the food. In the future, food safety policy may be set using the framework of risk analysis, part of which is the development of (inter)national microbiological risk assessment (MRA) studies. MRA studies increase our understanding of the impact of risk management interventions and of the relationships among subsequent parts of food supply chains with regard to the safety of the food when it reaches the consumer. Application of aspects of MRA in the development of new food concepts has potential benefits for the food industry. A tiered approach to applying MRA can best realize these benefits. The tiered MRA approach involves calculation of microbial fate for a product and process design on the basis of experimental data (e.g., monitoring data on prevalence) and predictive microbiological models. Calculations on new product formulations and novel processing technologies provide improved understanding of microbial fate beyond currently known boundaries, which enables identification of new opportunities in process design. The outcome of the tiered approach focuses on developing benchmarks of potential consumer exposure to hazards associated with new products by comparison with exposure associated with products that are already on the market and have a safe history of use. The tiered prototype is a tool to be used by experienced microbiologists as a basis for advice to product developers and can help to make safety assurance for new food concepts transparent to food inspection services. PMID:15453599

  12. Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds via the food chain: Is packaging a relevant source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane

    2009-08-01

    Contamination of foodstuffs by environmental pollutants (e.g. dioxins, metals) receives much attention. Until recently, food packaging as a source of xenobiotics, especially those with endocrine disrupting properties, has received little awareness despite its ubiquitous use. This article reviews the regulations and use of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in food packaging and discusses their presence within the context of new toxicology paradigms. I focused on substances known to be legally used in food packaging that have been shown to exhibit endocrine disruptive effects in biological systems. I compiled a list of 50 known or potential EDCs used in food contact materials and examined data of EDCs leaching from packaging into food, with a focus on nonylphenol. I included recent advances in toxicology: mixture effects, the developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis, low-dose effects, and epigenetics. I especially considered the case of bisphenol A. The core hypothesis of this review is that chemicals leaching from packaging into food contribute to human EDCs exposure and might lead to chronic disease in light of the current knowledge. Food contact materials are a major source of food contaminants. Many migrating compounds, possibly with endocrine disruptive properties, remain unidentified. There is a need for information on identity/quantity of chemicals leaching into food, human exposure, and long-term impact on health. Especially EDCs in food packaging are of concern. Even at low concentrations, chronic exposure to EDCs is toxicologically relevant. Concerns increase when humans are exposed to mixtures of similar acting EDCs and/or during sensitive windows of development. In particular, non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) migrating from food contact materials need toxicological characterization; the overall migrate of the finished packaging could be evaluated for biological effects using bioassays. The widespread legal use of EDCs in food

  13. Emerging frontier technologies for food safety analysis and risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yi-yang; LIU Jia-hui; WANG Sai; CHEN Qi-long; GUO Tian-yang; ZHANG Li-ya; JIN Yong; SU Hai-jia; TAN Tian-wei

    2015-01-01

    Access to security and safe food is a basic human necessity and essential for a sustainable world. To perform hi-end food safety analysis and risk assessment with state of the art technologies is of utmost importance thereof. With applications as exempliifed by microlfuidic immunoassay, aptasensor, direct analysis in real time, high resolution mass spectrometry, benchmark dose and chemical speciifc adjustment factor, this review presents frontier food safety analysis and risk assess-ment technologies, from which both food quality and public health wil beneift undoubtedly in a foreseeable future.

  14. Defining food sampling strategy for chemical risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wesolek, Nathalie; Roudot, Alain-Claude

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Collection of accurate and reliable data is a prerequisite for informed risk assessment and risk management. For chemical contaminants in food, contamination assessments enable consumer protection and exposure assessments. And yet, the accuracy of a contamination assessment depends on both chemical analysis and sampling plan performance. A sampling plan is always used when the contamination level of a food lot is evaluated, due to the fact that the whole lot can not be...

  15. Consumer perceptions of risks of chemical and microbiological contaminants associated with food chains: A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kher, S.V.; Jonge, J. de; Wentholt, M.T.; Deliza, R.; Andrade, J.C. de; Cnossen, H.J.; Luijckx, N.B.L.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of effective systems to identify vulnerabilities in food chains to chemical and microbiological contaminants must take account of consumer priorities and preferences. The present investigation attempted to understand consumer perceptions associated with chemical an

  16. Including social impact assessment in food safety governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, M.; Renn, O.; Cope, S.F.; Frewer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies the concepts of social impact assessment (SIA) to the SAFE FOODS risk analysis model highlighting the role that concern assessment, defined as a structured and systematic inclusion of (also wider) social concerns into risk governance, could play in the integration of SIA in food s

  17. Technical Report, Outcome of the public consultation on the draft Scientific Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants on the Food Chain (CONTAM) on acrylamide in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) has endorsed its draft Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of acrylamide (AA) in food. The opinion has undergone a public consultation from 1 July 2014 to 15 September 2014. Overall, EFSA has...

  18. Beverages-Food Industry Cluster Development Based on Value Chain in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasmono Tri Sunaryanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study wants to develop the cluster-based food and beverage industry value chain that corresponds to the potential in the regions in Java Economic Corridor. Targeted research: a description of SME development strategies that have been implemented, composed, and can be applied to an SME cluster development strategy of food and beverage, as well as a proven implementation strategy of SME cluster development of food and beverage. To achieve these objectives, implemented descriptive methods, techniques of data collection through surveys, analysis desk, and the FGD. The data will be analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results of study on PT KML and 46 units of food and drink SMEs in Malang shows that the condition of the SME food-beverage cluster is: not formal, and still as the center. As for the condition of the existence of information technology: the majority of SMEs do not have the PC and only 11% who have it, of which only 23% have a PC that has an internet connection, as well as PC ownership is mostly just used for administration, with WORD and EXCEL programs, and only 4% (1 unit SMEs who use the internet marketing media.

  19. Risk Assessment Model and Supply Chain Risk Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Borut Jereb; Tina Cvahte; Bojan Rosi

    2011-01-01

    By managing risk on the level of the supply chain we gain insight of all potential threats to all organizations involved in the chain as well as to the supply chain itself, especially to the logistics resources: flow of goods, services and information; logistics infrastructure and suprastructure; and people. Supply chain risk management should represent a crucial activity in every organization. As there is currently no standard specifically aimed at holistic supply chain risk management, we p...

  20. Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability to primary producers in a brackish water food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younghans-Haug, C.O.; Wolfe, M.F.; Tjeerdema, R.S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M.L. [Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum is transported and processed within biologically rich brackish environments worldwide. Past research has investigated disposition of chemically dispersed oil in mammals, fish, and higher invertebrates, yet little is known about how chemical dispersion influences petroleum behavior within primary producers within brackish water food chains. One concern is whether chemical dispersion influences petroleum bioavailability to primary producers and the potential for increased petroleum bioaccumulation. This research examines changes in petroleum bioavailability to the euryhaline phytoplankton Isochrysis galbana by measuring bioconcentration factors (BCFS) including uptake and deputation rates for dispersed and undispersed brackish water oil spills. Isochrysis is a major food source for zooplankton which are consumed by a multitude of larval fish having both ecological and commercial importance. Prudhoe Bay Crude oil, Corexit 9527, and {sup 14}C-naphthalene were used for these studies. Constant-concentration flow-through exposures were employed for the uptake and BCF experiments. Work was performed below the ``no observable effect concentration`` to eliminate stress-induced metabolic altercations that could in themselves influence petroleum behavior. Exposure chamber and experimental design will be discussed, and study results presented. Understanding how chemical dispersion alters petroleum behavior within the lowest levels of the food chain leads to better delineation of consumer risks.

  1. A dynamic food-chain model and program for predicting the consequences of nuclear accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic food-chain model and program, DYFOM-95, forpredicting the radiological consequences of nuclear accident hasbeen developed, which is not only suitable to the West food-chainbut also to Chinese food chain. The following processes, caused byaccident release which will make an impact on radionuclideconcentration in the edible parts of vegetable are considered: dryand wet deposition interception and initial retention,translocation, percolation, root uptake and tillage. Activityintake rate of animals, effects of processing and activity intakeof human through ingestion pathway are also considered incalculations. The effects of leaf area index LAI of vegetable areconsidered in dry deposition model. A method for calculating thecontribution of rain with different period and different intensityto total wet deposition is established. The program contains 1 maincode and 5 sub-codes to calculate dry and wet deposition on surfaceof vegetable and soil, translocation of nuclides in vegetable,nuclide concentration in the edible parts of vegetable and inanimal products and activity intake of human and so on.

  2. Development of the technology for terrestrial radioecology and food chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root uptake and underground migration of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85 and Cs-137 deposited during growing seasons of Korean staple crops such as rice, soybean, potato, Chinese cabbage, radish, red pepper and cucumber were investigated through radio-tracer experiments in greenhouse. H-3 experiments for rice and Chinese cabbage and iodine experiment for Chinese cabbage were also carried out. The effect of KCl and lime application on root uptake and migration of Mn-54, Co-60, Sr-85 and Cs-137 were studied. Long-term (2∼5 years depending on crops) behaviors of these radionuclides in soil-plant system were also investigated. Cs-137 concentrations in farm-land soils and crop plants collected in 33 regions of Korea were measured. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of Cs-137 in outdoor fields were compared with those from greenhouse experiments. An improved method of calculating root-uptake concentration of the radionuclide in crop plant was introduced to KFOOD, a food-chain computer code for normal operation. The direction of improving ECOREA, a food-chain computer code for accidental release, was discussed through comparing model calculation of Sr-90 and Cs-137 root-uptake concentrations with present experimental results. Annual food consumption rates and crop yields were updated. (author). 87 refs., 68 tabs., 58 figs

  3. Quality analysis of critical control points within the whole food chain and their impact on food quality, safety and health (QACCP)

    OpenAIRE

    Kahl, Johannes; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Kristensen, Hanne L.; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Mengheri, Elena; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to optimise organic production and processing in order to improve food quality and increase health promoting aspects in consumer products. The approach was a chain analysis approach which addressed the link between farm and fork and backwards from fork to farm. The objectives were to test food authenticity on farm level and food quality and health in processing. The carrot was chosen as the model vegetable since it is common for the involved partners f...

  4. Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslberger, Alexander G

    2006-05-01

    Evidence for substantial environmental influences on health and food safety comes from work with environmental health indicators which show that agroenvironmental practices have direct and indirect effects on human health, concluding that "the quality of the environment influences the quality and safety of foods" [Fennema, O. Environ. Health Perspect. 1990, 86, 229-232). In the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Codex principles have been established for the assessment of GM food safety and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety outlines international principles for an environmental assessment of living modified organisms. Both concepts also contain starting points for an assessment of health/food safety effects of GMOs in cases when the environment is involved in the chain of events that could lead to hazards. The environment can act as a route of unintentional entry of GMOs into the food supply, such as in the case of gene flow via pollen or seeds from GM crops, but the environment can also be involved in changes of GMO-induced agricultural practices with relevance for health/food safety. Examples for this include potential regional changes of pesticide uses and reduction in pesticide poisonings resulting from the use of Bt crops or influences on immune responses via cross-reactivity. Clearly, modern methods of biotechnology in breeding are involved in the reasons behind the rapid reduction of local varieties in agrodiversity, which constitute an identified hazard for food safety and food security. The health/food safety assessment of GM foods in cases when the environment is involved needs to be informed by data from environmental assessment. Such data might be especially important for hazard identification and exposure assessment. International organizations working in these areas will very likely be needed to initiate and enable cooperation between those institutions responsible for the different assessments, as well as for exchange and analysis of

  5. Application of elements of microbiological risk assessment in the food industry via a tiered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, van S.J.C.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Food safety control is a matter for concern for all parts of the food supply chain, including governments that develop food safety policy, food industries that must control potential hazards, and consumers who need to keep to the intended use of the food. In the future, food safety policy may be set

  6. Use of calorie information at fast food and chain restaurants among US youth aged 9–18 years, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethington, H.; Maynard, L.M.; Blanck, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine whether youth use calorie information when it is available at fast food/chain restaurants and what factors are associated with using this information to make their food selection. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 721 youth (9–18 years) using the 2010 YouthStyles and HealthStyles surveys. The outcome measure was reported use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between sociodemographic variables and the use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Results Of those who visited fast food/chain restaurants, 42.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Girls were more likely than boys (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–2.5) and youth who were obese were more likely than those at a healthy weight (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.04–2.9) to use calorie information, and youth eating at a fast food/chain restaurant twice a week or more versus once a week or less were half as likely to report using calorie information (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8). Conclusion Public health education efforts can benefit from research to determine how to increase usage among youth so that their food choices are appropriate for their caloric needs. PMID:23697388

  7. Allergenicity assessment strategy for novel food proteins and protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert

    2016-08-01

    To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed according to the European food legislation. Allergenicity risk assessment might pose some major difficulties, since detailed guidance on how to assess the allergenic potential of novel foods is not available. At present, the approach relies mostly on the guidance of allergenicity assessment for genetically modified (GM) plant foods. The most recent one was proposed by EFSA (2010 and 2011); "weight-of-evidence approach". However this guidance is difficult to interpret, not completely applicable or validated for novel foods and therefore needs some adjustments. In this paper we propose a conceptual strategy which is based on the "weight-of-evidence approach" for food derived from GM plants and other strategies that were previously published in the literature. This strategy will give more guidance on how to assess the allergenicity of novel food proteins and protein sources. PMID:27012375

  8. Accumulation and fluxes of mercury in terrestrial and aquatic food chains with special reference to Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is known for its biomagnification especially in aquatic food chains and for its toxic effects on different organisms including man. In Finland mercury has formerly been used in industry and agriculture and in addition many anthropogenic activities may increase the mercury levels in ecosystems. Phenyl mercury was widely used as slimicide in the pulp and paper industry in the 1950s and 1960s. In the chlor-alkali industry metallic mercury was used as catalyst at three plants. The most toxic form of mercury, methyl mercury, may be formed in soils, water, sediments and organisms. Many factors, including microbial activity, temperature, oxygen status etc., affect the methylation rate. In the lake ecosystem bioaccumulation of methyl mercury is very strong. In early 1980s there was a restriction of fishing concerning approximately 4000 km2 of lakes and sea areas because of mercury pollution. In aquatic systems we still find elevated concentrations near former emission sources. Long-range atmospheric transport and mechanical operations like ditching and water regulation may cause increased levels of mercury in the aquatic ecosystems. In the Finnish agriculture organic mercury compounds were used for seed dressing until 1992. Although the amounts used were substantial the concentrations in agricultural soils have remained rather low. In terrestrial food chains bioaccumulation is normally weak with low or moderate concentration at all ecosystem levels. Due to a weak uptake through roots terrestrial, vascular plants normally contain only small amounts of mercury. There is a bidirectional exchange of mercury between vegetation and atmosphere. Contrary to vascular plants, there is a very wide range of concentrations in fungi. Mercury may pose a threat to human health especially when accumulated in aquatic food chains.

  9. Potential for Commercialization and Value Chain Improvement of Wild Food and Medicinal Plants for Livelihood Enhancement in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akankwasah Barirega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Uganda is endowed with a wide diversity of wild plant species that can be commercialized for livelihood enhancement and poverty reduction. These wild plants are increasingly becoming a valuable source of livelihoods for many people through household use as well as trading as medicine, food and craft materials. However existing literature on commercialization of wild food and medicinal plants in Uganda is largely anecdotal and disjointed. In this review, we analyze available literature on importance of wild plants in sustaining people’s livelihoods, value chains as production and marketing approaches in commercialization of wild plants, the demand and supply for wild plants products and its implication for commercialization of wild food and medicinal plants, ecological implications for commercializing wild plants and the potential for wild plant commercialization to contribute to household income. The literature points to gaps in literature, which necessitate further studies to assess the importance of wild plants in the daily life of households, market potential of the wild plants and their contribution to the local people’s livelihoods.

  10. A methodology for the evaluation of the collective dose from radioactivity in terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of the collective dose from radioactivity in the terrestrial food chains. It involves the use of an agricultural grid for Great Britain from which the geographical distribution of each of the main cereal, vegetable, fruit and animal products around any given point can be evaluated. A description is given of the procedure by which the grid was assembled. The use of the grid is demonstrated in an example in which the collective doses associated with the milk pathway to man following the routine discharge to air of iodine-131 are compared for two coastal sites in markedly different agricultural regions. (author)

  11. Dynamics of a Nonautonomous Leslie-Gower Type Food Chain Model with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonautonomous Leslie-Gower type food chain model with time delays is investigated. It is proved the general nonautonomous system is permanent and globally asymptotically stable under some appropriate conditions. Furthermore, if the system is periodic one, some sufficient conditions are established, which guarantee the existence, uniqueness, and global asymptotic stability of a positive periodic solution of the system. The conditions for the permanence, global stability of system, and the existence, uniqueness of positive periodic solution depend on delays; so, time delays are profitless.

  12. Persistence and global stability in a delayed Leslie-Gower type three species food chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindjin, A. F.; Aziz-Alaoui, M. A.

    2008-04-01

    Our investigation concerns the three-dimensional delayed continuous time dynamical system which models a predator-prey food chain. This model is based on the Holling-type II and a Leslie-Gower modified functional response. This model can be considered as a first step towards a tritrophic model (of Leslie-Gower and Holling-Tanner type) with inverse trophic relation and time delay. That is when a certain species that is usually eaten can consume immature predators. It is proved that the system is uniformly persistent under some appropriate conditions. By constructing a proper Lyapunov function, we obtain a sufficient condition for global stability of the positive equilibrium.

  13. Transfer of Metals in Food Chain: An Example with Copper and Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris

    2012-12-01

    Present study investigated the possible transfer of metals in the food chain (from soil to edible plants). The experiment was done with lettuce Lactuca sativa grown in different types of soil contaminated with copper (Cu2+) in various concentrations, with or without addition of humic substances. The highest content of copper was detected in lettuce samples grown in soils with lower levels of organic matter, thus indicating the importance of soil organics in metal transfer routes and accumulation rates in plants. It was found that copper accumulation in lettuce grown in contaminated soils can be significantly reduced by the addition of humic substances.

  14. Stability and bifurcation analysis on a three-species food chain system with two delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guo-Hu; Yan, Xiang-Ping

    2011-09-01

    The present paper deals with a three-species Lotka-Volterra food chain system with two discrete delays. By linearizing the system at the positive equilibrium and analyzing the associated characteristic equation, the asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium and existence of local Hopf bifurcations are investigated. Furthermore, by using the normal form theory and the center manifold reduction, explicit formulae are derived to determine the direction of bifurcations and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions. Finally, to verify our theoretical predictions, some numerical simulations are also included at the end of this paper.

  15. Constantly evolving safety assessment protocols for GM foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesikeran, B; Vasanthi, Siruguri

    2008-01-01

    he introduction of GM foods has led to the evolution of a food safety assessment paradigm that establishes safety of the GM food relative to its conventional counterpart. The GM foods currently approved and marketed in several countries have undergone extensive safety testing under a structured safety assessment framework evolved by international organizations like FAO, WHO, Codex and OECD. The major elements of safety assessment include molecular characterization of inserted genes and stability of the trait, toxicity and allergenicity potential of the expressed substances, compositional analysis, potential for gene transfer to gut microflora and unintentional effects of the genetic modification. As more number and type of food crops are being brought under the genetic modification regime, the adequacy of existing safety assessment protocols for establishing safety of these foods has been questioned. Such crops comprise GM crops with higher agronomic vigour, nutritional or health benefit/ by modification of plant metabolic pathways and those expressing bioactive substances and pharmaceuticals. The safety assessment challenges of these foods are the potential of the methods to detect unintentional effects with higher sensitivity and rigor. Development of databases on food compositions, toxicants and allergens is currently seen as an important aid to development of safety protocols. With the changing global trends in genetic modification technology future challenge would be to develop GM crops with minimum amount of inserted foreign DNA so as to reduce the burden of complex safety assessments while ensuring safety and utility of the technology.

  16. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of nickel in food and drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    , there is a concern that Ni-sensitized individuals may develop eczematous flare-up skin reactions. The CONTAM Panel noted the need for mechanistic studies to assess the human relevance of the effects on reproduction and development observed in experimental animals and for additional studies on human absorption......EFSA received a request from the Hellenic Food Authority (EFET) for a scientific opinion on the risk to human health from the presence of nickel (Ni) in food, particularly in vegetables. The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) decided to extend the risk assessment also...... to drinking water. The reproductive and developmental toxicity in experimental animals was selected as the critical effect for the assessment of chronic effects of Ni. A tolerable daily intake of 2.8 µg Ni/kg body weight (b.w.) per day was derived from a lower 95 % confidence limit for a benchmark dose at 10...

  17. Geotraceability: an innovative concept to enhance conventional traceability in the agri-food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oger, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization of trade, people have become enlightened and demanding consumers as regards the origin of their food and the environment in which it is produced. The concept of geotraceability described in this article responds to that requirement by combining geographical information with conventional traceability data. The inclusion of geographical information relating to the environment of the production plots is based not only on exploiting some functionalities of spatial analysis tools that exist in geographical information systems (GIS but also on developing specific tools such as a geoidentifier and geoindicators. This article also describes the characteristics and methods of implementing a geographical information management system linked with traceability information. Lastly, the potential for using geotraceability systems in supply chains is analyzed, in particular for consumer warnings in cases of food crisis and assistance for certification of differentiated quality agricultural products.

  18. Arsenic as a food chain contaminant: mechanisms of plant uptake and metabolism and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P; Meharg, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is an environmental and food chain contaminant. Excessive accumulation of As, particularly inorganic arsenic (As(i)), in rice (Oryza sativa) poses a potential health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Rice is efficient at As accumulation owing to flooded paddy cultivation that leads to arsenite mobilization, and the inadvertent yet efficient uptake of arsenite through the silicon transport pathway. Iron, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon interact strongly with As during its route from soil to plants. Plants take up arsenate through the phosphate transporters, and arsenite and undissociated methylated As species through the nodulin 26-like intrinsic (NIP) aquaporin channels. Arsenate is readily reduced to arsenite in planta, which is detoxified by complexation with thiol-rich peptides such as phytochelatins and/or vacuolar sequestration. A range of mitigation methods, from agronomic measures and plant breeding to genetic modification, may be employed to reduce As uptake by food crops.

  19. Screening models to predict food-chain transfer of environmental toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the research effort were to determine transfer coefficients to milk, beef, eggs, and poultry meat of six radionuclides for which transfer coefficients were either undetermined or based upon secondary data. The radionuclides were isotopes of Tc, Mo, Te, Ba, Zr, and Nb. In addition, 131I was used in experiments with hens to determine egg and poultry meat transfer coefficients. The new information on transfer coefficients obtained during this project indicates that, in some cases, lower values are appropriate and that those currently in use may provide an overestimate of the risks to man from the animal food chain. The objective of the second phase of this research was to provide information to clarify the physiological parameters that control transfer of radionuclides to animal food products. The data from the first phase has been published but this data has not appeared in the literature and thus is presented here in some detail. 10 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2012-01-01

    and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify...... as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic...

  1. Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Steve L

    2001-01-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in ...

  2. Presence of Candy and Snack Food at Checkout in Chain Stores: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Kernan, William D; Menafro, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Community health professionals must use multiple strategies to address the rising rates of childhood obesity in the United States. One such strategy is to address the underlying causes of childhood obesity, including lack of exercise and the consumption of calorically-dense snack foods. This study examines the presence of candy and snack food in the checkout lines of all retail chain stores in a selected community to determine the presence of these products, the ways in which these products are promoted, and the type of physical environment through which customers navigate during the checkout process. The findings confirm that candy, soft drinks, snacks, and ice cream were present in a large majority of these retail stores. Further, this pilot study found that many of these stores "corral" customers through the check-out line in such a way that it is necessary to pass these snack foods directly. Three themes for discussion emerged from the review of the data collected, including product marketing, product packaging, and product placement. Implications for childhood health are presented in the context of these marketing strategies. The results and subsequent discussion provide important insight into the ways in which the presence of candy and snack food at checkout lines might contribute to childhood obesity rates. PMID:27101366

  3. Comparison and Experience Reference of Pork Supply Chain between China and Vietnam on the Basis of Food Safety Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuo; GAO; Xiaoqing; GAN

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of theoretical model and practice on the pork supply chain of China from the perspective of logical consistency while laying emphasis on the nodes of pork supply chain and the value distribution of value chain. First of all,analyze the conceptual model of pork supply chain in China and further characterize each node of the supply chain as well as the link between the nodes. By comparing with the pork supply chain in Vietnam,analyze the characteristics and existing problems of the pork supply in China.Finally,give advice and suggestions from the aspects of supply chain process reengineering,food quality supervision and the policies & regulations etc.

  4. Exploratory Analysis of Fast-Food Chain Restaurant Menus Before and After Implementation of Local Calorie-Labeling Policies, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Alexa; Leonberg, Beth L.; Wootan, Margo G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2008, several states and municipalities have implemented regulations requiring provision of nutrition information at chain restaurants to address obesity. Although early research into the effect of such labels on consumer decisions has shown mixed results, little information exists on the restaurant industry’s response to labeling. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effect of menu labeling on fast-food menu offerings over 7 years, from 2005 through 2011. Methods Menus from 5 fast-food chains that had outlets in jurisdictions subject to menu-labeling laws (cases) were compared with menus from 4 fast-food chains operating in jurisdictions not requiring labeling (controls). A trend analysis assessed whether case restaurants improved the healthfulness of their menus relative to the control restaurants. Results Although the overall prevalence of “healthier” food options remained low, a noteworthy increase was seen after 2008 in locations with menu-labeling laws relative to those without such laws. Healthier food options increased from 13% to 20% at case locations while remaining static at 8% at control locations (test for difference in the trend, P = .02). Since 2005, the average calories for an à la carte entrée remained moderately high (approximately 450 kilocalories), with less than 25% of all entrées and sides qualifying as healthier and no clear systematic differences in the trend between chain restaurants in case versus control areas (P ≥ .50). Conclusion These findings suggest that menu labeling has thus far not affected the average nutritional content of fast-food menu items, but it may motivate restaurants to increase the availability of healthier options. PMID:23786908

  5. Risk assessment and risk management for safe foods: Assessment needs inclusion of variability and uncertainty, management needs discrete decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwietering, M H

    2015-11-20

    The introduction of relevant food safety changes in legislation, like time-temperature criteria for pasteurisation and sterilisation, microbiological criteria, HACCP and FSOs, generally took several decades. All these approaches have helped to define specific targets or systems to improve the management of food safety. More and more the measures could be related to specific efficiency in public health protection. With the use of quantitative risk assessment, theoretically the effect of all interventions on the final risk can be determined, which can help to design the appropriate controls in the food safety management system. In such an assessment in practice, however results have understandably large variability and also uncertainty. There is large variability and uncertainty in the biological parts of the assessment, the dose response (infectivity, human susceptibility) the micro-organism kinetics in the chain (growth, inactivation, stress response) and also in the more technological parts, the conditions in the chain and the consumer behaviour. Often the results of risk assessments are probability distributions of the variability in illness probability, also sometimes represented with their uncertainty. To make a link from these distributions to managerial decisions, that need to be black and white, should not be considered the job of risk managers. This link needs investment from both the assessor and the manager.

  6. Risk assessment and risk management for safe foods: Assessment needs inclusion of variability and uncertainty, management needs discrete decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwietering, M H

    2015-11-20

    The introduction of relevant food safety changes in legislation, like time-temperature criteria for pasteurisation and sterilisation, microbiological criteria, HACCP and FSOs, generally took several decades. All these approaches have helped to define specific targets or systems to improve the management of food safety. More and more the measures could be related to specific efficiency in public health protection. With the use of quantitative risk assessment, theoretically the effect of all interventions on the final risk can be determined, which can help to design the appropriate controls in the food safety management system. In such an assessment in practice, however results have understandably large variability and also uncertainty. There is large variability and uncertainty in the biological parts of the assessment, the dose response (infectivity, human susceptibility) the micro-organism kinetics in the chain (growth, inactivation, stress response) and also in the more technological parts, the conditions in the chain and the consumer behaviour. Often the results of risk assessments are probability distributions of the variability in illness probability, also sometimes represented with their uncertainty. To make a link from these distributions to managerial decisions, that need to be black and white, should not be considered the job of risk managers. This link needs investment from both the assessor and the manager. PMID:25890788

  7. Dynamics in chains and networks; Proceedings of the sixth International Conference on Chain and Network Management in Agribusiness and the Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Companies in food- and agribusiness chains and networks are facing ever-faster changes in the business environment, to which they must respond through continuous innovation. Societal concerns regarding animal welfare and environmental issues have to be met in a very competitive, increasingly global

  8. Current food chain information provides insufficient information for modern meat inspection of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To

  9. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  10. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  11. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  12. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean, it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, alters the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface organisms. Dispersing agents may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes.The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, {sup 14}C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527 and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities and temperatures. The model food chain consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Brachionus plicatilis. Direct aqueous exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary exposure. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil (DO) preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations.

  13. Transfer of selenium from prey to predators in a simulated terrestrial food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about the accumulation and effects of selenium in reptiles. We developed a simplified laboratory food chain where we fed commercial feed laden with seleno-D,L-methionine (30 μg/g dry mass) to crickets (Acheta domestica) for 5-7 d. Se-enriched crickets (∼15 μg/g Se [dry mass]) were fed to juvenile male and female lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) for 98 d while conspecifics were fed uncontaminated crickets. Lizards fed contaminated prey accumulated Se concentrations ranging from 9.3 (in female carcass) to 14.1 (in female gonad) μg/g compared to <1.5 μg/g in tissues of controls. Female gonad concentrations approached the highest of thresholds for reproductive toxicity in oviparous vertebrates. However, we observed no consistent effect of dietary treatment on sublethal parameters or survival. Our simplified food chain proved to be an ecologically relevant method of exposing lizards to Se, and forms the foundation for future studies on maternal transfer and teratogenicity of Se. - Partitioning of selenium among tissues differs between male and female lizards

  14. Complex dynamics in the Leslie-Gower type of the food chain system with multiple delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Song, Zi-Gen; Xu, Jian

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present a Leslie-Gower type of food chain system composed of three species, which are resource, consumer, and predator, respectively. The digestion time delays corresponding to consumer-eat-resource and predator-eat-consumer are introduced for more realistic consideration. It is called the resource digestion delay (RDD) and consumer digestion delay (CDD) for simplicity. Analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation, the stabilities of the boundary and interior equilibrium points are studied. The food chain system exhibits the species coexistence for the small values of digestion delays. Large RDD/CDD may destabilize the species coexistence and induce the system dynamic into recurrent bloom or system collapse. Further, the present of multiple delays can control species population into the stable coexistence. To investigate the effect of time delays on the recurrent bloom of species population, the Hopf bifurcation and periodic solution are investigated in detail in terms of the central manifold reduction and normal form method. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to display some complex dynamics, which include multiple periodic solution and chaos motion for the different values of system parameters. The system dynamic behavior evolves into the chaos motion by employing the period-doubling bifurcation.

  15. Risk Assessment Index System of Natural Gas Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a risk assessment index system for the natural gas industrial chain. China's natural gas industrial chain is entering a stage of rapid growth. In order to guarantee healthy development of the natural gas industrial chain,it is urgent to establish a risk alert system, which is based on a risk assessment index system. First of all, the risks of the natural gas industrial chain are defined in the paper; then the risk factors are analyzed according to the present status of the natural gas industrial chain, and five categories of risk factors are summarized: resource risk, transport risk, marketing risk, risk of unbalanced chain links, and environment risk. The paper presents the principles of the risk assessment index system. The natural gas industrial chain risk assessment index system is established with four levels and forty-six risk indices.

  16. Assessing Projection Bias in Consumers' Food Preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana de-Magistris

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test whether projection bias exists in consumers' purchasing decisions for food products. To achieve our aim, we used a non-hypothetical experiment (i.e., experimental auction, where hungry and non-hungry participants were incentivized to reveal their willingness to pay (WTP. The results confirm the existence of projection bias when consumers made their decisions on food products. In particular, projection bias existed because currently hungry participants were willing to pay a higher price premium for cheeses than satiated ones, both in hungry and satiated future states. Moreover, participants overvalued the food product more when they were delivered in the future hungry condition than in the satiated one. Our study provides clear, quantitative and meaningful evidence of projection bias because our findings are based on economic valuation of food preferences. Indeed, the strength of this study is that findings are expressed in terms of willingness to pay which is an interpretable amount of money.

  17. Development and evolution of risk assessment for food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crevel, Rene' W. R.; Baumert, Joseph L.; Baka, Athanasia;

    2014-01-01

    The need to assess the risk from food allergens derives directly from the need to manage effectively this food safety hazard. Work spanning the last two decades dispelled the initial thinking that food allergens were so unique that the risk they posed was not amenable to established risk assessment...... approaches and methodologies. Food allergens possess some unique characteristics, which make a simple safety assessment approach based on the establishment of absolute population thresholds inadequate. Dose distribution modelling of MEDs permitted the quantification of the risk of reaction at the population...... level and has been readily integrated with consumption and contamination data through probabilistic risk assessment approaches to generate quantitative risk predictions. This paper discusses the strengths and limitations of this approach and identifies important data gaps, which affect the outcomes...

  18. An extended patch-dynamic framework for food chains in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinbao; Chen, Jiehong; Ying, Zhixia; Hiebeler, David E; Nijs, Ivan

    2016-09-09

    Habitat destruction, a key determinant of species loss, can be characterized by two components, patch loss and patch fragmentation, where the former refers to the reduction in patch availability, and the latter to the division of the remaining patches. Classical metacommunity models have recently explored how food web dynamics respond to patch loss, but the effects of patch fragmentation have largely been overlooked. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model that tracks the patch occupancy of the various trophic links subject to colonization-extinction-predation dynamics by incorporating species dispersal with patch connectivity. We found that, in a simple food chain, species at higher trophic level become extinct sooner with increasing patch loss and fragmentation due to the constraint in resource availability, confirming the trophic rank hypothesis. Yet, effects of fragmentation on species occupancy are largely determined by patch loss, with maximal fragmentation effects occurring at intermediate patch loss. Compared to the spatially explicit simulations that we also performed, the current model with pair approximation generates similar community patterns especially in spatially clustered landscapes. Overall, our extended framework can be applied to model more complex food webs in fragmented landscapes, broadening the scope of existing metacommunity theory.

  19. 食品链式自动分拣装置%Food Chain Automatic Sorting Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鑫

    2016-01-01

    该文设计的种食品自动分拣装置集成了PLC、气动控制、传感与检测、变频控制等多种技术,能够自动完成对铝箔、纸质和塑料包装的三种食品进行自动分拣,整机机械结构采用链式传动装置,材料采用304食品级不锈钢,不仅卫生、方便,还能够高效的完成自动分拣过程、提高劳动生产率,具有一定推广价值.%In this paper, the design of food automatic sorting device integrated many technologies PLC, sensing and detection, frequency conversion control, can automatically complete the aluminum foil, paper and plastic packaging of food on the automatic sorting, the whole mechanical structure of the chain transmission device, food grade 304 stainless steel is adopted as material, not only has the advantages of sanitation, convenience, but also can efficiently complete automatic sorting process, improve labor productivity and has a certain populariza-tion value.

  20. Assessing Performance Of Supply Chain Risk Management Programmes – A Tentative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Eva; Knudsen, Daniel; Norrman, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide initial directions about how risk management programmes could be assessed in a supply chain setting and to discuss how such a measurement system could be designed. Measures are needed both for the management to evaluate the success of actions taken in supply chain risk management, as well as for the (supply chain) risk manager to communicate the value of his work. A number of indicators could show whether the supply chain risk management wor...