Townsend, Ann B; Valle-Ortiz, Marisol; Sansweet, Tracy
Emergency nurses did not perform falls risk assessments routinely on our ED patients; the instrument used was aimed at inpatients. We identified a need to revise fall assessment practices specific to our emergency department. The purpose of the performance improvement project was to reduce ED falls and evaluate the use of an ED-specific fall risk tool, the KINDER 1 Fall Risk Assessment. The plan was to establish fall risk assessment practices at point of ED entry and to decrease total falls. We retrospectively reviewed ED fall data for each quarter of 2013, which included risk assessments scores, the total number of falls, and the circumstances of each fall. Using Kotter's framework to guide a successful change process, we implemented the KINDER 1 to assess fall risk. During the first 4 weeks of the project, 937 patients (27%) were identified as high risk for falls using the KINDER 1. During the subsequent 3 quarters, the total number of falls decreased; reported falls without injuries dropped from 0.21 to 0.07 per 1000 patients, and falls with injuries were reduced from 0.21 to 0.0 per 1000 patients. The results of this project represented a valuable step toward achieving our goal to keep ED patients safe from injuries as a result of falls. The findings add to the body of nursing knowledge on the application of clinical-based performance improvement projects to improve patient outcomes and to provide data on the use of the KINDER 1 tool, which has not been extensively tested. Copyright Â© 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hunderfund, Andrea N. Leep; Sweeney, Cynthia M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Johnson, LeAnn M.; Britton, Jeffrey W.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the addition of a physician assessment of patient fall risk at admission would reduce inpatient falls on a tertiary hospital neurology inpatient unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A physician fall risk assessment was added to the existing risk assessment process (clinical nurse evaluation and Hendrich II Fall Risk Model score with specific fall prevention measures for patients at risk). An order to select either “Patient is” or “Patient is not at high risk of falls by physician assessment” was added to the physician electronic admission order set. Nurses and physicians were instructed to reach consensus when assessments differed. Full implementation occurred in second-quarter 2008. Preimplementation (January 1, 2006, to March 31, 2008) and postimplementation (April 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009) rates of falls were compared on the neurology inpatient unit and on 6 other medical units that did not receive intervention. RESULTS: The rate of falls during the 7 quarters after full implementation was significantly lower than that during the 9 preceding quarters (4.12 vs 5.69 falls per 1000 patient-days; P=.04), whereas the rate of falls on other medical units did not significantly change (2.99 vs 3.33 falls per 1000 patient-days; P=.24, Poisson test). The consensus risk assessment at admission correctly identified patients at risk for falls (14/325 at-risk patients fell vs 0/147 low-risk patients; P=.01, χ2 test), but the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model score, nurse, and physician assessments individually did not. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary approach to fall risk assessment is feasible, correctly identifies patients at risk, and was associated with a reduction in inpatient falls. PMID:21193651
Greene, Barry R; Redmond, Stephen J; Caulfield, Brian
Falls are the leading global cause of accidental death and disability in older adults and are the most common cause of injury and hospitalization. Accurate, early identification of patients at risk of falling, could lead to timely intervention and a reduction in the incidence of fall-related injury and associated costs. We report a statistical method for fall risk assessment using standard clinical fall risk factors (N = 748). We also report a means of improving this method by automatically combining it, with a fall risk assessment algorithm based on inertial sensor data and the timed-up-and-go test. Furthermore, we provide validation data on the sensor-based fall risk assessment method using a statistically independent dataset. Results obtained using cross-validation on a sample of 292 community dwelling older adults suggest that a combined clinical and sensor-based approach yields a classification accuracy of 76.0%, compared to either 73.6% for sensor-based assessment alone, or 68.8% for clinical risk factors alone. Increasing the cohort size by adding an additional 130 subjects from a separate recruitment wave (N = 422), and applying the same model building and validation method, resulted in a decrease in classification performance (68.5% for combined classifier, 66.8% for sensor data alone, and 58.5% for clinical data alone). This suggests that heterogeneity between cohorts may be a major challenge when attempting to develop fall risk assessment algorithms which generalize well. Independent validation of the sensor-based fall risk assessment algorithm on an independent cohort of 22 community dwelling older adults yielded a classification accuracy of 72.7%. Results suggest that the present method compares well to previously reported sensor-based fall risk assessment methods in assessing falls risk. Implementation of objective fall risk assessment methods on a large scale has the potential to improve quality of care and lead to a reduction in associated hospital
Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla
Fall prevention is an important and complex multifactorial challenge, since one third of people over 65 years old fall at least once every year. A novel application of Disease State Fingerprint (DSF) algorithm is presented for holistic visualization of fall risk factors and identifying persons with falls history or decreased level of physical functioning based on fall risk assessment data. The algorithm is tested with data from 42 older adults, that went through a comprehensive fall risk assessment. Within the study population the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale score, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score and the number of drugs in use were the three most relevant variables, that differed between the fallers and non-fallers. This study showed that the DSF visualization is beneficial in inspection of an individual's significant fall risk factors, since people have problems in different areas and one single assessment scale is not enough to expose all the people at risk.
Flemming, Patricia J; Ramsay, Katherine
Identifying older adults at risk for falls is a challenge all home healthcare agencies (HHAs) face. The process of assessing for falls risk begins with the initial home visit. One HHA affiliated with an academic medical center describes its experience in development and use of a Falls Risk Assessment (FRA) tool over a 10-year period. The FRA tool has been modified since initial development to clarify elements of the tool based on research and to reflect changes in the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) document. The primary purpose of this article is to share a validated falls risk assessment tool to facilitate identification of fall-related risk factors in the homebound population. A secondary purpose is to share lessons learned by the HHA during the 10 years using the FRA.
Lee, Ju Young; Jin, Yinji; Piao, Jinshi; Lee, Sun-Mi
Fall risk assessment is the first step toward prevention, and a risk assessment tool with high validity should be used. This study aimed to develop and validate an automated fall risk assessment system (Auto-FallRAS) to assess fall risks based on electronic medical records (EMRs) without additional data collected or entered by nurses. This study was conducted in a 1335-bed university hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The Auto-FallRAS was developed using 4211 fall-related clinical data extracted from EMRs. Participants included fall patients and non-fall patients (868 and 3472 for the development study; 752 and 3008 for the validation study; and 58 and 232 for validation after clinical application, respectively). The system was evaluated for predictive validity and concurrent validity. The final 10 predictors were included in the logistic regression model for the risk-scoring algorithm. The results of the Auto-FallRAS were shown as high/moderate/low risk on the EMR screen. The predictive validity analyzed after clinical application of the Auto-FallRAS was as follows: sensitivity = 0.95, NPV = 0.97 and Youden index = 0.44. The validity of the Morse Fall Scale assessed by nurses was as follows: sensitivity = 0.68, NPV = 0.88 and Youden index = 0.28. This study found that the Auto-FallRAS results were better than were the nurses' predictions. The advantage of the Auto-FallRAS is that it automatically analyzes information and shows patients' fall risk assessment results without requiring additional time from nurses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Background Falls are a prevalent issue in the geriatric population and can result in damaging physical and psychological consequences. Fall risk assessment can provide information to enable appropriate interventions for those at risk of falling. Wearable inertial-sensor-based systems can provide quantitative measures indicative of fall risk in the geriatric population. Methods Forty studies that used inertial sensors to evaluate geriatric fall risk were reviewed and pertinent methodological features were extracted; including, sensor placement, derived parameters used to assess fall risk, fall risk classification method, and fall risk classification model outcomes. Results Inertial sensors were placed only on the lower back in the majority of papers (65%). One hundred and thirty distinct variables were assessed, which were categorized as position and angle (7.7%), angular velocity (11.5%), linear acceleration (20%), spatial (3.8%), temporal (23.1%), energy (3.8%), frequency (15.4%), and other (14.6%). Fallers were classified using retrospective fall history (30%), prospective fall occurrence (15%), and clinical assessment (32.5%), with 22.5% using a combination of retrospective fall occurrence and clinical assessments. Half of the studies derived models for fall risk prediction, which reached high levels of accuracy (62-100%), specificity (35-100%), and sensitivity (55-99%). Conclusions Inertial sensors are promising sensors for fall risk assessment. Future studies should identify fallers using prospective techniques and focus on determining the most promising sensor sites, in conjunction with determination of optimally predictive variables. Further research should also attempt to link predictive variables to specific fall risk factors and investigate disease populations that are at high risk of falls. PMID:23927446
Renfro, Mindy Oxman; Fehrer, Steven
Unintentional falls is an increasing public health problem as incidence of falls rises and the population ages. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 1 in 3 adults aged 65 years and older will experience a fall this year; 20% to 30% of those who fall will sustain a moderate to severe injury. Physical therapists caring for older adults are usually engaged with these patients after the first injury fall and may have little opportunity to abate fall risk before the injuries occur. This article describes the content selection and development of a simple-to-administer, multifactorial, Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool (FRAST), designed specifically for use in primary care settings to identify those older adults with high fall risk. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool incorporates previously validated measures within a new multifactorial tool and includes targeted recommendations for intervention. Development of the multifactorial FRAST used a 5-part process: identification of significant fall risk factors, review of best evidence, selection of items, creation of the scoring grid, and development of a recommended action plan. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool has been developed to assess fall risk in the target population of older adults (older than 65 years) living and ambulating independently in the community. Many fall risk factors have been considered and 15 items selected for inclusion. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool includes 4 previously validated measures to assess balance, depression, falls efficacy, and home safety. Reliability and validity studies of FRAST are under way. Fall risk for community-dwelling older adults is an urgent, multifactorial, public health problem. Providing primary care practitioners (PCPs) with a very simple screening tool is imperative. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool was created to allow for safe, quick, and low-cost administration by minimally trained office staff with interpretation and
Sardo, Pedro Miguel Garcez; Simões, Cláudia Sofia Oliveira; Alvarelhão, José Joaquim Marques; Simões, João Filipe Fernandes Lindo; Melo, Elsa Maria de Oliveira Pinheiro de
The Morse Fall Scale is used in several care settings for fall risk assessment and supports the implementation of preventive nursing interventions. Our work aims to analyze the Morse Fall Scale scores of Portuguese hospitalized adult patients in association with their characteristics, diagnoses and length of stay. Retrospective cohort analysis of Morse Fall Scale scores of 8356 patients hospitalized during 2012. Data were associated to age, gender, type of admission, specialty units, length of stay, patient discharge, and ICD-9 diagnosis. Elderly patients, female, with emergency service admission, at medical units and/or with longer length of stays were more frequently included in the risk group for falls. ICD-9 diagnosis may also be an important risk factor. More than a half of hospitalized patients had "medium" to "high" risk of falling during the length of stay, which determines the implementation and maintenance of protocoled preventive nursing interventions throughout hospitalization. There are several fall risk factors not assessed by Morse Fall Scale. There were no statistical differences in Morse Fall Scale score between the first and the last assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEMURA, Shinichi; SATO, Susumu; YAMAJI, Shunsuke; KASUGA, Kosho; NAGASAWA, Yoshinori
We aimed to examine the validity of fall risk assessment items for the healthy community-dwelling elderly Japanese population. Participants were 1122 healthy elderly individuals aged 60 years and over (380 males and 742 females). The percentage who had experienced a fall was 15.8%. This study used fall experience and 50 fall risk assessment items representing the five risk factors (symptoms of falling, physical function, disease and physical symptom, environment, and behavior and character), ...
Adriana de Azevedo Smith
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the risk of falls in elderly, by comparing the sociodemographic and cognitive factors, history of falls and self-reported comorbidities. Method: cross-sectional and quantitative study with 240 elderly. Data were collected based on the social profile, through the instrument of risk of falls and assessment of falls, by univariate analysis, bivariate and multiple logistic regression. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: there was a significant association of the risk of falls, as measured by the Fall Risk Score, with sex (<0.001, age (0.054, cognitive status (<0.001 and history of falls (<0.001. All variables were statistically significant and contributed to the occurrence of falls. In logistic regression, the variables that showed association with risk of falls were: fall, with whom they live, hypertension and visual impairment. Conclusion: female gender, older elderly (over 80 years old, with low cognitive status and occurrence of previous falls in the last six months are factors that increase the prevalence of falls. In logistic regression, the variables that were associated with risk of falls were: fall, with whom they live, visual impairment and rheumatologic diseases.
Danielsen, Asbjørn; Olofsen, Hans; Bremdal, Bernt Arild
Each year about a third of elderly aged 65 or older experience a fall. Many of these falls may have been avoided if fall risk assessment and prevention tools where available in a daily living situation. We identify what kind of information is relevant for doing fall risk assessment and prevention using wearable sensors in a daily living environment by investigating current research, distinguishing between prospective and context-aware fall risk assessment and prevention. Based on our findings, we propose a fall risk awareness protocol as a fall prevention tool integrating both wearables and ambient sensing technology into a single platform. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hudson Azevedo Pinheiro
Full Text Available Abstract Objective : To assess muscle mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with diabetic neuropathy (DNP. Methods : 50 elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic neuropathy (NPD participated in this study. Risk of falling was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Fear of falling was assessed by means of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I. Muscle mass was assessed by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis (BIA and Janssen's equation. Subjects were divided into two groups: one with a history of falls in the six months before study enrollment (G1 and the other without history of falls (G2. Results : There were statistically significant differences between G1 and G2 regarding lean body mass (p < 0.05, risk of falls as measured by the BBS (p < 0.01, and fear of falling as measured by the FES-I (p < 0.01. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the BBS and BIA (r = 0.45 and p < 0.01, showing that the greater the lean body mass, the lower the risk of falling. Conclusions : We found an association between lean mass, risk of falls and fear of falling in elderly adults with DNP and a history of falls from own height.
Minkemeyer, Vivian M; Meriweather, Matt; Shuler, Franklin D; Mehta, Saurabh P; Qazi, Zain N
West Virginia is ranked second nationally for the percent of its population 65 years of age. The elderly are especially susceptible to falls with fall risk increasing as age increases. Because falls are the number one cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the West Virginia elderly, evaluation of fall risk is a critical component of the patient evaluation in the primary care setting. We therefore highlight fall risk assessments that require no specialized equipment or training and can easily be completed at an established office visit. High quality clinical practice guidelines supported by the American Geriatric Society recommend yearly fall risk evaluation in the elderly. Those seniors at greatest risk of falls will benefit from the standardized therapy protocols outlined and referral to a balance treatment center. Patients with low-to-moderate fall risk attributed to muscle weakness or fatigue should be prescribed lower extremity strengthening exercises, such as kitchen counter exercises, to improve strength and balance.
Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Kawashima, Yumiko; Iwata, Akiko; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Igata, Akihiro; Toba, Kenji
Fall prevention is important for elderly people to maintain their functional independence. We made a longitudinal fall-risk assessment using our "Fall-predicting score" of women who are 60 years or older and who exercised regularly. We sent "fall-predicting questionnaires" to 632 elderly women aged 60 years or older (mean 65.0+/-4.3), members of "Miishima gymnastics program", and asked about their fall history of falling in the past year in 2004 and 2005. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine the future risk factor of falling in 2005. The number of people who fell was 134 (21.2%) in 2004 and 121 (19.1%) in 2005. The number of people who fell decreased in the seventh decade, but increased in the eighth decade, and members for 6-10 years showed most decreased fall rates. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, falls in 2004, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", and "walk steep slope around the house" were significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005". Logistic regression analysis of non-fallers in 2004 showed that age and "tripping" were the significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005", and the analysis of people who fell in 2004 showed that age, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", "walk steep slope around the house", and "taking more than 5 medicines" were significant independent risk factors for falls in 2005. In regular exercising elderly women, exercise appears to prevent falls in people in the seventh decade and in the members of 6-10 years. Age, past history of falls, and fall-predicting questionnaire were important risk predictors of future falls.
Background While objective measures to assess risk of falls in older adults have been established; the value of patient self-reports in the context of falls is not known. Objectives To identify clinical correlates of patient centered fall risk awareness, and their validity for predicting falls. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and Participants 316 non-demented and ambulatory community-dwelling older adults (mean age 78 years, 55% women). Measurements Fall risk awareness was assessed with a two-item questionnaire, which asked participants about overall likelihood and personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Results Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (kappa 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on both fall risk awareness questions. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Conclusion Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. While patient centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies as they may influence participation and behaviors. PMID:27801936
DiGerolamo, Kimberly; Davis, Katherine Finn
Patient fall prevention begins with accurate risk assessment. However, sustained improvements in prevention and quality of care include use of validated fall risk assessment tools (FRATs). The goal of FRATs is to identify patients at highest risk. Adult FRATs are often borrowed from to create tools for pediatric patients. Though factors associated with pediatric falls in the hospital setting are similar to those in adults, such as mobility, medication use, and cognitive impairment, adult FRATs and the factors associated with them do not adequately assess risk in children. Articles were limited to English language, ages 0-21years, and publish date 2006-2015. The search yielded 22 articles. Ten were excluded as the population was primarily adult or lacked discussion of a FRAT. Critical appraisal and findings were synthesized using the Johns Hopkins Nursing evidence appraisal system. Twelve articles relevant to fall prevention in the pediatric hospital setting that discussed fall risk assessment and use of a FRAT were reviewed. Comparison between and accuracy of FRATs is challenged when different classifications, definitions, risk stratification, and inclusion criteria are used. Though there are several pediatric FRATs published in the literature, none have been found to be reliable and valid across institutions and diverse populations. This integrative review highlights the importance of choosing a FRAT based on an institution's identified risk factors and validating the tool for one's own patient population as well as using the tool in conjunction with nursing clinical judgment to guide interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patton, Susan K
Nationally, approximately one third of older adults fall each year. Falls and resulting injury result in decreased mobility, functional impairment, loss of independence, and increased mortality. Utilization of evidence-based protocols by health care providers to identify older adults at risk of falling is limited, and rates of participation by older adults in prevention activities is low. Because of nursing's increasing role in caring for older adults, development of fall prevention education for nursing students would result in increased awareness of the need for fall prevention in community-dwelling older adults and increased access of older adults to falls risk assessment. There is a need to extend research to inform teaching and learning strategies for fall prevention. After pretesting, a convenience sample of 52 undergraduate nursing students and 22 graduate nursing students completed an online education program and performed a falls risk assessment on an older adult. After completing the clinical assignment, students completed a posttest and self-efficacy survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistical tests. Results revealed an increase in knowledge and student self-reporting of efficacy of fall risk assessment skills for the older adult population. This study suggests that nursing students acquired the necessary knowledge and self-efficacy for assessing fall risk of older adults through the combination of an online learning module and participating in actual fall risk assessment of an older adult.
Full Text Available Fall incidents among the elderly often occur in the home and can cause serious injuries affecting their independent living. This paper presents an approach where data from wearable sensors integrated in a smart home environment is combined using a dynamic Bayesian network. The smart home environment provides contextual data, obtained from environmental sensors, and contributes to assessing a fall risk probability. The evaluation of the developed system is performed through simulation. Each time step is represented by a single user activity and interacts with a fall sensors located on a mobile device. A posterior probability is calculated for each recognized activity or contextual information. The output of the system provides a total risk assessment of falling given a response from the fall sensor.
Howcroft, Jennifer; Kofman, Jonathan; Lemaire, Edward D
Background Falls are a prevalent issue in the geriatric population and can result in damaging physical and psychological consequences. Fall risk assessment can provide information to enable appropriate interventions for those at risk of falling. Wearable inertial-sensor-based systems can provide quantitative measures indicative of fall risk in the geriatric population. Methods Forty studies that used inertial sensors to evaluate geriatric fall risk were reviewed and pertinent methodological f...
The prevention of falls among the elderly is arguably one of the most important public health issues in today's aging society. The aim of this study was to assess which tools best predict the risk of falls in the elderly. Electronic searches were performed using Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, etc., using the following keywords: "fall risk assessment", "elderly fall screening", and "elderly mobility scale". The QUADAS-2 was applied to assess the internal validity of the diagnostic studies. Selected studies were meta-analyzed with MetaDisc 1.4. A total of 33 studies were eligible out of the 2,321 studies retrieved from selected databases. Twenty-six assessment tools for fall risk were used in the selected articles, and they tended to vary based on the setting. The fall risk assessment tools currently used for the elderly did not show sufficiently high predictive validity for differentiating high and low fall risks. The Berg Balance scale and Mobility Interaction Fall chart showed stable and high specificity, while the Downton Fall Risk Index, Hendrich II Fall Risk Model, St. Thomas's Risk Assessment Tool in Falling elderly inpatients, Timed Up and Go test, and Tinetti Balance scale showed the opposite results. We concluded that rather than a single measure, two assessment tools used together would better evaluate the characteristics of falls by the elderly that can occur due to a multitude of factors and maximize the advantages of each for predicting the occurrence of falls.
Volcanic ash-fall is inevitable hazard throughout Japan, and causes wide range of effects due to its physical and chemical properties. Nuclear power plants in Japan face the necessity to assess the risk from volcanic ash-fall. Risk assessment of the volcanic ash-fall should include engineering solution and mitigation planning as well as the ash-fall hazard. This report points out the characteristics for reducing the various effects of volcanic ash-fall as follows. Large-scale eruptions produce prominent volcanic ash-falls that can approach power plants at a great distance. Aftermath hazards of ash-fall events, such as remobilization of fine ash particles and generation of lahars, require further assessments. The kind and extent of damages becomes greater whenever ash is wet. Wet ash requires separate assessments in contrast to dry ash. The mitigation and recovery measures at power plants involve quick cleanup operations of volcanic ash. Those operations should be prepared through comprehensive risk assessment, and by cooperation with authorities, during pre-eruption repose period. The comprehensive assessment for volcanic ash-fall hazards, however, has yet to be conducted. Development of risk communication method may result in increased implementation mitigation planning. Numerical analysis of the ash-fall hazards provides quantitative data on particle motions that can be used in the risk assessment. In order to implement the quantitative assessment method, the verification on the effect of ambient air condition to the altitude of volcanic ash cloud is necessary. We need to develop a three-dimensional model of volcanic ash cloud, and calculate motions of ash clouds under multiple conditions of ambient air. (author)
Nilsson, Martin; Eriksson, Joel; Larsson, Berit; Odén, Anders; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias
To investigate the role of a fall risk assessment, using the Downton Fall Risk Index (DFRI), in predicting fall-related injury, fall-related head injury and hip fracture, and death, in a large cohort of older women and men residing in Sweden. Cross sectional observational study. Sweden. Older adults (mean age 82.4 ± 7.8) who had a fall risk assessment using the DFRI at baseline (N = 128,596). Information on all fall-related injuries, all fall-related head injuries and hip fractures, and all-cause mortality was collected from the Swedish Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. The predictive role of DFRI was calculated using Poisson regression models with age, sex, height, weight, and comorbidities as covariates, taking time to outcome or end of study into account. During a median follow-up of 253 days (interquartile range 90-402 days) (>80,000 patient-years), 15,299 participants had a fall-related injury, 2,864 a head injury, and 2,557 a hip fracture, and 23,307 died. High fall risk (DFRI ≥3) independently predicted fall-related injury (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.39-1.49), hip fracture (HR = 1.51, 95% CI =1.38-1.66), head injury (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22), and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.35-1.43). DFRI more strongly predicted head injury (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.21-1.36 vs HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.11) and hip fracture (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.30-1.53 vs HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05-1.11) in 70-year old men than in 90-year old women (P Fall risk assessment using DFRI independently predicts fall-related injury, fall-related head injury and hip fracture, and all-cause mortality in older men and women, indicating its clinical usefulness to identify individuals who would benefit from interventions. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.
Sun, Ruopeng; Sosnoff, Jacob J
Falls are a major health problem for older adults with significant physical and psychological consequences. A first step of successful fall prevention is to identify those at risk of falling. Recent advancement in sensing technology offers the possibility of objective, low-cost and easy-to-implement fall risk assessment. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the current state of sensing technology on providing objective fall risk assessment in older adults. A systematic review was conducted in accordance to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement (PRISMA). Twenty-two studies out of 855 articles were systematically identified and included in this review. Pertinent methodological features (sensing technique, assessment activities, outcome variables, and fall discrimination/prediction models) were extracted from each article. Four major sensing technologies (inertial sensors, video/depth camera, pressure sensing platform and laser sensing) were reported to provide accurate fall risk diagnostic in older adults. Steady state walking, static/dynamic balance, and functional mobility were used as the assessment activity. A diverse range of diagnostic accuracy across studies (47.9% - 100%) were reported, due to variation in measured kinematic/kinetic parameters and modelling techniques. A wide range of sensor technologies have been utilized in fall risk assessment in older adults. Overall, these devices have the potential to provide an accurate, inexpensive, and easy-to-implement fall risk assessment. However, the variation in measured parameters, assessment tools, sensor sites, movement tasks, and modelling techniques, precludes a firm conclusion on their ability to predict future falls. Future work is needed to determine a clinical meaningful and easy to interpret fall risk diagnosis utilizing sensing technology. Additionally, the gap between functional evaluation and user experience to technology should be addressed.
To identify clinical correlates of person-centered fall risk awareness and their validity for predicting falls. Prospective cohort study. Community. Ambulatory community-dwelling older adults without dementia (N = 316; mean age 78, 55% female). Fall risk awareness was assessed using a two-item questionnaire that asked participants about overall likelihood of someone in their age group having a fall and their own personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (κ = 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on either fall risk awareness question. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. Although person-centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies because they may influence participation and behaviors. © 2016, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Curl, Angela; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter; Ormerod, Marcus
Falls by older people (aged 65+) are linked to disability and a decrease in mobility, presenting a challenge to active ageing. As such, older fallers represent a vulnerable road user group. Despite this there is little research into the causes and prevention of outdoor falls. This paper develops an understanding of environmental factors causing falls or fear of falling using a walk-along interview approach with recent fallers to explore how older people navigate the outdoor environment and which aspects of it they perceived facilitate or hinder their ability to go outdoors and fear of falling. While there are a number of audit checklists focused on assessing the indoor environment for risk or fear of falls, nothing exists for the outdoor environment. Many existing street audit tools are focused on general environmental qualities and have not been designed with an older population in mind. We present a checklist that assesses aspects of the environment most likely to encourage or hinder those who are at risk of falling outdoors, developed through accounting for the experiences and navigational strategies of elderly individuals. The audit checklist can assist occupational therapists and urban planners, designers and managers in working to reduce the occurrence of outdoor falls among this vulnerable user group.
Pohl, Patricia S.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Kluding, Patricia M.
Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects nearly half of individuals with diabetes and leads to increased fall risk. Evidence addressing fall risk assessment for these individuals is lacking. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify which of 4 functional mobility fall risk assessment tools best discriminates, in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, between recurrent “fallers” and those who are not recurrent fallers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Setting The study was conducted in a medical research university setting. Participants The participants were a convenience sample of 36 individuals between 40 and 65 years of age with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Measurements Fall history was assessed retrospectively and was the criterion standard. Fall risk was assessed using the Functional Reach Test, the Timed “Up & Go” Test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Dynamic Gait Index. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and overall diagnostic accuracy were calculated for each fall risk assessment tool. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to estimate modified cutoff scores for each fall risk assessment tool; indexes then were recalculated. Results Ten of the 36 participants were classified as recurrent fallers. When traditional cutoff scores were used, the Dynamic Gait Index and Functional Reach Test demonstrated the highest sensitivity at only 30%; the Dynamic Gait Index also demonstrated the highest overall diagnostic accuracy. When modified cutoff scores were used, all tools demonstrated improved sensitivity (80% or 90%). Overall diagnostic accuracy improved for all tests except the Functional Reach Test; the Timed “Up & Go” Test demonstrated the highest diagnostic accuracy at 88.9%. Limitations The small sample size and retrospective fall history assessment were limitations of the study. Conclusions Modified cutoff scores improved diagnostic accuracy for 3 of 4 fall risk
Breisinger, Terry P; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Niyonkuru, Christian; Terhorst, Lauren; Campbell, Grace B
To evaluate relative accuracy of a newly developed Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR) for classifying fallers and non-fallers, compared with a health system fall risk screening tool, the Fall Harm Risk Screen. Prospective quality improvement study conducted at an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit at a large urban university hospital. Patients admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation (N = 419) with imaging or clinical evidence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2010. Not applicable. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve for Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves of both scales' classifications, based on fall risk score completed upon admission to inpatient stroke rehabilitation. A total of 68 (16%) participants fell at least once. The SAFR was significantly more accurate than the Fall Harm Risk Screen (p Fall Harm Risk Screen, area under the curve was 0.56, positive predictive value was 0.19, and negative predictive value was 0.86. Sensitivity and specificity of the SAFR (0.78 and 0.63, respectively) was higher than the Fall Harm Risk Screen (0.57 and 0.48, respectively). An evidence-derived, population-specific fall risk assessment may more accurately predict fallers than a general fall risk screen for stroke rehabilitation patients. While the SAFR improves upon the accuracy of a general assessment tool, additional refinement may be warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.
Melillo, Paolo; Castaldo, Rossana; Sannino, Giovanna; Orrico, Ada; de Pietro, Giuseppe; Pecchia, Leandro
Falls represent one of the most common causes of injury-related morbidity and mortality in later life. Subjects with cardiovascular disorders (e.g., related to autonomic dysfunctions and postural hypotension) are at higher risk of falling. Autonomic dysfunctions increasing the risk of falling in the short and mid-term could be assessed by Heart Rate Variability (HRV) extracted by electrocardiograph (ECG). We developed three trials for assessing the usefulness of ECG monitoring using wearable devices for: risk assessment of falling in the next few weeks; prevention of imminent falls due to standing hypotension; and fall detection. Statistical and data-mining methods are adopted to develop classification and regression models, validated with the cross-validation approach. The first classifier based on HRV features enabled to identify future fallers among hypertensive patients with an accuracy of 72% (sensitivity: 51.1%, specificity: 80.2%). The regression model to predict falls due to orthostatic dropdown from HRV recorded before standing achieved an overall accuracy of 80% (sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 90%). Finally, the classifier to detect simulated falls using ECG achieved an accuracy of 77.3% (sensitivity: 81.8%, specificity: 72.7%). The evidence from these three studies showed that ECG monitoring and processing could achieve satisfactory performances compared to other system for risk assessment, fall prevention and detection. This is interesting as differently from other technologies actually employed to prevent falls, ECG is recommended for many other pathologies of later life and is more accepted by senior citizens.
Patrícia Azevedo Garcia
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Identifying effective assessment instruments for predicting falls, specifically in older women with low bone mineral density (BMD that are more susceptible to fractures remains a challenge. Objective: To evaluate risk factors for falls at baseline, to identify the falls occurrence over six months of follow-up and to investigate the predictive validity of the Quickscreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment for predicting multiple falls among low BMD older women. Methods: A methodological study with 110 older women with diagnosis of osteoporosis or osteopenia (70.26 ± 6.24 years. The presence of two or more of the eight risk factors assessed by the QuickScreen characterized the risk of falling (baseline and monthly phone calls identified the occurrence of falls during the six months of follow-up. Results: The most prevalent falls risk factors were self-reported previous falls, polypharmacy and impairment in shifting weight and lateral instability. Most of the older women (67.3% had two or more risk factors, 24.5% reported a single fall and 13.6% reported multiple falls over the six months. The QuickScreen (cutoff ≥ 2 risk factors showed good sensitivity (73.3% and high negative predictive value (88.89% for predicting multiple falls among low BMD older women. Conclusions: The results indicated a high frequency of falls among low BMD older women. Additionally, the results highlighted that the QuickScreen instrument was able to predict multiple falls in the six months of follow-up among these older women.
Tsukada, Tsukimi; Sakakibara, Hisataka
Objectives: This study aimed to examine effective assessment methods of falls in the workplace. Methods: There were 436 employees (305 males and 131 females) of electrical appliance manufacturers included in this study. In 2014, a baseline survey was conducted using the fall scores questionnaire and the self-check risk assessment of falls and other accidents in the workplace (physical function measurement and questionnaire). In 2015, the occurrence of falls in the past year was investigated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine factors relevant to falls. Results: In total, 62 subjects (14.2%) fell during the year, including those who fell during off-hours. The occurrence of falls during that one year was only associated with having experienced falls during the past year in the baseline survey (odds ratio [OR] 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-9.7). Falls during that year were also related to the inability to walk 1 km continuously (OR 0.1; 95% CI 0.1-0.6), tripping sometimes (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.6-9.9), step height differences at home (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.3-6.8), and working in the production section (OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.5). Measurements of physical functions, such as muscle strength, balance, and agility, were not different between subjects who fell and those who did not. Conclusions: Our results showed that the questionnaire assessing falls during the past year could be useful to assess the risk of falls in the workplace. Annual checks for falls may contribute to fall prevention programs in the workplace. PMID:27725487
Ejupi, Andreas; Lord, Stephen R; Delbaere, Kim
Accidental falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and hospitalization in old age, with over one-third of the older adults experiencing at least one fall or more each year. Because of limited healthcare resources, regular objective fall risk assessments are not possible in the community on a large scale. New methods for fall prediction are necessary to identify and monitor those older people at high risk of falling who would benefit from participating in falls prevention programmes. Technological advances have enabled less expensive ways to quantify physical fall risk in clinical practice and in the homes of older people. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that sensor-based fall risk assessments of postural sway, functional mobility, stepping and walking can discriminate between fallers and nonfallers. Recent research has used low-cost, portable and objective measuring instruments to assess fall risk in older people. Future use of these technologies holds promise for assessing fall risk accurately in an unobtrusive manner in clinical and daily life settings.
Rasche, Peter; Mertens, Alexander; Bröhl, Christina; Theis, Sabine; Seinsch, Tobias; Wille, Matthias; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Knobe, Matthias
Fall incidents are a major problem for patients and healthcare. The "Aachen Fall Prevention App" (AFPA) represents the first mobile Health (mHealth) application (app) empowering older patients (persons 50+ years) to self-assess and monitor their individual fall risk. Self-assessment is based on the "Aachen Fall Prevention Scale," which consists of three steps. First, patients answer ten standardized yes-no questions (positive criterion ≥ 5 "Yes" responses). Second, a ten-second test of free standing without compensatory movement is performed (positive criterion: compensatory movement). Finally, during the third step, patients rate their subjective fall risk on a 10-point Likert scale, based on the results of steps one and two. The purpose of this app is (1) to offer a low-threshold service through which individuals can independently monitor their individual fall risk and (2) to collect data about how a patient-centered mHealth app for fall risk assessment is used in the field. The results represent the first year of an ongoing field study. From December 2015 to December 2016, 197 persons downloaded the AFPA (iOS ™ and Android ™ ; free of charge). N = 111 of these persons voluntarily shared their data and thereby participated in the field study. Data from a final number of n = 79 persons were analyzed due to exclusion criteria (age, missing objective fall risk, missing self-assessment). The objective fall risk and the self-assessed subjective risk measured by the AFPA showed a significant positive relationship. The "Aachen Fall Prevention App" (AFPA) is an mHealth app released for iOS and Android. This field study revealed the AFPA as a promising tool to raise older adults' awareness of their individual fall risk by means of a low-threshold patient-driven fall risk assessment tool.
Thomas, Dan; Pavic, Andrea; Bisaccia, Erin; Grotts, Jonathan
To evaluate and compare the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) and the Casa Colina Fall Risk Assessment Scale (CCFRA) for identification of patients at risk for falling in an acute inpatient rehabilitation facility. The primary objective of this study was to perform a retrospective validation study of the CCFRAS, specifically for use in the inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) setting. Retrospective validation study. The study was approved under expedited review by the local Institutional Review Board. Data were collected on all patients admitted to Cottage Rehabiliation Hospital (CRH), a 38-bed acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital, from March 2012 to August 2013. Patients were excluded from the study if they had a length of stay less than 3 days or age less than 18. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the diagnostic odds ratio were used to examine the differences between the MFS and CCFRAS. AUC between fall scales was compared using the DeLong Test. There were 931 patients included in the study with 62 (6.7%) patient falls. The average age of the population was 68.8 with 503 males (51.2%). The AUC was 0.595 and 0.713 for the MFS and CCFRAS, respectively (0.006). The diagnostic odds ratio of the MFS was 2.0 and 3.6 for the CCFRAS using the recommended cutoffs of 45 for the MFS and 80 for the CCFRAS. The CCFRAS appears to be a better tool in detecting fallers vs. nonfallers specific to the IRF setting. The assessment and identification of patients at high risk for falling is important to implement specific precautions and care for these patients to reduce their risk of falling. The CCFRAS is more clinically relevant in identifying patients at high risk for falling in the IRF setting compared to other fall risk assessments. Implementation of this scale may lead to a reduction in fall rate and injuries from falls as it more appropriately identifies patients at high risk for falling. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Franck, Linda S; Gay, Caryl L; Cooper, Bruce; Ezrre, Suzanne; Murphy, Barbette; Chan, June Shu-Ling; Buick, Maureen; Meer, Carrie R
Falls are among the most common potentially preventable adverse events. Current pediatric falls risk assessment methods have poor precision and accuracy. To evaluate an inpatient pediatric fall risk assessment index, known as the Little Schmidy, and describe characteristics of pediatric falls. Retrospective case control and descriptive study. The dataset included 114 reported falls and 151,678 Little Schmidy scores documented in medical records during the 5-year study period (2007-2011). Pediatric medical and surgical inpatient units of an academic medical center in the western United States. Pediatric hospital inpatients fall risk each day and night shift throughout the patient's hospitalization. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions were used to examine predictive relationships between Little Schmidy scores (at admission, highest prior to fall, and just prior to fall) and the patient's fall status (fell or not). The sensitivity and specificity of different cut-off scores were explored. Associations between Little Schmidy scores and patient and hospitalization factors were examined using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression and multilevel mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression. Little Schmidy scores were significantly associated with pediatric falls (pfall risk with sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 49%. Patients with an LS4 score ≥1 were 4 times more likely to fall before the next assessment than patients with a score of 0. LS4 scores indicative of fall risk were associated with age ≥5 years, neurological diagnosis, multiple hospitalizations, and night shift, but not with sex, length of hospital stay, or hospital unit. Of the 114 reported falls, 64% involved a male patient, nearly one third (32%) involved adolescents (13-17 years), most resulted in no (59%) or mild (36%) injury, and most (54%) were related to diagnosis or clinical characteristics. For 60% of the falls, fall precautions had been implemented prior to the fall. The
Full Text Available Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second.
Yang, Mau-Tsuen; Chuang, Min-Wen
Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM) classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second. PMID:24335727
Yang, Mau-Tsuen; Chuang, Min-Wen
Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM) classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second.
Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzukawa, Megumi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao
Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points) compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point) were 6.15 (p fall, 15.04 (p falls, and 5.05 (p fall-related fractures. The results remained essentially unchanged in subgroup analysis accounting for locomotion status. These results suggest that subjective ratings by care staff can be utilized to determine the risks of falls and fall-related fractures in the frail elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research.
Stock, G. M.; Luco, N.; Collins, B. D.; Harp, E.; Reichenbach, P.; Frankel, K. L.
Rock falls are a considerable hazard in Yosemite Valley, California with more than 835 rock falls and other slope movements documented since 1857. Thus, rock falls pose potentially significant risk to the nearly four million annual visitors to Yosemite National Park. Building on earlier hazard assessment work by the U.S. Geological Survey, we performed a quantitative rock-fall hazard and risk assessment for Yosemite Valley. This work was aided by several new data sets, including precise Geographic Information System (GIS) maps of rock-fall deposits, airborne and terrestrial LiDAR-based point cloud data and digital elevation models, and numerical ages of talus deposits. Using Global Position Systems (GPS), we mapped the positions of over 500 boulders on the valley floor and measured their distance relative to the mapped base of talus. Statistical analyses of these data yielded an initial hazard zone that is based on the 90th percentile distance of rock-fall boulders beyond the talus edge. This distance was subsequently scaled (either inward or outward from the 90th percentile line) based on rock-fall frequency information derived from a combination of cosmogenic beryllium-10 exposure dating of boulders beyond the edge of the talus, and computer model simulations of rock-fall runout. The scaled distances provide the basis for a new hazard zone on the floor of Yosemite Valley. Once this zone was delineated, we assembled visitor, employee, and resident use data for each structure within the hazard zone to quantitatively assess risk exposure. Our results identify areas within the new hazard zone that may warrant more detailed study, for example rock-fall susceptibility, which can be assessed through examination of high-resolution photographs, structural measurements on the cliffs, and empirical calculations derived from LiDAR point cloud data. This hazard and risk information is used to inform placement of existing and potential future infrastructure in Yosemite Valley.
Smith, Adriana de Azevedo; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel
to assess the risk of falls in elderly, by comparing the sociodemographic and cognitive factors, history of falls and self-reported comorbidities. cross-sectional and quantitative study with 240 elderly. Data were collected based on the social profile, through the instrument of risk of falls and assessment of falls, by univariate analysis, bivariate and multiple logistic regression. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 was used for statistical analysis. there was a significant association of the risk of falls, as measured by the Fall Risk Score, with sex (adulto mayor, mediante la comparación de los factores cognitivos y sociodemográficos, antecedentes de caídas y comorbilidades auto-reportadas. estudio transversal y cuantitativo con 240 adultos mayores. Los datos fueron recolectados utilizando instrumento del riesgo de caídas y evaluación de caídas, mediante el análisis univariado, bivariado y regresión logística múltiple. Para el anpalisis estadístico, fue utilizado software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versión 19, se utilizó en el análisis estadístico. hay una asociación significativa del riesgo de caídas, medido por el Fall Risk Score, con el sexo (adulto mayor de edad más avanzada (más de 80 años de edad), bajo desempeño cognitivo, y antecedentes de caídas en los últimos seis meses son factores que aumentan la prevalencia de caídas. En la regresión logística, las variables que mostraron asociación con el riesgo de caídas fueron: caída, con quien vive, discapacidad visual y enfermedades reumáticas.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. Results All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point were 6.15 (p Conclusion These results suggest that subjective ratings by care staff can be utilized to determine the risks of falls and fall-related fractures in the frail elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research.
Kim, Taekyoung; Xiong, Shuping
This study aimed to compare seven widely used fall risk assessment tools in terms of validity and practicality, and to provide a guideline for choosing appropriate fall risk assessment tools for elderly Koreans. Sixty community-dwelling Korean older women (30 fallers and 30 matched non-fallers) were evaluated. Performance measures of all tools were compared between the faller and non-faller groups through two sample t-tests. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were generated with odds ratios for discriminant analysis. Results showed that four tools had significant discriminative power, and the shortened version of Falls Efficacy Scale (SFES) showed excellent discriminant validity, followed by Berg Balance Scale (BBS) with acceptable discriminant validity. The Mini Balance Evaluation System Test and Timed Up and Go, however, had limited discriminant validities. In terms of practicality, SFES was also excellent. These findings suggest that SFES is the most suitable tool for assessing the fall risks of community-dwelling Korean older women, followed by BBS. Practitioner Summary: There is no general guideline on which fall risk assessment tools are suitable for community-dwelling Korean older women. This study compared seven widely used assessment tools in terms of validity and practicality. Results suggested that the short Falls Efficacy Scale is the most suitable tool, followed by Berg Balance Scale.
Reinoso, Humberto; McCaffrey, Ruth G; Taylor, David W M
One fourth of all American's over 65 years of age fall each year. Falls are a common and often devastating event that can pose a serious health risk for older adults. Healthcare providers are often unable to spend the time required to assist older adults with fall risk issues. Without a team approach to fall prevention the system remains focused on fragmented levels of health promotion and risk prevention. The specific aim of this project was to engage older adults from the community in a fall risk assessment program, using the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries (STEADI) program, and provide feedback on individual participants' risks that participants could share with their primary care physician. Older adults who attended the risk screening were taking medications that are known to increase falls. They mentioned that their health care providers do not screen for falls and appreciated a community based screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breisinger, Terry P; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Niyonkuru, Christian; Terhorst, Lauren; Campbell, Grace B
Objective To evaluate relative accuracy of a newly developed Stroke Assessment of Fall Risk (SAFR) for classifying fallers and non-fallers, compared with a health system fall risk screening tool, the Fall Harm Risk Screen. Design and setting Prospective quality improvement study conducted at an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit at a large urban university hospital. Participants Patients admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation (N = 419) with imaging or clinical evidence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2010. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measure(s) Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve for Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves of both scales’ classifications, based on fall risk score completed upon admission to inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Results A total of 68 (16%) participants fell at least once. The SAFR was significantly more accurate than the Fall Harm Risk Screen (p stroke rehabilitation patients. While the SAFR improves upon the accuracy of a general assessment tool, additional refinement may be warranted. PMID:24849795
Oya, Yukiko; Nakamura, Masumi; Tabata, Emi; Morizono, Ryo; Mori, Sachiko; Kimuro, Yukari; Horikawa, Etsuo
The purpose of this study was to analyze relationships between the history of falls, tripping, sway, and knee extensor muscle strengths as a tool for fall risk assessment in elderly people. We examined effective fall prevention measures. We investigated 102 elderly volunteers in the community. The subjects were classified according to history of falls, tripping, sway and 5 performance tests conducted to assess fall risk including Timed up-and-go test (TUG), Functional Reach test (FR), Hand grip and Reaction time (RT). In addition, the time serial data of the knee extensor muscle strength were acquired using a hand-held dynamometer. In comparison to the non-faller group, the faller group showed a significantly higher incident rate of tripping and sway. A frequency analysis using the Maximum Entropy Method revealed that the fallers group showed lower peak frequency (p=0.025). Also, the slope of the logarithmical spectrum was less steep in the fallers group (p=0.035). Also results from analysis of the peak force latency from the beginning of measurement to 50%, 80%, and 100% muscle strength, also showed that the faller group took more time for maximal voluntary contraction. The frequency analysis of the time series date of peak force latency of knee extensor muscle strength revealed that the muscle activity differs in faller compared to non-fallers. This study suggested that knee extensor muscle isometric performance could possibly be used as a new tool for fall risk assessment. We concluded that exercises to raise maximal muscle strength and muscle response speed are useful for the prevention of falls.
Scott, Robin A; Oman, Kathleen S; Flarity, Kathleen; Comer, Jennifer L
Patient falls are a significant issue in hospitalized patients and financially costly to hospitals. The Joint Commission requires that patients be assessed for fall risk and interventions in place to mitigate the risk of falls. It is imperative to have a patient population/setting specific fall risk assessment tool to identify patients at risk for falling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the 2013 Memorial ED Fall Risk Assessment tool (MEDFRAT) specifically designed for the ED population. A two-phase prospective design was used for this study. Phase one determined the interrater reliability of the MEDFRAT. Phase two assessed the validity of the MEDFRAT in an emergency department (ED) within a 600-bed academic/teaching institution; Level II Trauma Center with >100,000 annual patient visits. The Memorial ED Fall Risk Assessment Tool was validated in this ED setting. The tool demonstrated positive interrater reliability (k=0.701) and when implemented with a falls prevention strategy and staff education demonstrated a 48% decrease in ED fall rate (0.57 falls/1000 patient visits) post implementation during the study period. The MEDFRAT, an evidenced based ED-specific fall risk tool was implemented on the basis of the risk factors consistently identified in the literature: prior fall history, impaired mobility, altered mental status, altered elimination, and the use of sedative medication. The Memorial ED Fall Risk Assessment Tool demonstrated to be a valid tool for this hospital system. Copyright © 2018 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Elderly persons have higher risk for falls, compared to younger population. Although no single risk factor causes all falls, a great deal of risk factors to which an individual is exposed, i.e. osteoporosis, lack of physical activity, impaired vision, usage of drugs, living settings etc, can be treated. Objective: To investigate the risk for falls in elderly patients treated in Family medicine teaching center (ECPM, Primary Health Care Center Banja Luka. Method: This prospective study was conducted in June 2012. The study included 150 patients aged 65 years and older. Patients were chosen randomly. In study were included patients who have visited their family doctors on every of Mondays in June 2012. The Tinetti Gait and Balance Instrument was used to asses the risk for falls. Patients were examined to asses gait and balance according to Tinetti questionnaire, and supplementary questionnaire was created to record data about age, sex, chronic diseases and drugs that patients take. Results: The study included 91 (60.7% female and 59 (39.3% male patients. The average age of patients was 74.71 years. 77 (51.3% were aged 65 to 75 years and 73 (48.7% were more than 75 years old. Results of Tinetti Gait and Balance Instrument showed that the risk for falls was high in 55 (36.7%, moderate in 31 (20.7% and low in 64 (42.7% patients. Conclusion: Approximately, one third of investigated patients had high risk for falls, what indicates that family doctors should be more involved in fall prevention in elderly and in constant educating of older adults and their families.
Siong, Kar-Ho; Kwan, Marcella Mun-San; Lord, Stephen R; Lam, Andrew Kwok-Cheung; Tsang, William Wai-Nam; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan
The short-form Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) is increasingly used in clinical practice for assessing fall risk in older people. However, a normative database is only available for Caucasian populations. The purpose of the present study was to develop a normative database for Hong Kong Chinese older people and examine the fall risk profile of this population. A total of 622 participants aged 60-95 years were recruited. Participants underwent the PPA (containing tests of contrast sensitivity, proprioception, quadriceps strength, reaction time and sway), and composite fall risk scores were computed. Participants were then followed up for falls for 1 year. Quadriceps strength and lower limb proprioception scores were comparable with those reported for Caucasian populations. However, contrast sensitivity, simple reaction time and postural sway scores were relatively poor. The average composite fall risk score was 1.7 ± 1.5, showing a "moderate" fall risk when compared with the Caucasian norms. Despite the relatively poor physical performances and moderately high fall risk scores, the incidence of one plus falls in the 1-year follow-up period was just 16.4%, with just 2.6% reporting two plus falls. The area under the curve for composite fall risk scores in discriminating fallers from non-fallers was 0.53 (95% CI 0.45-0.60). Despite poorer performance in PPA tests, the incidence of prospective falls in a Hong Kong Chinese population was low. In consequence, the PPA could not discriminate well between fallers and non-fallers. The present study provided normality data for short-form PPA measures for older Chinese people as a reference for further studies. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Palmerini, Luca; Bandinelli, Stefania; Chiari, Lorenzo
Falls are a common, serious threat to the health and self-confidence of the elderly. Assessment of fall risk is an important aspect of effective fall prevention programs. In order to test whether it is possible to outperform current prognostic tools for falls, we analyzed 1010 variables pertaining to mobility collected from 976 elderly subjects (InCHIANTI study). We trained and validated a data-driven model that issues probabilistic predictions about future falls. We benchmarked the model against other fall risk indicators: history of falls, gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery (Guralnik et al. 1994), and the literature-based fall risk assessment tool FRAT-up (Cattelani et al. 2015). Parsimony in the number of variables included in a tool is often considered a proxy for ease of administration. We studied how constraints on the number of variables affect predictive accuracy. The proposed model and FRAT-up both attained the same discriminative ability; the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for multiple falls was 0.71. They outperformed the other risk scores, which reported AUCs for multiple falls between 0.64 and 0.65. Thus, it appears that both data-driven and literature-based approaches are better at estimating fall risk than commonly used fall risk indicators. The accuracy-parsimony analysis revealed that tools with a small number of predictors (~1-5) were suboptimal. Increasing the number of variables improved the predictive accuracy, reaching a plateau at ~20-30, which we can consider as the best trade-off between accuracy and parsimony. Obtaining the values of these ~20-30 variables does not compromise usability, since they are usually available in comprehensive geriatric assessments.
Full Text Available Falls are a common, serious threat to the health and self-confidence of the elderly. Assessment of fall risk is an important aspect of effective fall prevention programs.In order to test whether it is possible to outperform current prognostic tools for falls, we analyzed 1010 variables pertaining to mobility collected from 976 elderly subjects (InCHIANTI study. We trained and validated a data-driven model that issues probabilistic predictions about future falls. We benchmarked the model against other fall risk indicators: history of falls, gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery (Guralnik et al. 1994, and the literature-based fall risk assessment tool FRAT-up (Cattelani et al. 2015. Parsimony in the number of variables included in a tool is often considered a proxy for ease of administration. We studied how constraints on the number of variables affect predictive accuracy.The proposed model and FRAT-up both attained the same discriminative ability; the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve (AUC for multiple falls was 0.71. They outperformed the other risk scores, which reported AUCs for multiple falls between 0.64 and 0.65. Thus, it appears that both data-driven and literature-based approaches are better at estimating fall risk than commonly used fall risk indicators. The accuracy-parsimony analysis revealed that tools with a small number of predictors (~1-5 were suboptimal. Increasing the number of variables improved the predictive accuracy, reaching a plateau at ~20-30, which we can consider as the best trade-off between accuracy and parsimony. Obtaining the values of these ~20-30 variables does not compromise usability, since they are usually available in comprehensive geriatric assessments.
Hur, Eun Young; Jin, Yinji; Jin, Taixian; Lee, Sun-Mi
The Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JHFRAT) is relatively new in Korea, and it has not been fully evaluated. This study revealed that the JHFRAT had good predictive validity throughout the hospitalization period. However, 2 items (fall history and elimination patterns) on the tool were not determinants of falls in this population. Interestingly, the nurses indicated those 2 items were the most difficult items to assess and needed further training to develop the assessment skills.
Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzukawa, Megumi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao
Abstract Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotom...
Stock, Greg M.; Luco, Nicolas; Collins, Brian D.; Harp, Edwin L.; Reichenbach, Paola; Frankel, Kurt L.
Rock falls are common in Yosemite Valley, California, posing substantial hazard and risk to the approximately four million annual visitors to Yosemite National Park. Rock falls in Yosemite Valley over the past few decades have damaged structures and caused injuries within developed regions located on or adjacent to talus slopes highlighting the need for additional investigations into rock-fall hazard and risk. This assessment builds upon previous investigations of rock-fall hazard and risk in Yosemite Valley and focuses on hazard and risk to structures posed by relatively frequent fragmental-type rock falls as large as approximately 100,000 (cubic meters) in volume.
de Mettelinge, Tine Roman; Calders, Patrick; Palmans, Tanneke; Vanden Bossche, Luc; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Cambier, Dirk
This study investigates (i) the potential discriminative role of a clinical measure of peripheral neuropathy (PN) in assessing postural performance and fall risk and (ii) whether the integration of a simple screening vibration perception threshold (VPT) for PN in any physical (fall risk) assessment among elderly should be recommended, even if they do not suffer from DM. One hundred and ninety-five elderly were entered in a four-group model: DM with PN (D+; n = 75), DM without PN (D-; n = 28), non-diabetic elderly with idiopathic PN (C+; n = 31) and non-diabetic elderly without PN (C-; n = 61). Posturographic sway parameters were captured during different static balance conditions (AMTI AccuGait, Watertown, MA). VPT, fall data, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test were registered. Two-factor repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare between groups and across balance conditions. The groups with PN demonstrated a strikingly comparable, though bigger sway, and a higher prospective fall incidence than their peers without PN. The indication of PN, irrespective of its cause, interferes with postural control and fall incidence. The integration of a simple screening for PN (like bio-thesiometry) in any fall risk assessment among elderly is highly recommended. Implications for Rehabilitation The indication of peripheral neuropathy (PN), irrespective of its cause, interferes with postural control and fall incidence. Therefore, the integration of a simple screening for PN (like bio-thesiometry) in any fall risk assessment among elderly is highly recommended. It might be useful to integrate somatosensory stimulation in rehabilitation programs designed for fall prevention.
Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Wing-Cheung; Low, Chien-Tat; Wong, Martin; Chan, Ming-Houng
Falls in public places are an issue of great health concern especially for the elderly. Falls among the elderly is also a major health burden in many countries. This study describes a spatial approach to assess environmental causes of outdoor falls using a small urban community in Hong Kong as an example. The method involves collecting data on fall occurrences and mapping their geographic positions to examine circumstances and environmental evidence that contribute to falls. High risk locations or hot spots of falls are identified on the bases of spatial proximity and concentration of falls within a threshold distance by means of kernel smoothing and standard deviational ellipses. This method of geographic aggregation of individual fall incidents for a small-area study yields hot spots of manageable sizes. The spatial clustering approach is effective in two ways. Firstly, it allows visualisation and isolation of fall hot spots to draw focus. Secondly and especially under conditions of resource decline, policy makers are able to target specific locations to examine the underlying causal mechanisms and strategise effective response and preventive measures based on the types of environmental risk factors identified.
De Breucker, S; Nkodo Mekongo, Y P; Ibebeke, B; Pepersack, T
Falls are one of the most common problems that threaten the independence of older individuals. They usually occur when impairments in multiple domains compromise the compensatory ability of the individual, as is the case for many geriatric syndromes. A number of the physical conditions and environmental situations predispose to falls. The medical risk factors of falls are reviewed. Falls in older individuals are rarely due to a single cause. Mechanisms that maintain postural stability are altered with aging (balance, gait speed, cardiovascular function). Female gender, past history of a fall, cognitive impairment, lower extremity weakness, balance problems, psychotropic drug use, arthritis, history of stroke, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, and anemia represent the most frequent causes of risk of falls. Physical examination should focus upon the above mentioned risk factors and also on the presence of orthostatic hypotension, visual acuity, hearing assessment, examination of the extremities for deformities or neuropathies, and carotid sinus hypersensitivity which contributes to falls in people with unexplained falls. In conclusion, assessment of older individual at risk of falls or who fall present medical specificities. However, these latter specificities should be included in a comprehensive assessment which focus on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Interventional strategies including comprehensive and interdisciplinary assessment lead to effective prevention.
Chiu, Ming-Huang; Lee, Hsin-Dai; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Wang, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Mau-Roung
A nested case-control study was carried out to examine relationships of a fall-risk score and the use of single medications and polypharmacy with falls among hospitalized patients aged 50 years and older in Taiwan. There were 83 patients who experienced a fall during hospitalization in an acute-care hospital. Matched by age and sex, five control patients for each case were randomly selected from all other inpatients who had not experienced any fall at the time of the index fall. Patients who took tricyclic antidepressants, diuretics, and narcotics were 3.36-, 1.83- and 2.09-fold, respectively, more likely to experience a fall than their counterparts. Conversely, patients who took beta-blockers were 0.34-fold more likely than those who did not take them to experience a fall. Patients taking ≥6 medications were 3.08-fold more likely than those taking fewer medications to experience a fall, whereas those with anxiety were 4.72-fold more likely to experience a fall than those without. A high fall-risk score was not significantly associated with the occurrence of falls. Among older hospitalized patients, tricyclic antidepressants, diuretics, narcotics, and polypharmacy should be mindfully prescribed and reviewed on a regular basis. A fall-risk scale developed from community-dwelling older people might not accurately predict falls in hospitalized patients. Further research to validate the negative effect of beta-blocker use on falls is required. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Min; Liu, Yu
To culturally adapt and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool among older inpatients in the mainland of China. Patient falls are an important safety consideration within hospitals among older inpatients. Nurses need specific risk assessment tools for older inpatients to reliably identify at-risk populations and guide interventions that highlight fixable risk factors for falls and consequent injuries. In China, a few tools have been developed to measure fall risk. However, they lack the solid psychometric development necessary to establish their validity and reliability, and they are not widely used for elderly inpatients. A cross-sectional study. A convenient sampling was used to recruit 201 older inpatients from two tertiary-level hospitals in Beijing and Xiamen, China. The Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool was translated using forward and backward translation procedures and was administered to these 201 older inpatients. Reliability of the tool was calculated by inter-rater reliability and Cronbach's alpha. Validity was analysed through content validity index and construct validity. The Inter-rater reliability of Chinese version of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool was 97·14% agreement with Cohen's Kappa of 0·903. Cronbach's α was 0·703. Content of Validity Index was 0·833. Two factors represented intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors were explored that together explained 58·89% of the variance. This study provided evidence that Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool is an acceptable, valid and reliable tool to identify older inpatients at risk of falls and falls with injury. Further psychometric testing on criterion validity and evaluation of its advanced utility in geriatric clinical settings are warranted. The Chinese version of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool may be useful for health care personnel to identify older Chinese inpatients at risk of falls and falls
Cattelani, Luca; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Palmerini, Luca; Bandinelli, Stefania; Becker, Clemens; Chesani, Federico; Chiari, Lorenzo
About 30% of people over 65 are subject to at least one unintentional fall a year. Fall prevention protocols and interventions can decrease the number of falls. To be effective, a prevention strategy requires a prior step to evaluate the fall risk of the subjects. Despite extensive research, existing assessment tools for fall risk have been insufficient for predicting falls. The goal of this study is to present a novel web-based fall-risk assessment tool (FRAT-up) and to evaluate its accuracy in predicting falls, within a context of community-dwelling persons aged 65 and up. FRAT-up is based on the assumption that a subject's fall risk is given by the contribution of their exposure to each of the known fall-risk factors. Many scientific studies have investigated the relationship between falls and risk factors. The majority of these studies adopted statistical approaches, usually providing quantitative information such as odds ratios. FRAT-up exploits these numerical results to compute how each single factor contributes to the overall fall risk. FRAT-up is based on a formal ontology that enlists a number of known risk factors, together with quantitative findings in terms of odds ratios. From such information, an automatic algorithm generates a rule-based probabilistic logic program, that is, a set of rules for each risk factor. The rule-based program takes the health profile of the subject (in terms of exposure to the risk factors) and computes the fall risk. A Web-based interface allows users to input health profiles and to visualize the risk assessment for the given subject. FRAT-up has been evaluated on the InCHIANTI Study dataset, a representative population-based study of older persons living in the Chianti area (Tuscany, Italy). We compared reported falls with predicted ones and computed performance indicators. The obtained area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.642 (95% CI 0.614-0.669), while the Brier score was 0.174. The Hosmer
Roeing, Kathleen L; Hsieh, Katherine L; Sosnoff, Jacob J
Falls are a major health concern for older adults. Preventative measures can help reduce the incidence and severity of falls. Methods for assessing balance and fall risk factors are necessary to effectively implement preventative measures. Research groups are currently developing mobile applications to enable seniors, caregivers, and clinicians to monitor balance and fall risk. The following systematic review assesses the current state of mobile health apps for testing balance as a fall risk factor. Thirteen studies were identified and included in the review and analyzed based on study design, population, sample size, measures of balance, main outcome measures, and evaluation of validity and reliability. All studies successfully tested their applications, but only 38% evaluated the validity, and 23% evaluated the reliability of their applications. Of those, all applications were found to accurately and reliably measure balance on select variables. Four of the 13 studies included special populations groups. Out of the 13 studies, 12 reported clinicians as their intended user and seven reported seniors as their intended user. Further research should examine the validity of mobile health applications as well as report on the application's usability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kiely, D K; Kiel, D P; Burrows, A B; Lipsitz, L A
To develop a fall risk model that can be used to identify prospectively nursing home residents at risk for falling. The secondary objective was to determine whether the nursing home environment independently influenced the development of falls. A prospective study involving 1 year of follow-up. Two hundred seventy-two nursing homes in the state of Washington. A total of 18,855 residents who had a baseline assessment in 1991 and a follow-up assessment within the subsequent year. Baseline Minimum Data Set items that could be potential risk factors for falling were considered as independent variables. The dependent variable was whether the resident fell as reported at the follow-up assessment. We estimated the extrinsic risk attributable to particular nursing home environments by calculating the annual fall rate in each nursing home and grouping them into tertiles of fall risk according to these rates. Factors associated independently with falling were fall history, wandering behavior, use of a cane or walker, deterioration of activities of daily living performance, age greater than 87 years, unsteady gait, transfer independence, wheelchair independence, and male gender. Nursing home residents with a fall history were more than three times as likely to fall during the follow-up period than residents without a fall history. Residents in homes with the highest tertile of fall rates were more than twice as likely to fall compared with residents of homes in the lowest tertile, independent of resident-specific risk factors. Fall history was identified as the strongest risk factor associated with subsequent falls and accounted for the vast majority of the predictive strength of the model. We recommend that fall history be used as an initial screener for determining eligibility for fall intervention efforts. Studies are needed to determine the facility characteristics that contribute to fall risk, independent of resident-specific risk factors.
Marschollek, Michael; Gövercin, Mehmet; Rust, Stefan; Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth
Abstract Background Hospital in-patient falls constitute a prominent problem in terms of costs and consequences. Geriatric institutions are most often affected, and common screening tools cannot predict in-patient falls consistently. Our objectives are to derive comprehensible fall risk classification models from a large data set of geriatric in-patients' assessment data and to evaluate their predictive performance (aim#1), and to identify high-risk subgroups from the data (aim#2). Methods A ...
Rice, Laura A; Ousley, Cherita; Sosnoff, Jacob J
To systematically review peer-reviewed literature pertaining to risk factors, outcome measures and interventions managing fall risk in non-ambulatory adults. Twenty-one papers were selected for inclusion from databases including PubMed/Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, Scopus, Consumer Health Complete and Web of Science. Selected studies involved a description of fall related risk factors, outcomes to assess fall risk and intervention studies describing protocols to manage fall risk in non-ambulatory adults. Studies were selected by two reviewers and consultation provided by a third reviewer. The most frequently cited risk factors/characteristics associated with falls included: wheelchair related characteristics, transfer activities, impaired seated balance and environmental factors. The majority of the outcomes were found to evaluate seated postural control. One intervention study was identified describing a protocol targeting specific problems of individual participants. A global fall prevention program was not identified. Several risk factors associated with falls were identified and must be understood by clinicians to better serve their clients. To improve objective assessment, a comprehensive outcome assessment specific to non-ambulatory adults is needed. Finally, additional research is needed to examine the impact of structured protocols to manage fall risk in non-ambulatory adults. Falls are a common health concern for non-ambulatory adults. Risk factors commonly associated with falls include wheelchair related characteristics, transfer activities, impaired seated balance and environmental factors. Limited outcome measures are available to assess fall risk in non-ambulatory adults. Clinicians must be aware of the known risk factors and provide comprehensive education to their clients on the potential for falls. Additional research is needed to develop and evaluate protocols to clinically manage fall
Akahane, Manabu; Maeyashiki, Akie; Yoshihara, Shingo; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Imamura, Tomoaki
across the road at a crossing before the traffic light changes" are significantly related to falling. Logistic regression analysis also demonstrated a relationship between the number of items endorsed on loco-check and incidence of falling, wherein persons who endorsed 4 or more items appear to be at higher risk for falls. However, logistic regression found no significant relationship between sleep duration and falling. Our study demonstrated a relationship between the number of loco-check items endorsed and the incidence of falling in the previous year. Endorsement of 4 or more items appeared to signal a high risk for falls. The short self-administered checklist can be a valuable tool for assessing the risk of falling and for initiating preventive measures.
Jacobson, Gary P; McCaslin, Devin L; Grantham, Sarah L; Piker, Erin G
Falls in elderly patients are associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost to the healthcare system. The development of falls risk assessment programs have represented a method of responding to what is known about injurious falls. The multidimensional assessments involve the comparison against normative data of a patient's performance on metrics known to influence the likelihood of future falls. The factors assessed usually include falls and medication history, measures of mentation, depression, orthostatic hypotension, simple or choice reaction time, gait stability, postural stability, and the integrity of the patient's vision, somesthetic, and vestibular senses. This investigation was conducted to measure the proportion of patients referred for falls risk assessment who have evidence of vestibular system impairment. Qualitative, retrospective review of data collected from 2003 to 2007. The cohort was 185 consecutive patients referred for multidimensional assessments of falls risk. Patients underwent quantitative assessments of peripheral and central vestibular system function consisting of electro- or videonystagmography (i.e., ENG/VNG), and sinusoidal harmonic acceleration testing. Results of these tests were compared to normative data. We found that 73% of the sample who underwent vestibular system assessment had quantitative evidence of either peripheral or central vestibular system impairment. Our results suggest that quantitative assessments of the vestibulo-ocular reflex should be conducted on patients who are evaluated for falls risk. These examinations should include at least caloric testing and, where available, rotational testing.
French, Dustin D; Werner, Dennis C; Campbell, Robert R; Powell-Cope, Gail M; Nelson, Audrey L; Rubenstein, Laurence Z; Bulat, Tatjana; Spehar, Andrea M
The purpose of this study was to develop a multivariate fall risk assessment model beyond the current fall Resident Assessment Protocol (RAP) triggers for nursing home residents using the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Retrospective, clustered secondary data analysis. National Veterans Health Administration (VHA) long-term care nursing homes (N = 136). The study population consisted of 6577 national VHA nursing home residents who had an annual assessment during FY 2005, identified from the MDS, as well as an earlier annual or admission assessment within a 1-year look-back period. A dichotomous multivariate model of nursing home residents coded with a fall on selected fall risk characteristics from the MDS, estimated with general estimation equations (GEE). There were 17 170 assessments corresponding to 6577 long-term care nursing home residents. The increased odds ratio (OR) of being classified as a faller relative to the omitted "dependent" category of activities of daily living (ADL) ranged from OR = 1.35 for "limited" ADL category up to OR = 1.57 for "extensive-2" ADL (P canes, walkers, or crutches, or the use of wheelchairs increases the odds of being a faller (OR = 1.17, P falls in long-term care settings. The model incorporated an ADL index and adjusted for case mix by including only long-term care nursing home residents. The study offers clinicians practical estimates by combining multiple univariate MDS elements in an empirically based, multivariate fall risk assessment model.
Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Denise; Walsh, Lorcan; Doheny, Emer P; McKeown, David; Garattini, Chiara; Cunningham, Clodagh; Crosby, Lisa; Caulfield, Brian; Kenny, Rose A
Falls are the most common cause of injury and hospitalization and one of the principal causes of death and disability in older adults worldwide. Measures of postural stability have been associated with the incidence of falls in older adults. The aim of this study was to develop a model that accurately classifies fallers and non-fallers using novel multi-sensor quantitative balance metrics that can be easily deployed into a home or clinic setting. We compared the classification accuracy of our model with an established method for falls risk assessment, the Berg balance scale. Data were acquired using two sensor modalities--a pressure sensitive platform sensor and a body-worn inertial sensor, mounted on the lower back--from 120 community dwelling older adults (65 with a history of falls, 55 without, mean age 73.7 ± 5.8 years, 63 female) while performing a number of standing balance tasks in a geriatric research clinic. Results obtained using a support vector machine yielded a mean classification accuracy of 71.52% (95% CI: 68.82-74.28) in classifying falls history, obtained using one model classifying all data points. Considering male and female participant data separately yielded classification accuracies of 72.80% (95% CI: 68.85-77.17) and 73.33% (95% CI: 69.88-76.81) respectively, leading to a mean classification accuracy of 73.07% in identifying participants with a history of falls. Results compare favourably to those obtained using the Berg balance scale (mean classification accuracy: 59.42% (95% CI: 56.96-61.88)). Results from the present study could lead to a robust method for assessing falls risk in both supervised and unsupervised environments.
Marschollek, Michael; Rehwald, Anja; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Gietzelt, Matthias; Nemitz, Gerhard; zu Schwabedissen, Hubertus Meyer; Schulze, Mareike
Fall events contribute significantly to mortality, morbidity and costs in our ageing population. In order to identify persons at risk and to target preventive measures, many scores and assessment tools have been developed. These often require expertise and are costly to implement. Recent research investigates the use of wearable inertial sensors to provide objective data on motion features which can be used to assess individual fall risk automatically. So far it is unknown how well this new method performs in comparison with conventional fall risk assessment tools. The aim of our research is to compare the predictive performance of our new sensor-based method with conventional and established methods, based on prospective data. In a first study phase, 119 inpatients of a geriatric clinic took part in motion measurements using a wireless triaxial accelerometer during a Timed Up&Go (TUG) test and a 20 m walk. Furthermore, the St. Thomas Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly Inpatients (STRATIFY) was performed, and the multidisciplinary geriatric care team estimated the patients' fall risk. In a second follow-up phase of the study, 46 of the participants were interviewed after one year, including a fall and activity assessment. The predictive performances of the TUG, the STRATIFY and team scores are compared. Furthermore, two automatically induced logistic regression models based on conventional clinical and assessment data (CONV) as well as sensor data (SENSOR) are matched. Among the risk assessment scores, the geriatric team score (sensitivity 56%, specificity 80%) outperforms STRATIFY and TUG. The induced logistic regression models CONV and SENSOR achieve similar performance values (sensitivity 68%/58%, specificity 74%/78%, AUC 0.74/0.72, +LR 2.64/2.61). Both models are able to identify more persons at risk than the simple scores. Sensor-based objective measurements of motion parameters in geriatric patients can be used to assess individual fall risk, and our
Colagiorgio, P; Romano, F; Sardi, F; Moraschini, M; Sozzi, A; Bejor, M; Ricevuti, G; Buizza, A; Ramat, S
The problem of a correct fall risk assessment is becoming more and more critical with the ageing of the population. In spite of the available approaches allowing a quantitative analysis of the human movement control system's performance, the clinical assessment and diagnostic approach to fall risk assessment still relies mostly on non-quantitative exams, such as clinical scales. This work documents our current effort to develop a novel method to assess balance control abilities through a system implementing an automatic evaluation of exercises drawn from balance assessment scales. Our aim is to overcome the classical limits characterizing these scales i.e. limited granularity and inter-/intra-examiner reliability, to obtain objective scores and more detailed information allowing to predict fall risk. We used Microsoft Kinect to record subjects' movements while performing challenging exercises drawn from clinical balance scales. We then computed a set of parameters quantifying the execution of the exercises and fed them to a supervised classifier to perform a classification based on the clinical score. We obtained a good accuracy (~82%) and especially a high sensitivity (~83%).
Sannino, Giovanna; De Falco, Ivanoe; De Pietro, Guiseppe
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the explicit relationship between life-style and the risk of falling under the form of a mathematical model. Starting from some personal and behavioral information of a subject as, e.g., weight, height, age, data about physical activity habits, and concern about falling, the model would estimate the score of her/his Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems (Mini-BES) test. This score ranges within 0 and 28, and the lower its value the more likely the subj...
Goljar, Nika; Globokar, Daniel; Puzić, Nataša; Kopitar, Natalija; Vrabič, Maja; Ivanovski, Matic; Vidmar, Gaj
To evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk-assessment-based fall prevention for stroke rehabilitation inpatients. A consecutive series of 232 patients admitted for the first time to a subacute stroke-rehabilitation ward during 2010-2011 was studied in detail. The Assessment Sheet for Fall Prediction in Stroke Inpatients (ASFPSI by Nakagawa et al.) was used to assess fall-risk upon admission. Association of ASFPSI score and patient characteristics with actual falls was statistically tested. Yearly incidence of falls per 1000 hospital days (HD) was retrospectively audited for the 2006-2014 period to evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk reduction measures. The observed incidence of falls over the detailed-study-period was 3.0/1000 HD; 39% of the fallers fell during the first week after admission. ASFPSI score was not significantly associated with falls. Longer hospital stay, left body-side affected and non-extreme FIM score (55-101) were associated with higher odds of fall. Introduction of fall-risk reduction measures followed by compulsory fall-risk assessment lead to incidence of falls dropping from 7.1/1000 HD in 2006 to 2.8/1000 HD in 2011 and remaining at that level until 2014. The fall-risk-assessment-based measures appear to have led to decreasing falls risk among post-stroke rehabilitation inpatients classified as being at high risk of falls. The fall prevention programme as a whole was successful. Patients with non-extreme level of functional independence should receive enhanced fall prevention. Implications for Rehabilitation Recognising the fall risk upon the patient's admission is essential for preventing falls in rehabilitation wards. Assessing the fall risk is a team tasks and combines information from various sources. Assessing fall risk in stroke patients using the assessment sheet by Nakagawa et al. immediately upon admission systematically draws attention to the risk of falls in each individual patient.
Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Denise; Walsh, Lorcan; Doheny, Emer P; McKeown, David; Garattini, Chiara; Cunningham, Clodagh; Crosby, Lisa; Caulfield, Brian; Kenny, Rose A
Falls are the most common cause of injury and hospitalization and one of the principal causes of death and disability in older adults worldwide. Measures of postural stability have been associated with the incidence of falls in older adults. The aim of this study was to develop a model that accurately classifies fallers and non-fallers using novel multi-sensor quantitative balance metrics that can be easily deployed into a home or clinic setting. We compared the classification accuracy of our model with an established method for falls risk assessment, the Berg balance scale. Data were acquired using two sensor modalities—a pressure sensitive platform sensor and a body-worn inertial sensor, mounted on the lower back—from 120 community dwelling older adults (65 with a history of falls, 55 without, mean age 73.7 ± 5.8 years, 63 female) while performing a number of standing balance tasks in a geriatric research clinic. Results obtained using a support vector machine yielded a mean classification accuracy of 71.52% (95% CI: 68.82–74.28) in classifying falls history, obtained using one model classifying all data points. Considering male and female participant data separately yielded classification accuracies of 72.80% (95% CI: 68.85–77.17) and 73.33% (95% CI: 69.88–76.81) respectively, leading to a mean classification accuracy of 73.07% in identifying participants with a history of falls. Results compare favourably to those obtained using the Berg balance scale (mean classification accuracy: 59.42% (95% CI: 56.96–61.88)). Results from the present study could lead to a robust method for assessing falls risk in both supervised and unsupervised environments. (paper)
Alfonso Mora, Margareth Lorena
To analyse the metric properties of the Timed Get up and Go-Modified Version Test (TGUGM), in risk assessment of falls in a group of physically active women. A sample was constituted by 202 women over 55 years of age, were assessed through a crosssectional study. The TGUGM was applied to assess their fall risk. The test was analysed by comparison of the qualitative and quantitative information and by factor analysis. The development of a logistic regression model explained the risk of falls according to the test components. The TGUGM was useful for assessing the risk of falls in the studied group. The test revealed two factors: the Get Up and the Gait with dual task . Less than twelve points in the evaluation or runtimes higher than 35 seconds was associated with high risk of falling. More than 35 seconds in the test indicated a risk fall probability greater than 0.50. Also, scores less than 12 points were associated with a delay of 7 seconds more in the execution of the test ( p = 0.0016). Factor analysis of TGUGM revealed two dimensions that can be independent predictors of risk of falling: The Get up that explains between 64% and 87% of the risk of falling, and the Gait with dual task, that explains between 77% and 95% of risk of falling.
Falling is a significant cause of injury and death in frail older adults. Residents in long-term care (LTC) facilities fall for a variety of reasons and are more likely to endure injuries after a fall than those in the community The American Medical Directors Association (AMDA) Clinical Practice Guideline is written to give LTC staff an understanding of risk factors for falls and provide guidance for a systematic approach to patient assessment and selection of appropriate interventions. It is...
Martinez, Maria Carmen; Iwamoto, Viviane Ernesto; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Noronha, Adriana Moreira; Oliveira, Ana Paula de Sousa; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Alves; Marques, Ifigenia Augusta Braga; Vendramim, Patrícia; Lopes, Paula Cristina; Sant'Ana, Thais Helena Saes de
to perform the transcultural adaptation and content validity analysis of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool to assess both fall risk and fall-related injury risk for hospitalized elderly in Brazil. the transcultural adaptation consisted of translating the scale to Portuguese (Brazil), back-translating it into its language of origin, establishing a consensus version, and having an expert committee verify its transcultural equivalence. Content assessment was conducted by a committee of judges, ending with the calculation of the items and scales' content validity index. Nurses tested the tool. the scale's translated version went through two evaluation rounds by the judges, based on which, the items with unsatisfactory performance were changed. The content validity index for the items was ≥80.0% and the global index 97.1%. The experimental application showed the scale is user-friendly. the scale presents valid content for the assessment of fall risk and risk of fall-related injuries and is easy to use, with the potential to contribute to the proper identification of risks and the establishment of care actions. realizar a adaptação transcultural para uso no Brasil e a avaliação da validade de conteúdo da Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool para avaliação de risco de quedas e de danos por quedas em pacientes adultos hospitalizados. adaptação transcultural consistiu na tradução da escala para a língua portuguesa (Brasil), retrotradução para a língua de origem, versão de consenso e análise da equivalência transcultural por um comitê de especialistas. A avaliação do conteúdo foi realizada por meio de um comitê de juízes, finalizando com o cálculo do índice de validade de conteúdo dos itens e da escala. Foi realizada a aplicação experimental do instrumento por enfermeiros. a versão traduzida da escala passou por duas rodadas de avaliação pelos juízes, a partir das quais os itens com desempenho insatisfatório foram modificados
Neri, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci; Gadelha, André Bonadias; de David, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Safons, Marisete Peralta; Tiedemann, Anne; Lima, Ricardo M
Recent investigations demonstrate an association between obesity and the propensity of older adults to fall. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body adiposity measures, postural balance, fear of falling, and risk of falls in older women. One hundred forty-seven volunteers took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants underwent body composition assessment using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and had body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and body adiposity index measured. Postural balance was assessed using a force platform, while fear of falling and risk of falls were, respectively, evaluated by the Falls Efficacy Scale-International and the QuickScreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment. All adiposity measures were correlated to at least 1 postural stability parameter and to fear of falling (ρ= 0.163, P risk of falls (ρ= 0.325; P falling (28.04 vs 24.59; P = .002) and had a higher proportion of individuals with increased fall risk (72% vs 35%; P risk of falls in older women, which might be mediated by reduced postural balance and increased fear of falling. Among these indices, WC, an easy and low-cost assessment, demonstrated the strongest association with falls-related outcomes.
Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Soangra, Rahul; Frames, Chris
Postural stability characteristics are considered to be important in maintaining functional independence free of falls and healthy life style especially for the growing elderly population. This study focuses on developing tools of clinical value in fall prevention: 1) Implementation of sensors that are minimally obtrusive and reliably record movement data. 2) Unobtrusively gather data from wearable sensors from four community centers 3) developed and implemented linear and non-linear signal analysis algorithms to extract clinically relevant information using wearable technology. In all a total of 100 community dwelling elderly individuals (66 non-fallers and 34 fallers) participated in the experiment. All participants were asked to stand-still in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) condition on forceplate with one wireless inertial sensor affixed at sternum level. Participants' history of falls had been recorded for last 2 years, with emphasis on frequency and characteristics of falls. Any participant with at least one fall in the prior year were classified as faller and the others as non-faller. The results indicated several key factors/features of postural characteristics relevant to balance control and stability during quite stance and, showed good predictive capability of fall risks among older adults. Wearable technology allowed us to gather data where it matters the most to answer fall related questions, i.e. the community setting environments. This study opens new prospects of clinical testing using postural variables with a wearable sensor that may be relevant for assessing fall risks at home and patient environment in near future.
Hermann, Olena; Schmidt, Simone B; Boltzmann, Melanie; Rollnik, Jens D
To calculate scale performance of the newly developed Hessisch Oldendorf Fall Risk Scale (HOSS) for classifying fallers and non-fallers in comparison with the Risk of Falling Scale by Huhn (FSH), a frequently used assessment tool. A prospective observational trail was conducted. The study was performed in a large specialized neurological rehabilitation facility. The study population ( n = 690) included neurological and neurosurgery patients during neurological rehabilitation with varying levels of disability. Around the half of the study patients were independent and dependent in the activities of daily living (ADL), respectively. Fall risk of each patient was assessed by HOSS and FSH within the first seven days after admission. Event of fall during rehabilitation was compared with HOSS and FSH scores as well as the according fall risk. Scale performance including sensitivity and specificity was calculated for both scales. A total of 107 (15.5%) patients experienced at least one fall. In general, fallers were characterized by an older age, a prolonged length of stay, and a lower Barthel Index (higher dependence in the ADL) on admission than non-fallers. The verification of fall prediction for both scales showed a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 64% for the HOSS scale, and a sensitivity of 98% with a specificity of 12% for the FSH scale, respectively. The HOSS shows an adequate sensitivity, a higher specificity and therefore a better scale performance than the FSH. Thus, the HOSS might be superior to existing assessments.
Kikkert, Lisette H J; de Groot, Maartje H; van Campen, Jos P; Beijnen, Jos H; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Lamoth, Claudine C J
Fall prediction in geriatric patients remains challenging because the increased fall risk involves multiple, interrelated factors caused by natural aging and/or pathology. Therefore, we used a multi-factorial statistical approach to model categories of modifiable fall risk factors among geriatric patients to identify fallers with highest sensitivity and specificity with a focus on gait performance. Patients (n = 61, age = 79; 41% fallers) underwent extensive screening in three categories: (1) patient characteristics (e.g., handgrip strength, medication use, osteoporosis-related factors) (2) cognitive function (global cognition, memory, executive function), and (3) gait performance (speed-related and dynamic outcomes assessed by tri-axial trunk accelerometry). Falls were registered prospectively (mean follow-up 8.6 months) and one year retrospectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on 11 gait variables was performed to determine underlying gait properties. Three fall-classification models were then built using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), with separate and combined analyses of the fall risk factors. PCA identified 'pace', 'variability', and 'coordination' as key properties of gait. The best PLS-DA model produced a fall classification accuracy of AUC = 0.93. The specificity of the model using patient characteristics was 60% but reached 80% when cognitive and gait outcomes were added. The inclusion of cognition and gait dynamics in fall classification models reduced misclassification. We therefore recommend assessing geriatric patients' fall risk using a multi-factorial approach that incorporates patient characteristics, cognition, and gait dynamics.
Lisette H J Kikkert
Full Text Available Fall prediction in geriatric patients remains challenging because the increased fall risk involves multiple, interrelated factors caused by natural aging and/or pathology. Therefore, we used a multi-factorial statistical approach to model categories of modifiable fall risk factors among geriatric patients to identify fallers with highest sensitivity and specificity with a focus on gait performance. Patients (n = 61, age = 79; 41% fallers underwent extensive screening in three categories: (1 patient characteristics (e.g., handgrip strength, medication use, osteoporosis-related factors (2 cognitive function (global cognition, memory, executive function, and (3 gait performance (speed-related and dynamic outcomes assessed by tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Falls were registered prospectively (mean follow-up 8.6 months and one year retrospectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA on 11 gait variables was performed to determine underlying gait properties. Three fall-classification models were then built using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA, with separate and combined analyses of the fall risk factors. PCA identified 'pace', 'variability', and 'coordination' as key properties of gait. The best PLS-DA model produced a fall classification accuracy of AUC = 0.93. The specificity of the model using patient characteristics was 60% but reached 80% when cognitive and gait outcomes were added. The inclusion of cognition and gait dynamics in fall classification models reduced misclassification. We therefore recommend assessing geriatric patients' fall risk using a multi-factorial approach that incorporates patient characteristics, cognition, and gait dynamics.
Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae
Cumulative data on patient fall risk have been compiled in electronic medical records systems, and it is possible to test the validity of fall-risk assessment tools using these data between the times of admission and occurrence of a fall. The Hendrich II Fall Risk Model scores assessed during three time points of hospital stays were extracted and used for testing the predictive validity: (a) upon admission, (b) when the maximum fall-risk score from admission to falling or discharge, and (c) immediately before falling or discharge. Predictive validity was examined using seven predictive indicators. In addition, logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that significantly affect the occurrence of a fall. Among the different time points, the maximum fall-risk score assessed between admission and falling or discharge showed the best predictive performance. Confusion or disorientation and having a poor ability to rise from a sitting position were significant risk factors for a fall.
Full Text Available Falls are a common and serious problem for older adults. Approximately one-third of older communitydwelling people fall at least once a year. The main purpose of this paper is to present risk factors for fall in older people living at home. The databases used for identifying documentation of risk factors are Cinahl, Eric, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Medline, Psycinfo and dissertation. Many psychosocial and medical conditions and impairment of sensorimotor function, balance and gait have been shown in large epidemiological studies to be strongly associated with falls. Several of the risk factors are interrelated. The intrinsic-extrinsic distinction seem to be an oversimplification. A better understanding of falls is usually obtained when examining the person in association with the environmental factors. Advanced age, history of falls, ADL limitations, impaired gait and mobility, visual impairment, reduced sensation, muscular weakness, poor reaction time, impaired cognition, diseases as stroke, use of psychoactive medication and use of many medications are risk factors shown to be strongly associated with falls. This means recommendation of multifactorial fall risk assessment must incorporate a range of physiological and mental tests in addition to assessing balance and gait as well as taking multiple chronic diseases and medications into account. These finding underscore the importance of multidimensional fall intervention with special focus on modifiable risk factors
Lee, Hsuei-Chen; Chang, Ku-Chou; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Hung, Jen-Wen; Huang, Yu-Ching; Lin, Sang-I
To evaluate effects of a multifactorial fall prevention program on fall incidence and physical function in community-dwelling older adults. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. Three medical centers and adjacent community health centers. Community-dwelling older adults (N=616) who have fallen in the previous year or are at risk of falling. After baseline assessment, eligible subjects were randomly allocated into the intervention group (IG) or the control group (CG), stratified by the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) fall risk level. The IG received a 3-month multifactorial intervention program including 8 weeks of exercise training, health education, home hazards evaluation/modification, along with medication review and ophthalmology/other specialty consults. The CG received health education brochures, referrals, and recommendations without direct exercise intervention. Primary outcome was fall incidence within 1 year. Secondary outcomes were PPA battery (overall fall risk index, vision, muscular strength, reaction time, balance, and proprioception), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, Taiwan version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, EuroQol-5D, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International at 3 months after randomization. Participants were 76±7 years old and included low risk 25.6%, moderate risk 25.6%, and marked risk 48.7%. The cumulative 1-year fall incidence was 25.2% in the IG and 27.6% in the CG (hazard ratio=.90; 95% confidence interval, .66-1.23). The IG improved more favorably than the CG on overall PPA fall risk index, reaction time, postural sway with eyes open, TUG test, and GDS, especially for those with marked fall risk. The multifactorial fall prevention program with exercise intervention improved functional performance at 3 months for community-dwelling older adults with risk of falls, but did not reduce falls at 1-year follow-up. Fall incidence might have been decreased simultaneously in both
Marschollek, Michael; Gövercin, Mehmet; Rust, Stefan; Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth
Hospital in-patient falls constitute a prominent problem in terms of costs and consequences. Geriatric institutions are most often affected, and common screening tools cannot predict in-patient falls consistently. Our objectives are to derive comprehensible fall risk classification models from a large data set of geriatric in-patients' assessment data and to evaluate their predictive performance (aim#1), and to identify high-risk subgroups from the data (aim#2). A data set of n = 5,176 single in-patient episodes covering 1.5 years of admissions to a geriatric hospital were extracted from the hospital's data base and matched with fall incident reports (n = 493). A classification tree model was induced using the C4.5 algorithm as well as a logistic regression model, and their predictive performance was evaluated. Furthermore, high-risk subgroups were identified from extracted classification rules with a support of more than 100 instances. The classification tree model showed an overall classification accuracy of 66%, with a sensitivity of 55.4%, a specificity of 67.1%, positive and negative predictive values of 15% resp. 93.5%. Five high-risk groups were identified, defined by high age, low Barthel index, cognitive impairment, multi-medication and co-morbidity. Our results show that a little more than half of the fallers may be identified correctly by our model, but the positive predictive value is too low to be applicable. Non-fallers, on the other hand, may be sorted out with the model quite well. The high-risk subgroups and the risk factors identified (age, low ADL score, cognitive impairment, institutionalization, polypharmacy and co-morbidity) reflect domain knowledge and may be used to screen certain subgroups of patients with a high risk of falling. Classification models derived from a large data set using data mining methods can compete with current dedicated fall risk screening tools, yet lack diagnostic precision. High-risk subgroups may be identified
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital in-patient falls constitute a prominent problem in terms of costs and consequences. Geriatric institutions are most often affected, and common screening tools cannot predict in-patient falls consistently. Our objectives are to derive comprehensible fall risk classification models from a large data set of geriatric in-patients' assessment data and to evaluate their predictive performance (aim#1, and to identify high-risk subgroups from the data (aim#2. Methods A data set of n = 5,176 single in-patient episodes covering 1.5 years of admissions to a geriatric hospital were extracted from the hospital's data base and matched with fall incident reports (n = 493. A classification tree model was induced using the C4.5 algorithm as well as a logistic regression model, and their predictive performance was evaluated. Furthermore, high-risk subgroups were identified from extracted classification rules with a support of more than 100 instances. Results The classification tree model showed an overall classification accuracy of 66%, with a sensitivity of 55.4%, a specificity of 67.1%, positive and negative predictive values of 15% resp. 93.5%. Five high-risk groups were identified, defined by high age, low Barthel index, cognitive impairment, multi-medication and co-morbidity. Conclusions Our results show that a little more than half of the fallers may be identified correctly by our model, but the positive predictive value is too low to be applicable. Non-fallers, on the other hand, may be sorted out with the model quite well. The high-risk subgroups and the risk factors identified (age, low ADL score, cognitive impairment, institutionalization, polypharmacy and co-morbidity reflect domain knowledge and may be used to screen certain subgroups of patients with a high risk of falling. Classification models derived from a large data set using data mining methods can compete with current dedicated fall risk screening tools, yet lack
Holloway, Kara L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Lane, Stephen E; Brennan, Sharon L; Pasco, Julie A
The WHO fracture risk prediction tool (FRAX®) utilises clinical risk factors to estimate the probability of fracture over a 10-year period. Although falls increase fracture risk, they have not been incorporated into FRAX. It is currently unclear if FRAX captures falls risk and whether addition of falls would improve fracture prediction. We aimed to investigate the association of falls risk and Australian-specific FRAX. Clinical risk factors were documented for 735 men and 602 women (age 40-90 yr) assessed at follow-up (2006-2010 and 2000-2003, respectively) of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. FRAX scores with and without BMD were calculated. A falls risk score was determined at the time of BMD assessment and self-reported incident falls were documented from questionnaires returned one year later. Multivariable analyses were performed to determine: (i) cross-sectional association between FRAX scores and falls risk score (Elderly Falls Screening Test, EFST) and (ii) prospective relationship between FRAX and time to a fall. There was an association between FRAX (hip with BMD) and EFST scores (β = 0.07, p risk of incident falls increased with increasing FRAX (hip with BMD) score (unadjusted HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07). After adjustment for age and sex, the relationship became non-significant (1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05). There is a weak positive correlation between FRAX and falls risk score, that is likely explained by the inclusion of age and sex in the FRAX model. These data suggest that FRAX score may not be a robust surrogate for falls risk and that inclusion of falls in fracture risk assessment should be further explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Assessing the relative and absolute reliability of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International questionnaire in elderly individuals with increased fall risk and the questionnaire's convergent validity in elderly women with osteoporosis.
Halvarsson, A; Franzén, E; Ståhle, A
The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a highly reliable questionnaire for assessing fear of falling in elderly individuals with increased fall risk and has low or no convergent validity with balance performance tests and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among elderly women with osteoporosis, which indicates that both measurements should be included as they are measuring different components. Fear of falling is increased in elderly individuals with osteoporosis and FES-I is a widely used questionnaire to assess fear of falling. There is limited evidence of the reliability and convergent validity in elderly with increased risk of falling and osteoporosis. Reliability and validity study of the FES-I. Community-dwelling elderly with increased fall risk, 59 subjects, were recruited to the reliability assessment, and 81 women with osteoporosis, in the validity assessment. For the reliability assessment, two postal surveys were used. For the validity assessment, we used baseline data from an on-going study in women with osteoporosis. The FES-I was correlated to a single-item question regarding fear of falling, self-reported history of falls, balance performance tests and health-related quality of life. The FES-I had very good relative reliability (intra-class correlation 0.88) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.94). The value for absolute reliability was a standard error of measure 2.9 (10.6 %), smallest real difference 7.9 (29 %). There was "little if any" to "low" correlation between the FES-I and the single-item question regarding fear of falling and self-reported history of falls, HRQL and balance performance tests. The FES-I seems to be a highly reliable questionnaire for assessing fear of falling in elderly with increased fall risk but has low relation to/convergent validity with balance performance and HRQL among elderly women with osteoporosis.
Læssøe, Uffe; Hoeck, Hans C.; Simonsen, Ole
risk can be assessed by testing balance performance. In this study a test battery of physiological parameters related to balance and falls was designed to address fall risk in a community dwelling elderly population. RESULTS: Ninety-four elderly males and females between 70 and 80 years of age were...... assessment in which the physiological performance is evaluated in relation to the activity profile of the individual. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null...
Hoffmann, V S; Neumann, L; Golgert, S; von Renteln-Kruse, W
Prevention of in-hospital falls contributes to improvement of patient safety. However, the identification of high-risk patients remains a challenge despite knowledge of fall-risk factors. Hence, objective was to prospectively validate the performance of the LUCAS (Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study) fall-risk screening, based on routine data (fall history, mobility, mental status) and applied by nurses. Observational study comparing two groups of patients who underwent different fall-risk screenings; the LUCAS screening (2010 - 2011) and the STRATIFY (St. Thomas's Risk Assessment Tool In Falling Elderly Inpatients) (2004 - 2006). Urban teaching hospital. Consecutively hospitalized patients (≥ 65 years old) were screened on admission; LUCAS n = 2,337, STRATIFY n = 4,735. The proportions of fallers were compared between the STRATIFY and the LUCAS time periods. The number of fallers expected was compared to that observed in the LUCAS time period. Standardized fall-incidence recording included case-note checks for unreported falls. Plausibility checks of fall-risk factors and logistic regression analysis for variable fall-risk factors were performed. The proportions of fallers during the two time periods were LUCAS n = 291/2,337 (12.5%) vs. STRATIFY n = 508/4,735 (10.7%). After adjustment for risk-factor prevalence, the proportion of fallers expected was 14.5% (334/2,337), the proportion observed was 12.5% (291/2,337) (p = 0.038). In-hospital fall prevention including systematic use of the LUCAS fall-risk screening reduced the proportion of fallers compared to that expected from the patients' fall-risk profile. Raw proportions of fallers are not suitable to evaluate fall prevention in hospital because of variable prevalence of patients' fall-risk factors over time. Continuous communication, education and training is needed to sustain in-hospital falls prevention.
van Schooten, Kimberley S; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Rispens, Sietse M; Elders, Petra J M; Lips, Paul; van Dieën, Jaap H
Ambulatory measurements of trunk accelerations can provide valuable information on the amount and quality of daily-life activities and contribute to the identification of individuals at risk of falls. We compared associations between retrospective and prospective falls with potential risk factors as measured by daily-life accelerometry. In addition, we investigated predictive value of these parameters for 6-month prospective falls. One week of trunk accelerometry (DynaPort MoveMonitor) was obtained in 169 older adults (mean age 75). The amount of daily activity and quality of gait were determined and validated questionnaires on fall-risk factors, grip strength, and trail making test were obtained. Six-month fall incidence was obtained retrospectively by recall and prospectively by fall diaries and monthly telephone contact. Among all participants, 35.5% had a history of ≥1 falls and 34.9% experienced ≥1 falls during 6-month follow-up. Logistic regressions showed that questionnaires, grip strength, and trail making test, as well as the amount and quality of gait, were significantly associated with falls. Significant associations differed between retrospective and prospective analyses although odds ratios indicated similar patterns. Predictive ability based on questionnaires, grip strength, and trail making test (area under the curve .68) improved substantially by accelerometry-derived parameters of the amount of gait (number of strides), gait quality (complexity, intensity, and smoothness), and their interactions (area under the curve .82). Daily-life accelerometry contributes substantially to the identification of individuals at risk of falls, and can predict falls in 6 months with good accuracy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ayena, Johannes C; Zaibi, Helmi; Otis, Martin J-D; Menelas, Bob-Antoine J
The aim of this study is to improve and facilitate the methods used to assess risk of falling at home among older people through the computation of a risk of falling in real time in daily activities. In order to increase a real time computation of the risk of falling, a closed-loop balance model is proposed and compared with One-Leg Standing Test (OLST). This balance model allows studying the postural response of a person having an unpredictable perturbation. Twenty-nine volunteers participated in this study for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed system which includes seventeen elder participants: ten healthy elderly ( 68.4 ±5.5 years), seven Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects ( 66.28 ±8.9 years), and twelve healthy young adults ( 28.27 ±3.74 years). Our work suggests that there is a relationship between OLST score and the risk of falling based on center of pressure measurement with four low cost force sensors located inside an instrumented insole, which could be predicted using our suggested closed-loop balance model. For long term monitoring at home, this system could be included in a medical electronic record and could be useful as a diagnostic aid tool.
Chiba, Yoichi; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Yoshida, Futoshi; Keino, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Mariko; Ikari, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Shikako; Hosokawa, Masanori
Our aim was to identify risk factors for falling and establish a method to assess risk for falls in adults with intellectual disabilities. In a cross-sectional survey of 144 Japanese adults, we found that age, presence of epilepsy, and presence of paretic conditions were independent risk factors. The Tinetti balance and gait instrument was…
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is currently unclear whether the function of brain regions associated with executive cognitive processing are independently associated with reduced physiological falls risk. If these are related, it would suggest that the development of interventions targeted at improving executive neurocognitive function would be an effective new approach for reducing physiological falls risk in seniors. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of 73 community-dwelling senior women aged 65 to 75 years old who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. Functional MRI data were acquired while participants performed a modified Eriksen Flanker Task - a task of selective attention and conflict resolution. Brain volumes were obtained using MRI. Falls risk was assessed using the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA. Results After accounting for baseline age, experimental group, baseline PPA score, and total baseline white matter brain volume, baseline activation in the left frontal orbital cortex extending towards the insula was negatively associated with reduced physiological falls risk over the 12-month period. In contrast, baseline activation in the paracingulate gyrus extending towards the anterior cingulate gyrus was positively associated with reduced physiological falls risk. Conclusions Baseline activation levels of brain regions underlying response inhibition and selective attention were independently associated with reduced physiological falls risk. This suggests that falls prevention strategies may be facilitated by incorporating intervention components - such as aerobic exercise - that are specifically designed to induce neurocognitive plasticity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881
As the older adult population in the United States continues to grow, developing reliable, valid, and practical methods for identifying fall risk is a high priority. Falls are prevalent in older adults and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates and rising health costs. Identifying at-risk older adults and intervening in a timely manner can reduce falls. Conventional fall risk assessment tools require a health professional trained in the use of each tool for administration and interpretation. Motion sensor technology, which uses three-dimensional cameras to measure patient movements, is promising for assessing older adults' fall risk because it could eliminate or reduce the need for provider oversight. The purpose of this study was to assess the concordance of fall risk scores as measured by a motion sensor device, the OmniVR Virtual Rehabilitation System, with clinician-rated fall risk scores in older adult outpatients undergoing physical rehabilitation. Three standardized fall risk assessments were administered by the OmniVR and by a clinician. Validity of the OmniVR was assessed by measuring the concordance between the two assessment methods. Stability of the OmniVR fall risk ratings was assessed by measuring test-retest reliability. The OmniVR scores showed high concordance with the clinician-rated scores and high stability over time, demonstrating comparability with provider measurements.
Pua, Yong-Hao; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Clark, Ross Allan; Matcher, David B; Lim, Edwin Choon-Wyn
Risk for falls in older adults has been associated with falls efficacy (self-perceived confidence in performing daily physical activities) and postural balance, but available evidence is limited and mixed. We examined the interaction between falls efficacy and postural balance and its association with future falls. We also investigated the association between falls efficacy and gait decline. Falls efficacy, measured by the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES), and standing postural balance, measured using computerized posturography on a balance board, were obtained from 247 older adults with a falls-related emergency department visit. Six-month prospective fall rate and habitual gait speed at 6 months post baseline assessment were also measured. In multivariable proportional odds analyses adjusted for potential confounders, falls efficacy modified the association between postural balance and fall risk (interaction P = 0.014): increasing falls efficacy accentuated the increased fall risk related to poor postural balance. Low baseline falls efficacy was strongly predictive of worse gait speed (0.11 m/s [0.06 to 0.16] slower gait speed per IQR decrease in MFES; P falls efficacy but poor postural balance were at greater risk for falls than those with low falls efficacy; however, low baseline falls efficacy was strongly associated with worse gait function at follow-up. Further research into these subgroups of older adults is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01713543 .
Low, Sok Teng; Balaraman, Thirumalaya
[Purpose] To find the physical activity level and fall risk among the community-dwelling Malaysian older adults and determine the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted in which, the physical activity level was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity questionnaire and fall risk with Fall Risk Assessment Tool. Subjects recruited were 132 community-dwelling Malaysian older adults using the convenience sampling method. [Results] The majority of the participants were under the category of under-active regular light-activities and most of them reported low fall risk. The statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test did not show a significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk. [Conclusion] The majority of community-dwelling Malaysian older adults are performing some form of physical activity and in low fall risk category. But this study did not find any significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia.
Blalock, Susan J; Gildner, Paula L; Jones, Jennifer L; Bowling, James M; Casteel, Carri H
To better understand the relationship between perceived risk of falling and awareness and adoption of four specific precautions that older adults have taken to reduce this risk. Cross-sectional. Data were collected in in-person interviews conducted in the homes of study participants. Interviews conducted between March 2011 and September 2013 and lasted an average of 60-90 minutes. A stratified sampling strategy designed to enroll an equal number of homebound and nonhomebound participants was used. All participants (N = 164) were recruited from central North Carolina. Participants were asked about 1-year fall history, perceived risk of falling, restriction of activities because of fear of falling, awareness of four recommended fall prevention behaviors (exercise, annual medication review, bathroom grab bars, safe footwear), and current practice of these behaviors. In bivariate analyses, individuals who were aware of two behaviors recommended to reduce the risk of falling (exercise, use of safe footwear) and had adopted these behaviors perceived their risk of falling as lower than individuals who were aware of the recommended behaviors but had not adopted them. Moreover, in multivariate analyses, individuals who did not know that exercise is recommended to reduce the risk of falling perceived their risk of falling as lower than those who were aware of this recommendation and had adopted it. Individuals were least likely to be aware that medication reviews and exercise are recommended to reduce fall risk. Awareness of behaviors recommended to reduce fall risk appears necessary for adoption of these behaviors to reduce perceived risk. Fall-prevention campaigns should emphasize behaviors where awareness is low. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Southerland, Lauren T; Slattery, Lauren; Rosenthal, Joseph A; Kegelmeyer, Deborah; Kloos, Anne
The American College of Emergency Physicians Geriatric Emergency Department (ED) Guidelines and the Center for Disease Control recommend that older adults be assessed for risk of falls. The standard ED assessment is a verbal query of fall risk factors, which may be inadequate. We hypothesized that the addition of a functional balance test endorsed by the Center for Disease Control Stop Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries Falls Prevention Guidelines, the 4-Stage Balance Test (4SBT), would improve the detection of patients at risk for falls. Prospective pilot study of a convenience sample of ambulatory adults 65 years and older in the ED. All participants received the standard nursing triage fall risk assessment. After patients were stabilized in their ED room, the 4SBT was administered. The 58 participants had an average age of 74.1 years (range, 65-94), 40.0% were women, and 98% were community dwelling. Five (8.6%) presented to the ED for a fall-related chief complaint. The nursing triage screen identified 39.7% (n=23) as at risk for falls, whereas the 4SBT identified 43% (n=25). Combining triage questions with the 4SBT identified 60.3% (n=35) as at high risk for falls, as compared with 39.7% (n=23) with triage questions alone (Ppatients at high risk by 4SBT and missed by triage questions were inpatients unaware that they were at risk for falls (new diagnoses). Incorporating a quick functional test of balance into the ED assessment for fall risk is feasible and significantly increases the detection of older adults at risk for falls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tutuarima, J. A.; van der Meulen, J. H.; de Haan, R. J.; van Straten, A.; Limburg, M.
Patients with stroke are at a high risk for falling. We assessed the fall incidence and risk factors for patients hospitalized as the result of an acute stroke. We studied a cohort of 720 stroke patients from 23 hospitals in The Netherlands. The data were abstracted from the medical and nursing
Bruce, Julie; Ralhan, Shvaita; Sheridan, Ray; Westacott, Katharine; Withers, Emma; Finnegan, Susanne; Davison, John; Martin, Finbarr C; Lamb, Sarah E
This paper describes the design and development of a complex multifactorial falls prevention (MFFP) intervention for implementation and testing within the framework of a large UK-based falls prevention randomised controlled trial (RCT). A complex intervention was developed for inclusion within the Prevention of Falls Injury Trial (PreFIT), a multicentre pragmatic RCT. PreFIT aims to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three alternative primary care falls prevention interventions (advice, exercise and MFFP), on outcomes of fractures and falls. Community-dwelling adults, aged 70 years and older, were recruited from primary care in the National Health Service (NHS), England. Development of the PreFIT MFFP intervention was informed by the existing evidence base and clinical guidelines for the assessment and management of falls in older adults. After piloting and modification, the final MFFP intervention includes seven falls risk factors: a detailed falls history interview with consideration of 'red flags'; assessment of balance and gait; vision; medication screen; cardiac screen; feet and footwear screen and home environment assessment. This complex intervention has been fully manualised with clear, documented assessment and treatment pathways for each risk factor. Each risk factor is assessed in every trial participant referred for MFFP. Referral for assessment is based upon a screening survey to identify those with a history of falling or balance problems. Intervention delivery can be adapted to the local setting. This complex falls prevention intervention is currently being tested within the framework of a large clinical trial. This paper adheres to TIDieR and CONSORT recommendations for the comprehensive and explicit reporting of trial interventions. Results from the PreFIT study will be published in due course. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the PreFIT MFFP intervention, compared to advice and exercise, on the prevention of falls and
Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p450 The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between obesity, risk of falls and fear of falling in older women. Two hundred and twenty-six volunteers (68.05 ± 6.22 years, 68.06 ± 11.79 kg, 1.56 ± 0.06 m were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese, according to the body mass index. Risk of falls and fear of falling were evaluated using QuickScreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment and Falls Efficiency Scale – International (FES-I, respectively. Comparisons between groups were conducted using Chi-square and ANOVA One-way tests. The significance level was set at p< 0.05. Obesity was associated with greater probability of falls (p< 0.001, which may be partly explained by decreased muscle strength (p< 0.001 and reaction time (p< 0.001. In addition, significant differences between groups was observed in FES-I score (p< 0.01, with obese women showing more pronounced fear of falling (30.10 ± 8.4 than normal weigh (25. 33 ± 7.11, p< 0.01 and overweight subjects (26.97 ± 7.05, p< 0.05. These findings corroborate previous evidence pointing obesity as a major risk factor for falls. Therefore, health professionals dealing with fall prevention should consider the effects of overweight.
R.G. Padmapriya; E. Kalaivani
A study to assess the risk for fall among geriatric people above 60 years of age in selected old age home at karaikal. The research approach was adopted for this study was quantitative approach. The research design used for this study is descriptive design. A simple random sampling technique adopted to select the desired sample. Sample size is 50. Donna conley fall risk assessment scale was used to assess the risk for fall among geriatric people above 60 years of age . The collected data was...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls in the elderly is nowadays a major concern because of their consequences on elderly general health and moral states. Moreover, the aging of the population and the increasing life expectancy make the prediction of falls more and more important. The analysis presented in this article makes a first step in this direction providing a way to analyze gait and classify hospitalized elderly fallers and non-faller. This tool, based on an accelerometer network and signal processing, gives objective informations about the gait and does not need any special gait laboratory as optical analysis do. The tool is also simple to use by a non expert and can therefore be widely used on a large set of patients. Method A population of 20 hospitalized elderlies was asked to execute several classical clinical tests evaluating their risk of falling. They were also asked if they experienced any fall in the last 12 months. The accelerations of the limbs were recorded during the clinical tests with an accelerometer network distributed on the body. A total of 67 features were extracted from the accelerometric signal recorded during a simple 25 m walking test at comfort speed. A feature selection algorithm was used to select those able to classify subjects at risk and not at risk for several classification algorithms types. Results The results showed that several classification algorithms were able to discriminate people from the two groups of interest: fallers and non-fallers hospitalized elderlies. The classification performances of the used algorithms were compared. Moreover a subset of the 67 features was considered to be significantly different between the two groups using a t-test. Conclusions This study gives a method to classify a population of hospitalized elderlies in two groups: at risk of falling or not at risk based on accelerometric data. This is a first step to design a risk of falling assessment system that could be used to provide
Kato, Ryuichi; Takagi, Chika; Sakurai, Naoko; Hoshi, Tanji
The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors associated with falls and to examine the effects of falls on survival of elderly people in a community. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 16,462 urban elderly dwellers aged 65 years or more in City A in September 2001. A follow-up survey was carried out in September 2004. We analyzed the data of 8,285 subjects who answered both questionnaires and had not relocated by August 2007. Baseline assessments of health and functioning were carried out in 2001. Falls experienced during the 1-year period before September 2004 were recorded, and the deaths were recorded until August 2007. Statistical analysis was performed using a logistic regression model and Cox's proportional hazards analysis. A total of 6,420 subjects (3,127 men and 3,293 women) who had provided complete answers about their falls were included in the analyses. Of these, 27.8% of women and 16.4% of men had experienced falls, while 6.2% of women and 2.1% of men had experienced falls that caused fractures. We found that the likelihood of fall, with or without fracture development, was greater in women than in men (P falls tended to increase with age in both women and men. Risk factors associated with falls, in addition to age and gender, were pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.75), lack of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL; OR, 1.45), poor self-rated health status (OR, 1.42), and presence of disease (OR, 1.35). Risk factors associated with falls that caused fracture were pain (OR, 1.85) and lack of IADL (OR, 1.61). Cox's proportional hazards analysis showed a significant increase in mortality in both men and women who had experienced falls than in those who had not (hazard ratio [HR], 1.94, 1.43). Aging, pain and disease, lack of IADL, and poor self-rated health status were all significant risk factors for falls in elderly people, and a fall was related to subsequent mortality.
Gokalp, Oguzhan; Akkaya, Semih; Akkaya, Nuray; Buker, Nihal; Gungor, Harun R; Ok, Nusret; Yorukoglu, Cagdas
Impaired postural balance due to somatosensory data loss with mechanical instability has been shown in patients with ACL deficiency. To assess postural balance in patients with ACL insufficiency prior to surgery and following reconstruction with serial evaluations. Thirty patients (mean age of 27.7 ± 6.7 years) who underwent arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft were examined for clinical and functional variables at preoperative day and postoperative 12th week. Posturographic analysis were performed by using Tetrax Interactive Balance System (Sunlight Medical Ltd, Israel) at preoperative day, at 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks following reconstruction. Data computed by posturographic software by the considerations of the oscillation velocities of body sways is fall risk as a numeric value (0-100, lower values indicate better condition). All of the patients (mean age of 27.7 ± 6.7 years) had significant improvements for clinical, functional evaluations and fall risk (pfall risk was within high-risk category (59.9 ± 22.8) preoperatively. The highest fall risk was detected at postoperative 4th week. Patients had high fall risk at 8th week similar to preoperative value. Mean fall risk decreased to low level risk at 12th week. Preoperative symptom duration had relationships with preoperative fall risk and postoperative improvement of fall risk (p= 0.001, r= -0.632, p= 0.001, r= -0.870, respectively). The improvement of fall risk was higher in patients with symptoms shorter than 6 months (p= 0.001). According to these results, mean fall risk of patients with ACL insufficiency was within high risk category preoperatively, and fall risk improves after surgical reconstruction, but as the duration of complaints lengthens especially longer than 6 months, the improvement of fall risk decreases following reconstruction.
Prometti, Paola; Olivares, Adriana; Gaia, Giuseppina; Bonometti, Giampietro; Comini, Laura; Scalvini, Simonetta
The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Biodex Fall Risk Assessment could provide an age-adjusted index useful for classifying patients at "risk of fall."This was a cohort study conducted on 61 chronic patients, in stable conditions, having a history of ataxia, difficulty in walking or loss of balance, and aged >64 years. These patients were coming from home to our Institute undergoing a period of in-hospital standard rehabilitation. Assessment of clinical parameters was performed at entry. Functional scales (Functional Independence Measure [FIM] for motor and cognitive function, Barthel G, Tinetti POMA), and the Biodex Fall Risk Index (FRI) were performed at entry and discharge. The Normalized FRI, obtained adjusting FRI to the reported maximum predictive FRI for the relevant age, identified 2 types of patients: those with a greater risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 1 (Normalized FRI>1); and those with an equal or even lesser risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 0 (Normalized FRI≤1).FRI, Normalized FRI as well as independent variables as age, sex, pathology group, FIM, BarthelG, were considered in a multiple regression analysis to predict the functional improvement (i.e., delta Tinetti Total score) after rehabilitation.Normalized FRI is useful in assessing patients at risk of falls both before and after rehabilitation. At admission, the Normalized FRI evidenced high fall risk in 46% of patients (Case 1) which decreased to 12% after rehabilitation, being greater than age-predicted in 7 patients (Case 1-1) despite the functional improvement observed after the rehabilitation treatment. Normalized FRI evidenced Case 1-1 patients as neurological, "very old" (86% in age-group 75-84 years), and with serious events at 18 to 24 months' follow-up. Normalized FRI, but not FRI, at admission was a predictor of improvement in Tinetti Total scores.The normalized FRI effectively indicated patients at higher risk of fall, in whom health
Erken, Ertugrul; Ozelsancak, Ruya; Sahin, Safak; Yılmaz, Emine Ece; Torun, Dilek; Leblebici, Berrin; Kuyucu, Yunus Emre; Sezer, Siren
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased risk of falls and fall-related complications. Other than aging and factors related to chronic kidney disease, treatment of hemodialysis may also contribute to this increased risk. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the impairment of balance after a session of hemodialysis with a quantitative assessment and reveal an increased fall risk that would possibly be related to treatment of hemodialysis for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Fifty-six patients with ESRD on chronic hemodialysis program and 53 healthy individuals were involved in this study. Fall Index percentages were calculated, and fall risk categories were determined for all patients and healthy controls using Tetrax posturography device (Sunlight Medical Ltd Israel). The patient group was evaluated twice for balance, before and after a routine session of hemodialysis. Fall Index scores of healthy controls were lower than that of ESRD patients (p = 0.001). In the patient group, we found the mean Fall Index to be significantly higher at the post-dialysis assessment compared to the pre-dialysis assessment (p = 0.003). The number of patients with high risk of falling also increased at the post-dialysis assessment yet the difference did not reach significance. Fall Index was correlated with the increase in age only at the pre-dialysis balance measurement (p = 0.038). Patients with better dialysis adequacy had significantly lower Fall Index scores than the others at the pre-dialysis balance measurement (p = 0.004). The difference was not significant at the post-dialysis measurement. In the current study, we evaluated the balance of ESRD patients before and after a routine session of hemodialysis treatment. This is the first study to investigate the effect of hemodialysis on balance, using an electronic posturographic balance system. We found the Fall Index score to be significantly higher after hemodialysis, indicating a negative
van der Velde, Nathalie; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Pols, Huib A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.
AIMS: Falling in older persons is a frequent and serious clinical problem. Several drugs have been associated with increased fall risk. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the incidence of falls after withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of fall-risk-increasing drugs
Moreira, Mirian N; Bilton, Tereza L; Dias, Rosangela C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Perracini, Monica R
Fall risk perceptions may influence the judgement over physical and functional competencies to avoid falls. However, few studies have explored the physical functioning characteristics associated with falls among older people with low perceived fall risk. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of falls and physical functioning factors associated with falling among community-dwelling older adults with low and high perceived fall risk. We conducted a cross-sectional population based study with 773 community-dwelling elders. Perceived fall risk was investigated using Falls Efficacy Scale International. We considered fallers those who reported at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Physical functioning measures used were grip strength, usual gait speed, sit-to-stand test, five step test, timed up and go test, one-legged stance test, anterior and lateral functional reach test. At least one fall was reported by 103 (30%) participants with low perceived fall risk and by 196 (46%) participants with high perceived fall risk. The odds of falling were lower among those with greater grip strength and with a greater stance time in one-legged test, and the odds of falling among elders with high perceived fall risk were higher among those who took more time in performing the five step test. We believe that our results highlight the need of not neglecting the risk of falls among active older adults with low perceived fall risk, particularly in those elders that show reduced stability in a small base of support and a lower leg strength. In addition, we suggest that elders with high perceived fall risk should be assessed using anticipatory postural adjustment tests. Particularly, our results may help physiotherapists to identify eligible elders with different perceptions of fall risk for tailored interventions aimed at reducing falls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction : It is estimated that 35–40% people over the age of 65 experience at least one fall per year; for those over the age of 80 this increases to 50%, and for residents of institutional care facilities, to 60%. Aim of the research : To evaluate the functional capacity and susceptibility to falling among women over 60 years of age, who had been treated for breast cancer. Material and methods : The study group comprised 173 women aged 61–85 years (mean: 68.75 years, all breast cancer survivors treated at the Holy Cross Cancer Centre in Kielce. Functional efficiency was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT, and the falls-risk assessment was carried out using the POMA Tinetti test. An additional questionnaire was used to assess the anxiety associated with falls. The relationship between functional capacity and the falls-risk, and between the amount of medication used and the falls-risk, were also assessed. Results : In all SFT tests, the women had lower scores compared to the recommended standards. Medium and high falls-risk were reported in 27% of patients. Apart from an increase in falls-risk, the women reported poorer results in all physical fitness tests. An increase in the number of medications taken was associated with lower Tinetti test results. Conclusions: Women treated for breast cancer were exposed to a high falls-risk. The treatment management applied to women with breast cancer adversely affected their functional capacities. Furthermore, an increase in the amount of medication taken by post-mastectomy women resulted in a still higher exposure to falls-risk. Task-oriented, physical rehabilitation programmes should therefore promptly be introduced to address the problem of falls and resultant fractures among senior post-mastectomy women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with a history of a fracture have an increased risk for future fractures, even in short term. The aim of this study was to assess the number of patients with falls and to identify fall risk factors that predict the risk of falling in the first three months after a clinical fracture. Methods Prospective observational study with 3 months of follow-up in a large European academic and regional hospital. In 277 consenting women and men aged ≥ 50 years and with no dementia and not receiving treatment for osteoporosis who presented to hospital with a clinical fracture, fall risk factors were assessed according to the guidelines on fall prevention in the Netherlands. Follow-up information on falls and fractures was collected by monthly telephone interview. Incidence of falls and odds ratio's (OR, with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 512 consecutive patients with a fracture were regarded for analysis, 87 were not eligible for inclusion and 137 patients were excluded. No follow-up data were available for 11 patients. Therefore full analysis was possible in 277 patients. A new fall incident was reported by 42 patients (15%, of whom five had a fracture. Of the 42 fallers, 32 had one new fall and 10 had two or more. Multivariate analysis in the total group with sex, age, ADL difficulties, urine incontinence and polypharmacy showed that sex and ADL were significant fall risk factors. Women had an OR of 3.02 (95% CI 1.13–8.06 and patients with ADL-difficulties had an OR of 2.50 (95% CI 1.27–4.93. Multivariate analysis in the female group with age, ADL difficulties, polypharmacy and presence of orthostatic hypotension indicated that polypharmacy was the predominant risk factor (OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.19 – 5.28. The incidence of falls was 35% in women with low ADL score and polypharmacy compared to 15% in women without these risk factors (OR 3.56: CI 1.47 – 8.67. Conclusion 15% of patients reported a new fall
Mirelman, Anat; Herman, Talia; Brozgol, Marina; Dorfman, Moran; Sprecher, Elliot; Schweiger, Avraham; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M
Recent findings suggest that executive function (EF) plays a critical role in the regulation of gait in older adults, especially under complex and challenging conditions, and that EF deficits may, therefore, contribute to fall risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate if reduced EF is a risk factor for future falls over the course of 5 years of follow-up. Secondary objectives were to assess whether single and dual task walking abilities, an alternative window into EF, were associated with fall risk. We longitudinally followed 256 community-living older adults (age: 76.4±4.5 yrs; 61% women) who were dementia free and had good mobility upon entrance into the study. At baseline, a computerized cognitive battery generated an index of EF, attention, a closely related construct, and other cognitive domains. Gait was assessed during single and dual task conditions. Falls data were collected prospectively using monthly calendars. Negative binomial regression quantified risk ratios (RR). After adjusting for age, gender and the number of falls in the year prior to the study, only the EF index (RR: .85; CI: .74-.98, p = .021), the attention index (RR: .84; CI: .75-.94, p = .002) and dual tasking gait variability (RR: 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23; p = .027) were associated with future fall risk. Other cognitive function measures were not related to falls. Survival analyses indicated that subjects with the lowest EF scores were more likely to fall sooner and more likely to experience multiple falls during the 66 months of follow-up (pfalls was predicted by performance on EF and attention tests conducted 5 years earlier. The present results link falls among older adults to cognition, indicating that screening EF will likely enhance fall risk assessment, and that treatment of EF may reduce fall risk.
Rehm, Hanna; Schmolders, Jan; Koob, Sebastian; Bornemann, Rahel; Goldmann, Georg; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pennekamp, Peter; Strauss, Andreas C
The objective of this study was to define fall rates and to identify possible fall risk factors in adult patients with severe haemophilia. 147 patients with severe haemophilia A and B were evaluated using a standardized test battery consisting of demographic, medical and clinical variables and fall evaluation. 41 (27.9 %) patients reported a fall in the past 12 months, 22 (53.7 %) of them more than once. Young age, subjective gait insecurity and a higher number of artificial joints seem to be risk factors for falling. Falls seem to be a common phenomenon in patients with severe haemophilia. Fall risk screening and fall prevention should be implemented into daily practice.
Phelan, Elizabeth A; Pence, Maureen; Williams, Barbara; MacCornack, Frederick A
Care management has been found to be more effective than usual care for some chronic conditions, but few studies have tested care management for prevention of elder falls. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telephone care management of older adults presenting for medical attention due to a fall. The setting was an independent practice association in western Washington serving 1,300 Medicare Advantage-insured patients. Patients aged ≥65 years treated for a fall in an emergency department or their primary care provider's office were contacted via telephone by a care manager within 48 hours of their fall-related visit and invited to participate in a telephone-administered interview to identify modifiable fall risk factors and receive recommendations and follow-up to address identified risk factors. Data from care manager records, patient medical records, and healthcare claims for the first 6 months (November 2009-April 2010) of program implementation were analyzed in 2011. The feasibility of screening and management of fall risk factors over the telephone and the effect on medically attended falls were assessed. Twenty-two patients eligible for fall care management were reached and administered the protocol. Administration took 15-20 minutes and integrated easily with the care manager's other responsibilities. Follow-through on recommendations varied, from 45% for those for whom exercise participation was recommended to 100% for other recommendations. No medically attended falls occurred over 6 months of follow-up. Telephone care management of fall risk appears feasible and may reduce falls requiring medical attention. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that executive function (EF plays a critical role in the regulation of gait in older adults, especially under complex and challenging conditions, and that EF deficits may, therefore, contribute to fall risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate if reduced EF is a risk factor for future falls over the course of 5 years of follow-up. Secondary objectives were to assess whether single and dual task walking abilities, an alternative window into EF, were associated with fall risk.We longitudinally followed 256 community-living older adults (age: 76.4±4.5 yrs; 61% women who were dementia free and had good mobility upon entrance into the study. At baseline, a computerized cognitive battery generated an index of EF, attention, a closely related construct, and other cognitive domains. Gait was assessed during single and dual task conditions. Falls data were collected prospectively using monthly calendars. Negative binomial regression quantified risk ratios (RR. After adjusting for age, gender and the number of falls in the year prior to the study, only the EF index (RR: .85; CI: .74-.98, p = .021, the attention index (RR: .84; CI: .75-.94, p = .002 and dual tasking gait variability (RR: 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23; p = .027 were associated with future fall risk. Other cognitive function measures were not related to falls. Survival analyses indicated that subjects with the lowest EF scores were more likely to fall sooner and more likely to experience multiple falls during the 66 months of follow-up (p<0.02.These findings demonstrate that among community-living older adults, the risk of future falls was predicted by performance on EF and attention tests conducted 5 years earlier. The present results link falls among older adults to cognition, indicating that screening EF will likely enhance fall risk assessment, and that treatment of EF may reduce fall risk.
Hanlin, Erin R; Delgado-Rendón, Angélica; Lerner, E Brooke; Hargarten, Stephen; Farías, René
The impact of falls in older adults presents a significant public health burden. Fall risk is not well-described in Latino populations nor have fall prevention programs considered the needs of this population. The objectives of this study were to develop a needs assessment of falls in older adult Latinos at a community center (CC), determine fall prevention barriers and strengths in this population, determine the level of interest in various fall prevention methods, and provide medical students an opportunity for participation in a culturally diverse community project. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of older adult program participants. The survey was developed in collaboration with both partners. CC participants were approached by the interviewer and asked to participate. They were read the survey in their preferred language and their answers were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. We conducted 103 interviews. We found that 54% of participants had fallen in the last year, and of those 21% required medical care, 81% were afraid of falling again, and 66% considered themselves at risk for falling again. Of all respondents, 52% had 5 or more of the 10 surveyed risk factors for falling; 4% had no risk factors. Of all respondents, 75% were afraid of falling. Talking with health care providers and participating in an exercise class were the preferred methods of health information delivery (78% and 65%, respectively). Older adult Latinos in this selected population frequently fall and are worried about falling. Risk factors are prevalent. A fall prevention program is warranted and should include exercise classes and a connection with local primary care providers. A partnership between an academic organization and a CC is an ideal collaboration for the future development of prevention program.
Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder; Lord, Stephen R
To gain an understanding of elderly people's fear of falling by exploring the prevalence and determinants of perceived and physiological fall risk and to understand the role of disparities in perceived and physiological risk in the cause of falls. Prospective cohort study. Community sample drawn from eastern Sydney, Australia. 500 men and women aged 70-90 years. Baseline assessment of medical, physiological, and neuropsychological measures, with physiological fall risk estimated with the physiological profile assessment, and perceived fall risk estimated with the falls efficacy scale international. Participants were followed up monthly for falls over one year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that perceived and physiological fall risk were both independent predictors of future falls. Classification tree analysis was used to split the sample into four groups (vigorous, anxious, stoic, and aware) based on the disparity between physiological and perceived risk of falling. Perceived fall risk was congruent with physiological fall risk in the vigorous (144 (29%)) and aware (202 (40%)) groups. The anxious group (54 (11%)) had a low physiological risk but high perceived fall risk, which was related to depressive symptoms (P=0.029), neurotic personality traits (P=0.026), and decreased executive functioning (P=0.010). The stoic group (100 (20%)) had a high physiological risk but low perceived fall risk, which was protective for falling and mediated through a positive outlook on life (P=0.001) and maintained physical activity and community participation (P=0.048). Many elderly people underestimated or overestimated their risk of falling. Such disparities between perceived and physiological fall risk were primarily associated with psychological measures and strongly influenced the probability of falling. Measures of both physiological and perceived fall risk should be included in fall risk assessments to allow tailoring of interventions for preventing falls in
Full Text Available Background & Aim: It is crucial to identify aged patients in risk of falls in clinical settings. Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JHFRAT is one of most applied international instrument to assess elderly patients for the risk of falls. The aim of this study was to evaluate reliability and internal consistency of the JHFRAT. Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study for validity assessment of the tool, WHO’s standard protocol was applied for translation-back translation of the tool. Face and content validity of the tool was confirmed by ten person of expert faculty members for its applicability in clinical setting. In this pilot study, the inclusion criteria were being 60 or more years old, hospitalized in the last 8 hours prior to assessment and in proper cognitive condition assessed by MMSE. Subjects of the study were (n=70 elderly patients who were newly hospitalized in Shahroud Emam Hossein Hospital. Data were analyzed using SPSS software- version 16. Internal consistency of the tool was calculated by Cronbach’s alpha. Results: According to the results of the study Persian version of JHFRAT was a valid tool for application on clinical setting. The Persian version of the tool had Cronbach’s alpha equal to 0/733. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that Persian version of the JHFRAT is a valid and reliable tool to be applied for assessment of elderly senior citizens on admission in any clinical settings.
Karnes, Michele J.
This static group comparison study determined that an educational intervention was effective in increasing fall risk factor assessment, documentation of fall risk factors, and strategies devised to reduce fall risk factors by rehabilitation therapists for their older adult outpatients in clinics. Results showed that experimental group identified…
Reuben, David B; Gazarian, Priscilla; Alexander, Neil; Araujo, Katy; Baker, Dorothy; Bean, Jonathan F; Boult, Chad; Charpentier, Peter; Duncan, Pamela; Latham, Nancy; Leipzig, Rosanne M; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Storer, Thomas; McMahon, Siobhan
In response to the epidemic of falls and serious falls-related injuries in older persons, in 2014, the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and the National Institute on Aging funded a pragmatic trial, Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop confidence in Elders (STRIDE) to compare the effects of a multifactorial intervention with those of an enhanced usual care intervention. The STRIDE multifactorial intervention consists of five major components that registered nurses deliver in the role of falls care managers, co-managing fall risk in partnership with patients and their primary care providers (PCPs). The components include a standardized assessment of eight modifiable risk factors (medications; postural hypotension; feet and footwear; vision; vitamin D; osteoporosis; home safety; strength, gait, and balance impairment) and the use of protocols and algorithms to generate recommended management of risk factors; explanation of assessment results to the patient (and caregiver when appropriate) using basic motivational interviewing techniques to elicit patient priorities, preferences, and readiness to participate in treatments; co-creation of individualized falls care plans that patients' PCPs review, modify, and approve; implementation of the falls care plan; and ongoing monitoring of response, regularly scheduled re-assessments of fall risk, and revisions of the falls care plan. Custom-designed falls care management software facilitates risk factor assessment, the identification of recommended interventions, clinic note generation, and longitudinal care management. The trial testing the effectiveness of the STRIDE intervention is in progress, with results expected in late 2019. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Falls and their consequences among older people are a serious medical and public health problem. Identifying individuals at risk of falling is therefore a major concern. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate measurement tools of balance control and their predictive value when screening for fall risk in physically dependent individuals ≥65 years old living in residential care facilities, and physically independent individuals ≥75 years old living in the community. Following baseline asses...
Mazur, Katarzyna; Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan
Inpatient geriatric falls are a frequent complication of hospital care that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Evaluate factors associated with falls in geriatric inpatients after implementation of the fall prevention program. Prospective observational study comprised of 788 consecutive patients aged 79.5±7.6 years ( [Formula: see text] ± standard deviation) (66% women and 34% men) admitted to the subacute geriatric ward. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (including Mini-Mental State Examination, Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living, and modified Get-up and Go Test) was performed. Confusion Assessment Method was used for diagnosis of delirium. Patients were categorized into low, moderate, or high fall risk groups after clinical and functional assessment. About 15.9%, 21.1%, and 63.1% of participants were classified into low, moderate, and high fall risk groups, respectively. Twenty-seven falls were recorded in 26 patients. Increased fall probability was associated with age ≥76 years ( P fall risk were included in the multivariate logistic regression model: delirium (odds ratio [OR] =7.33; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] =2.76-19.49; P falls (OR =2.55; 95% CI =1.05-6.19; P =0.039), age (OR =1.14; 95% CI =1.05-1.23; P =0.001), and BMI (OR =0.91; 95% CI =0.83-0.99; P =0.034). Delirium, history of falls, and advanced age seem to be the primary risk factors for geriatric falls in the context of a hospital fall prevention program. Higher BMI appears to be associated with protection against inpatient geriatric falls.
Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Komorowski, Arkadiusz; Sadura-Sieklucka, Teresa; Ksi??opolska-Or?owska, Krystyna
Evaluating the risk of falling of a geriatric rheumatic patient plays an essential role not only in planning and carrying out the physiotherapeutic process. The consequences of falls may be different and, although they do not always result in serious repercussions such as fractures or injuries, it is sufficient that they generate the fear of falling and cause a significant reduction in physical activity. Assessing functional capacity to define the risk of falling is of utmost importance in th...
Full Text Available Older adults' perception of their own risk of fall has never been included into screening tools. The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of questions on subjects' self-perception of their own risk of fall.This prospective study was conducted on a probabilistic sample of 772 Spanish community-dwelling older adults, who were followed-up for a one year period. At a baseline visit, subjects were asked about their recent history of falls (question 1: "Have you fallen in the last 6 months?", as well as on their perception of their own risk of fall by using two questions (question 2: "Do you think you may fall in the next few months?" possible answers: yes/no; question 3: "What is the probability that you fall in the next few months?" possible answers: low/intermediate/high. The follow-up consisted of quarterly telephone calls, where the number of falls occurred in that period was recorded.A short questionnaire built with questions 1 and 3 showed 70% sensitivity (95% CI: 56%-84%, 72% specificity (95% CI: 68%-76% and 0.74 area under the ROC curve (95% CI: 0.66-0.82 for prediction of repeated falls in the subsequent year.The estimation of one's own risk of fall has predictive validity for the occurrence of repeated falls in older adults. A short questionnaire including a question on perception of one's own risk of fall and a question on the recent history of falls had good predictive validity.
Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Gálvez-Barrón, César; Narvaiza, Leire; Miñarro, Antonio; Ruiz, Jorge; Valldosera, Esther; Gonzalo, Natalia; Ng, Thalia; Sanguino, María Jesús; Yuste, Antonio
Older adults' perception of their own risk of fall has never been included into screening tools. The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of questions on subjects' self-perception of their own risk of fall. This prospective study was conducted on a probabilistic sample of 772 Spanish community-dwelling older adults, who were followed-up for a one year period. At a baseline visit, subjects were asked about their recent history of falls (question 1: "Have you fallen in the last 6 months?"), as well as on their perception of their own risk of fall by using two questions (question 2: "Do you think you may fall in the next few months?" possible answers: yes/no; question 3: "What is the probability that you fall in the next few months?" possible answers: low/intermediate/high). The follow-up consisted of quarterly telephone calls, where the number of falls occurred in that period was recorded. A short questionnaire built with questions 1 and 3 showed 70% sensitivity (95% CI: 56%-84%), 72% specificity (95% CI: 68%-76%) and 0.74 area under the ROC curve (95% CI: 0.66-0.82) for prediction of repeated falls in the subsequent year. The estimation of one's own risk of fall has predictive validity for the occurrence of repeated falls in older adults. A short questionnaire including a question on perception of one's own risk of fall and a question on the recent history of falls had good predictive validity.
Masud, Tahir; Frost, Morten; Ryg, Jesper
Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years.......Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years....
Morrison, Steven; Colberg, Sheri R.; Mariano, Mira; Parson, Henri K.; Vinik, Arthur I.
OBJECTIVE This study assessed the effects of balance/strength training on falls risk and posture in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixteen individuals with type 2 diabetes and 21 age-matched control subjects (aged 50–75 years) participated. Postural stability and falls risk was assessed before and after a 6-week exercise program. RESULTS Diabetic individuals had significantly higher falls risk score compared with control subjects. The diabetic group also e...
McDonough, Christine M; Colla, Carrie H; Carmichael, Donald; Tosteson, Anna N A; Tosteson, Tor D; Bell, John-Erik; Cantu, Robert V; Lurie, Jonathan D; Bynum, Julie P W
Clinical practice guidelines recommend fall risk assessment and intervention for older adults who sustain a fall-related injury to prevent future injury and mobility decline. The aim of this study was to describe how often Medicare beneficiaries with upper extremity fracture receive evaluation and treatment for fall risk. Observational cohort. Participants were fee-for-service beneficiaries age 66 to 99 treated as outpatients for proximal humerus or distal radius/ulna ("wrist") fragility fractures. -Participants were studied using Carrier and Outpatient Hospital files. The proportion of patients evaluated or treated for fall risk up to 6 months after proximal humerus or wrist fracture from 2007-2009 was examined based on evaluation, treatment, and diagnosis codes. Time to evaluation and number of treatment sessions were calculated. Logistic regression was used to analyze patient characteristics that predicted receiving evaluation or treatment. Narrow (gait training) and broad (gait training or therapeutic exercise) definitions of service were used. There were 309,947 beneficiaries who sustained proximal humerus (32%) or wrist fracture (68%); 10.7% received evaluation or treatment for fall risk or gait issues (humerus: 14.2%; wrist: 9.0%). Using the broader definition, the percentage increased to 18.5% (humerus: 23.4%; wrist: 16.3%). Factors associated with higher likelihood of services after fracture were: evaluation or treatment for falls or gait prior to fracture, more comorbidities, prior nursing home stay, older age, humerus fracture (vs wrist), female sex, and white race. Claims analysis may underestimate physician and physical therapist fall assessments, but it is not likely to qualitatively change the results. A small proportion of older adults with upper extremity fracture received fall risk assessment and treatment. Providers and health systems must advance efforts to provide timely evidence-based management of fall risk in this population. © 2017
Chu, Jiao-Jiao; Chen, Xu-Jiao; Shen, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Chen, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Jing-Mei; He, Jing; Zhao, Jun-Feng
Fall and serious fall injuries have become a major health concern for elders. Many factors including blood pressure and anti-hypertensive medication application were reported as hazards of fall. The purpose of this study was to determine if age related systemic functional decline related with increased fall risks in elderly patients with hypertension. A total of 342 elderly hypertension patients (age 79.5 ± 6.7 years, male 63.8%) were recruited to the study. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), including measurements about activity of daily living (ADL), nutrition, cognition, depression, numbers of prescription medication and number of clinical diagnosis, was conducted to evaluate the physical and mental status of each participants. Fall risk was evaluated by Morse fall scale, Tinetti performance oriented mobility assessment (POMA) and history of fall in the recent year. Participants were grouped into tertiles according to CGA score. Correlation between CGA and fall risk was analyzed through SPSS 18.0. Participants with higher CGA score were likely to be older, had a lower body mass index (BMI), and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cerebrovascular disease and osteoarthropathia. Participants in higher tertile of CGA score got increased prevalence of fall risk than those in lower tertile (P fall scale (P fall risks. After adjusting age, BMI, benzodiazepine use, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, COPD and osteoarthropathia, both history of fall in the recent year and rising Morse fall scale were significantly associated with ADL impairment (OR: 2.748, 95%CI: 1.598-4.725), (OR: 3.310, 95%CI: 1.893-5.788). Decreased Tinetti POMA score was associated with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (OR: 4.035, 95%CI: 2.100-7.751), ADL (OR: 2.380, 95%CI: 1.357-4.175) and shortened MNA form (MNA-SF) impairment (OR: 2.692, 95%CI: 1.147-6.319). In elderly adults with hypertension, impaired physical and
Nassar, Nada; Helou, Nancy; Madi, Chantal
To assess the predictive value of two instruments (the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) and the Heindrich II Fall Risk Model (HFRM)] in a Middle Eastern country (Lebanon) and to evaluate the factors that are related to falls. A prospective observational cross-sectional design was used. Falls and fall-related injuries in the acute care settings contribute a substantial health and economic burden on patients and organisations. Preventing falls is a priority for most healthcare organisations. While the risk of falling cannot be eliminated, it can be significantly reduced through accurate assessment of patients' risk of falling. Data from 1815 inpatients at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) in Lebanon were evaluated using two instruments to predict falls: the MFS and the HFRM. The incidence of falls was 2·7% in one year. The results indicate that while the instruments were significantly correlated, the HFRM was more sensitive in predicting falls than the MFS. The internal consistency of both scales was moderate, but inter-rater reliability was high. Patients using antiepileptic drugs and assistance devises had higher odds of falling. Although both instruments were easy to use in a Middle Eastern country, the HFRM rather than the MFS is recommended for inpatients in an acute care setting as it had higher sensitivity and specificity. It is recommended that while the HFRM had adequate sensitivity, it is not seamless, and as such, nurses should not rely entirely on it. Rather, nurses should use their expert clinical judgement, their ethical obligations and cultural considerations to implement a safer environment of care for the patient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Etman, Astrid; Wijlhuizen, Gert Jan; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Chorus, Astrid; Hopman-Rock, Marijke
Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE ( Falls risk by Exposure) is a
Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.
Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a
Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Heuvelen, M.J.G. van; Chorus, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.
Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a
Wildes, Tanya M; Depp, Brittany; Colditz, Graham; Stark, Susan
Falls in older adults with cancer are more common than in noncancer controls, yet no fall-risk screening tool has been validated in this population. We undertook a cross-sectional pilot study of the Falls Risk Questionnaire (FRQ) in 21 adults aged ≥65 receiving systemic cancer therapy. Participants completed the FRQ, geriatric assessment measures, and a measure of fear-of-falling. The recruitment rate was 87.5 %, with 95.2 % completion of the FRQ and additional geriatric assessment and quality of life measures. The FRQ correlated significantly with the Timed Up and Go test (Pearson r 0.479, p = 0.028). In addition, the FRQ score correlated directly with fear-of-falling and inversely with QOL, particularly physical health and neurotoxicity subscales. In conclusion, the FRQ was feasible in older adults receiving cancer therapy and correlates with measures of physical performance, functional status, and fear-of-falling. The FRQ may prove to be a valuable fall-risk screening tool to implement fall-prevention interventions in this vulnerable population of older adults with cancer.
Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Buichi; Nagai, Koutatsu; Tatematsu, Noriatsu; Uemura, Kazuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Ichihashi, Noriaki
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the Nintendo Wii Fit program could be used for fall risk assessment in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. Forty-five community-dwelling older women participated in this study. The "Basic Step" and "Ski Slalom" modules were selected from the Wii Fit game program. The following 5 physical performance tests were performed: the 10-m walk test under single- and dual-task conditions, the Timed Up and Go test under single- and dual-task conditions, and the Functional Reach test. Compared with the faller group, the nonfaller group showed a significant difference in the Basic Step (P game-based fall risk assessment using the Basic Step has a high generality and is useful in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
During a 12-month period there were 17 baby falls on the maternity wards at Nottingham University Hospitals Trust; two of the babies who fell were injured. By collecting information about the baby falls and how they happened, we were able to compile a guideline for both preventing and managing baby falls. This formed part of the trust's patient safety programme. We then piloted and implemented risk-prevention strategies for baby falls. These involved a risk assessment to identify women needing closer observation and the installation of bedside cots. These strategies brought about a marked reduction of baby falls and are now being established across all the maternity units across the trust.
Dursun, Nigar; Sarkaya, Selda; Ozdolap, Senay; Dursun, Erbil; Zateri, Coskun; Altan, Lale; Birtane, Murat; Akgun, Kenan; Revzani, Aylin; Aktas, İlknur; Tastekin, Nurettin; Celiker, Reyhan
Risk of vertebral fractures is increased in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The underlying mechanisms for the elevated fracture risk might be associated with bone and fall-related risks. The aims of this study were to evaluate the risk of falls and to determine the factors that increase the risk of falls in AS patients. Eighty-nine women, 217 men, a total of 306 AS patients with a mean age of 40.1 ± 11.5 years from 9 different centers in Turkey were included in the study. Patients were questioned regarding history of falls within the last 1 year. Their demographics, disease characteristics including Bath AS Disease Activity Index, Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), and risk factors for falls were recorded. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test was used for evaluation of static and dynamic balance. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured. Forty of 306 patients reported at least 1 fall in the recent 1 year. The patients with history of falls had higher mean age and longer disease duration than did nonfallers (P = 0.001). In addition, these patients' BASMI and BASFI values were higher than those of nonfallers (P = 0.002; P = 0.000, respectively). We found that the patients with history of falls had lower SPPB scores (P = 0.000). We also found that the number of falls increased with longer disease duration and older age (R = 0.117 [P = 0.041] and R = 0.160 [P = 0.005]). Our results show that decreased SPPB scores were associated with increased number of falls (R = 0.183, P = 0.006). Statistically significant correlations were found between number of falls and AS-related lost job (R = 0.140, P = 0.014), fear of falling (R = 0.316, P = 0.000), hip involvement (R = 0.112, P = 0.05), BASMI (R =0.234, P = 0.000), and BASFI (R = 0.244, P = 0.000). Assessment of pain, stiffness, fatigue, and lower-extremity involvement as well as asking for a history of falls will
Zasadzka, Ewa; Borowicz, Adrianna Maria; Roszak, Magdalena; Pawlaczyk, Mariola
Falling in the elderly results in a significant number of admissions to hospitals and long-term care facilities, especially among patients with lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of the study was to assess the risk of falling in adults older than 60 years with OA using timed up and go (TUG) test. A total of 187 patients (aged >60 years) were enrolled in the study. The assessment included: basic activities of daily living (ADLs), lower extremity strength with the use of the 30-second chair stand test (30 CST), and assessment of the risk of falling (TUG test). Pain intensity was evaluated with the numeric rating scale (NRS). The TUG test results were significantly better in younger OA patients (aged 60-69 years), as compared with their older peers (aged 70-79 years; P80 years; Pwomen than men (Pfalls was significantly higher in the group of subjects who scored ≥13.5 when compared to risk of falling, which increases with progressing age, pain, and muscle weakness. It seems prudent to identify individuals at a high risk of falling and to propose an adequate treatment for them.
Gunn, Hilary; Cameron, Michelle; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen; Shaw, Steve; Freeman, Jennifer
This study evaluated the relationship between physiological and perceived fall risk in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Secondary analysis of data from prospective cohort studies undertaken in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Community. Ambulatory people with MS (N=416) (age 51.5±12.0 years; 73% female; 62% relapsing-remitting MS; 13.7±9.9 years disease duration). Not applicable. All participants completed measures of physiological (Physiological Profile Assessment [PPA]) and perceived (Falls Efficacy Scale-international [FESi]) fall risk and prospectively recorded falls for 3 months. 155 (37%) of the participants were recurrent fallers (≥2 falls). Mean PPA and FESi scores were high (PPA 2.14±1.87, FESi 34.27±11.18). The PPA and the FESi independently predicted faller classification in logistic regression, which indicated that the odds of being classified as a recurrent faller significantly increased with increasing scores (PPA odds ratio [OR] 1.30 [95% CI 1.17-1.46], FESi OR 1.05 [95% CI 1.03-1.07]). Classification and regression tree analysis divided the sample into four groups based on cutoff values for the PPA: (1) low physiological/low perceived risk (PPA 27.5), (3) high physiological/low perceived risk (PPA >2.83, FESi 35.5). Over 50% of participants had a disparity between perceived and physiological fall risk; most were in group 2. It is possible that physiological risk factors not detected by the PPA may also be influential. This study highlights the importance of considering both physiological and perceived fall risk in MS and the need for further research to explore the complex interrelationships of perceptual and physiological risk factors in this population. This study also supports the importance of developing behavioral and physical interventions that can be tailored to the individual's needs. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paul, Serene S; Thackeray, Anne; Duncan, Ryan P; Cavanaugh, James T; Ellis, Theresa D; Earhart, Gammon M; Ford, Matthew P; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E
To examine fall risk trajectories occurring naturally in a sample of individuals with early to middle stage Parkinson disease (PD). Latent class analysis, specifically growth mixture modeling (GMM), of longitudinal fall risk trajectories. Assessments were conducted at 1 of 4 universities. Community-dwelling participants with PD of a longitudinal cohort study who attended at least 2 of 5 assessments over a 2-year follow-up period (N=230). Not applicable. Fall risk trajectory (low, medium, or high risk) and stability of fall risk trajectory (stable or fluctuating). Fall risk was determined at 6 monthly intervals using a simple clinical tool based on fall history, freezing of gait, and gait speed. The GMM optimally grouped participants into 3 fall risk trajectories that closely mirrored baseline fall risk status (P=.001). The high fall risk trajectory was most common (42.6%) and included participants with longer and more severe disease and with higher postural instability and gait disability (PIGD) scores than the low and medium fall risk trajectories (Pfall risk (posterior probability fall risk trajectories over 2 years. Further investigation is required to determine whether interventions to improve gait and balance may improve fall risk trajectories in people with PD. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Toba, Kenji
Fall-induced hip fracture is one of the major causes rendering the elderly to be in a low ADL or bed-ridden status. Fall is not only the cause for fractures, but it lowers elderly peoples'ADL. History of fall, age, decline of motor function, orthostatic hypotension, balance deficit, dementia, drug and environmental factors were raised as possible risk factor for falls. We created a fall predicting score which consist of 21 risk factors and a history of falls. We found that the score is useful to identify high-risk fallers. It would be necessary to identify high-risk fallers early and give an appropriate individual approach.
Nevitt, Michael C; Tolstykh, Irina; Shakoor, Najia; Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D T; Segal, Neil A; Lewis, Cora; Felson, David T
Whether knee instability contributes to the increased risk of falls and fractures observed in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA) has not been studied. We examined the association of knee buckling with the risk of falling and fall-related consequences in older adults with, or at high risk for, knee OA. At the 60-month visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, men and women ages 55-84 years were asked about knee buckling in the past 3 months and whether they fell when a knee buckled. Falls and fall-related injuries in the past 12 months and balance confidence were assessed at 60 and 84 months. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of knee buckling with falls and their consequences. A total of 1,842 subjects (59% women, mean ± SD age 66.9 ± 7.8 years, and body mass index 30.3 ± 5.7) were included. At 60 months 16.8% reported buckling and at 84 months 14.1% had recurrent (≥2) falls. Bucklers at 60 months had a 1.6- to 2.5-fold greater odds of recurrent falls, fear of falling, and poor balance confidence at 84 months. Those who fell when a knee buckled at baseline had a 4.5-fold, 2-fold, and 3-fold increased odds 2 years later of recurrent falls, significant fall injuries, and fall injuries that limited activity, respectively, and were 4 times more likely to have poor balance confidence. Interventions that reduce knee buckling may help prevent falls, fall-related injuries, and adverse psychological consequences of falls in persons with knee OA. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Nevitt, Michael C; Tolstykh, Irina; Shakoor, Najia; Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D.T.; Segal, Neil A; Lewis, Cora; Felson, David T
Objectives Whether knee instability contributes to the increased risk of falls and fractures observed in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA) has not been studied. We examined the association of knee buckling with the risk of falling and fall-related consequences in older adults with, or at high risk for, knee OA. Methods At the 60 month visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, men and women ages 55 to 84 were asked about knee buckling in the past 3 months and whether they fell when a knee buckled. Falls and fall-related injuries in the past 12 months and balance confidence were assessed at 60 and 84 months. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of knee buckling with falls and their consequences. Results 1,842 subjects (59% women, mean [SD] age= 66.9 [7.8] and BMI= 30.3 [5.7]) were included. At 60 months 16.8% reported buckling and at 84 months 14.1% had recurrent (≥2) falls. Bucklers at 60 months had a 1.6 to 2.5-fold greater odds of recurrent falls, fear of falling and poor balance confidence at 84 months. Those who fell when a knee buckled at baseline had a 4.5-fold, 2-fold and 3-fold increased odds two years later of recurrent falls, significant fall injuries and fall injuries that limited activity, respectively, and were 4 times more likely to have poor balance confidence. Conclusion Interventions that reduce knee buckling may help prevent falls, fall-related injuries and adverse psychological consequences of falls in persons with knee OA. PMID:26853236
Bell, Hege Therese; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Granas, Anne Gerd
The aim of the study was to explore how home-dwelling elderly who use fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs) perceive their fall risk and how they relate this to their drug use. A qualitative study with 14 home-dwelling elderly FRID users between 65 and 97 years in Central Norway participating in semi-structured individual interviews. The data were analyzed thematically by using systematic text condensation. The main finding was that the informants did not necessarily perceive the use of FRIDs to be a prominent risk factor for falls. Some informants said they did not reflect upon drug use whatsoever and said they fully trusted their physician's choices. When either experiencing dizziness, fall episodes or by reading the patient information leaflet the informants said to either adjust their drug use or to contact their physician. Some felt rejected due to not getting their point across or their wish to alter the drug was not granted by the physician. Elderly FRID users did not necessarily relate their drug use to fall risk or struggled to present their perceived drug-related problems. Physicians need to regularly inform, monitor and assess the drug treatment when treating elderly with FRIDs.
Morrison, Steven; Colberg, Sheri R; Mariano, Mira; Parson, Henri K; Vinik, Arthur I
This study assessed the effects of balance/strength training on falls risk and posture in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. Sixteen individuals with type 2 diabetes and 21 age-matched control subjects (aged 50-75 years) participated. Postural stability and falls risk was assessed before and after a 6-week exercise program. Diabetic individuals had significantly higher falls risk score compared with control subjects. The diabetic group also exhibited evidence of mild-to-moderate neuropathy, slower reaction times, and increased postural sway. Following exercise, the diabetic group showed significant improvements in leg strength, faster reaction times, decreased sway, and, consequently, reduced falls risk. Older individuals with diabetes had impaired balance, slower reactions, and consequently a higher falls risk than age-matched control subjects. However, all these variables improved after resistance/balance training. Together these results demonstrate that structured exercise has wide-spread positive effects on physiological function for older individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Corrie, Heather; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Mansfield, Neil J; Cowley, Alison; Morris, Robert; Masud, Tahir
whole-body vibration training may improve neuromuscular function, falls risk and bone density, but previous studies have had conflicting findings. this study aimed to evaluate the influence of vertical vibration (VV) and side-alternating vibration (SV) on musculoskeletal health in older people at risk of falls. single-blind, randomised, controlled trial comparing vibration training to sham vibration (Sham) in addition to usual care. participants were 61 older people (37 women and 24 men), aged 80.2 + 6.5 years, referred to an outpatient falls prevention service. participants were randomly assigned to VV, SV or Sham in addition to the usual falls prevention programme. Participants were requested to attend three vibration sessions per week for 12 weeks, with sessions increasing to six, 1 min bouts of vibration. Falls risk factors and neuromuscular tests were assessed, and blood samples collected for determination of bone turnover, at baseline and following the intervention. chair stand time, timed-up-and-go time, fear of falling, NEADL index and postural sway with eyes open improved in the Sham group. There were significantly greater gains in leg power in the VV than in the Sham group and in bone formation in SV and VV compared with the Sham group. Conversely, body sway improved less in the VV than in the Sham group. Changes in falls risk factors did not differ between the groups. whole-body vibration increased leg power and bone formation, but it did not provide any additional benefits to balance or fall risk factors beyond a falls prevention programme in older people at risk of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Brodie, Matthew A; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Menant, Jasmine C
Reduced ability to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be an important reason why older adults have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to identify cognitive, psychological and physical mediators of the relationship between impaired gait adaptability and fall risk in older adults. Fifty healthy older adults (mean±SD: 74±7years) were categorised as high or low fall risk, based on past falls and their performance in the Physiological Profile Assessment. High and low-risk groups were then compared in the gait adaptability test, i.e. an assessment of the ability to adapt gait in response to obstacles and stepping targets under single and dual task conditions. Quadriceps strength, concern about falling and executive function were also measured. The older adults who made errors on the gait adaptability test were 4.76 (95%CI=1.08-20.91) times more likely to be at high risk of falling. Furthermore, each standard deviation reduction in gait speed while approaching the targets/obstacle increased the odds of being at high risk of falling approximately three fold: single task - OR=3.10,95%CI=1.43-6.73; dual task - 3.42,95%CI=1.56-7.52. Executive functioning, concern about falling and quadriceps strength substantially mediated the relationship between the gait adaptability measures and fall risk status. Impaired gait adaptability is associated with high risk of falls in older adults. Reduced executive function, increased concern about falling and weaker quadriceps strength contribute significantly to this relationship. Training gait adaptability directly, as well as addressing the above mediators through cognitive, behavioural and physical training may maximise fall prevention efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tanaka, Mika; Kusaga, Mari; Ushijima, Kayo; Watanabe, Chiho
To investigate the relationship between depression and fall risk in the elderly. Residents of a village in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan (563 people), aged ≥65 years were given a self-administered questionnaire survey between June and July 2010. To evaluate depression status and fall risk, the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form and the Simple Screening Test for Risk of Falls were administered. Adjustment factors assessed were age, sex, medical history for diseases associated with falls, usage of hypnotics, and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the relationship between depression and fall risk using multiple logistic regression analysis. Given that some degree of correlation was expected among adjustment factors in the model, we constructed a model that introduced the adjustment factors stepwise to confirm the robustness of the model and any effect of multicollinearity. Overall (n=395), after excluding data from participants with significant cognitive disturbance or severe physical problems from among valid responders, a significant relationship was found between depression and fall risk in all models. The odds ratio was 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.31-3.96) in the final model, controlling for all adjustment factors. Our findings suggest a significant relationship between depression and fall risk in the elderly. This relationship implies that the improvement of depression could be an effective measure to decrease fall risk in the elderly.
Franse, Carmen B; Rietjens, Judith Ac; Burdorf, Alex; van Grieken, Amy; Korfage, Ida J; van der Heide, Agnes; Mattace Raso, Francesco; van Beeck, Ed; Raat, Hein
The rate of falling among older citizens appears to vary across different countries, but the underlying aspects causing this variation are unexplained. We aim to describe between-country variation in falling and explore whether intrinsic fall risk factors can explain possible variation. Prospective study on data from the cross-national Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Twelve European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland). Community-dwelling persons aged ≥65 years (n=18 596). Socio-demographic factors (age, gender, education level and living situation) and intrinsic fall risk factors (less than good self-rated health (SRH), mobility limitations, limitations with activities of daily living (ADL), dizziness, impaired vision, depression and impaired cognition) were assessed in a baseline interview. Falling was assessed 2 years later by asking whether the participant had fallen within the 6 months prior to the follow-up interview. There was significant between-country variation in the rate of falling (varying from 7.9% in Switzerland to 16.2% in the Czech Republic). The prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors varied twofold to fourfold between countries. Associations between factors age ≥80 years, less than good SRH, mobility limitations, ADL limitations, dizziness and depression, and falling were different between countries (pfalling largely persisted after adjusting for socio-demographic differences but strongly attenuated after adjusting for differences in intrinsic fall risk factors. There is considerable variation in the rate of falling between European countries, which can largely be explained by between-country variation in the prevalence of intrinsic fall risk factors. There are also country-specific variations in the association between these intrinsic risk factors and falling. These findings emphasise the importance of addressing
Juraschek, Stephen P; Daya, Natalie; Appel, Lawrence J; Miller, Edgar R; Windham, Beverly Gwen; Pompeii, Lisa; Griswold, Michael E; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Selvin, Elizabeth
One-third of older adults fall each year. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been hypothesized as an important risk factor for falls, but findings from prior studies have been inconsistent. We conducted a prospective study of the association between baseline OH (1987-1989) and risk of falls in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Falls were ascertained during follow-up via ICD-9 hospital discharge codes or Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims data. OH was defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥20mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥10mm Hg within 2 minutes of moving from the supine to standing position. Changes in SBP or DBP during OH assessments were also examined as continuous variables. During a median follow-up of 23 years, there were 2,384 falls among 12,661 participants (mean age 54 years, 55% women, 26% black). OH was associated with risk of falls even after adjustment for demographic characteristics and other risk factors (hazard ratio (HR): 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 1.54; P = 0.002). Postural change in DBP was more significantly associated with risk of falls (HR 1.09 per -5mm Hg change in DBP; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.13; P postural change in SBP (HR 1.03 per -5mm Hg change in SBP; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05; P = 0.002). In a community-based, middle-aged population, OH, and in particular, postural change in DBP, were independent risk factors for falls over 2 decades of follow-up. Future studies are needed to examine OH thresholds associated with increased risk of falls. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Heinze, Cornelia; Halfens, Ruud; Dassen, Theo
Aims and objectives. The purpose of this study was to test the interrater reliability of the Hendrich Fall Risk Model, an instrument to identify patients in a hospital setting with a high risk of falling. Background. Falls are a serious problem in older patients. Valid and reliable fall risk assessment tools are required to identify high-risk patients and to take adequate preventive measures. Methods. Seventy older patients were independently and simultaneously assessed by six pairs of raters made up of nursing staff members. Consensus estimates were calculated using simple percentage agreement and consistency estimates using Spearman's rho and intra class coefficient. Results. Percentage agreement ranged from 0.70 to 0.92 between the six pairs of raters. Spearman's rho coefficients were between 0.54 and 0.80 and the intra class coefficients were between 0.46 and 0.92. Conclusions. Whereas some pairs of raters obtained considerable interobserver agreement and internal consistency, the others did not. Therefore, it is concluded that the Hendrich Fall Risk Model is not a reliable instrument. The use of more unambiguous operationalized items is preferred. Relevance to clinical practice. In practice, well operationalized fall risk assessment tools are necessary. Observer agreement should always be investigated after introducing a standardized measurement tool. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Huang, Susan; Duong, Thomas; Ieong, Liss; Quach, Thu
While falls are highly prevalent and costly for older adults, little is known about falls for Asian Americans. Using a custom, evidence-based, bilingual fall risk assessment and management tool, our study examined the prevalence of falls among older Chinese-speaking patients at a community health center. We identified the risks for falls and explored an association of fall risk with emergency room (ER) and hospital use in this population. The setting was at a community health center in Oakland, CA. Participants included 839 older Asian American adults (ages 65-80 years) who spoke Cantonese/Mandarin. Primary care clinic staff administered a fall risk assessment and management tool at the time of clinic visits to assess patients' risk factors for falls. Of the total, 173 (20.6%) reported having fallen in the past year, with women comprising a majority (71.7%). 362 patients in the cohort (43.1%) reported fear of falling. For the subset of Medicaid managed care patients (n = 455, 54.3% of total) for whom we were able to obtain ER and hospital utilization data, 31 patients (14.5%) who reported a fall risk had an ER/hospital episode compared to 15 (6.2%) of those who did not self-report fall risks (statistically significant, p cultural competence to focus on Asian American older adults, can help establish the prevalence of falls in this understudied population and effectively identify those at higher risk for falls and subsequent ER/hospital utilization. More research is needed to understand the risk and impacts of falls in understudied populations and identify ways to prevent these costly falls.
Gray, P; Hildebrand, K
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Patients with PD suffer frequent falls, yet little research has been done to identify risks specific to PD patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with falls for PD patients through the collection of demographic, environmental, and medical information as well as fall diaries completed during a 3-month period. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, with and without falls, were included in the study provided they could stand and walk and had no other condition that could predispose them to falls. Of the 118 participants, 59% reported one or more falls. A total of 237 falls were reported. Duration and severity of PD symptoms, particularly freezing, involuntary movements, and walking and postural difficulties, were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls. Other factors associated with falls were postural hypotension and daily intake of alcohol. Forty percent of falls resulted in injury, but serious injury was rare. The findings have implications for reducing the risk of falls through patient education.
Lee, Justin Yusen; Holbrook, Anne
Despite limited evidence of effectiveness, withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of high risk medications known as "fall-risk increasing drugs" (FRIDs) is typically conducted as a fall prevention strategy based on presumptive benefit. Our objective is to determine the efficacy of fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDs) withdrawal on the prevention of falls and fall-related complications. We will search for all published and unpublished randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of FRID withdrawal compared to usual care on the rate of falls, incidence of falls, fall-related injuries, fall-related fractures, fall-related hospitalizations, or adverse effects related to the intervention in adults aged 65 years or older. Electronic database searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and CINAHL. A grey literature search will be conducted including clinical trial registries and conference proceedings and abstracts. Two reviewers will independently perform in duplicate citation screening, full-text review, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Conflicts will be resolved through team discussion or by a third reviewer if no consensus can be reached. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria will be used to independently rate overall confidence in effect estimates for each outcome. Results will be synthesized descriptively, and a random effects meta-analysis will be conducted for each outcome if studies are deemed similar methodologically, clinically, and statistically. We will attempt to determine whether a FRID withdrawal strategy alone is effective at preventing falls in older adults. Our results will be used to optimize and focus fall prevention strategies and initiatives internationally with a goal of improving the health of older adults. PROSPERO CRD42016040203.
Lin, Sang-I; Chang, Ku-Chou; Lee, Hsuei-Chen; Yang, Yi-Ching; Tsauo, Jau-Yih
Determine quality of life and its association with fall risk factors in older adults with increased risk of falling. A total of 597 community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults who were screened to have increased risk of falling participated in the present study. The fall risk factors included sociodemographics, physical and psychological function, Timed Up and Go, past fall/medical histories, fear of falling and medications. The Euro QOL EQ-5D was used to measure health-related quality of life. Pain/discomfort was the EQ-5D dimension most frequently reported to be impaired (35%), regardless of the level of fall risk or age groups, followed by mobility (25%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, physiological function, up-and-go, fear of falling and psychotropic medication were independent predictors for total EQ-5D, explaining 68.37% of the variance. Logistic regression analysis showed that for the five EQ-5D dimensions, Geriatric Depression Scale and Up and Go time were the most common determinants. Pain/discomfort was the leading impairment, and greater Geriatric Depression Scale and longer up-and-go time were the main contributing factors in declines in quality of life in older adults with increased risk of falling. These factors are often modifiable, and their management might be considered a priority in falls prevention. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Noureldin, Marwa; Hass, Zachary; Abrahamson, Kathleen; Arling, Greg
Falls are a major source of morbidity and mortality among older adults; however, little is known regarding fall occurrence during a nursing home (NH) to community transition. This study sought to examine whether the presence of supports and services impacts the relationship between fall-related risk factors and fall occurrence post NH discharge. Participants in the Minnesota Return to Community Initiative who were assisted in achieving a community discharge (N = 1459) comprised the study sample. The main outcome was fall occurrence within 30 days of discharge. Factor analyses were used to estimate latent models from variables of interest. A structural equation model (SEM) was estimated to determine the relationship between the emerging latent variables and falls. Fifteen percent of participants fell within 30 days of NH discharge. Factor analysis of fall-related risk factors produced three latent variables: fall concerns/history; activities of daily living impairments; and use of high-risk medications. A supports/services latent variable also emerged that included caregiver support frequency, medication management assistance, durable medical equipment use, discharge location, and receipt of home health or skilled nursing services. In the SEM model, high-risk medications use and fall concerns/history had direct positive effects on falling. Receiving supports/services did not affect falling directly; however, it reduced the effect of high-risk medication use on falling (p risk of falling post NH discharge. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Montana, Cynthia L; Bhorade, Anjali M
Numerous population-based studies suggest that glaucoma is an independent risk factor for falling and motor vehicle collisions, particularly for older adults. These adverse events lead to increased healthcare expenditures and decreased quality of life. Current research priorities, therefore, include identifying factors that predispose glaucoma patients to falling and unsafe driving, and developing screening strategies and targeted rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to review recent studies that address these priorities. Studies continue to support that glaucoma patients, particularly those with advanced disease, have an increased risk of falling or unsafe driving. Risk factors, however, remain variable and include severity and location of visual field defects, contrast sensitivity, and performance on divided attention tasks. Such variability is likely because of the multifactorial nature of ambulating and driving and compensatory strategies used by patients. Falls and unsafe driving remain a serious public health issue for older adults with glaucoma. Ambulation and driving are complex tasks and there is no consensus yet, regarding the best methods for risk stratification and targeted interventions to increase safety. Therefore, comprehensive and individualized assessments are recommended to most effectively evaluate a patient's risk for falling or unsafe driving.
Cattaneo, Davide; De Nuzzo, Carmela; Fascia, Teresa; Macalli, Marco; Pisoni, Ivana; Cardini, Roldano
To quantify fall risk among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to report the importance of variables associated with falls. Retrospective case-control study design with a 2-group sample of convenience. A hospital and home settings in Italy. A convenience sample of 50 people with MS divided into 2 groups according to their reports of falls. Not applicable. Subjects were assessed with questionnaires for cognitive ability and were measured on their ability to maintain balance, to walk, and to perform daily life activities. Data regarding patients' strength, spasticity, and transfer skills impairment were also collected. No statistical differences were found between groups of fallers and nonfallers using variables pertaining to years after onset, age, gender, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Near statistically significant differences were found in activities of daily living and transfer skills (Pfall status: balance, ability to walk, and use of a cane (Pcane differed between fallers and nonfallers groups and the incidence of those variables can be used as a predictive model to quantify fall risk in patients suffering from MS. These findings emphasize the multifactorial nature of falls in this patient population. Assessment of different aspects of motor impairment and the accurate determination of factors contributing to falls are necessary for individual patient management and therapy and for the development of a prevention program for falls. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
GEUSENS, Piet; Helden, SV; Wyers, C; Dagnelie, PC; Pijpers, E; Willems, G; Brink, P; Linden, SV; Nieuwenhuijzen-Kruseman, A
A history of fracture indicates a risk for future fractures. The absolute risk is highest in the first year after a clinical fracture. We investigated the incidence offalls and fracture and the risk factors for falls within 3 months after a fracture. We included 296 consecutive men and women aged 50 years who presented to the hospital with a clinical fracture. Risk factors for falls were assessed according to the guidelines on fall prevention in the Netherlands. Osteoporosis wa...
Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K
Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.
... as a physical therapist, who can evaluate your fall risk. If your healthcare provider concludes that you are ... to check for things that can impact your fall risk, such as electrolyte balance and the possibility of ...
Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Kang, Chun-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Kuo, Jessie Ming-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lien; Chang, Wen-Yin
To evaluate the accuracy of the inpatient fall risk screening tool and to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients. Variations exist in several screening tools applied in acute care hospitals for examining risk factors for falls and identifying high-risk inpatients. Secondary data analysis. A subset of inpatient data for the period from June 2011-June 2014 was extracted from the nursing information system and adverse event reporting system of an 818-bed teaching medical centre in Taipei. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 205 fallers and 37,232 nonfallers were identified. The results revealed that the inpatient fall risk screening tool (cut-off point of ≥3) had a low sensitivity level (60%), satisfactory specificity (87%), a positive predictive value of 2·0% and a negative predictive value of 99%. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0·805 (sensitivity, 71·8%; specificity, 78%). To increase the sensitivity values, the Youden index suggests at least 1·5 points to be the most suitable cut-off point for the inpatient fall risk screening tool. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a considerably increased fall risk in patients with impaired balance and impaired elimination. The fall risk factor was also significantly associated with days of hospital stay and with admission to surgical wards. The findings can raise awareness about the two most critical risk factors for falls among future clinical nurses and other healthcare professionals and thus facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions. This study highlights the needs for redefining the cut-off points of the inpatient fall risk screening tool to effectively identify inpatients at a high risk of falls. Furthermore, inpatients with impaired balance and impaired elimination should be closely
Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C; Nguyen, Michael C; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D; Porter, Bernadette G; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W; Kane, Bryan G
The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects' perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting.
Justin Yusen Lee
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite limited evidence of effectiveness, withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction of high risk medications known as “fall-risk increasing drugs” (FRIDs is typically conducted as a fall prevention strategy based on presumptive benefit. Our objective is to determine the efficacy of fall-risk increasing drugs (FRIDs withdrawal on the prevention of falls and fall-related complications. Methods/design We will search for all published and unpublished randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of FRID withdrawal compared to usual care on the rate of falls, incidence of falls, fall-related injuries, fall-related fractures, fall-related hospitalizations, or adverse effects related to the intervention in adults aged 65 years or older. Electronic database searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, and CINAHL. A grey literature search will be conducted including clinical trial registries and conference proceedings and abstracts. Two reviewers will independently perform in duplicate citation screening, full-text review, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Conflicts will be resolved through team discussion or by a third reviewer if no consensus can be reached. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria will be used to independently rate overall confidence in effect estimates for each outcome. Results will be synthesized descriptively, and a random effects meta-analysis will be conducted for each outcome if studies are deemed similar methodologically, clinically, and statistically. Discussion We will attempt to determine whether a FRID withdrawal strategy alone is effective at preventing falls in older adults. Our results will be used to optimize and focus fall prevention strategies and initiatives internationally with a goal of improving the health of older adults. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD
Fu, Amy S; Gao, Kelly L; Tung, Arthur K; Tsang, William W; Kwan, Marcella M
To use Nintendo's Wii Fit balance board to determine the effectiveness of exergaming training in reducing risk and incidence of falls in older adults with a history of falls. Randomized controlled trial. Nursing home for older adults. Adults aged 65 years and older (N=60). Participants who lived in a nursing home had 6 weeks of balance training with either Wii Fit equipment or conventional exercise. Physiological Profile Assessment scores and incidence of falls were observed with subsequent intention-to-treat statistical analyses. Physiological Profile Assessment scores and incidence of falls improved significantly in both groups after the intervention (all Pfalls, Wii Fit balance training was more effective than conventional balance training in reducing the risk and incidence of falls. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Okubo, Yoshiro; Seino, Satoshi; Yabushita, Noriko; Osuka, Yosuke; Jung, Songee; Nemoto, Miyuki; Figueroa, Rafael; Tanaka, Kiyoji
The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the association between habitual walking and multiple or injurious falls (falls) among community-dwelling older adults, by considering the relative risk of falling. A cohort of Japanese community-dwelling older adults (n=535) aged 60-91 years (73.1±6.6 year, 157 men and 378 women) who underwent community-based health check-ups from 2008 to 2012 were followed until 2013. Incidence rate of falls between walkers and non-walkers was compared separately by the number of risk factors (Groups R0, R1, R2, R3 and R4+). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the association between habitual walking and falls separately by lower- (Rrisk groups. In Groups R0 and R1, the incidence of falls was lower in walkers than non-walkers; however, in Groups R2, R3, and R4+, the incidence of falls was higher in walkers. The Cox proportional hazard model showed that habitual walking was not significantly associated with falls (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-1.62) among the lower risk group but that it was significantly associated with increased falls (HR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.04-3.43) among the higher risk group. The significant interaction between habitual walking and higher risk of falling was found (Prisk factors for falling, caution is needed when recommending walking because walking can actually increase their risk of experiencing multiple or injurious falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Melillo, P; Orrico, A; Scala, P; Crispino, F; Pecchia, L
The aim of this paper is to describe the design and the preliminary validation of a platform developed to collect and automatically analyze biomedical signals for risk assessment of vascular events and falls in hypertensive patients. This m-health platform, based on cloud computing, was designed to be flexible, extensible, and transparent, and to provide proactive remote monitoring via data-mining functionalities. A retrospective study was conducted to train and test the platform. The developed system was able to predict a future vascular event within the next 12 months with an accuracy rate of 84 % and to identify fallers with an accuracy rate of 72 %. In an ongoing prospective trial, almost all the recruited patients accepted favorably the system with a limited rate of inadherences causing data losses (<20 %). The developed platform supported clinical decision by processing tele-monitored data and providing quick and accurate risk assessment of vascular events and falls.
De Backere, F; Ongenae, F; Van den Abeele, F; Nelis, J; Bonte, P; Clement, E; Philpott, M; Hoebeke, J; Verstichel, S; Ackaert, A; De Turck, F
For elderly people fall incidents are life-changing events that lead to degradation or even loss of autonomy. Current fall detection systems are not integrated and often associated with undetected falls and/or false alarms. In this paper, a social- and context-aware multi-sensor platform is presented, which integrates information gathered by a plethora of fall detection systems and sensors at the home of the elderly, by using a cloud-based solution, making use of an ontology. Within the ontology, both static and dynamic information is captured to model the situation of a specific patient and his/her (in)formal caregivers. This integrated contextual information allows to automatically and continuously assess the fall risk of the elderly, to more accurately detect falls and identify false alarms and to automatically notify the appropriate caregiver, e.g., based on location or their current task. The main advantage of the proposed platform is that multiple fall detection systems and sensors can be integrated, as they can be easily plugged in, this can be done based on the specific needs of the patient. The combination of several systems and sensors leads to a more reliable system, with better accuracy. The proof of concept was tested with the use of the visualizer, which enables a better way to analyze the data flow within the back-end and with the use of the portable testbed, which is equipped with several different sensors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartholt, Klaas A; Boyé, Nicole D A; Van der Velde, Nathalie; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Polinder, Suzanne; De Vries, Oscar J; Kerver, Albert J H; Ziere, Gijsbertus; Bruijninckx, Milko M M; De Vries, Mark R; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Uitterlinden, André G; Van Beeck, Ed F; Lips, Paul; Patka, Peter; Van der Cammen, Tischa J M
Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs on the number of new falls versus 'care as usual' in older adults presenting at the Emergency Department after a fall. A prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in hospitals in the Netherlands. Persons aged ≥65 years who visit the Emergency Department due to a fall are invited to participate in this trial. All patients receive a full geriatric assessment at the research outpatient clinic. Patients are randomized between a structured medication assessment including withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs and 'care as usual'. A 3-monthly falls calendar is used for assessing the number of falls, fallers and associated injuries over a one-year follow-up period. Measurements will be at three, six, nine, and twelve months and include functional outcome, healthcare consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical information. After twelve months a second visit to the research outpatient clinic will be performed, and adherence to the new medication regimen in the intervention group will be measured. The primary outcome will be the incidence of new falls. Secondary outcome measurements are possible health effects of medication withdrawal, health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D), costs, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis. The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs in older patients as a method for falls reduction. The trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1593).
Mattace-Raso Francesco US
Full Text Available Background Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs on the number of new falls versus 'care as usual' in older adults presenting at the Emergency Department after a fall. Methods/Design A prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in hospitals in the Netherlands. Persons aged ≥65 years who visit the Emergency Department due to a fall are invited to participate in this trial. All patients receive a full geriatric assessment at the research outpatient clinic. Patients are randomized between a structured medication assessment including withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs and 'care as usual'. A 3-monthly falls calendar is used for assessing the number of falls, fallers and associated injuries over a one-year follow-up period. Measurements will be at three, six, nine, and twelve months and include functional outcome, healthcare consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical information. After twelve months a second visit to the research outpatient clinic will be performed, and adherence to the new medication regimen in the intervention group will be measured. The primary outcome will be the incidence of new falls. Secondary outcome measurements are possible health effects of medication withdrawal, health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D, costs, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs in older patients as a method for falls reduction. Trial Registration The trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1593
Colonvega Makasha; Rupert Ronald; Hyland John K; Hawk Cheryl; Hall Stephanie
Abstract Background Falls are a major health concern for older adults and their impact is a significant public health problem. The chief modifiable risk factors for falls in community-dwellers are psychotropic drugs, polypharmacy, environmental hazards, poor vision, lower extremity impairments, and balance impairments. This study focused on balance impairments. Its purpose was to assess the feasibility of recruiting older adults with possible balance problems for research conducted at a chiro...
Giansanti, Daniele; Macellari, Velio; Maccioni, Giovanni
Fall prevention lacks easy, quantitative and wearable methods for the classification of fall-risk (FR). Efforts must be thus devoted to the choice of an ad hoc classifier both to reduce the size of the sample used to train the classifier and to improve performances. A new methodology that uses a neural network (NN) and a wearable device are hereby proposed for this purpose. The NN uses kinematic parameters assessed by a wearable device with accelerometers and rate gyroscopes during a posturography protocol. The training of the NN was based on the Mahalanobis distance and was carried out on two groups of 30 elderly subjects with varying fall-risk Tinetti scores. The validation was done on two groups of 100 subjects with different fall-risk Tinetti scores and showed that, both in terms of specificity and sensitivity, the NN performed better than other classifiers (naive Bayes, Bayes net, multilayer perceptron, support vector machines, statistical classifiers). In particular, (i) the proposed NN methodology improved the specificity and sensitivity by a mean of 3% when compared to the statistical classifier based on the Mahalanobis distance (SCMD) described in Giansanti (2006 Physiol. Meas. 27 1081–90); (ii) the assessed specificity was 97%, the assessed sensitivity was 98% and the area under receiver operator characteristics was 0.965. (note)
Chippendale, Tracy; Boltz, Marie
To explore the experience of older adults in their neighborhood in relation to perceived fall risk, fear of falling (FOF), and resources/strategies for fall prevention. Fourteen older adults, 65 years of age and older from 3 urban senior centers, participated in this qualitative study. The semistructured interview guidelines and background questionnaire were developed by the researchers based on the literature and an existing measure of walkability. Both tools were refined based on pilot interviews with seniors. Collaizzi's phenomenological method was used for data analysis. Five themes emerged from the data: (a) The built environment contributes to perceived fall risk and FOF, (b) personal strategies used to adapt to perceived neighborhood fall risks-behavioral approaches, (c) resources for physical activity and safety, (d) barriers to physical activity and exercise, and (e) neighborhood features as a motivator. Urban-dwelling seniors perceive that neighborhood features contribute to or mitigate fall risk and FOF. Behavioral strategies are used by seniors to prevent outdoor falls. The findings can help clinicians develop targeted fall prevention interventions for well elders and help urban planners to design and retrofit urban environments to reduce fall risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Komorowski, Arkadiusz; Sadura-Sieklucka, Teresa; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna
Evaluating the risk of falling of a geriatric rheumatic patient plays an essential role not only in planning and carrying out the physiotherapeutic process. The consequences of falls may be different and, although they do not always result in serious repercussions such as fractures or injuries, it is sufficient that they generate the fear of falling and cause a significant reduction in physical activity. Assessing functional capacity to define the risk of falling is of utmost importance in the case of patients after joint arthroplasty surgeries. The specificity of rheumatic patient's falls is determined by numerous factors. It is not always possible to avoid them. However, it becomes vital to include fall prevention in the rehabilitation process as well as to prepare the house for the needs of an elderly person so that they are safe and as self-dependent as possible.
Kikkert, Lisette H. J.; de Groot, Maartje H; van Campen, Jos P.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Lamoth, Claudine C. J.
Fall prediction in geriatric patients remains challenging because the increased fall risk involves multiple, interrelated factors caused by natural aging and/or pathology. Therefore, we used a multi-factorial statistical approach to model categories of modifiable fall risk factors among geriatric
Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G
Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.
Majumi M. Noohu
Full Text Available Falls is an important cause for mortality and morbidity in older adults. The fall risk assessment is an integral component of fall prevention in older adults. The international classification of function, disability and health (ICF can be an ideal comprehensive model for fall risk assessment. There is lack of information relating ICF and fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults. In this study we tried to assess the fall risk using different domains of ICF using various clinical tools. A total of 255 subjects were recruited through convenient sampling method from geriatric clinic (OPD of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The study was single session cross-section design. The body mass index (BMI, grip strength, depression score (Geriatric depression scale:short form; GDS-S and co morbidities were used to assess body function and structure domain, timed up and go (TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS and elderly fall screening test (EFST scores were used for activity domain, selfreported cause of fall, medications and uses of assistive device for environmental factors. Then the association of body function and structure, activity and environmental factors were determined with falls. There was an association of fall in analysis in subjects with no fall and one or more falls for, BMI, grip strength (kg, GDS-S score, no. of co morbidities, chronic pain, TUG, BBS, TUG (s, BBS, EFST, slip/trip, walking cane, hypoglycemic and antihypertensives medications (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio.The diabetes, and hyper tension showed association for adjusted odds ratio only. In subjects with one fall and more than one fall, TUG, BBS, EFST, GDS-S score, NSAIDS and antidepressants use showed a significant association with fall (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio. The ICF may be used in routine for fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults.
Oliveira, Márcio Rogério de; Inokuti, Thiago Tadashi; Bispo, Nuno Noronha da Costa; Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires; Oliveira, Rodrigo Franco de; Silva Jr., Rubens Alexandre da
Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platf...
Sosnoff, Jacob J; Moon, Yaejin; Wajda, Douglas A; Finlayson, Marcia L; McAuley, Edward; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Morrison, Steve; Motl, Robert W
To determine the feasibility of three fall prevention programs delivered over 12 weeks among individuals with multiple sclerosis: (A) a home-based exercise program targeting physiological risk factors; (B) an educational program targeting behavioral risk factors; and (C) a combined exercise-and-education program targeting both factors. Randomized controlled trial. Home-based training with assessments at research laboratory. A total of 103 individuals inquired about the investigation. After screening, 37 individuals with multiple sclerosis who had fallen in the last year and ranged in age from 45-75 years volunteered for the investigation. A total of 34 participants completed postassessment following the 12-week intervention. Participants were randomly assigned into one of four conditions: (1) wait-list control (n = 9); (2) home-based exercise (n = 11); (3) education (n = 9); or (4) a combined exercise and education (n = 8) group. Before and after the 12-week interventions, participants underwent a fall risk assessment as determined by the physiological profile assessment and provided information on their fall prevention behaviors as indexed by the Falls Prevention Strategy Survey. Participants completed falls diaries during the three-months postintervention. A total of 34 participants completed postintervention testing. Procedures and processes were found to be feasible. Overall, fall risk scores were lower in the exercise groups (1.15 SD 1.31) compared with the non-exercise groups (2.04 SD 1.04) following the intervention (p fall prevention behaviors (p > 0.05). Further examination of home-based exercise/education programs for reducing falls in individuals with multiple sclerosis is warranted. A total of 108 participants would be needed in a larger randomized controlled trial.ClinicalTrials.org #NCT01956227. © The Author(s) 2014.
Vanessa Vieira Pereira
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify which instrument better identifies recurrent falls in the elderly. Ninety-eight old people, with an average age of 80±4 years, were submitted to an assessment of balance and fall risk by means of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS and the posturographic Balance Stability System (BSS. The BBS was correlated with the BSS (r=-0.27; p=0.008, age (r=-0.38; p<0.001 and number of falls (r=-0.25; p=0.013 and the analysis of logistical regression showed that the elderly classified with fall risk on the BBS presented 2.5 (95%CI 1.08-5.78 more chance of identifying who had two falls or more over the last year. The BBS identified that the greater the age the worse the functional balance and demonstrated a greater capacity to identify falls risk suffered over the last year when compared with the BSS.
Güler, Sibel; Bir, Levent Sinan; Akdag, Beyza; Ardıc, Fusun
The aim of this study was to determine balance problems and severity and ratio of postural instability of newly diagnosed, early stage Parkinson's patients who did not receive any antiparkinson treatment before, to evaluate fall risk clinically and posturographically and to examine the effects of pramipexole on these signs and symptoms. Detailed posturographic assessments which involved central vestibular, visual, peripheric vestibular somatosensory field tests were applied to both patient and control subjects and fall risk was determined. There was not statistically significant difference between patients and control subjects before and after drug therapy in the assesment of fall risk in posturography and there was not any improvement with drug usage in the patient group. However, in the analysis of subsystems separately, only the involvement in central vestibular field was more severe and could appear at all positions in Parkinson's patients comparing with the control group, and pramipexole was partially effective in improving this disorder. Central vestibular field is the subsystem that should be examined with first priority. Posturography is relatively reliable in defining fall risk and postural instability ratio in Parkinson's disease. But it should be considered that clinical assessment tools can be more sensitive in the evaluation of balance and postural disorders and in the follow-up of the response to drug therapy.
Gama, Zenewton André da Silva; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia
To systematize results of prospective cohort studies on multiple risk factors for falls in the elderly and to assess their methodological quality. Systematic review of epidemiological studies from Medline, SciELO and Lilacs database. We included prospective cohort studies with samples of more than 100 subjects of both sexes, older than 64 years, and living either in the community or a nursing home. Of 726 studied identified, 15 met the inclusion criteria of being published between 1988 and 2005. The methodology of the studies varied. The main factors associated with increased risk of falls include: previous falls, altered gait, functional impairment, cognitive impairment, psychotropic medication use and excessive physical activity. Despite contradictory findings, being a woman at an advanced age may also be a predictor of falls. Methodological limitations were identified in prospective cohort studies on falls. There is a need for further studies on extrinsic determinants, including evaluator blinding and closer monitoring during follow-up with reduced time of recall.
De Winter, Sabrina; Vanwynsberghe, Sarah; Foulon, Veerle; Dejaeger, Eddy; Flamaing, Johan; Sermon, An; Van der Linden, Lorenz; Spriet, Isabel
Hospital admissions due to fall-related fractures are a major problem in the aging population. Several risk factors have been identified, including drug use. Most studies often retrieved prescription-only drugs from national databases. These are associated with some limitations as they do not always reliably reproduce the complete patient's active drug list. To evaluate the association between the number of FRIDs intake identified by a standardised medication reconciliation process and a fall-related fracture leading to a hospital admission in older adults. The first cohort has been recruited from one traumatology ward of a tertiary teaching hospital in Belgium and the second cohort has been recruited from 11 community pharmacies in Belgium. A prospective study with two individually matched cohorts was performed. Adult patients (≥75 years) admitted with an injury due to a fall were included in the first cohort (faller group). The second cohort consisted of patients who did not suffer from a fall within the last 6 months (non-faller group). Matching was performed for age, gender, place of residence and use of a walking aid. In both groups, clinical pharmacists and undergraduate pharmacy students obtained the medication history, using a standardised approach. A list of drugs considered to increase the risk of falling was created. It included cardiovascular drugs and drugs acting on the nervous system. A linear mixed model was used to compare the number of fall risk-increasing drugs between fallers and non-fallers. The number of fall risk-increasing drugs in a faller versus a non-faller group. Sixty-one patients were matched with 121 non-fallers. Patients received on average 3.1 ± 2.1 and 3.2 ± 1.8 fall risk-increasing drugs in the faller and in the non-faller group, respectively. The mean number of fall risk-increasing drugs was comparable in both groups (p = 0.844), even after adjusting for alcohol consumption, fear of falling, vision and foot problems (p = 0
Full Text Available Evaluating the risk of falling of a geriatric rheumatic patient plays an essential role not only in planning and carrying out the physiotherapeutic process. The consequences of falls may be different and, although they do not always result in serious repercussions such as fractures or injuries, it is sufficient that they generate the fear of falling and cause a significant reduction in physical activity. Assessing functional capacity to define the risk of falling is of utmost importance in the case of patients after joint arthroplasty surgeries. The specificity of rheumatic patient’s falls is determined by numerous factors. It is not always possible to avoid them. However, it becomes vital to include fall prevention in the rehabilitation process as well as to prepare the house for the needs of an elderly person so that they are safe and as self-dependent as possible.
Laura Armas; Joan Lappe; Veronica J. Slavik; Kellan Slattery; Shih-Chuan Cheng; Davender S. Malik; John N. Mordeson
We propose a weighted average approach to measure the risk of falling in older women. We consider four causal variables of falling, namely serum 25-OHD levels, medication use, fracture, and age. We use five methods to derive linear equations with these four factors as independent variables in the linear equations with risk of falling as the dependent variable.
Ritchey, Katherine; Olney, Amanda; Shofer, Jane; Phelan, Elizabeth A; Matsumoto, Alvin M
Fall prevention is an important way to prevent fractures in person with osteoporosis. We developed and implemented a fall screening program in the context of routine osteoporosis care. This program was found to be feasible and showed that a significant proportion of persons with osteoporosis are at risk of falling. Falls are the most common cause of fracture in persons with osteoporosis. However, osteoporosis care rarely includes assessment and prevention of falling. We thus sought to assess the feasibility of a fall screening and management program integrated into routine osteoporosis care. The program was developed and offered to patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia seen at an outpatient clinic between May 2015 and May 2016. Feasibility was measured by physical therapist time required to conduct screening and ease of integrating the screening program into the usual clinic workflow. Self-report responses and mobility testing were conducted to describe the fall and fracture risk profile of osteoporosis patients screened. Effects on fall-related care processes were assessed via chart abstraction of patient participation in fall prevention exercise. Of the 154 clinic patients who presented for a clinic visit, 68% met screening criteria and completed in two thirds of persons. Screening was completed in a third of the time typically allotted for traditional PT evaluations and did not interfere with clinic workflow. Forty percent of those screened reported falling in the last year, and over half had two or more falls in the past year. Over half reported a balance or lower extremity impairment, and over 40% were below norms on one or more performance tests. Most patients who selected a group exercise fall prevention program completed all sessions while only a quarter completed either supervised or independent home-based programs. Implementation of a fall risk screening program in an outpatient osteoporosis clinic appears feasible. A substantial proportion of people
Teh, Ruth C; Wilson, Anne; Ranasinghe, Damith; Visvanathan, Renuka
To evaluate the health information technology (HIT) compared to Fall Risk for Older Persons (FROP) tool in fall risk screening. A HIT tool trial was conducted on the geriatric evaluation and management (GEM, n = 111) and acute medical units (AMU, n = 424). Health information technology and FROP scores were higher on GEM versus AMU, with no differences between people who fell and people who did not fall. Both score completion rates were similar, and their values correlated marginally (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.33, P falls. Hospital fall rates trended towards reduction on AMU (4.20 vs 6.96, P = 0.15) and increase on GEM (10.98 vs 6.52, P = 0.54) with HIT tool implementation. Health information technology tool acceptability and scoring were comparable to FROP screening, with mixed effects on fall rate with HIT tool implementation. Clinician partnership remains key to effective tool development. © 2017 AJA Inc.
Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Schwickert, Lars; Rapp, Kilan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Todd, Chris; Lord, Stephen R; Kerse, Ngaire
Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors. First, current models consider risk factors to be stable for each person and not change over time, an assumption that does not reflect real-life experience. Second, current models do not consider the interplay of individual exposure including type of activity (eg, walking, undertaking transfers) and environmental risks (eg, lighting, floor conditions) in which activity is performed. Therefore, we posit a dynamic fall risk model consisting of intrinsic risk factors that vary over time and exposure (activity in context). eHealth sensor technology (eg, smartphones) begins to enable the continuous measurement of both the above factors. We illustrate our model with examples of real-world falls from the FARSEEING database. This dynamic framework for fall risk adds important aspects that may improve understanding of fall mechanisms, fall risk models, and the development of fall prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pereira, Vanessa Vieira; Maia, Roberto Alcantara; Silva, Sonia Maria Cesar de Azevedo
The purpose of this study was to verify which instrument better identifies recurrent falls in the elderly. Ninety-eight old people, with an average age of 80 ± 4 years, were submitted to an assessment of balance and fall risk by means of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the posturographic Balance Stability System (BSS). The BBS was correlated with the BSS (r=-0.27; p=0.008), age (r=-0.38; pfalls (r=-0.25; p=0.013) and the analysis of logistical regression showed that the elderly classified with fall risk on the BBS presented 2.5 (95%CI 1.08-5.78) more chance of identifying who had two falls or more over the last year. The BBS identified that the greater the age the worse the functional balance and demonstrated a greater capacity to identify falls risk suffered over the last year when compared with the BSS.
Briggs, Morgan; Morzinski, Jeffrey A; Ellis, Julie
Prior studies illustrate that community-based programs effectively decrease falls risk in older adults and that faith-based programs improve health behaviors. The literature is unclear whether faith-based initiatives reduce seniors' fall risks. To tackle this gap, a long-term partnership led by 10 urban churches, a nearby nursing school, and a medical school developed a study with 3 objectives: determine baseline health concerns associated with falls (eg, depression, polypharmacy), implement a nurse-led, faith-based health education initiative for community-dwelling African American seniors at-risk of hospitalization, and assess pre- to post -program fall frequency. The 100 Healthy, At-Risk Families study team implemented 8 monthly educational health sessions promoting self-care and social support. Community nurses led the 60- to 90-minute sessions at each of 10 churches. To collect study data, nurses interviewed enrolled seniors pre- and post-intervention. Descriptive and comparison statistics were analyzed in Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Senior data at baseline found high rates of polypharmacy and physical imbalance, and no significant depression or gaps in social support. There was not a statistically significant change pre- to post-program in fall frequency "in prior year." Study findings reveal insights about African American senior health and fall risks. Church settings may provide a protective, psychosocial buffer for seniors, while polypharmacy and mobility/balance concerns indicate need for continued attention to fall risks. No increase in pre- to post-program falls was encouraging.
Yau, Rebecca K; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Resnick, Helaine E; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Feingold, Kenneth R; Cauley, Jane A; Vittinghoff, Eric; De Rekeneire, Nathalie; Harris, Tamara B; Nevitt, Michael C; Cummings, Steven R; Shorr, Ronald I; Schwartz, Ann V
To determine whether older adults with diabetes are at increased risk of an injurious fall requiring hospitalization. The longitudinal Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study included 3,075 adults aged 70-79 years at baseline. Hospitalizations that included ICD-9-Clinical Modification codes for a fall and an injury were identified. The effect of diabetes with and without insulin use on the rate of first fall-related injury hospitalization was assessed using proportional hazards models. At baseline, 719 participants had diabetes, and 117 of them were using insulin. Of the 293 participants who were hospitalized for a fall-related injury, 71 had diabetes, and 16 were using insulin. Diabetes was associated with a higher rate of injurious fall requiring hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48 [95% CI 1.12-1.95]) in models adjusted for age, race, sex, BMI, and education. In those participants using insulin, compared with participants without diabetes, the HR was 3.00 (1.78-5.07). Additional adjustment for potential intermediaries, such as fainting in the past year, standing balance score, cystatin C level, and number of prescription medications, accounted for some of the increased risk associated with diabetes (1.41 [1.05-1.88]) and insulin-treated diabetes (2.24 [1.24-4.03]). Among participants with diabetes, a history of falling, poor standing balance score, and A1C level ≥8% were risk factors for an injurious fall requiring hospitalization. Older adults with diabetes, in particular those using insulin, are at greater risk of an injurious fall requiring hospitalization than those without diabetes. Among those with diabetes, poor glycemic control may increase the risk of an injurious fall.
Tijsma, Mylou; Vister, Eva; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen R
Purpose To determine (a) the discriminant validity for established fall risk factors and (b) the predictive validity for falls of a simple test of choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method People with MS (n = 210, 21-74y) performed the CSRT, sensorimotor, balance and neuropsychological tests in a single session. They were then followed up for falls using monthly fall diaries for 6 months. Results The CSRT test had excellent discriminant validity with respect to established fall risk factors. Frequent fallers (≥3 falls) performed significantly worse in the CSRT test than non-frequent fallers (0-2 falls). With the odds of suffering frequent falls increasing 69% with each SD increase in CSRT (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.27-2.26, p = falls in people with MS. This test may prove useful in documenting longitudinal changes in fall risk in relation to MS disease progression and effects of interventions. Implications for rehabilitation Good choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is required for maintaining balance. A simple low-tech CSRT test has excellent discriminative and predictive validity in relation to falls in people with MS. This test may prove useful documenting longitudinal changes in fall risk in relation to MS disease progression and effects of interventions.
Hartholt, K.A.; van der Velde, N.; van Lieshout, E.M.M.; Polinder, S.; de Vries, O.J.; Boyé, N.D.A.; Kerver, A.J.H.; Ziere, G.; Bruijninckx, M.M.M.; de Vries, M.R.; Mattace-Raso, F.U.S.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; van Beeck, E.F.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Patka, P.; van der Cammen, T.J.
Background: Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of
Segev-Jacubovski, Orit; Herman, Talia; Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Mirelman, Anat; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M
In this article, we briefly summarize the incidence and significant consequences of falls among older adults, the insufficient effectiveness of commonly used multifactorial interventions and the evidence linking falls and cognitive function. Recent pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic studies that evaluated the effects of cognitive therapy on fall risk are reviewed. The results of this article illustrate the potential utility of multiple, diverse forms of cognitive therapy for reducing fall risk. The article also indicates that large-scale, randomized controlled trials are warranted and that additional research is needed to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the interplay between human mobility, fall risk and cognitive function. Nonetheless, we suggest that multimodality interventions that combine motor and cognitive therapy should, eventually, be incorporated into clinical practice to enable older adults and patients to move safer and with a reduced fall risk. PMID:21721921
Trombetti, A; Hars, M; Herrmann, F; Rizzoli, R; Ferrari, S
This controlled intervention study in hospitalized oldest old adults showed that a multifactorial fall-and-fracture risk assessment and management program, applied in a dedicated geriatric hospital unit, was effective in improving fall-related physical and functional performances and the level of independence in activities of daily living in high-risk patients. Hospitalization affords a major opportunity for interdisciplinary cooperation to manage fall-and-fracture risk factors in older adults. This study aimed at assessing the effects on physical performances and the level of independence in activities of daily living (ADL) of a multifactorial fall-and-fracture risk assessment and management program applied in a geriatric hospital setting. A controlled intervention study was conducted among 122 geriatric inpatients (mean ± SD age, 84 ± 7 years) admitted with a fall-related diagnosis. Among them, 92 were admitted to a dedicated unit and enrolled into a multifactorial intervention program, including intensive targeted exercise. Thirty patients who received standard usual care in a general geriatric unit formed the control group. Primary outcomes included gait and balance performances and the level of independence in ADL measured 12 ± 6 days apart. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, incidence of in-hospital falls, hospital readmission, and mortality rates. Compared to the usual care group, the intervention group had significant improvements in Timed Up and Go (adjusted mean difference [AMD] = -3.7s; 95 % CI = -6.8 to -0.7; P = 0.017), Tinetti (AMD = -1.4; 95 % CI = -2.1 to -0.8; P fall-and-fracture risk-based intervention program, applied in a dedicated geriatric hospital unit, was effective and more beneficial than usual care in improving physical parameters related to the risk of fall and disability among high-risk oldest old patients.
Freeland, Kathryn N; Thompson, Amy N; Zhao, Yumin; Leal, Julie E; Mauldin, Patrick D; Moran, William P
Studies have shown that approximately one third of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older will experience a fall each year. Many studies indicate that use of multiple medications may put patients at an increased risk of falling, but few studies have been conducted to correlate the number of medications with the risk of falls. To determine the medications most frequently used in patients aged 65 years or older who have experienced a fall within the past year, with particular attention to type or number of medications most commonly associated with multiple falls or a fall with injury. We conducted a chart review in an outpatient internal medicine clinic over a 13-month period. A total of 118 patients 65 years of age or older who were taking 4 or more medications and had experienced at least 1 fall in the previous 12 months were included. Data relating to sex, age, race, diagnoses, medications, and number and type of falls were obtained during the chart review. The primary end point of the study was number and type of medications most commonly used in patients experiencing a fall. A total of 116 patients were examined for trends in fall risk. A logistic regression model and receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated significant fall risk with the addition of medications, with patients experiencing a 14% increase in fall risk with the addition of each medication beyond a 4-medication regimen (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.27; p = 0.027). The addition of medications is associated with a significant increase in risk of falls in elderly patients, regardless of drug class. Further studies are needed to assess the possible increased risk of falls with increasing number of medications.
King, Barbara; Pecanac, Kristen; Krupp, Anna; Liebzeit, Daniel; Mahoney, Jane
Falls are common events for hospitalized older adults, resulting in negative outcomes both for patients and hospitals. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) has placed pressure on hospital administrators by identifying falls as a "never event", resulting in a zero falls goal for many hospitals. Staff nurses are responsible for providing direct care to patients and for meeting the hospital no falls goal. Little is known about the impact of "zero falls" on nurses, patients and the organization. A qualitative study, using Grounded Dimensional Analysis (GDA) was conducted to explore nurses' experiences with fall prevention in hospital settings and the impact of those experiences on how nurses provide care to fall risk patients. Twenty-seven registered nurses and certified nursing assistants participated in in-depth interviews. Open, axial and selective coding was used to analyze data. A conceptual model which illustrates the impact of intense messaging from nursing administration to prevent patient falls on nurses, actions nurses take to address the message and the consequences to nurses, older adult patients and to the organization was developed. Intense messaging from hospital administration to achieve zero falls resulted in nurses developing a fear of falls, protecting self and unit, and restricting fall risk patients as a way to stop messages and meet the hospital goal. Results of this study identify unintended consequences of fall prevention message on nurses and older adult patients. Further research is needed understand how nurse care for fall risk patients.
Aibar-Almazán, Agustín; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Jiménez-García, José D; Achalandabaso, Alexander; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; de la Torre-Cruz, Manuel; Hita-Contreras, Fidel
To analyze the association of sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity (SO) with fear of falling (FoF) and balance confidence in a Spanish sample of middle-aged and older community-dwelling women. A total of 235 women (69.21±7.56 years) participated in this study. Body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), hand-grip strength, and physical performance (gait speed) were evaluated for the diagnosis of sarcopenia, obesity, and SO. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) were employed to assess FoF and balance confidence, respectively. Scores of >26 on the FES-I and risk of falling. The independent associations of sarcopenia, obesity and SO with FoF, balance confidence, and fall risk were evaluated by multivariate linear and logistic regressions, adjusting for potential confounding variables. 27.23% and 18.72% of women presented with sarcopenia and SO, respectively. Gait speed, body mass index (BMI), and fall history were independently associated with ABC score (adjusted-R 2 =0.152) and fall risk (ABC) (adjusted-R 2 =0.115). FES-I score was independently associated (adjusted-R 2 =0.193) with fall history, gait speed, BMI, and depression, which, together with obesity (BMI) and SO, remained independent factors for fall risk measured as FES-I score (adjusted-R 2 =0.243). In community-dwelling middle-aged and older Spanish women, BMI, gait speed, and fall history were independently associated with FoF, balance confidence, and fall risk. Depression was related only to FoF, and, together with obesity (BMI) and SO, was an independent predictor of fall risk as assessed by the FES-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van der Velde, Nathalie; Meerding, Willen Jan; Looman, Caspar W; Pols, Huibert A P; van der Cammen, Tischa J M
Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs has been proven to be effective in older persons. However, given the enormous rise in healthcare costs in recent decades, the effect of such withdrawals on healthcare costs also needs to be considered. Within a common geriatric outpatient population, patients with a history of falls were assessed for falls risk (n = 139). Fall-risk-increasing drugs were withdrawn when appropriate (n = 75). All participants had a 2-month follow-up for fall incidents. The number of prevented falls was calculated using a loglinear regression model. The savings on health expenditures as a result of prevented injuries (estimated from a literature review) and reduced consumption of pharmaceuticals were compared with the intervention costs. After adjustment for confounders, drug withdrawal resulted in a falls risk reduction of 0.89 (95% CI 0.33, 0.98) per patient compared with the non-withdrawal group. Net cost savings were euro1691 (95% CI 662, 2181) per patient in the cohort. This resulted in a cost saving of euro491 (95% CI 465, 497) per prevented fall. Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs generates significant cost savings. Extrapolation of these findings to a national scale results in an estimated reduction of euro60 million in healthcare expenditures, that is, 15% of fall-related health costs.
Matarese, Maria; Ivziku, Dhurata; Bartolozzi, Francesco; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia
To determine the most accurate fall risk screening tools for predicting falls among patients aged 65 years or older admitted to acute care hospitals. Falls represent a serious problem in older inpatients due to the potential physical, social, psychological and economic consequences. Older inpatients present with risk factors associated with age-related physiological and psychological changes as well as multiple morbidities. Thus, fall risk screening tools for older adults should include these specific risk factors. There are no published recommendations addressing what tools are appropriate for older hospitalized adults. Systematic review. MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane electronic databases were searched between January 1981-April 2013. Only prospective validation studies reporting sensitivity and specificity values were included. Recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Reviews have been followed. Three fall risk assessment tools were evaluated in seven articles. Due to the limited number of studies, meta-analysis was carried out only for the STRATIFY and Hendrich Fall Risk Model II. In the combined analysis, the Hendrich Fall Risk Model II demonstrated higher sensitivity than STRATIFY, while the STRATIFY showed higher specificity. In both tools, the Youden index showed low prognostic accuracy. The identified tools do not demonstrate predictive values as high as needed for identifying older inpatients at risk for falls. For this reason, no tool can be recommended for fall detection. More research is needed to evaluate fall risk screening tools for older inpatients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Callisaya, Michele L.; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai K.; Verghese, Joe
Background The Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome (MCR) is characterized by slow gait speed and cognitive complaints. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of MCR increases the risk of falls in older people. Methods Individual participant data (n = 6,204) from five longitudinal studies from three countries were used for this analysis. MCR diagnosis was defined as both the presence of objectively measured slow gait speed and subjective cognitive complaints in those without dementia or mobility disability. Falls were prospectively ascertained using phone calls or questionnaires. Log binomial regression was performed to determine if MCR increased the risk of falls separately in each cohort. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool results from all cohorts. Results The mean age of participants was 74.9 (SD 6.8) years and 44% (n = 2728) were male. Overall 33.9% (n = 2104) reported a fall over follow-up. Pooled relative risk of MCR with any falls was RR 1.44 95% CI 1.16, 1.79. The components of MCR, slow gait (RR 1.30 95% CI 1.14, 1.47) and cognitive complaint (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07, 1.46) were also associated with an increased risk of any falls. In sub-analyses MCR was associated with any fall independent of previous falls (RR 1.29 95% CI 1.09, 1.53) and with multiple falls (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.25, 2.51). Conclusion MCR is associated with an increased risk of falls. The increase in risk was higher than for its individual components. The simplicity of the MCR makes it an attractive falls risk screening tool for the clinic. PMID:27340851
Ivziku, Dhurata; Matarese, Maria; Pedone, Claudio
Falls are the most common adverse events reported in acute care hospitals, and older patients are the most likely to fall. The risk of falling cannot be completely eliminated, but it can be reduced through the implementation of a fall prevention program. A major evidence-based intervention to prevent falls has been the use of fall-risk assessment tools. Many tools have been increasingly developed in recent years, but most instruments have not been investigated regarding reliability, validity and clinical usefulness. This study intends to evaluate the predictive validity and inter-rater reliability of Hendrich fall risk model II (HFRM II) in order to identify older patients at risk of falling in geriatric units and recommend its use in clinical practice. A prospective descriptive design was used. The study was carried out in a geriatric acute care unit of an Italian University hospital. All over 65 years old patients consecutively admitted to a geriatric acute care unit of an Italian University hospital over 8-month period were enrolled. The patients enrolled were screened for the falls risk by nurses with the HFRM II within 24h of admission. The falls occurring during the patient's hospital stay were registered. Inter-rater reliability, area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and time for the administration were evaluated. 179 elderly patients were included. The inter-rater reliability was 0.87 (95% CI 0.71-1.00). The administration time was about 1min. The most frequently reported risk factors were depression, incontinence, vertigo. Sensitivity and specificity were respectively 86% and 43%. The optimal cut-off score for screening at risk patients was 5 with an area under the ROC curve of 0.72. The risk factors more strongly associated with falls were confusion and depression. As falls of older patients are a common problem in acute care settings it is necessary that the nurses use specific validate and reliable
Márcio Rogério de Oliveira
Full Text Available Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platform to measure postural balance through parameters from the center of pressure (COP. Results Elderly individuals were split into two groups according to the score observed with the Downton scale: G1 — low fall risk (score ≤ 2 — and G2 — high fall risk (score > 2. No differences were observed between the groups concerning gender (P > 0.05, Chi Square test. On the other hand, individuals from G2 showed postural instability when compared to individuals from G1, and individuals from G2 showed higher values in all COP parameters analysed (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.05. Conclusion It can be concluded that the Downton scale has sensitivity for identifying individuals with balance impairment as well as a risk of falls. Therefore, it may be suggested that this scale may be useful in primary health care for detecting falls in the elderly.
Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani
Full Text Available Aging declines abilities and leads to increased risk of falling and subsequently poorer quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify a proper assessment for risk of falling among institutionalized elderly. In order to accomplish this aim, two functional assessment methods, Berg Scale and Tinetti Scale, were used and the validity indices of these methods were calculated. Prospective non-interventional methodological discriminative-validation study in order to make a comparative assessment of the discriminative validity of the two clinical assessment methods among the elderly people with/without history of falling. The frequency of falls within 6 months among institutionalized elderly individuals was prospectively studied. Finally, those having had two or more falls within 6 months were enrolled in the faller group and those having no falls within 6 months were enrolled in the non-faller group. Twenty-one women and 33 men (mean age: 75.79, standard deviation [SD]: 8.47, range: 61-98 independent in their daily activities and able to walk 10 meters using/without assistive devices volunteered to participate in the study with awareness. Background variables included age, gender, use/nonuse of assistive devices, height, weight, number of the drugs used, and number of the diseases; independent variable was history of falling; and dependent variables were the results of the two functional assessment methods. Independent t-test indicated a significant difference between the two groups of fallers and non-fallers in the mean scores on Berg Balance Scale (P=0.0001 and Tinetti Scale (P=0.0001. The results of logistic regression test indicated much more discriminative validity for Berg Balance Scale test than Tinetti Scale test. Studying the validity of Berg Balance Scale assessment method showed that all validity indices should be regarded as bases for clinical decision.
Ahmad Ali Akbari-Kamrani
Full Text Available Objective: Aging decline abilities and leads to increased risk of falling and subsequently poorer quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify a proper assessment for risk of falling among institutionalized elderly people. Materials & Methods: Prospective non–interventional methodological discriminative–validation study in order to make a comparative assessment of the discriminative validity of the two clinical assessment methods among the elderly people with/ without history of falling. The frequency of falls within 6 months among institutionalized elderly individuals was prospectively studied. Finally, those having had two or more falls within 6 months were enrolled in the faller group and those having no falls within 6 months were enrolled in the non-faller group. Twenty-one women and 33 men (mean age: 75.79, standard deviation [SD]: 8.47, range: 61-98 independent in their daily activities and able to walk 10 meters using / without assistive devices volunteered to participate in the study with awareness. Background variables included age, gender, use / nonuse of assistive devices, height, weight, number of the drugs used, and number of the diseases independent variable was history of falling and dependent variables were the results of the two functional assessment methods. In order to accomplish the aim of study, two functional assessment methods, Berg scale and Tinetti scale, were used and the validity indices of these methods were calculated. Results: Independent t test indicated a significant difference between the two groups of fallers and non-fallers in the mean scores on Berg Balance Scale (p=0.00l and Tinetti Scale (p=0.00l. Conclusion: The results of logistic regression test indicated much more discriminative validity for Berg Balance Scale test than Tinetti Scale test. Studying the validity of Berg Balance Scale assessment method showed that all validity indices should be regarded as bases for clinical decision.
Huded, Jill M; Dresden, Scott M; Gravenor, Stephanie J; Rowe, Theresa; Lindquist, Lee A
Seniors represent the fasting growing population in the U.S., accounting for 20.3 million visits to emergency departments (EDs) annually. The ED visit can provide an opportunity for identifying seniors at high risk of falls. We sought to incorporate the Timed Up & Go Test (TUGT), a commonly used falls screening tool, into the ED encounter to identify seniors at high fall risk and prompt interventions through a geriatric nurse liaison (GNL) model. Patients aged 65 and older presenting to an urban ED were evaluated by a team of ED nurses trained in care coordination and geriatric assessment skills. They performed fall risk screening with the TUGT. Patients with abnormal TUGT results could then be referred to physical therapy (PT), social work or home health as determined by the GNL. Gait assessment with the TUGT was performed on 443 elderly patients between 4/1/13 and 5/31/14. A prior fall was reported in 37% of patients in the previous six months. Of those screened with the TUGT, 368 patients experienced a positive result. Interventions for positive results included ED-based PT (n=63, 17.1%), outpatient PT referrals (n=56, 12.2%) and social work consultation (n=162, 44%). The ED visit may provide an opportunity for older adults to be screened for fall risk. Our results show ED nurses can conduct the TUGT, a validated and time efficient screen, and place appropriate referrals based on assessment results. Identifying and intervening on high fall risk patients who visit the ED has the potential to improve the trajectory of functional decline in our elderly population.
Jill M. Huded
Full Text Available Introduction: Seniors represent the fasting growing population in the U.S., accounting for 20.3 million visits to emergency departments (EDs annually. The ED visit can provide an opportunity for identifying seniors at high risk of falls. We sought to incorporate the Timed Up & Go Test (TUGT, a commonly used falls screening tool, into the ED encounter to identify seniors at high fall risk and prompt interventions through a geriatric nurse liaison (GNL model. Methods: Patients aged 65 and older presenting to an urban ED were evaluated by a team of ED nurses trained in care coordination and geriatric assessment skills. They performed fall risk screening with the TUGT. Patients with abnormal TUGT results could then be referred to physical therapy (PT, social work or home health as determined by the GNL. Results: Gait assessment with the TUGT was performed on 443 elderly patients between 4/1/13 and 5/31/14. A prior fall was reported in 37% of patients in the previous six months. Of those screened with the TUGT, 368 patients experienced a positive result. Interventions for positive results included ED-based PT (n=63, 17.1%, outpatient PT referrals (n=56, 12.2% and social work consultation (n=162, 44%. Conclusion: The ED visit may provide an opportunity for older adults to be screened for fall risk. Our results show ED nurses can conduct the TUGT, a validated and time efficient screen, and place appropriate referrals based on assessment results. Identifying and intervening on high fall risk patients who visit the ED has the potential to improve the trajectory of functional decline in our elderly population.
Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from a high fall risk. Previous approaches for evaluating fall risk are based on self-report or testing at a given time point and may, therefore, be insufficient to optimally capture fall risk. We tested, for the first time, whether metrics derived from 3 day continuous recordings are associated with fall risk in PD. 107 patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stage: 2.6±0.7) wore a small, body-fixed sensor (3D accelerometer) on lower back for 3 days. Walking quantity (e.g., steps per 3-days) and quality (e.g., frequency-derived measures of gait variability) were determined. Subjects were classified as fallers or non-fallers based on fall history. Subjects were also followed for one year to evaluate predictors of the transition from non-faller to faller. The 3 day acceleration derived measures were significantly different in fallers and non-fallers and were significantly correlated with previously validated measures of fall risk. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups. In contrast, the fallers walked with higher step-to-step variability, e.g., anterior-posterior width of the dominant frequency was larger (p = 0.012) in the fallers (0.78 ± 0.17 Hz) compared to the non-fallers (0.71 ± 0.07 Hz). Among subjects who reported no falls in the year prior to testing, sensor-derived measures predicted the time to first fall (p = 0.0034), whereas many traditional measures did not. Cox regression analysis showed that anterior-posterior width was significantly (p = 0.0039) associated with time to fall during the follow-up period, even after adjusting for traditional measures. These findings indicate that a body-fixed sensor worn continuously can evaluate fall risk in PD. This sensor-based approach was able to identify transition from non-faller to faller, whereas many traditional metrics were not successful. This approach may facilitate earlier detection of fall risk and may in the future, help reduce high costs associated with falls.
Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.
Background Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from a high fall risk. Previous approaches for evaluating fall risk are based on self-report or testing at a given time point and may, therefore, be insufficient to optimally capture fall risk. We tested, for the first time, whether metrics derived from 3 day continuous recordings are associated with fall risk in PD. Methods and Materials 107 patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stage: 2.6±0.7) wore a small, body-fixed sensor (3D accelerometer) on lower back for 3 days. Walking quantity (e.g., steps per 3-days) and quality (e.g., frequency-derived measures of gait variability) were determined. Subjects were classified as fallers or non-fallers based on fall history. Subjects were also followed for one year to evaluate predictors of the transition from non-faller to faller. Results The 3 day acceleration derived measures were significantly different in fallers and non-fallers and were significantly correlated with previously validated measures of fall risk. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups. In contrast, the fallers walked with higher step-to-step variability, e.g., anterior-posterior width of the dominant frequency was larger (p = 0.012) in the fallers (0.78±0.17 Hz) compared to the non-fallers (0.71±0.07 Hz). Among subjects who reported no falls in the year prior to testing, sensor-derived measures predicted the time to first fall (p = 0.0034), whereas many traditional measures did not. Cox regression analysis showed that anterior-posterior width was significantly (p = 0.0039) associated with time to fall during the follow-up period, even after adjusting for traditional measures. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that a body-fixed sensor worn continuously can evaluate fall risk in PD. This sensor-based approach was able to identify transition from non-faller to faller, whereas many traditional metrics were not successful. This approach may facilitate earlier detection of fall
Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle
Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with Pfalls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was Pfalls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (Pfalls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls may help detect individuals at risk of falling.
This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas.
This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas
Defining fall risk factors and predicting fall risk status among patients in acute care has been a topic of research for decades. With increasing pressure on hospitals to provide quality care and prevent hospital-acquired conditions, the search for effective fall prevention interventions continues. Hundreds of risk factors for falls in acute care…
Paul, Serene S; Thackeray, Anne; Duncan, Ryan P; Cavanaugh, James T; Ellis, Theresa D; Earhart, Gammon M; Ford, Matthew P; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E
Objective To examine fall risk trajectories occurring naturally in a sample of individuals with early to middle stage Parkinson’s disease (PD). Design Latent class analysis, specifically growth mixture modeling (GMM) of longitudinal fall risk trajectories. Setting Not applicable. Participants 230 community-dwelling PD participants of a longitudinal cohort study who attended at least two of five assessments over a two year period. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Fall risk trajectory (low, medium or high risk) and stability of fall risk trajectory (stable or fluctuating). Fall risk was determined at 6-monthly intervals using a simple clinical tool based on fall history, freezing of gait, and gait speed. Results The GMM optimally grouped participants into three fall risk trajectories that closely mirrored baseline fall risk status (p=.001). The high fall risk trajectory was most common (42.6%) and included participants with longer and more severe disease and with higher postural instability and gait disability (PIGD) scores than the low and medium risk trajectories (pfall risk (posterior probability fall risk trajectories over two years. Further investigation is required to determine whether interventions to improve gait and balance may improve fall risk trajectories in people with PD. PMID:26606871
Karinkanta, Saija; Piirtola, Maarit; Sievänen, Harri; Uusi-Rasi, Kirsti; Kannus, Pekka
Falls and fall-related injuries, such as fractures, are a growing problem among older adults, often causing longstanding pain, functional impairments, reduced quality of life and excess health-care costs and mortality. These problems have led to a variety of single component or multicomponent intervention strategies to prevent falls and subsequent injuries. The most effective physical therapy approach for the prevention of falls and fractures in community-dwelling older adults is regular multicomponent exercise; a combination of balance and strength training has shown the most success. Home-hazard assessment and modification, as well as assistive devices, such as canes and walkers, might be useful for older people at a high risk of falls. Hip protectors are effective in nursing home residents and potentially among other high-risk individuals. In addition, use of anti-slip shoe devices in icy conditions seems beneficial for older people walking outdoors. To be effective, multifactorial preventive programs should include an exercise component accompanied by individually tailored measures focused on high-risk populations. In this Review, we focus on evidence-based physical therapy approaches, including exercise, vibration training and improvements of safety at home and during periods of mobility. Additionally, the benefits of multifaceted interventions, which include risk factor assessment, dietary supplements, elements of physical therapy and exercise, are addressed.
Holt, Kelly R; Noone, Paul L; Short, Krystal; Elley, C Raina; Haavik, Heidi
The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fall risk factors in older chiropractic patients. The secondary aim was to investigate the quality-of-life status of older chiropractic patients and to see whether a history of falling was related to quality-of-life status. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 12 chiropractic practices throughout Auckland, New Zealand, and Melbourne, Australia. The study involved gaining a profile of health status, fall history, and fall risk from active chiropractic patients who were 65 years or older. One hundred ten older chiropractic patients were approached, and 101 agreed to participate in this study (response rate, 91.8%). Thirty-five percent of participants had experienced at least 1 fall in the previous 12 months. Of those that had fallen, 80% had at least a minor injury, with 37% of fallers requiring medical attention and 6% suffering a serious injury. The prevalence of most fall risk factors was consistent with published data for community-dwelling older adults. Quality of life of older chiropractic patients appeared to be good, but fallers reported a lower physical component summary score compared with nonfallers (P = .04). A portion of the older chiropractic patients sampled in this study had a substantial risk of falling. This risk could be assessed on a regular basis for the presence of modifiable fall risk factors, and appropriate advice, given when fall risks are identified. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Maintaining and controlling postural balance is important for activities of daily living, with poor postural balance being predictive of future falls. This study investigated eyes open and eyes closed standing posturography with elderly adults to identify differences and determine appropriate outcome measure cut-off scores for prospective faller, single-faller, multi-faller, and non-faller classifications. 100 older adults (75.5 ± 6.7 years) stood quietly with eyes open and then eyes closed while Wii Balance Board data were collected. Range in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) center of pressure (CoP) motion; AP and ML CoP root mean square distance from mean (RMS); and AP, ML, and vector sum magnitude (VSM) CoP velocity were calculated. Romberg Quotients (RQ) were calculated for all parameters. Participants reported six-month fall history and six-month post-assessment fall occurrence. Groups were retrospective fallers (24), prospective all fallers (42), prospective fallers (22 single, 6 multiple), and prospective non-fallers (47). Non-faller RQ AP range and RQ AP RMS differed from prospective all fallers, fallers, and single fallers. Non-faller eyes closed AP velocity, eyes closed VSM velocity, RQ AP velocity, and RQ VSM velocity differed from multi-fallers. RQ calculations were particularly relevant for elderly fall risk assessments. Cut-off scores from Clinical Cut-off Score, ROC curves, and discriminant functions were clinically viable for multi-faller classification and provided better accuracy than single-faller classification. RQ AP range with cut-off score 1.64 could be used to screen for older people who may fall once. Prospective multi-faller classification with a discriminant function (-1.481 + 0.146 x Eyes Closed AP Velocity—0.114 x Eyes Closed Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity—2.027 x RQ AP Velocity + 2.877 x RQ Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity) and cut-off score 0.541 achieved an accuracy of 84.9% and is viable as a screening tool for older
Howcroft, Jennifer; Lemaire, Edward D; Kofman, Jonathan; McIlroy, William E
Maintaining and controlling postural balance is important for activities of daily living, with poor postural balance being predictive of future falls. This study investigated eyes open and eyes closed standing posturography with elderly adults to identify differences and determine appropriate outcome measure cut-off scores for prospective faller, single-faller, multi-faller, and non-faller classifications. 100 older adults (75.5 ± 6.7 years) stood quietly with eyes open and then eyes closed while Wii Balance Board data were collected. Range in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) center of pressure (CoP) motion; AP and ML CoP root mean square distance from mean (RMS); and AP, ML, and vector sum magnitude (VSM) CoP velocity were calculated. Romberg Quotients (RQ) were calculated for all parameters. Participants reported six-month fall history and six-month post-assessment fall occurrence. Groups were retrospective fallers (24), prospective all fallers (42), prospective fallers (22 single, 6 multiple), and prospective non-fallers (47). Non-faller RQ AP range and RQ AP RMS differed from prospective all fallers, fallers, and single fallers. Non-faller eyes closed AP velocity, eyes closed VSM velocity, RQ AP velocity, and RQ VSM velocity differed from multi-fallers. RQ calculations were particularly relevant for elderly fall risk assessments. Cut-off scores from Clinical Cut-off Score, ROC curves, and discriminant functions were clinically viable for multi-faller classification and provided better accuracy than single-faller classification. RQ AP range with cut-off score 1.64 could be used to screen for older people who may fall once. Prospective multi-faller classification with a discriminant function (-1.481 + 0.146 x Eyes Closed AP Velocity-0.114 x Eyes Closed Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity-2.027 x RQ AP Velocity + 2.877 x RQ Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity) and cut-off score 0.541 achieved an accuracy of 84.9% and is viable as a screening tool for older
Full Text Available Maintaining and controlling postural balance is important for activities of daily living, with poor postural balance being predictive of future falls. This study investigated eyes open and eyes closed standing posturography with elderly adults to identify differences and determine appropriate outcome measure cut-off scores for prospective faller, single-faller, multi-faller, and non-faller classifications. 100 older adults (75.5 ± 6.7 years stood quietly with eyes open and then eyes closed while Wii Balance Board data were collected. Range in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML center of pressure (CoP motion; AP and ML CoP root mean square distance from mean (RMS; and AP, ML, and vector sum magnitude (VSM CoP velocity were calculated. Romberg Quotients (RQ were calculated for all parameters. Participants reported six-month fall history and six-month post-assessment fall occurrence. Groups were retrospective fallers (24, prospective all fallers (42, prospective fallers (22 single, 6 multiple, and prospective non-fallers (47. Non-faller RQ AP range and RQ AP RMS differed from prospective all fallers, fallers, and single fallers. Non-faller eyes closed AP velocity, eyes closed VSM velocity, RQ AP velocity, and RQ VSM velocity differed from multi-fallers. RQ calculations were particularly relevant for elderly fall risk assessments. Cut-off scores from Clinical Cut-off Score, ROC curves, and discriminant functions were clinically viable for multi-faller classification and provided better accuracy than single-faller classification. RQ AP range with cut-off score 1.64 could be used to screen for older people who may fall once. Prospective multi-faller classification with a discriminant function (-1.481 + 0.146 x Eyes Closed AP Velocity-0.114 x Eyes Closed Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity-2.027 x RQ AP Velocity + 2.877 x RQ Vector Sum Magnitude Velocity and cut-off score 0.541 achieved an accuracy of 84.9% and is viable as a screening tool for
Sadowska, Dorota; Stemplewski, Rafal; Szeklicki, Robert
Introduction: Early diagnosis of postural control deficiencies facilitates implementation of an individual rehabilitation plan to prevent falls. The aim of the study was to assess the risk of falling in individuals with visual impairments, and to compare performance-based and theoretical limits of stability in subjects with various risks of…
Fielding, Susan J; McKay, Michael; Hyrkas, Kristiina
To identify and test the reliability of a fall risk screening tool in an ambulatory outpatient clinic. The Fall Risk Screening Tool (Albert Lea Medical Center, MN, USA) was scripted for an interview format. Two interviewers separately screened a convenience sample of 111 patients (age ≥ 65 years) in an ambulatory outpatient clinic in a northeastern US city. The interviewers' scoring of fall risk categories was similar. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.834-0.889) and inter-rater reliability [intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.824-0.881] for total, Risk Factor and Client's Health Status subscales. The Physical Environment scores indicated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.742) and adequate reliability (ICC = 0.688). Two Physical Environment items (furniture and medical equipment condition) had low reliabilities [Kappa (K) = 0.323, P = 0.08; K = -0.078, P = 0.648), respectively. The scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool demonstrated good reliability in this sample. Rewording two Physical Environment items will be considered. A reliable instrument such as the scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool provides a standardised assessment for identifying high fall risk patients. This tool is especially useful because it assesses personal, behavioural and environmental factors specific to community-dwelling patients; the interview format also facilitates patient-provider interaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim, Ho-Joong; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Han, Chang-Dong; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Kim, Hak-Sun; Park, Jin-Oh; Moon, Eun-Su; Kim, Bo-Ram; Sohn, Joon-Seok; Shin, Seung-Yup; Jang, Ju-Woong; Lee, Kwang-Il; Lee, Hwan-Mo
A prospective case control study. To investigate the risk of a fall by using functional mobility tests in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) via a comparison with patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). LSS is a degenerative arthritic disease in the spine that results in decreasing function, impaired balance, and gait deficit, with increased levels of leg and back pain. This physical impairment may result in an increased risk of fall later in the disease process, as shown in KOA. However, there has been no study regarding the association between the risk of a fall and LSS. The study was an age- and weight-matched case control study consisting of two groups: one group consisting of 40 patients with LSS who were scheduled to undergo spine surgery (LSS group) and the other group consisting of 40 patients with advanced osteoarthritis in both knees, scheduled to undergo TKA on both knees (KOA group). For both groups, four functional mobility tests, such as a Six-Meter-Walk Test (SMT), Sit-to-Stand test (STS), Alternative-Step Test (AST), and Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), were performed. There was no difference in demographic data between both groups except for body mass index. For the SMT and STS, the patients in the LSS group spent significantly more time performing these tests than the patients in the KOA. For the AST, however, patients in the KOA group presented a statistically worse performance in functional mobility, compared with the LSS group. The mean TUGT time was not statistically different between the two groups. The current study highlights that patients with symptomatic LSS have a risk of a fall comparable with the patients who had degenerative KOA based on the results of functional mobility tests (SMT, STS, AST, and TUGT).
Morrison, S; Colberg, S R; Parson, H K; Vinik, A I
For older individuals with diabetes, any decline in balance control can be especially problematic since it is often a precursor to an increased risk of falling. This study was designed to evaluate differences in postural motion dynamics and falls risk for older individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) classified as fallers/non-fallers and, to assess what impact exercise has on balance and falls risk. The results demonstrated that the risk of falling is greater for those older individuals with multiple risk factors including diabetes and a previous falls history. The postural motion features of the high-risk individuals (T2DM-fallers) were also different, being characterized by increased variability and complexity, increased AP-ML coupling, less overall COP motion and increased velocity. One suggestion is that these individuals evoked a stiffening strategy during the more challenging postural tasks. Following training, a decline in falls risk was observed for all groups, with this effect being most pronounced for the T2DM-fallers. Interestingly, the COP motion of this group became more similar to controls, exhibiting decreased complexity and variability, and decreased velocity. The reciprocal changes in COP complexity support the broader view that age/disease-related changes in physiological complexity are bi-directional. Overall, these results show that, even for older T2DM individuals at greater risk of falling, targeted interventions can positively enhance their postural dynamics. Further, the finding that the pattern of postural motion variability and complexity was altered highlights that a decline in physiological complexity may not always be negatively associated with aging and/or disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Galambos, Colleen; Rantz, Marilyn; Back, Jessie; Jun, Jung Sim; Skubic, Marjorie; Miller, Steven J
Aging in place is a preferred and cost-effective living option for older adults. Research indicates that technology can assist with this goal. Information on consumer preferences will help in technology development to assist older adults to age in place. The study aim was to explore the perceptions and preferences of older adults and their family members about a fall risk assessment system. Using a qualitative approach, this study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and preferences of 13 older adults and five family members about their experience living with the fall risk assessment system during five points in time. Themes emerged in relation to preferences and expectations about the technology and how it fits into daily routines. We were able to capture changes that occurred over time for older adult participants. Results indicated that there was acceptance of the technology as participants adapted to it. Two themes were present across the five points in time-safety and usefulness. Five stages of acceptance emerged from the data from preinstallation to 2 years postinstallation. Identified themes, stages of acceptance, and design and development considerations are discussed.
Sambrook, P N; Cameron, I D; Chen, J S; Cumming, R G; Lord, S R; March, L M; Schwarz, J; Seibel, M J; Simpson, J M
When subjects are selected on the basis of fall risk alone, therapies for osteoporosis have not been effective. In a prospective study of elderly subjects at high risk of falls, we investigated the influence of bone strength and fall risk on fracture. At baseline we assessed calcaneal bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) as well as quantitative measures of fall risk in 2005 subjects in residential care. Incident falls and fractures were recorded (median follow-up 705 days). A total of 6646 fall events and 375 low trauma fracture events occurred. The fall rate was 214 per 100 person years and the fracture rate 12.1 per 100 person years. 82% of the fractures could be attributed to falls. Although fracture rates increased with decreasing BUA (incidence rate ratio 1.94 for lowest vs. highest BUA tertile, pfalls also affected fracture incidence. Subjects who fell frequently (>3.15 falls/per person year) were 3.35 times more likely to suffer a fracture than those who did not fall. Some fall risk factors such as balance were associated with the lowest fracture risk lowest in the worst performing group. Multivariate analysis revealed higher fall rate, history of previous fracture, lower BUA, lower body weight, cognitive impairment and better balance as significant independent risk factors for fracture. In the frail elderly, both skeletal fragility and fall risk including the frequency of exposure to falls are important determinants of fracture risk.
Kikkert, Lisette H. J.; de Groot, Maartje H; van Campen, Jos P.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Lamoth, Claudine C. J.
Fall prediction in geriatric patients remains challenging because the increased fall risk involves multiple, interrelated factors caused by natural aging and/or pathology. Therefore, we used a multi-factorial statistical approach to model categories of modifiable fall risk factors among geriatric patients to identify fallers with highest sensitivity and specificity with a focus on gait performance. Patients (n = 61, age = 79; 41% fallers) underwent extensive screening in three categories: (1)...
Marier, Allison; Olsho, Lauren E W; Rhodes, William; Spector, William D
Falls are physically and financially costly, but may be preventable with targeted intervention. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) is one potential source of information on fall risk factors among nursing home residents, but its limited breadth and relatively infrequent updates may limit its practical utility. Richer, more frequently updated data from electronic medical records (EMRs) may improve ability to identify individuals at highest risk for falls. The authors applied a repeated events survival model to analyze MDS 3.0 and EMR data for 5129 residents in 13 nursing homes within a single large California chain that uses a centralized EMR system from a leading vendor. Estimated regression parameters were used to project resident fall probability. The authors examined the proportion of observed falls within each projected fall risk decile to assess improvements in predictive power from including EMR data. In a model incorporating fall risk factors from the MDS only, 28.6% of observed falls occurred among residents in the highest projected risk decile. In an alternative specification incorporating more frequently updated measures for the same risk factors from the EMR data, 32.3% of observed falls occurred among residents in the highest projected risk decile, a 13% increase over the base MDS-only specification. Incorporating EMR data improves ability to identify those at highest risk for falls relative to prediction using MDS data alone. These improvements stem chiefly from the greater frequency with which EMR data are updated, with minimal additional gains from availability of additional risk factor variables. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Grundstrom, Anna C; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter M
Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. No previous studies on risk factors for falls have focused on adults 85 years and older, the most rapidly growing segment of adults. We examined demographic, health, and behavioral risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 65 years and older, with a particular focus on adults 85 years and older. We analyzed self-reported information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2008. Data was available for 120,923 people aged 65 or older and 12,684 people aged 85 or older. Of those aged 85 or older, 21.3% reported at least one fall in the past 3 months and 7.2% reported at least one fall related injury requiring medical care or limiting activity for a day or longer. Below average general health, male sex, perceived insufficient sleep, health problems requiring assistive devices, alcohol consumption, increasing body mass index and history of stroke were all independently associated with a greater risk of falls or fall related injuries. The greater risk of falling in those 85 years and older appeared to be due to the deterioration of overall health status with age; among those with excellent overall health status, there was no greater risk of falling in adults 85 years and older compared to those 65-84 years of age. Our results suggest that those with risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries may be appropriate targets for evidence-based fall prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernando, Eresha; Fraser, Michelle; Hendriksen, Jane; Kim, Corey H; Muir-Hunter, Susan W
Purpose: People with dementia fall more often than cognitively healthy older adults, but their risk factors are not well understood. A review is needed to determine a fall risk profile for this population. The objective was to critically evaluate the literature and identify the factors associated with fall risk in older adults with dementia. Methods: Articles published between January 1988 and October 2014 in EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched. Inclusion criteria were participants aged 55 years or older with dementia or cognitive impairment, prospective cohort design, detailed fall definition, falls as the primary outcome, and multi-variable regression analysis. Two authors independently reviewed and extracted data on study characteristics, quality assessment, and outcomes. Adjusted risk estimates were extracted from the articles. Results: A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors were categorized into demographic, balance, gait, vision, functional status, medications, psychosocial, severity of dementia, and other. Risk factors varied with living setting and were not consistent across all studies within a setting. Conclusion: Falls in older adults with dementia are associated with multiple intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, some shared with older adults in general and others unique to the disease. Risk factors vary between community- and institution-dwelling samples of adults with dementia or cognitive impairment.
Elliott, Sharon J; Ivanescu, Andrada; Leland, Natalie E; Fogo, Jennifer; Painter, Jane A; Trujillo, Leonard G
This pilot study examined the feasibility of (1) conducting interdisciplinary fall risk screens at a communitywide adult fall prevention event and (2) collecting preliminary follow-up data from people screened at the event about balance confidence and home and activity modifications made after receiving educational information at the event. We conducted a pilot study with pre- and posttesting (4-mo follow-up) with 35 community-dwelling adults ≥55 yr old. Approximately half the participants were at risk for falls. Most participants who anticipated making environmental or activity changes to reduce fall risk initiated changes (n = 8/11; 72.7%) during the 4-mo follow-up period. We found no significant difference in participants' balance confidence between baseline (median = 62.81) and follow-up (median = 64.06) as measured by the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Conducting interdisciplinary fall risk screens at an adult fall prevention event is feasible and can facilitate environmental and behavior changes to reduce fall risk. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Stone, Carol A
Retrospective studies of inpatients with cancer suggest that a cancer diagnosis confers a high risk of falls. In adults with advanced cancer, we aimed to prospectively document the incidence of falls, identify the risk factors, and determine if falls in this population occur predominantly in older patients.
Aline de Souza Pereira
Full Text Available Objective: To determine risk factors for falls in children based on the Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM. Method: A qualitative approach, in which we interviewed six relatives of children who were admitted to an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceara due to fall in the period from August to September, 2005. According to the CFAM we did the genogram and eco-map of two families (1 and (2. Results: By the genogram and eco-map of the families, we observed that (1 is a single parent family with six children, Roman Catholic, earns one minimum wage and attends both school and Family Health Basic Unit (UBSF. (2 is a nuclear family, with two children, Roman Catholic, earns three or more minimum wages and attends school, work and UBSF. Conclusion: The Calgary Family Assessment Model enabled to know the family structures of the children who had suffered falls and helped in defining the risk factors that exist within families and social environments in which these children attend. Family income, number of children, the presence or absence of fathers, schooling and lack of spaces for education support represent risk factors for these accidents.
Demura, Shinichi; Yamada, Takayoshi; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Sugiura, Hiroki; Hamazaki, Hiroshi
This study aimed to examine useful items for screening the fall risk of community dwelling elderly from various perspectives, including fall experience, physical function level, and age level difference. 968 independently living elderly persons over the age of 60 (age: 70.0 ± 7.0) responded to 80 fall risk items representing 7 factors (physical function, fall history, using devices, fear of falling and inactivity, dosing, disease and disability, and environment) and an ADL questionnaire. The high fall risk response rate was calculated for each item and tested for statistical significance among age groups and those with and without fall experience. Cramer's V was calculated to examine the relationship between each item and the ADL. In addition, we selected items with significant differences in the high fall risk response rates between the faller and the non-faller groups, a significant relationship with ADL, and a significant difference among age groups. A total of 40 useful items were selected from each fall risk factor (decrease in physical function: 21 items, fall history: 2 items, device usage: 3 items, fear of falling and inactivity: 5 items, dosing: 0 items, disease and disability: 8 items, and environment: 1 item). Selected items can comprehensively and properly assess the fall risk of the healthy elderly as compared with existing questionnaires. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Freund-Heritage, Rosalie; da Costa, Bruno R
To review the literature to identify and synthesize the evidence on risk factors for patient falls in geriatric rehabilitation hospital settings. Eligible studies were systematically searched on 16 databases from inception to December 2010. The search strategies used a combination of terms for rehabilitation hospital patients, falls, risk factors and older adults. Cross-sectional, cohort, case-control studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published in English that investigated risks for falls among patients ≥65 years of age in rehabilitation hospital settings were included. Studies that investigated fall risk assessment tools, but did not investigate risk factors themselves or did not report a measure of risk (e.g. odds ratio, relative risk) were excluded. A total of 2,824 references were identified; only eight articles concerning six studies met the inclusion criteria. In these, 1,924 geriatric rehabilitation patients were followed. The average age of the patients ranged from 77 to 83 years, the percentage of women ranged from 56% to 81%, and the percentage of fallers ranged from 15% to 54%. Two were case-control studies, two were RCTs and four were prospective cohort studies. Several intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for falls were identified. Carpet flooring, vertigo, being an amputee, confusion, cognitive impairment, stroke, sleep disturbance, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers and antihypertensive medications, age between 71 and 80, previous falls, and need for transfer assistance are risk factors for geriatric patient falls in rehabilitation hospital settings.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influences of Ankylosing spondylitis on postural balance and the risk of falls. Methods: A total of 73 sobjects were recruited for the study, including 36 with AS (17 men, 19 women and 37 healthy controls (19 men, 18 women. Patients were evaluated in terms of balance and risk of falls. Balance and risk of falls was assessed with the Biodex Stability System. Results: The mean age, gender and body mass index of the participants did not differ significantly between (p=0.308, p=0.724, p=0.766, respectively. When groups were evaluated in terms of postural stability indexes Overall Stability Index (OSI, Antero-Posteior Stability Index (APSI and Medio-Lateral Stability Index (MLSI had no statistically significant difference (p=0.190, p=0.437 ve p=0.144, respectively. Fall Risk Index (FRI evaluations showed that as patients test scores were higher than control group (p=0.001. (Table 1. Conclusions: In this study, we present numerical data that suggests that AS are associated with risk of falling. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 86-91
Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J; Wheeler, Philip H; Hathcock, Matthew A; Wi, Chung-Il; Olson, Janet E; Cerhan, James R; Takahashi, Paul Y
Accidental falls are a major public health concern among people of all ages. Little is known about whether an individual-level housing-based socioeconomic status measure is associated with the risk of accidental falls. Among 12,286 Mayo Clinic Biobank participants residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, subjects who experienced accidental falls between the biobank enrollment and September 2014 were identified using ICD-9 codes evaluated at emergency departments. HOUSES (HOUsing-based Index of SocioEconomic Status), a socioeconomic status measure based on individual housing features, was also calculated. Cox regression models were utilized to assess the association of the HOUSES (in quartiles) with accidental fall risk. Seven hundred eleven (5.8%) participants had at least one emergency room visit due to an accidental fall during the study period. Subjects with higher HOUSES were less likely to experience falls in a dose-response manner (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.76 for comparing the highest to the lowest quartile). In addition, the HOUSES was positively associated with better health behaviors, social support, and functional status. The HOUSES is inversely associated with accidental fall risk requiring emergency care in a dose-response manner. The HOUSES may capture falls-related risk factors through housing features and socioeconomic status-related psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Verghese, Joe; Beauchet, Olivier; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.
Until recently, clinicians and researchers have performed gait assessments and cognitive assessments separately when evaluating older adults. Increasing evidence from clinical practice, epidemiological studies, and clinical trials shows that gait and cognition are inter-related in older adults. Quantifiable alterations in gait among older adults are associated with falls, dementia, and disability. At the same time, emerging evidence indicates that early disturbances in cognitive processes such as attention, executive function, and working memory are associated with slower gait and gait instability during single and dual-task testing, and that these cognitive disturbances assist in the prediction of future mobility loss, falls, and progression to dementia. This paper reviews the importance of the gait-cognition inter-relationship in aging and presents evidence that gait assessments can provide a window into the understanding of cognitive function and dysfunctions, and fall risk in older people in clinical practice. To this end, the benefits of dual-task gait assessments (e.g., walking while performing an attention-demanding task) as a marker of fall risk are summarized. Further, we also present a potential complementary approach for reducing the risk of falls by improving certain aspects of cognition through both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Untangling the relationship between early gait disturbances and early cognitive changes may be helpful for identifying older adults at higher risk of experiencing mobility decline, falls and the progression to dementia. PMID:23110433
Morris, John N; Howard, Elizabeth P; Steel, Knight; Berg, Katherine; Tchalla, Achille; Munankarmi, Amy; David, Daniel
According to the CDC, falls rank among the leading causes of accidental death in the United States, resulting in significant health care costs annually. In this paper we present information about everyday lifestyle decisions of the older adult that may help reduce the risk of falling. We pursued two lines of inquiry: first, we identify and then test known mutable fall risk factors and ask how the resolution of such problems correlates with changes in fall rates. Second, we identify a series of everyday lifestyle options that persons may follow and then ask, does such engagement (e.g., engagement in exercise programs) lessen the older adult's risk of falling and if it does, will the relationship hold as the count of risk factors increases? Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices and risk changes that may explain fall rates over one year, we drew on a data set of 13,623 community residing elders in independent housing sites from 24 US states. All older adults were assessed at baseline, and a subset assessed one year later (n = 4,563) using two interRAI tools: the interRAI Community Health Assessment and interRAI Wellness Assessment. For the vast majority of risk measures, problem resolution is followed by lower rate of falls. This is true for physical measures such as doing housework, meal preparation, unsteady gait, transferring, and dressing the lower body. Similarly, this pattern is observed for clinical measures such as depression, memory, vision, dizziness, and fatigue. Among the older adults who had a falls risk at the baseline assessment, about 20 % improve, that is, they had a decreased falls rate when the problem risk improved. This outcome suggests that improvement of physical or clinical states potentially may result in a decreased falls rate. Additionally, physical exercise and cognitive activities are associated with a lower rate of falls. The resolution of risk problems and physical and cognitive lifestyle choices are related to lower fall rates
Yardimci, Bulent; Aran, Sinan N.; Ozkaya, Ismail; Aksoy, Sevki M.; Demir, Tarik; Tezcan, Gulsen; Kaptanoglu, Aysegul Y.
Objectives: To determine the relation among the risk of falls, geriatric assessment, and anthropometric measurements, including the mini mental state examination, geriatric depression scale, handgrip test, and key pinch test. Methods: This prospective study included 89 residents hospitalized between May 2014 and September 2015 in the geriatric care unit of the Istanbul Balikli Rum Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Patients were followed-up for one year, and their falls were recorded. Medical records of the included patients were retrieved and analyzed. Results: A total of 89 patients, comprising 37 men and 52 women with an average age of 75.8 ± 8.2 years were included in the study. The residents’ annual falling averages were 1.0 ± 1.5. The most significant factors were identified to be predicted muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, whole body bioimpedance, dominant arm muscle strength, dominant arm bioimpedance, and free fat mass. Conclusions: The mini mental test, geriatric depression scale and lawton-brody scale combined with the handgrip, 6-meters walking, and bioimpedance tests are favorable for detecting the risk of falls and recurrent falls in vulnerable elderly nursing home residents. PMID:27652361
SUMMARY Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine Department of Nursing and Fundamentals of Internal Medicine Bachelor of Nursing Program Assessment of Risk for Falls and its Frequency Among Patients in a Long Term Care Institution Nursing Bachelor's thesis The Author: student Ilona Varnelo, nursing bachelor program at Vilnius University. Work Leader: assistant Viktorija Kielaitė, Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing and Fundamentals of Internal Medicine 16 – 05 – 2016,...
Farragher, Janine; Rajan, Tasleem; Chiu, Ernest; Ulutas, Ozkan; Tomlinson, George; Cook, Wendy L; Jassal, Sarbjit V
♦ Accidental falls are common in the hemodialysis (HD) population. The high fall rate has been attributed to a combination of aging, kidney disease-related morbidity, and HD treatment-related hazards. We hypothesized that patients maintained on peritoneal dialysis (PD) would have fewer falls than those on chronic HD. The objective of this study was to compare the falls risk between cohorts of elderly patients maintained on HD and PD, using prospective data from a large academic dialysis facility. ♦ Patients aged 65 years or over on chronic in-hospital HD and PD at the University Health Network were recruited. Patients were followed biweekly, and falls occurring within the first year recorded. Fall risk between the 2 groups was compared using both crude and adjusted Poisson lognormal random effects modeling. ♦ Out of 258 potential patients, 236 were recruited, assessed at baseline, and followed biweekly for falls. Of 74 PD patients, 40 (54%) experienced 86 falls while 76 out of 162 (47%) HD patients experienced a total of 305 falls (crude fall rate 1.25 vs 1.60 respectively, odds ratio [OR] falls in PD patients 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61 - 0.92, p = 0.04). After adjustment for differences in comorbidity, number of medications, and other demographic differences, PD patients were no less likely to experience accidental falls than HD patients (OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.88 - 3.04, p = 0.1). ♦ We conclude that accidental falls are equally common in the PD population and the HD population. These data argue against post-HD hypotension as the sole contributor to the high fall risk in the dialysis population. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Elizabeth A Phelan
Full Text Available A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ with a history of repeated falls or fall-related healthcare use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79±8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged 6 primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety to 78% (for vitamin D. An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21% and home safety (24%. Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall risk factors (P=0.003. Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p=.04 and perform more fall risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p=.007 than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice.
Kao, Senyeong; Wang, Yun-Chang; Tzeng, Ya-Mei; Liang, Chang-Kuo; Lin, Fu-Gong
It is well documented that fall risk among elderly people is associated with poor health and depression. In this study, we set out to examine the combined effects of medical condition and depression status on fall incidents among community-dwelling elderly people. A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the fall history of community-dwelling elders involving 360 participants. Those who had experienced at least two falls over the previous year, or one injurious fall, were defined as "fallers." The Geriatric Depression Scale-15 was used as a screening instrument for depression status. Based on a multivariate logistic regression and stratification analysis, depression was found to interact with various medical conditions on fall risk. In comparison with the non-depressive reference group, a six-fold fall risk was discernible among depressed elders with polypharmacy, while a five-fold risk was found among depressive elders using ancillary devices, along with a four-fold risk among depressive elders with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Finally, arthritis was found to produce a nine-fold risk of falls among such populations. These findings suggest that greater emphasis should be placed on the integration of depression screening as an element of fall risk assessment in elderly people.
Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Munkacsy, Michelle; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Handy, Todd C.
Executive cognitive functions play a critical role in falls risk – a pressing health care issue in seniors. In particular, intact attentional processing is integral for safe mobility and navigation. However, the specific contribution of impaired visual-spatial attention in falls remains unclear. In this study, we examined the association between visual-spatial attention to task-irrelevant stimuli and falls risk in community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed a visual target discrimination task at fixation while task-irrelevant probes were presented in both visual fields. We assessed attention to left and right peripheral probes using event-related potentials (ERPs). Falls risk was determined using the valid and reliable Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). We found a significantly positive association between reduced attentional facilitation, as measured by the N1 ERP component, and falls risk. This relationship was specific to probes presented in the left visual field and measured at ipsilateral electrode sites. Our results suggest that fallers exhibit reduced attention to the left side of visual space and provide evidence that impaired right hemispheric function and/or structure may contribute to falls. PMID:24436970
Pahwa, Avita K; Andy, Uduak U; Newman, Diane K; Stambakio, Hanna; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Arya, Lily A
We determined the association of urinary symptoms with fall risk and physical limitations in older community dwelling women with urinary incontinence. We performed an in-depth assessment of daytime and nighttime urinary symptoms, fall risk, physical function, physical performance tests and mental function in older community dwelling women with urinary incontinence who had not sought care for urinary symptoms. All assessments were performed in participant homes. We used univariable and multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship of urinary symptoms to fall risk, physical function and physical performance. Of 37 women with a mean ± SD age of 74 ± 8.4 years who had urinary incontinence 48% were at high risk for falls. Nocturnal enuresis was reported by 50% of the women. Increased fall risk was associated with increasing frequency of nocturnal enuresis (p = 0.04), worse lower limb function (p Women with nocturnal enuresis had significantly lower physical performance test scores than women without nocturnal enuresis (median 7, range 0 to 11 vs 9, range 1 to 12, p = 0.04). In a multivariable regression model including age, nocturnal enuresis episodes and physical function only physical function was associated with an increased fall risk (p women with urinary incontinence. It may serve as a marker of fall risk even in women who do not seek care for urinary symptoms. Interventions targeting upper and lower body physical function could potentially decrease the risk of falls in older women with urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smulders, Katrijn; Esselink, Rianne A; Cools, Roshan; Bloem, Bastiaan R
Impulsivity is a "tendency to act prematurely without foresight." Clinical experience suggests that such impulsive behavior can impact on the fall risk in Parkinson's disease (PD), but this has never been tested. We investigated whether trait impulsivity is related to fall risk in a large cohort of PD patients. We also investigated whether trait impulsivity affects the fall risk differently for patients with more or less postural instability and gait disability (PIGD). 388 patients with PD (H&Y ≤ 3) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11, higher scores indicating greater impulsivity) to assess trait impulsivity, including three subscales: motor impulsivity (e.g. "I do things without thinking"), attentional impulsivity (e.g. "I concentrate easily") and non-planning (e.g. "I plan tasks carefully"). Falls were registered prospectively for 6 months. Patients classified as non-fallers (0 falls, n = 237) were compared to recurrent PD fallers (>1 fall, n = 78). Total impulsivity scores were higher for recurrent fallers (59.5) compared to non-fallers (56.8; p = .012). This effect was predominantly driven by higher scores on the subscale for attentional impulsivity (p = .003). The difference in attentional impulsivity was independent of gender, disease severity, dopaminergic medication, and cognitive function. Motor and non-planning impulsivity did not differ between recurrent fallers and non-fallers. There was no evidence that impulsivity modulated the association between PIGD and fall risk. This is the first evidence that impulsivity, in particular in the attentional domain, is related to fall risk in PD.
Kojima, Taro; Akishita, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Nomura, Kazushi; Ogawa, Sumito; Iijima, Katsuya; Eto, Masato; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi
To investigate the association of fall risk with comorbidities and medications in geriatric outpatients in a cross-sectional design. A total of 262 outpatients (84 men and 178 women, mean age 76.2±6.8years) were evaluated. Physical examination, clinical histories and medication profile were obtained from each patient. History of falls in the past year, 22-item fall risk index, 13-point simple screening test for fall, and time interval of one-leg standing test were examined as markers of fall risk. On univariate analysis, older age, female sex, hypertension, osteoporosis, history of stroke, number of comorbidities, use of antihypertensives, aspirin, bisphosphonates, hypnotics and number of prescribed drugs were significantly associated with either of four indices. On multiple regression analysis, the number of drugs was associated with all of the four indices, independent of other factors associated in the univariate analysis. The association of number of drugs with fall risk indices was stepwise. In geriatric outpatients, polypharmacy rather than number of comorbidities was associated with fall risk. Prospective and intervention studies are needed to clarify the causal relationship between polypharmacy, comorbidities and fall risk. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Nash, Louise; Bergin, Nick
A literature review found an association between increased falls risk and malnutrition, sarcopenia, vitamin D deficiency and dehydration. Strategies to identify, prevent and treat these conditions can help to reduce falls risk in at-risk groups such as frail, older people. Nurses can reduce falls risk in older people by raising awareness of risk factors and embedding nutritional strategies in local falls reduction strategies. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Cristina Rosa Soares Lavareda Baixinho
Full Text Available Falls are the main accident for older adults, with consequences on functionality. Older adults impose restrictions or have restrictions imposed on their activities for fear of new falls. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted with 104 institutionalized older adults during six months with the following goals: to determine the prevalence of falls, to characterize the falls according to place, time, resulting injuries, supervision of the older adult, action performed at the time of the fall, and to relate the occurrence of the fall to the risk of falling, medical diagnoses, number of medications in use, type of medication, degree of dependency, age, and gender. The prevalence of falls was 37.5%, and they happened mostly in the bedroom, while walking after getting up from the bed. Those under risk in the Morse Fall Scale (p=0.034 and on sedatives (p=0.007 face a higher prevalence of falls. This study enables the possibility of making suggestions for practice, training and investigation.
Shuey, Kathleen M; Balch, Christine
In the oncology population, disease process and treatment factors place patients at risk for falls. Fall bundles provide a framework for developing comprehensive fall programs in oncology. Small sample size of interventional studies and focus on ambulatory and geriatric populations limit the applicability of results. Additional research is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Schooten, Kimberley S; Yang, Yijian; Feldman, Fabio; Leung, Ming; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Robinovitch, Stephen N
Although a fall is a necessary prerequisite to a fall-related injury, previous studies suggest that frequent fallers are at lower injury risk for a given fall. We tested the hypotheses that differences in protective responses or the circumstances of falls underlie differences in injury risk with fall frequency. We analyzed video footage of 897 falls experienced by 220 long-term care residents (mean age 82 ± 9 years) to identify the cause of imbalance, activity leading to falling, direction of fall initiation, balance recovery and fall protective responses, and occurrence of impact to the head or hip. We further obtained injury information from the facilities' fall registration. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine the association between quartiles of fall frequency, injury risk, and fall characteristics. Residents with the highest fall frequency group (Q4; ≥5.6 falls/year) were less likely to sustain an injury per fall. They were less likely to fall during walking and more likely to fall during stand-to-sit transfers. Residents in the lowest fall frequency group (Q1; falls/year) were more likely to fall during walking, and walking was associated with an increased risk for injury. When compared to less frequent fallers, more frequent fallers had a lower risk for injury per fall. This appeared to be explained by differences in the circumstances of falls, and not by protective responses. Injury prevention strategies in long-term care should target both frequent and infrequent fallers, as the latter are more mobile and apt to sustain injury.
Nasiri Sarvi, M; Luo, Y
Osteoporotic hip fracture, mostly induced in falls among the elderly, is a major health burden over the world. The impact force applied to the hip is an important factor in determining the risk of hip fracture. However, biomechanical researches have yielded conflicting conclusions about whether the fall-induced impact force can be accurately predicted by the available models. It also has been debated whether or not the effect of impact force has been considered appropriately in hip fracture risk assessment tools. This study aimed to provide a state-of-the-art review of the available methods for predicting the impact force, investigate their strengths/limitations, and suggest further improvements in modeling of human body falling. We divided the effective parameters on impact force to two categories: (1) the parameters that can be determined subject-specifically and (2) the parameters that may significantly vary from fall to fall for an individual and cannot be considered subject-specifically. The parameters in the first category can be investigated in human body fall experiments. Video capture of real-life falls was reported as a valuable method to investigate the parameters in the second category that significantly affect the impact force and cannot be determined in human body fall experiments. The analysis of the gathered data revealed that there is a need to develop modified biomechanical models for more accurate prediction of the impact force and appropriately adopt them in hip fracture risk assessment tools in order to achieve a better precision in identifying high-risk patients. Graphical abstract Impact force to the hip induced in sideways falls is affected by many parameters and may remarkably vary from subject to subject.
José Alex Leiva-Caro
Full Text Available Objective: to determine connections between competence, usability, environment and risk of falls in elderly adults. Method: correlational descriptive study, 123 elderly adults, both male and female, aged 70 years and older were included. Data was collected via the Tinetti Scale, CESD-7 Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Usability Questionnaire on Housing and Housing Enabler; and sociodemographic and health background certificate data. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were used, multivariate linear and logistic regression models were adjusted. Results: 42.0% of the elderly adults had presented with falls, with a higher prevalence in women, and in the group of 70-75 years. The physical environment of the house, gait, and usability were set as risk factors for falls. A negative relationship between usability and depressive symptoms, cognitive health, balance, gait, the social and physical environment was found, p <0.05; and a strong positive correlation between walking and balance, p <0.05. Conclusion: this study helps to better understand the phenomenon of falling, to find a connection between usability with the risk of falls, and other variables.
van Helden, Svenhjalmar; van Geel, Antonia C M; Geusens, Piet P; Kessels, Alfons; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, Arie C; Brink, Peter R G
Worldwide fracture rates are increasing as a result of the aging population, and prevention, both primary and secondary, is an important public health goal. Therefore, we systematically analyzed risk factors in subjects with a recent clinical fracture. All men and women over fifty years of age who had been treated in the emergency department of, or hospitalized at, our institution because of a recent fracture during a one-year period were offered the opportunity to undergo an evidence-based bone and fall-related risk-factor assessment and bone densitometry. The women included in this study were also compared with a group of postmenopausal women without a fracture history who had been included in another cohort study. Of the 940 consecutive patients, 797 (85%) were eligible for this study and 568 (60%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of fall-related risk factors (75% [95% confidence interval = 71% to 78%]; n = 425) and the prevalence of bone-related risk factors (53% [95% confidence interval = 49% to 57%]; n = 299) at the time of fracture were higher than the prevalence of osteoporosis (35% [95% confidence interval = 31% to 39%]; n = 201) as defined by a dual x-ray absorptiometry T score of fall and bone-related risk factors were present irrespective of the fracture location, patient age, or gender. An overlap between bone and fall-related risk factors was found in 50% of the patients. After adjusting for age, weight, and height, we found that women with a fracture more frequently had a diagnosis of osteoporosis (odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.0 to 4.1) and had a more extensive history of falls (odds ratio = 4.0; 95% confidence interval = 2.7 to 5.9) than did the postmenopausal women without a fracture history. Men and women over fifty years of age who had recently sustained a clinical fracture had, at the time of that fracture, bone and fall-related risk factors that were greater than the risk predicted by the presence of osteoporosis. Risk
Isabella Lima Barbosa
Full Text Available Objective: To determine risk factors for falls in children based on the Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM. Method: A qualitative approach, in which we interviewed six relatives of children who were admitted to an emergency hospital in Fortaleza, Ceara due to fall in the period from August to September, 2005. According to the CFAM we did the genogram and eco-map of two families (1 and (2. Results: By the genogram and eco-map of the families, we observed that (1 is a single parent family with six children, Roman Catholic, earns one minimum wage and attends both school and Family Health Basic Unit (UBSF. (2 is a nuclear family, with two children, Roman Catholic, earns three or more minimum wages and attends school, work and UBSF. Conclusion: The Calgary Family Assessment Model enabled to know the family structures of the children who had suffered falls and helped in defining the risk factors that exist within families and social environments in which these children attend. Family income, number of children, the presence or absence of fathers, schooling and lack of spaces for education support represent risk factors for these accidents.
Full Text Available Ewa Zasadzka,1 Adrianna Maria Borowicz,1 Magdalena Roszak,2 Mariola Pawlaczyk1 1Department of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Background: Falling in the elderly results in a significant number of admissions to hospitals and long-term care facilities, especially among patients with lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA.Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the risk of falling in adults older than 60 years with OA using timed up and go (TUG test.Materials and methods: A total of 187 patients (aged >60 years were enrolled in the study. The assessment included: basic activities of daily living (ADLs, lower extremity strength with the use of the 30-second chair stand test (30 CST, and assessment of the risk of falling (TUG test. Pain intensity was evaluated with the numeric rating scale (NRS.Results: The TUG test results were significantly better in younger OA patients (aged 60–69 years, as compared with their older peers (aged 70–79 years; P<0.01 and the oldest group (aged >80 years; P<0.001. Also, the 30 CST results were significantly higher in younger OA patients (P<0.05. Subjects older than 80 years had a significantly worse ADL score (P<0.05 and P<0.001. Pain complaints were reported significantly more frequently by women than men (P<0.05. A correlation between age and the TUG test score (r=0.412; P<0.0004 as well as between the TUG test and the 30 CST scores (r=0.7368; P=0.000 was detected. In the group with the TUG test score of <13.5 seconds, the 30 CST (P<0.0001 and ADL (P<0.003 results were significantly better. A comparison of fallers vs nonfallers revealed that the number of falls was significantly higher in the group of subjects who scored $13.5 when compared to <13.5 (P=0.003. Fallers significantly more often reported pain (P<0.0001, whereas nonfallers had
Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M.
A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice. PMID:27660753
Phelan, Elizabeth A; Aerts, Sally; Dowler, David; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Casey, Colleen M
A multifactorial approach to assess and manage modifiable risk factors is recommended for older adults with a history of falls. Limited research suggests that this approach does not routinely occur in clinical practice, but most related studies are based on provider self-report, with the last chart audit of United States practice published over a decade ago. We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the extent to which patients aged 65+ years with a history of repeated falls or fall-related health-care use received multifactorial risk assessment and interventions. The setting was an academic primary care clinic in the Pacific Northwest. Among the 116 patients meeting our inclusion criteria, 48% had some type of documented assessment. Their mean age was 79 ± 8 years; 68% were female, and 10% were non-white. They averaged six primary care visits over a 12-month period subsequent to their index fall. Frequency of assessment of fall-risk factors varied from 24% (for home safety) to 78% (for vitamin D). An evidence-based intervention was recommended for identified risk factors 73% of the time, on average. Two risk factors were addressed infrequently: medications (21%) and home safety (24%). Use of a structured visit note template independently predicted assessment of fall-risk factors (p = 0.003). Geriatrics specialists were more likely to use a structured note template (p = 0.04) and perform more fall-risk factor assessments (4.6 vs. 3.6, p = 0.007) than general internists. These results suggest opportunities for improving multifactorial fall-risk assessment and management of older adults at high fall risk in primary care. A structured visit note template facilitates assessment. Given that high-risk medications have been found to be independent risk factors for falls, increasing attention to medications should become a key focus of both public health educational efforts and fall prevention in primary care practice.
An, SeungHeon; Lee, YunBok; Lee, GyuChang
Falling is one of the most common complications in stroke survivors. It is therefore important to evaluate the risk of falls. In this study, we investigated the usability of the performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA) for predicting falls in stroke patients. The POMA examines the level of balance and mobility. Data were collected on the number of falls and physical functions from 72 stroke survivors. Physical functions were measured using the POMA balance subscale, One Leg Stand test (OLS), Sit To Stand test (STS), 10-m Walk Test (10WT), Fugl-Meyer assessment (FM), and Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS). Since the accuracy of the POMA balance subscale was moderate, the cutoff value used for predicting falls was 12.5 points (sensitivity: 72%; specificity: 74%), and the area under the curve was 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.66-0.91, p risk of falling increased by 0.304 times more than the group over 12.5 points. The POMA balance subscale is a valid tool for assessing the physical function and fall risk of stroke survivors.
Gyurcsik, Nancy C.
ABSTRACT Purpose: As the numbers of Canadians aged 65 years and over increases over the next 20 years, the prevalence of chronic conditions, including arthritis, will rise as will the number of falls. Although known fall-risk factors are associated with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), minimal research has evaluated fall and fracture risk and/or rates in this population. Thus, the purpose was to summarize research on fall and fracture risk in older adults with hip or knee OA and to develop a conceptual framework of fall-risk screening and assessment. Method: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, clinical practice guidelines for fall-risk screening, and a selected literature review were used. Results: Gaps exist in our knowledge of fall and fracture risk for this population. Muscle performance, balance, and mobility impairments have been identified, but little is known about whether personal and environmental contextual factors impact fall and fracture risk. Physical activity may help to prevent falls, but non-adherence is a problem. Conclusion: A need exists to assess fall risk in older adults with hip and knee OA. Promoting regular physical activity by focusing on disease- and activity-specific personal contextual factors may help direct treatment planning. PMID:23729967
Hawk, Cheryl; Hyland, John K; Rupert, Ronald; Colonvega, Makasha; Hall, Stephanie
Falls are a major health concern for older adults and their impact is a significant public health problem. The chief modifiable risk factors for falls in community-dwellers are psychotropic drugs, polypharmacy, environmental hazards, poor vision, lower extremity impairments, and balance impairments. This study focused on balance impairments. Its purpose was to assess the feasibility of recruiting older adults with possible balance problems for research conducted at a chiropractic research center, and to explore the utility of several widely used balance instruments for future studies of the effect of chiropractic care on balance in older adults. This descriptive study was conducted from September through December 2004. Participants were recruited through a variety of outreach methods, and all were provided with an educational intervention. Data were collected at each of two visits through questionnaires, interviews, and physical examinations. Balance was assessed on both visits using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABCS), the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the One Leg Standing Test (OLST). A total of 101 participants enrolled in the study. Advertising in the local senior newspaper was the most effective method of recruitment (46%). The majority of our participants were white (86%) females (67%). About one third (32%) of participants had a baseline BBS score below 46, the cut-off point for predicting risk of falling. A mean improvement in BBS scores of 1.7 points was observed on the second visit. For the subgroup with baseline scores below 46, the mean change was 4.5 points, but the group mean remained below 46 (42.5). Recruitment of community-dwelling seniors for fall-related research conducted at a chiropractic research center appears feasible, and the most successful recruitment strategies for this center appeared to be a combination of targeted newspaper ads and personal contact through senior centers. The BBS and OLST appear to be promising
Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a major health concern for older adults and their impact is a significant public health problem. The chief modifiable risk factors for falls in community-dwellers are psychotropic drugs, polypharmacy, environmental hazards, poor vision, lower extremity impairments, and balance impairments. This study focused on balance impairments. Its purpose was to assess the feasibility of recruiting older adults with possible balance problems for research conducted at a chiropractic research center, and to explore the utility of several widely used balance instruments for future studies of the effect of chiropractic care on balance in older adults. Methods This descriptive study was conducted from September through December 2004. Participants were recruited through a variety of outreach methods, and all were provided with an educational intervention. Data were collected at each of two visits through questionnaires, interviews, and physical examinations. Balance was assessed on both visits using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABCS, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and the One Leg Standing Test (OLST. Results A total of 101 participants enrolled in the study. Advertising in the local senior newspaper was the most effective method of recruitment (46%. The majority of our participants were white (86% females (67%. About one third (32% of participants had a baseline BBS score below 46, the cut-off point for predicting risk of falling. A mean improvement in BBS scores of 1.7 points was observed on the second visit. For the subgroup with baseline scores below 46, the mean change was 4.5 points, but the group mean remained below 46 (42.5. Conclusion Recruitment of community-dwelling seniors for fall-related research conducted at a chiropractic research center appears feasible, and the most successful recruitment strategies for this center appeared to be a combination of targeted newspaper ads and personal contact through
Sipilä, Sarianna; Heikkinen, Eino; Cheng, Sulin; Suominen, Harri; Saari, Päivi; Kovanen, Vuokko; Alén, Markku; Rantanen, Taina
Among older people, fracture-causing fall often leads to health deterioration. The role of endogenous hormone status and muscle strength on fall-related fracture risk is unclear. This study investigates if, after adjustment for bone density, endogenous hormones and muscle strength would predict fall-related limb fracture incidence in older community-dwelling women followed-up over 10 years. As a part of a prospective population-based study, 187 75-year-old women were investigated. Serum estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations were analyzed, and isometric muscle strength and bone mineral density were assessed. Fall-related limb fractures were gathered from patient records. Serum estradiol concentration was a significant predictor of fall-related limb fractures. Women with serum estradiol concentrations less than 0.022 nmol/L had a 3-fold risk (relative risk 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-7.36), and women with estradiol concentrations between 0.022 and 0.066 nmol/L doubled the risk (relative risk 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-5.19) of fall-related limb fracture compared to the women with estradiol concentrations ()above 0.066 nmol/L. Adjustment for muscle strength and bone mineral density did not materially change the risk estimates. High muscle strength was associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures. This study showed that in 75-year-old women higher serum estradiol concentration and greater muscle strength were independently associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures even after adjustment for bone density. Our results suggest that hormonal status and muscle strength have their own separate mechanisms protecting from fall-related fractures. This finding is of importance in developing preventive strategies, but calls for further study.
Arnold, Cathy M; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Harrison, Liz; Olszynski, Wojciech
Cross-sectional descriptive analysis investigating intrinsic fall risk factors in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. To examine the relationships between history of recent falls and balance, pain, quality of life, function, posture, strength, and mobility. Women with osteoporosis who fall are at a high risk of fracture due to decreased bone strength. Identifying fall risk factors for older women with osteoporosis is a crucial step in decreasing the incidence of falls and fracture. METHOD AND MEASURES: Seventy-three women over 60 years of age with established osteoporosis participated in comprehensive testing of fall history, physical function, and quality of life. Significant correlations were found between a recent history of falls and degree of kyphosis (r = 0.29), fear of falls/emotional status (r = -0.27), and balance (r = -0.27). Degree of kyphosis and fear of falls/emotional status explained 20% of the variance of recent fall history using binary logistic regression. Women with an increased kyphosis were more likely to have had a recent fall (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.34) and those with better emotional status and less fear of falling were less likely to have had a recent fall (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.97). Increased thoracic kyphosis and fear of falling are 2 intrinsic factors associated with recent falls in women with osteoporosis. To design more effective interventions to decrease fall risk in this population, future prospective, longitudinal studies should monitor kyphosis, fear of falling, balance reactions, and other potential risk factors not identified in this study.
Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Menz, Hylton B; Cumming, Robert G; Cameron, Ian D; Sambrook, Philip N; March, Lyn M; Lord, Stephen R
To develop screening tools for predicting falls in nursing home and intermediate-care hostel residents who can and cannot stand unaided. Prospective cohort study in residential aged care facilities in northern Sydney, New South Wales, June 1999-June 2003. 2005 people aged 65-104 years (mean +/- SD, 85.7+/-7.1 years). Demographic, health, and physical function assessment measures; number of falls over a 6-month period; validity of the screening models. Ability to stand unaided was identified as a significant event modifier for falls. In people who could stand unaided, having either poor balance or two of three other risk factors (previous falls, nursing home residence, and urinary incontinence) increased the risk of falling in the next 6 months threefold (sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 55%). In people who could not stand unaided, having any one of three risk factors (previous falls, hostel residence, and using nine or more medications) increased the risk of falling twofold (sensitivity, 87%; specificity, 29%). These two screening models are useful for identifying older people living in residential aged care facilities who are at increased risk of falls. The screens are easy to administer and contain items that are routinely collected in residential aged care facilities in Australia.
Deschamps, Thibault; Le Goff, Camille G; Berrut, Gilles; Cornu, Christophe; Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste
Miscellaneous features from various domains are accepted to be associated with the risk of falling in the elderly. However, only few studies have focused on establishing clinical tools to predict the risk of the first fall onset. A model that would objectively and easily evaluate the risk of a first fall occurrence in the coming year still needs to be built. We developed a model based on machine learning, which might help the medical staff predict the risk of the first fall onset in a one-year time window. Overall, 426 older adults who had never fallen were assessed on 73 variables, comprising medical, social and physical outcomes, at t0. Each fall was recorded at a prospective 1-year follow-up. A decision tree was built on a randomly selected training subset of the cohort (80% of the full-set) and validated on an independent test set. 82 participants experienced a first fall during the follow-up. The machine learning process independently extracted 13 powerful parameters and built a model showing 89% of accuracy for the overall classification with 83%-82% of true positive fallers and 96%-61% of true negative non-fallers (training set vs. independent test set). This study provides a pilot tool that could easily help the gerontologists refine the evaluation of the risk of the first fall onset and prioritize the effective prevention strategies. The study also offers a transparent framework for future, related investigation that would validate the clinical relevance of the established model by independently testing its accuracy on larger cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ishimoto, Yasuko; Wada, Taizo; Kasahara, Yoriko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wenling; Hirosaki, Mayumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Fujisawa, Michiko; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishine, Masayuki; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo
The 21-item Fall Risk Index (FRI-21) has been used to detect elderly persons at risk for falls. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the FRI-21 as a predictor of decline in basic activities of daily living (BADL) among Japanese community-dwelling elderly persons independent of fall risk. The study population consisted of 518 elderly participants aged 65 years and older who were BADL independent at baseline in Tosa, Japan. We examined risk factors for BADL decline from 2008 to 2009 by multiple logistic regression analysis on the FRI-21 and other functional status measures in all participants. We carried out the same analysis in selected participants who had no experience of falls to remove the effect of falls. A total of 45 of 518 participants showed decline in BADL within 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.20), FRI-21 ≥ 10 (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.49-9.27), intellectual activity dependence (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.42-7.44) and history of osteoarthropathy (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.40-7.21) were significant independent risk factors for BADL decline within 1 year. FRI-21 ≥ 10 and intellectual activity dependence (≤ 3) remained significant predictors, even in selected non-fallers. FRI-21 ≥ 10 and intellectual activity dependence were significant predictive factors of BADL decline, regardless of fall experience, after adjustment for confounding variables. The FRI-21 is a brief, useful tool not only for predicting falls, but also future decline in functional ability in community-dwelling elderly persons. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Pecchia, Leandro; Bath, Peter A.; Pendleton, Neil; Bracale, Marcello
Falls occur frequently among older people and represent the most common cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in later life. Preventing falls is an important way to reduce injuries, hospitalizations, and injury-related morbidity and mortality among older people. The research literature has identified hundreds of risk factors for falls among elderly people. Prioritizing risk factors for falls is useful for designing effective and efficacious prevention programs.\\ud The aim of this st...
Lord, Stephen R
Poor vision reduces postural stability and significantly increases the risk of falls and fractures in older people. Most studies have found that poor visual acuity increases the risk of falls. However, studies that have included multiple visual measures have found that reduced contrast sensitivity and depth perception are the most important visual risk factors for falls. Multifocal glasses may add to this risk because their near-vision lenses impair distance contrast sensitivity and depth perception in the lower visual field. This reduces the ability of an older person to detect environmental hazards. There is now evidence that maximising vision through cataract surgery is an effective strategy for preventing falls. Further randomised controlled trials are required to determine whether individual strategies (such as restriction of use of multifocal glasses) or multi-strategy visual improvement interventions can significantly reduce falls in older people. Public health initiatives are required to raise awareness in older people and their carers of the importance of regular eye examinations and use of appropriate prescription glasses.
Moniz-Pereira, Vera; Carnide, Filomena; Ramalho, Fátima; André, Helô; Machado, Maria; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António P
The aim of this study was to use a multifactorial approach to characterize episodic and recurrent fallers risk profiles in Portuguese older adults. To accomplish the mentioned purpose, 1416 Portuguese older adults above 65 years were tested with three different field measurements: 1) health and falls questionnaire; 2) Physical Activity questionnaire and 3) a set of functional fitness tests. The subjects were divided in three different groups according to fall prevalence: non-fallers, subjects who did not report any falls during the previous year, episodic fallers, those who reported to have fallen only once during the previous year, and recurrent fallers, the ones that fell twice or more times during the previous year. Episodic and Recurrent fallers risk profiles were established using multifactorial logistic regression models in order to avoid confounding effects between the variables. The results showed that age was not a risk factor for either episodic or recurrent falling. In addition, health parameters were shown to be the factors distinguishing recurrent from episodic fallers. This may imply that, comparing with episodic falls, recurrent falls are more associated with higher presence of chronic conditions and are less likely to occur due to external factors. Furthermore, being a woman, having fear of falling and lower functional fitness levels were determinant factors for both episodic and recurrent falls. It is also important to note that, although total physical activity was only related with episodic falling, promoting physical activity and exercise may be the easiest and cheapest way to improve functional fitness and health levels and therefore, its role in fall prevention should not be underestimated. The results of this study reinforce the importance of using a multifactorial approach, not only focusing on cognitive-behavioral factors, but also on promoting physical activity and healthy lifestyles, when assessing fall risk or planning an intervention
Jacy Aurelia Vieira de Sousa
Full Text Available Objective: to identify the factors associated with the risk of falls in institutionalized elderly. Methods: analytical study carried out in two long-stay institutions for the elderly, with 61 residents of both sexes. Data collection was performed by means of a socio-demographic and clinical form and Downton’s Fall Risk Index. Results: 31 (50.8% old people at high risk of falling were identified. There was an association of risk for falls in institutionalized elderly with gender (p=0.007, age (p=0.004, time of institutionalization (p=0.028, adverse events (p=0.000, use (p=0.035 and number of drugs (p=0.038, use of auxiliary equipment (p=0.022, type of walking (p=0.044 and history of falls in the last 12 months (p=0.000 Conclusion: it is recognized as essential to identify factors associated with the occurrence of falls for the prioritization of specific interventions aimed at institutionalized elderly.
Jacy Aurelia Vieira de Sousa
Full Text Available Objective: to identify the factors associated with the risk of falls in institutionalized elderly. Methods: analytical study carried out in two long-stay institutions for the elderly, with 61 residents of both sexes. Data collection was performed by means of a socio-demographic and clinical form and Downton’s Fall Risk Index. Results: 31 (50.8% old people at high risk of falling were identified. There was an association of risk for falls in institutionalized elderly with gender (p=0.007, age (p=0.004, time of institutionalization (p=0.028, adverse events (p=0.000, use (p=0.035 and number of drugs (p=0.038, use of auxiliary equipment (p=0.022, type of walking (p=0.044 and history of falls in the last 12 months (p=0.000. Conclusion: it is recognized as essential to identify factors associated with the occurrence of falls for the prioritization of specific interventions aimed at institutionalized elderly.
Anders, J; Dapp, U; Laub, S; von Renteln-Kruse, W
There is a strong relation between mobility, walking safety and living independently in old age. People with walking problems suffer from fear of falling and tend to restrict their mobility and performance level in the community environment--even before falls occur. This study was planned to test the validity and prognostic value of a fall risk screening instrument ("Sturz-Risiko-Check") that has already shown its feasibility, acceptance and reliability, targeting independently living senior citizens. The study sample was recruited from a sheltered housing complex in Hamburg (with written consent). Persons with need of professional care ("Pflegestufe" in Germany) were excluded. The residents were asked to fill in the multidimensional questionnaire ("Sturz-Risiko- Check"). In a second step, a trained nurse asked the participants in a phone call about their competence in the instrumental activities of daily living (I-ADL mod. from Lawton, Brody 1969) and about their usual mobility performance level (e.g. frequency and distance of daily walks, use of public transport). According to the number and weight of self-reported risk factors for falling, three groups: "low fall risk", "medium fall risk" and "high fall risk" were classified. Finally, this classification was re-tested after one year, asking for falls and fall related injuries. A total of 112 senior citizens without need of personal care, living in a sheltered housing facility were asked to participate. Acceptance was high (76.1%). Self-reported data from 79 participants concerning falls, fall-risk, mobility and instrumental activities of daily living were included in the statistical analyses. Mean age was 78 (64 to 93) years and associated by a high percentage of women (75.9%) in this sample. The older participants reported 0 to 13 different factors (mean 5) related to a high risk of future falls. Most participants (78.5%) quit cycling because of fear of falling. There was a high incidence in the study sample
Sturnieks, Daina L; Finch, Caroline F; Close, Jacqueline C T; Tiedemann, Anne; Lord, Stephen R; Pascoe, Deborah A
Participation in appropriate exercise can help reduce the risk of falls and falls injury in older people. Delivery of population-level exercise interventions requires an expert workforce with skills in development and delivery of group exercise programs and prescription of individually targeted exercise. This study assessed the current knowledge of university exercise science students (as future exercise professionals) across different levels of study. A structured survey designed to assess knowledge in relation to falls in older people and exercise prescription for falls prevention was administered during second, third and fourth year lectures in seven Australian universities. Students' knowledge was assessed as the percent of correct responses. Overall, 566 students completed the survey and knowledge levels increased significantly with study year. Mean knowledge levels were significantly knowledge. They were lowest for falls risk factor questions and highest for issue/cost related questions in second and third year students. Fourth year students had best knowledge about falls interventions and this was the only group and topic with a mean score >70%. In conclusion, knowledge about falls and exercise prescription for falls prevention in current students does not meet a desired competency level of 70% and is therefore insufficient to ensure an adequately equipped future workforce in this area. There is a clear need for the development and widespread delivery of an evidence-based "exercise for falls prevention" curriculum module for exercise professionals. Copyright (c) 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yamashita, Takashi; Jeon, Haesang; Bailer, A John; Nelson, Ian M; Mehdizadeh, Shahla
This study identifies fall risk factors in an understudied population of older people who receive community-based care services. Data were collected from enrollees of Ohio's Medicaid home- and community-based waiver program (preadmission screening system providing options and resources today [PASSPORT]). A total of 23,182 participants receiving PASSPORT services in 2005/2006 was classified as fallers and nonfallers, and a variety of risk factors for falling was analyzed using logistic regressions. The following factors were identified as risk factors for falling: previous fall history, older age, White race, incontinence, higher number of medications, fewer numbers of activity of daily living limitations, unsteady gait, tremor, grasping strength, and absence of supervision. Identifying risk factors for the participants of a Medicaid home- and community-based waiver program are useful for a fall risk assessment, but it would be most helpful if the community-based care service programs incorporate measurements of known fall risk factors into their regular data collection, if not already included.
Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)
Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.
In-Fun Li; Yvonne Hsiung; Hui-Fen Hsing; Mei-Yu Lee; Te-Hsin Chang; Ming-Yuan Huang
Background: As a vital issue in geriatric research, risk factors for falls were concluded to be multifactorial, and prevention has been mostly aimed at decreasing situational and environmental risks that cause and aggravate fall-related injuries, particularly within the institutions. While knowledge is limited about older patients' intrinsic determinants, the purpose of this study was to explore elderly Taiwanese's intrinsic risk factors associated with severe fall-related injuries. Method...
Angela Cristina Silva dos Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Though elderly persons with chronic atrial fibrillation have more comorbidities that could limit indications for the chronic use of anticoagulants, few studies have focused on the risk of falls within this particular group. To evaluate the predictors of the risk of falls among elderly with chronic atrial fibrillation, a cross-sectional, observational study was performed. METHODS: From 295 consecutive patients aged 60 years or older with a history of atrial fibrillation who were enrolled within the last 2 years in the cardiogeriatrics outpatient clinic of the Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, 107 took part in this study. Their age was 77.9±6.4 years, and 62 were female. They were divided into two groups: a no history of falls in the previous year and b a history of one or more falls in the previous year. Data regarding the history of falls and social, demographic, anthropometric, and clinical information were collected. Multidimensional assessment instruments and questionnaires were applied. RESULTS: At least one fall was reported in 55 patients (51.4%. Among them, 27 (49.1% presented recurrent falls, with body lesions in 90.4% and fractures in 9.1% of the cases. Multivariate logistic regression showed that selfreported difficulty maintaining balance, use of amiodarone, and diabetes were independent variables associated with the risk of falls, with a sensitivity of 92.9% and a specificity of 44.9%. CONCLUSION: In a group of elderly patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who were relatively independent and able to attend an outpatient clinic, the occurrence of falls with recurrence and clinical consequences was high. Difficulty maintaining balance, the use of amiodarone and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were independent predictors of the risk for falls. Thus, simple clinical data predicted falls better than objective functional tests.
Stevens, Madelyn N; Baudhuin, Jacqueline E; Hullar, Timothy E
Cochlear implantation is a highly effective intervention for hearing loss, but insertion of an implant into the cochlea is often accompanied by loss of residual hearing function. Sometimes, postoperative testing also shows loss of function in the semicircular canals or otolith organs. The effect of this loss on equilibrium, particularly in the short term following surgery, and the risk of falling due to this loss is unknown. We prospectively measured balance in 16 consecutive adult cochlear implant patients before and 2 weeks after surgery. Subjects stood on a foam pad with eyes closed, feet together and arms at the side. The length of time over which this posture could be maintained was recorded up to a maximum value of 30 s indicating normal performance. Ten of 16 subjects reached a maximal time on preoperative testing. Nine of 16 subjects lost balance function after surgery. Four of the 10 subjects with normal preoperative balance function lost function. Subjects older than the age of 60 were more likely to lose balance function than younger subjects. We used previously published values relating balance performance on foam to risk of falling to calculate the fall risk among our subjects. The relative risk of falling increased after surgery by more than threefold in some patients. Imbalance after cochlear implantation may be much more common, particularly in the short term, than previously appreciated. This imbalance is accompanied by an increased risk of falling in many patients. Careful preoperative counseling before implantation and postoperative therapeutic intervention to improve comfort and reduce the chance of falling may be warranted, particularly in patients at a risk for injuries from falls (level of evidence: 2b). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Thomas, Susie; Mackintosh, Shylie
Discharge from the hospital is a high risk transition period for older adults at risk of falls. Guidelines relevant to physical therapists for managing this risk are well documented, but commonly not implemented. This project implemented an intervention to improve physical therapists' adherence to key guideline recommendations for managing risk of falls on discharge from one hospital. A pretest-posttest study design was undertaken and was underpinned by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to aid in the design of interventions to increase physical therapists' adherence to guideline recommendations and to identify barriers to these interventions. A multifaceted intervention was implemented, including the establishment of a governance committee, education sessions, development of a "pathway" to guide practice, modification of an existing standardized assessment proforma, development of standardized processes and indicators for handover, increasing availability of educational handouts, audit and feedback processes, and allocation of dedicated staffing to oversee falls prevention within the physical therapy department. There were significant improvements in physical therapist behavior leading to key guideline recommendations being met, including: the proportion of patients who were identified to be at risk of falls (6.3% preintervention versus 94.8% postintervention) prior to discharge, an increase in documentation of clinical handover at discharge (68.6% preintervention versus 90.9% postintervention), and improvement in the quality of this documented clinical handover (34.9% of case notes met 5 criteria preintervention versus 92.9% postintervention). The approach was resource intensive and consequently may be difficult to replicate at other sites. A multifaceted intervention underpinned by the TDF, designed to modify physical therapists' behavior to improve adherence to guideline recommendations for managing risk of falls on discharge from one hospital, was
Lalande, Laure; Bourguignon, Laurent; Carlier, Chloé; Ducher, Michel
Falls in geriatry are associated with important morbidity, mortality and high healthcare costs. Because of the large number of variables related to the risk of falling, determining patients at risk is a difficult challenge. The aim of this work was to validate a tool to detect patients with high risk of fall using only bibliographic knowledge. Thirty articles corresponding to 160 studies were used to modelize fall risk. A retrospective case-control cohort including 288 patients (88 ± 7 years) and a prospective cohort including 106 patients (89 ± 6 years) from two geriatric hospitals were used to validate the performances of our model. We identified 26 variables associated with an increased risk of fall. These variables were split into illnesses, medications, and environment. The combination of the three associated scores gives a global fall score. The sensitivity and the specificity were 31.4, 81.6, 38.5, and 90 %, respectively, for the retrospective and the prospective cohort. The performances of the model are similar to results observed with already existing prediction tools using model adjustment to data from numerous cohort studies. This work demonstrates that knowledge from the literature can be synthesized with Bayesian networks.
Moreira, Natália Boneti; Rodacki, Andre Luiz Felix; Pereira, Gléber; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce
The aims of this study were to examine whether: i) functional capacity and physical activity level differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for fall risk awareness; ii) functional capacity, fall risk awareness and physical activity differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for age; iii) variables and which may predict falls in different age groups. 1826 older adults performed a series of functional tests and reported their fall episodes, fall risk awareness and physical activity level. The overall incidence of falls was high (40.2%), and falls risk awareness scores reduced with age. The older adults with greater falls risk awareness and non-fallers presented better scores in all functional tests and physical activity level (P age groups and differed between fallers and non-fallers, irrespective of age group (P age groups (odds ranging: 1.05-1.09). Handgrip strength and balance scores predicted falls until 79 years (OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01-1.06). The physical activity level predicted falls up to 70 years (OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.06-1.12). Functional mobility was able to predict falls up to 80 years (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01-1.08). Therefore, according to age, functional capacity, physical activity level and falls risk awareness can be a predictor of falls in older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ghazal, Javeria; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Imran
The objective was to determine the balance impairments and to compare task oriented versus traditional balance training in fall reduction among diabetic patients. The randomized control trial with descriptive survey and 196 diabetic patients were recruited to assess balance impairments through purposive sampling technique. Eighteen patients were randomly allocated into two groups; task oriented balance training group TOB (n=8) and traditional balance training group TBT (n=10). The inclusion criteria were 30-50 years age bracket and diagnosed cases of Diabetes Mellitus with neuropathy. The demographics were taken through standardized & valid assessment tools include Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach Test. The measurements were obtained at baseline, after 04 and 08 weeks of training. The mean age of the participants was 49 ±6.79. The result shows that 165(84%) were at moderate risk of fall and 31(15%) were at mild risk of fall among total 196 diabetic patients. There was significant improvement (p balance training group for dynamic balance, anticipatory balance and reactive balance after 8 weeks of training as compare to traditional balance training. Task oriented balance training is effective in improving the dynamic, anticipator and reactive balance. The task oriented training reduces the risk of falling through enhancing balance outcome.
Kim, J; Hwang, J Y; Oh, J K; Park, M S; Kim, S W; Chang, H; Kim, T-H
The objective of this study was to assess the association between whole body sagittal balance and risk of falls in elderly patients who have sought treatment for back pain. Balanced spinal sagittal alignment is known to be important for the prevention of falls. However, spinal sagittal imbalance can be markedly compensated by the lower extremities, and whole body sagittal balance including the lower extremities should be assessed to evaluate actual imbalances related to falls. Patients over 70 years old who visited an outpatient clinic for back pain treatment and underwent a standing whole-body radiograph were enrolled. Falls were prospectively assessed for 12 months using a monthly fall diary, and patients were divided into fallers and non-fallers according to the history of falls. Radiological parameters from whole-body radiographs and clinical data were compared between the two groups. A total of 144 patients (120 female patients and 24 male patients) completed a 12-month follow-up for assessing falls. A total of 31 patients (21.5%) reported at least one fall within the 12-month follow-up. In univariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of falls was significantly increased in older patients and those with more medical comorbidities, decreased lumbar lordosis, increased sagittal vertical axis, and increased horizontal distance between the C7 plumb line and the centre of the ankle (C7A). Increased C7A was significantly associated with increased risk of falls even after multivariate adjustment. Whole body sagittal balance, measured by the horizontal distance between the C7 plumb line and the centre of the ankle, was significantly associated with risk of falls among elderly patients with back pain. Cite this article : J. Kim, J. Y. Hwang, J. K. Oh, M. S. Park, S. W. Kim, H. Chang, T-H. Kim. The association between whole body sagittal balance and risk of falls among elderly patients seeking treatment for back pain. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:-344. DOI: 10
Ferrari, Marisa; Harrison, Barbara; Lewis, Doresea
Falls among older adults are a common, preventable problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Impulsivity is a known risk factor for older adult falls; however, there is a gap in evidence demonstrating the unique risk factors associated with impulsivity related falls (IRF). The research explored the association between seven fall risk factors and impulsivity related falls in hospitalized older adults in a community hospital. This retrospective descriptive study analyzed the association between seven fall risk factors and IRF in hospitalized older adults. The sample (N = 233) included patients age 65 years and older who had a documented in-patient fall in 2008. Of the falls, 29.7% were classified as IRF. The mean age of patients with IRF was 78 years, with the median day of fall being Day 5 of hospitalization/rehabilitation admission. Logistic regression demonstrated that only inattention and cognitive impairment were significant risk factors for IRF. The incidence of IRF was 29.7%. Our findings also indicate that cognitive impairment and inattention are strongest predictors for IRF among usual risk factors. Early identification of the unique risk factors associated with IRF could improve identification and reduce fall rates among hospitalized older adults. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Zia, Anam; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul B; Tan, Maw P
The presemt study aimed to determine the association between the risk of recurrent and injurious falls with polypharmacy, fall risk-increasing drugs (FRID) and FRID count among community-dwelling older adults. Participants (n = 202) were aged ≥65 years with two or more falls or one injurious fall in the past year, whereas controls (n = 156) included volunteers aged ≥65 years with no falls in the past year. A detailed medication history was obtained alongside demographic data. Polypharmacy was defined as "regular use of five or more prescription drugs." FRID were identified as cardiovascular agents, central nervous system drugs, analgesics and endocrine drugs; multiple FRID were defined as two or more FRID. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for confounders. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was independently associated with an increased risk of falls. Univariate analyses showed both polypharmacy (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.39-3.56; P = 0.001) and the use of two or more FRID (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5; P = 0.0001) were significantly more likely amongst fallers. After adjustment for age, sex and comorbidities, blood pressure, and physical performance scores, polypharmacy was no longer associated with falls (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.9; P = 0.102), whereas the consumption of two or more FRID remained a significant predictor for falls (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.3; P = 0.001). Among high risk fallers, the use of two or more FRID was an independent risk factor for falls instead of polypharmacy. Our findings will inform clinical practice in terms of medication reviews among older adults at higher risk of falls. Future intervention studies will seek to confirm whether avoidance or withdrawal of multiple FRID reduces the risk of future falls. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 463-470. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Dahodwala, Nabila; Nwadiogbu, Chinwe; Fitts, Whitney; Partridge, Helen; Karlawish, Jason
Parkinsonian signs are common, non-specific findings in older adults and associated with increased rates of dementia and mortality. It is important to understand which motor outcomes are associated with parkinsonian signs. To determine the role of parkinsonian signs on fall rates among older adults. We conducted a longitudinal study of primary care patients from the University of Pennsylvania Health System. Adults over 55 years were assessed at baseline through surveys and a neurological examination. We recorded falls over the following 2 years. Parkinsonian signs were defined as the presence of 2 of 4 cardinal signs. Incident falls were compared between subjects with and without parkinsonian signs, and modified Poisson regression used to adjust for potential confounders in the relationship between parkinsonian signs and falls. 982 subjects with a mean age of 68 (s.d. 8.8) years participated. 29% of participants fell and 12% exhibited parkinsonian signs at baseline. The unadjusted RR for falls among individuals with parkinsonian signs was 1.36 (95% CI 1.05-1.76, p=0.02). After adjusting for age, cognitive function, urinary incontinence, depression, diabetes, stroke and arthritis, individuals with parkinsonian signs were still 38% more likely to fall than those without parkinsonian signs (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.04-1.82; p=0.03). Falls among those with parkinsonian signs were more likely to lead to injury (53% vs 37%; p=0.04). Parkinsonian signs are a significant, independent risk factor for falls. Early detection of this clinical state is important in order to implement fall prevention programs among primary care patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K
This study investigated whether the Tinetti scale, as a subjective measure for fall risk, is associated with objectively measured gait characteristics. It is studied whether gait parameters are different for groups that are stratified for fall risk using the Tinetti scale. Moreover, the discriminative power of gait parameters to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale is investigated. Gait of 50 elderly with a Tinneti>24 and 50 elderly with a Tinetti≤24 was analyzed using acceleration-based gait analysis. Validated algorithms were used to derive spatio-temporal gait parameters, harmonic ratio, inter-stride amplitude variability and root mean square (RMS) from the accelerometer data. Clear differences in gait were found between the groups. All gait parameters correlated with the Tinetti scale (r-range: 0.20-0.73). Only walking speed, step length and RMS showed moderate to strong correlations and high discriminative power to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale. It is concluded that subtle gait changes that have previously been related to fall risk are not captured by the subjective assessment. It is therefore worthwhile to include objective gait assessment in fall risk screening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schrodt, Lori A.; Garbe, Kathie C.; Chaplin, Rebecca; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Shubert, Tiffany E.
Older adults should be screened for fall risk annually. Community providers (people without formal medical training who work with older adults in senior centers or aging services) may be a viable group to expand the reach of screenings. Our community–academic partnership developed a program to increase and assess fall risk screenings by community providers. Community sites hosted training workshops and screening events. Community screenings were well attended and received by providers and old...
AlSowailmi, Banan Abdullah; AlAkeely, Maha Heshaam; AlJutaily, Hayat Ibrahim; Alhasoon, Mohammad Abdulaziz; Omair, Amir; AlKhalaf, Hamad Abdullah
Fall injuries among children during hospital stay is a major patient safety issue. Inpatient pediatric falls can lead to numerous negative consequences. In contrast to adults, there is a paucity of information on the prevalence and risk factors associated with children's falls during hospitalization. Identify the prevalence of fall injuries among hospital.ized children and describe the demographic and environmental factors that could predict a higher risk of severe outcomes of fall. Descriptive, cross-sectional prevalence study. Specialized children's hospital. Data was obtained through the electronic Safety Reporting System (SRS). All reported fall events during hospitalization in children less than or equal 14 years of age for the period from 1 April 2015 to 30 April 2016 were included. Fall events that occurred in the day care unit and the outpatient clinic were excluded. Prevalence and possible risk factors for fall events. 48. The prevalence of falls among the 4860 admitted children was 9.9 (95% CI=7.5, 13.1) per 1000 patients (48/4860). A majority of the falls were among boys (n=26, 54%), in the age group from 1-5 years old (n=22, 46%), in children at high risk of falling (n=35, 73%), with normal mobility status (n=21, 44%), and with no history of previ.ous falls (n=33, 69%). Severe injuries accounted for 25% of falls (n=12). However, falls among the moderate risk category (n=9, 69%) were more often severe than falls among the high risk category of children (n=12, 34%) (P=.03). Risk factor identification is required to prevent falls and their severe outcomes. Underreporting and single-centered study. None.
Hilscher, Moira B; Niesen, Cynthia R; Tynsky, Desiree A; Kane, Sunanda V
The purpose of this article was to determine whether scripted pre-procedural fall risk patient education and nurses' intention to assist patients after receiving sedation improves receptiveness of nursing assistance during recovery and decreases fall risk in an outpatient endoscopy suite. We prospectively identified high fall risk patients using the following criteria: (1) use of an assistive device, (2) fallen two or more times within the last year, (3) sustained an injury in a fall within a year, (4) age greater than 85 years, or (5) nursing judgment of high fall risk. Using a scripted dialogue, nurses educated high-risk patients of their fall risk and the nurses' intent to assist them to and in the bathroom. Documentation of patient education, script use, and assistance was monitored. Over 24 weeks, 892 endoscopy patients were identified as high fall risk; 790 (88.5%) accepted post-procedural assistance. Documentation of assistance significantly increased from 33% to 100%. Patients receiving education and postprocedural assistance increased from 27.9% to 100% at week 24. No patient falls occurred 12 months following implementation among patients identified as high fall risk. Scripted pre-procedural fall risk education increases patient awareness and receptiveness to assistance and can lead to decreased fall rates.
Callisaya, Michele L; Blizzard, Leigh; Martin, Kara; Srikanth, Velandai K
In a population-based study of older people to examine whether 1) overall gait initiation (GI) time or its components are associated with falls and 2) GI under dual-task is a stronger predictor of falls risk than under single-task. Participants aged 60-85 years were randomly selected from the electoral roll. GI was obtained with a force platform under both single and dual-task conditions. Falls were ascertained prospectively over a 12-month period. Log multinomial regression was used to examine the association between GI time (total and its components) and risk of single and multiple falls. Age, sex and physiological and cognitive falls risk factors were considered as confounders. The mean age of the sample (n=124) was 71.0 (SD 6.8) years and 58.9% (n=73) were male. Over 12 months 21.8% (n=27) of participants reported a single fall and 16.1% (n=20) reported multiple falls. Slower overall GI time under both single (RR all per 100ms 1.28, 95%CI 1.03, 1.58) and dual-task (RR 1.14, 95%CI 1.02, 1.27) was associated with increased risk of multiple, but not single falls (pfalls were also associated with slower time to first lateral movement under single-task (RR 1.90 95%CI 0.59, 1.51) and swing time under dual-task condition (RR 1.44 95%CI 1.08, 1.94). Slower GI time is associated with the risk of multiple falls independent of other risk factors, suggesting it could be used as part of a comprehensive falls assessment. Time to the first lateral movement under single-task may be the best measures of this risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vind, Ane B; Andersen, Hanne E; Pedersen, Kirsten D
, mean age 74, 73.7%women, who had visited the emergency department or had been hospitalized due to a fall. INTERVENTION: Identification of general medical, cardiovascular, and physical risk factors for falls and individual intervention in the intervention group. Participants in the control group....... Followup exceeded 90.0%. A total of 422 falls were registered in the intervention group, 398 in the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no effect of the intervention on fall rates (relative risk=1.06, 95%confidence interval (CI)=0.75 -1.51), proportion with falls (odds ratio (OR)=1.20, 95......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of multifactorial fall prevention in community-dwelling people aged 65 and older in Denmark. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Geriatric outpatient clinic at Glostrup University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred ninety-two elderly people...
Muir, Susan W; Gopaul, Karen; Montero Odasso, Manuel M
cognitive impairment is an established fall risk factor; however, it is unclear whether a disease-specific diagnosis (i.e. dementia), measures of global cognition or impairments in specific cognitive domains (i.e. executive function) have the greatest association with fall risk. Our objective was to evaluate the epidemiological evidence linking cognitive impairment and fall risk. studies were identified through systematic searches of the electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PyschINFO (1988-2009). Bibliographies of retrieved articles were also searched. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was performed using an inverse-variance method. twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Impairment on global measures of cognition was associated with any fall, serious injuries (summary estimate of OR = 2.13 (1.56, 2.90)) and distal radius fractures in community-dwelling older adults. Executive function impairment, even subtle deficits in healthy community-dwelling older adults, was associated with an increased risk for any fall (summary estimate of OR = 1.44 (1.20, 1.73)) and falls with serious injury. A diagnosis of dementia, without specification of dementia subtype or disease severity, was associated with risk for any fall but not serious fall injury in institution-dwelling older adults. the method used to define cognitive impairment and the type of fall outcome are both important when quantifying risk. There is strong evidence global measures of cognition are associated with serious fall-related injury, though there is no consensus on threshold values. Executive function was also associated with increased risk, which supports its inclusion in fall risk assessment especially when global measures are within normal limits.
Kang, Li; Chen, Xiaoyu; Han, Peipei; Ma, Yixuan; Jia, Liye; Fu, Liyuan; Yu, Hairui; Wang, Lu; Hou, Lin; Yu, Xing; An, Zongyang; Wang, Xuetong; Li, Lu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Peng; Guo, Qi
The objective of this study was to determine falls risk profiles to derive a falls risk prediction score and establish a simple and practical clinical screening tool for Chinese community-dwelling elderly individuals. This was a prospective cohort study (n = 619) among adults aged 60 years and older. Falls were ascertained at a 1-year follow-up appointment. Sociodemographic information, medical history, and physical performance data were collected. The mean age was 67.4 years; 57.7% were women. Female sex (odds ratios [ORs] 1.82; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.17-2.82), diabetes (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.13-3.98), a Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) ≥10.49 seconds (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.23-1.94), a history of falls (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.72-5.79), and depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS] ≥11, OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.36-4.63) were the strongest predictors. These predictors were used to establish a risk score. The area under the curve of the score was 0.748. From a clinical point of view, the most appropriate cutoff value was 7 (97.5% specificity, 70.7% positive predictive value, and 83.6% negative predictive value). For this cutoff, the fraction correctly classified was 82.5%. A cutoff score of 7 derived from a risk assessment tool using four risk factors (gender, falls history, diabetes, and depression) and the TUGT may be used in Chinese community-dwelling elderly individuals as an initial step to screen those at low risk for falls.
Chen, Tuo-Yu; Edwards, Jerri D.; Janke, Megan C.
Introduction This study investigated the effects of the A Matter of Balance (MOB) program on falls and physical risk factors of falling among community-dwelling older adults living in Tampa, Florida, in 2013. Methods A total of 110 adults (52 MOB, 58 comparison) were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Data on falls, physical risk of falling, and other known risk factors of falling were collected at baseline and at the end of the program. Multivariate analysis of covariance with repeat...
Goh, Hui-Ting; Nadarajah, Mohanasuntharaam; Hamzah, Norhamizan Binti; Varadan, Parimalaganthi; Tan, Maw Pin
Falls are common after stroke, with potentially serious consequences. Few investigations have included age-matched control participants to directly compare fall characteristics between older adults with and without stroke. Further, fear of falling, a significant psychological consequence of falls, has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population. To compare the fall history between older adults with and without a previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke survivors. Case-control observational study. Primary teaching hospital. Seventy-five patients with stroke (mean age ± standard deviation, 66 ± 7 years) and 50 age-matched control participants with no previous stroke were tested. Fall history, fear of falling, and physical, cognitive, and psychological function were assessed. A χ 2 test was performed to compare characteristics between groups, and logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for falls and fear of falling. Fall events in the past 12 months, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, Fatigue Severity Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Patient Healthy Questionnaire-9 were measured for all participants. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment was used to quantify severity of stroke motor impairments. Twenty-three patients and 13 control participants reported at least one fall in the past 12 months (P = .58). Nine participants with stroke had recurrent falls (≥2 falls) compared with none of the control participants (P falling than did nonstroke control participants (P falls in the nonstroke group, whereas falls in the stroke group were not significantly associated with any measured outcomes. Fear of falling in the stroke group was associated with functional ambulation level and balance. Functional ambulation level alone explained 22% of variance in fear of falling in the stroke group
Fritz, Stacy; Middleton, Addie; Allison, Leslie; Wingood, Mariana; Phillips, Emma; Criss, Michelle; Verma, Sangita; Osborne, Jackie; Chui, Kevin K.
Background: Falls and their consequences are significant concerns for older adults, caregivers, and health care providers. Identification of fall risk is crucial for appropriate referral to preventive interventions. Falls are multifactorial; no single measure is an accurate diagnostic tool. There is limited information on which history question, self-report measure, or performance-based measure, or combination of measures, best predicts future falls. Purpose: First, to evaluate the predictive ability of history questions, self-report measures, and performance-based measures for assessing fall risk of community-dwelling older adults by calculating and comparing posttest probability (PoTP) values for individual test/measures. Second, to evaluate usefulness of cumulative PoTP for measures in combination. Data Sources: To be included, a study must have used fall status as an outcome or classification variable, have a sample size of at least 30 ambulatory community-living older adults (≥65 years), and track falls occurrence for a minimum of 6 months. Studies in acute or long-term care settings, as well as those including participants with significant cognitive or neuromuscular conditions related to increased fall risk, were excluded. Searches of Medline/PubMED and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) from January 1990 through September 2013 identified 2294 abstracts concerned with fall risk assessment in community-dwelling older adults. Study Selection: Because the number of prospective studies of fall risk assessment was limited, retrospective studies that classified participants (faller/nonfallers) were also included. Ninety-five full-text articles met inclusion criteria; 59 contained necessary data for calculation of PoTP. The Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) was used to assess each study's methodological quality. Data Extraction: Study design and QUADAS score determined the level of evidence. Data for calculation
Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions. This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology, subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems. Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...
Morsch, Patricia; Myskiw, Mauro; Myskiw, Jociane de Carvalho
Falling is an important event for older adults as they might cause physical and psychological impairment, institutionalization and increased mortality risk. Adherence in falls prevention programs depends on older adults' perceptions in relation to falling. The current study aims to investigate the fall problematization and older adults' perception about the risk factors for falls. This is an exploratory qualitative research, conducted through content analysis approach. The sample consisted of older adults aged 60 years and older who participate in community groups in Porto Alegre (Brazil), and professors from two local universities. Final sample consisted of 22 participants, mean age was 70.2 ± 7.1. Coding and interpretation of data resulted in two thematic categories, named: falls' problematization and the perception of the risk factors for falling. The first category highlights that many older adults do not realize falling as a potential problem, which suggests that current preventive measures may not be reaching the target population. The second category shows that older adults' perceptions in relation to the risk factors exist, but often they are not avoided, because older adults consider their ability to "take care" as the main method of prevention, and due to the multifactorial nature of falls, this cannot be considered an efficient solution.
Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J
Those with a low income are known to have a higher risk of developing heart disease. However, the inverse relationship - falling into income poverty after developing heart disease has not been explored with longitudinal data. This paper aims to determine if those with heart disease have an elevated risk of falling into poverty. Survival analysis was conducted using the longitudinal Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, between the years 2007 and 2012. The study focused on the Australian population aged 21 years and over in 2007 who were not already in poverty and did not already have heart disease, who were followed from 2007 to 2012. Cox regression models adjusting for age, sex and time-varying co-variates (marital status, home ownership and remoteness of area of residence) were constructed to assess the risk of falling into poverty. For those aged 20 who developed heart disease, the hazard ratio for falling into income poverty was 9.24 (95 % CI: 8.97-9.51) and for falling into multidimensional poverty the hazard ratio was 14.21 (95 % CI: 13.76-14.68); for those aged 40 the hazard ratio for falling into income poverty was 3.45 (95 % CI: 3.39-3.51) and for multidimensional poverty, 5.20 (95 % CI: 5.11-5.29); and for those aged 60 the hazard ratio for falling into income poverty was 1.29 (95 % CI: 1.28-1.30) and for multidimensional poverty, 1.52 (95 % CI: 1.51-1.54), relative those who never developed heart disease. The risk for both income and multidimensional poverty decreases with age up to the age of 70, over which, those who developed heart disease had a reduced risk of poverty. For those under the age of 70, developing heart disease is associated with an increased risk of falling into both income poverty and multidimensional poverty.
Stark, Susan L; Roe, Catherine M; Grant, Elizabeth A; Hollingsworth, Holly; Benzinger, Tammie L; Fagan, Anne M; Buckles, Virginia D; Morris, John C
We determined the rate of falls among cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults, some of whom had presumptive preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) as detected by in vivo imaging of fibrillar amyloid plaques using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) and PET and/or by assays of CSF to identify Aβ₄₂, tau, and phosphorylated tau. We conducted a 12-month prospective cohort study to examine the cumulative incidence of falls. Participants were evaluated clinically and underwent PiB PET imaging and lumbar puncture. Falls were reported monthly using an individualized calendar journal returned by mail. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to test whether time to first fall was associated with each biomarker and the ratio of CSF tau/Aβ₄₂ and CSF phosphorylated tau/Aβ₄₂, after adjustment for common fall risk factors. The sample (n = 125) was predominately female (62.4%) and white (96%) with a mean age of 74.4 years. When controlled for ability to perform activities of daily living, higher levels of PiB retention (hazard ratio = 2.95 [95% confidence interval 1.01-6.45], p = 0.05) and of CSF biomarker ratios (p risk factor for falls in older adults. This study suggests that subtle noncognitive changes that predispose older adults to falls are associated with AD and may precede detectable cognitive changes.
Ylitalo, Kelly R; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A
Falls are an important health concern because they are associated with loss of independence and disability, particularly among women. We determined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of injurious falls among adults in the United States and examined the impact of obesity on fall risk. Self-reported falls, injurious falls, and health histories were obtained from 280,035 adults aged 45-79years in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Body mass index was categorized as underweight (fall in the previous 12months. Mid-life women 55-59years reported the highest prevalence of injurious falls (15.4%). Among mid-life women, overweight was associated with injurious falls (RR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.28), but overweight was not associated with falling among other age-sex groups. Class II/III obesity was associated with injurious falls among all age-sex groups. After considering the mediators like health conditions (depression, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis) and behaviors (physical activity, sleep), the association of class II/III obesity and injurious fall risk persisted only among mid-life women (RR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.36). Not only are mid-life women at high risk for falls, but the class II/III obesity is a risk factor for injurious falls. Targeting mid-life women for fall and injury prevention is an important aim for practitioners, particularly given unique correlates of falling for this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The aim of the study was to determine the level of functional independence in adult patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU). The study was conducted among 400 intellectually impaired adult residents of Social Welfare Homes in South-Eastern Poland born prior to the introduction of neonatal PKU screening programs. PKU was screened by filter paper test using tandem mass spectrometry methods, and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of PKU organic acids in urine. Degree of functional independence included the assessment of activities of daily living (Barthel Index) and measures of balance and gait (Tinetti scale). Eleven individuals with previously untreated PKU were identified whereby eight presented with moderate disability and three with mild disability. Six had a high risk of falls and five had a moderate risk of falls. This study indicates that there is considerable number of undiagnosed PKU patients within the Polish population who require assessment and management in order to reduce the impact of the neurological and neuropsychiatric problems associated with the condition. Appropriate therapy for those with undiagnosed PKU should, in particular, address the risk of falls.
Rispens, Sietse M; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H
Background. Gait characteristics extracted from trunk accelerations during daily life locomotion are complementary to questionnaire- or laboratory-based gait and balance assessments and may help to improve fall risk prediction. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify gait characteristics that are associated with self-reported fall history and that can be reliably assessed based on ambulatory data collected during a single week. Methods. We analyzed 2 weeks of trunk acceleration data (DynaPort MoveMonitor, McRoberts) collected among 113 older adults (age range, 65-97 years). During episodes of locomotion, various gait characteristics were determined, including local dynamic stability, interstride variability, and several spectral features. For each characteristic, we performed a negative binomial regression analysis with the participants' self-reported number of falls in the preceding year as outcome. Reliability of gait characteristics was assessed in terms of intraclass correlations between both measurement weeks. Results. The percentages of spectral power below 0.7 Hz along the vertical and anteroposterior axes and below 10 Hz along the mediolateral axis, as well as local dynamic stability, local dynamic stability per stride, gait smoothness, and the amplitude and slope of the dominant frequency along the vertical axis, were associated with the number of falls in the preceding year and could be reliably assessed (all P 0.75). Conclusions. Daily life gait characteristics are associated with fall history in older adults and can be reliably estimated from a week of ambulatory trunk acceleration measurements. © The Author(s) 2014.
higher than other variables, such as MT and maximal isokinetic torque, in evaluating elderly fall risk by using logistic regression analyses. The results suggest that PMT in the choice step reaction test could be a useful parameter to assess risk of fall among elder adults. In addition, decreased maximal isokinetic torque was related to greater PMT and disappearance of asymmetry in older adults who were at higher risk of fall, especially in the lower limb. Keywords: falling, elderly, choice step reaction test, premotor time
Divani, Afshin A; Vazquez, Gabriela; Barrett, Anna M; Asadollahi, Marjan; Luft, Andreas R
Stroke survivors are at high risk for falling. Identifying physical, clinical, and social factors that predispose stroke patients to falls may reduce further disability and life-threatening complications, and improve overall quality of life. We used 5 biennial waves (1998-2006) from the Health and Retirement Study to assess risk factors associated with falling accidents and fall-related injuries among stroke survivors. We abstracted demographic data, living status, self-evaluated general health, and comorbid conditions. We analyzed the rate ratio (RR) of falling and the OR of injury within 2 follow-up years using a multivariate random effects model. We identified 1174 stroke survivors (mean age+/-SD, 74.4+/-7.2 years; 53% female). The 2-year risks of falling, subsequent injury, and broken hip attributable to fall were 46%, 15%, and 2.1% among the subjects, respectively. Factors associated with an increased frequency of falling were living with spouse as compared to living alone (RR, 1.4), poor general health (RR, 1.1), time from first stroke (RR, 1.2), psychiatric problems (RR, 1.7), urinary incontinence (RR, 1.4), pain (RR, 1.4), motor impairment (RR, 1.2), and past frequency of > or = 3 falls (RR, 1.3). Risk factors associated with fall-related injury were female gender (OR, 1.5), poor general health (OR, 1.2), past injury from fall (OR, 3.2), past frequency of > or = 3 falls (OR, 3.1), psychiatric problems (OR, 1.4), urinary incontinence (OR, 1.4), impaired hearing (OR, 1.6), pain (OR, 1.8), motor impairment (OR, 1.3), and presence of multiple strokes (OR, 3.2). This study demonstrates the high prevalence of falls and fall-related injuries in stroke survivors, and identifies factors that increase the risk. Modifying these factors may prevent falls, which could lead to improved quality of life and less caregiver burden and cost in this population.
Wong, Christopher Kevin; Chihuri, Stanford T; Li, Guohua
To assess fall-related injury risk and risk factors in people with lower limb amputation. Prospective longitudinal cohort with follow-up every 6 months for up to 41 months. Community-dwelling adults with lower limb amputations of any etiology and level recruited from support groups and prosthetic clinics. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained by self-reported questionnaire and telephone or in-person follow-up. Fall-related injury incidence requiring medical care per person-month and adjusted hazard ratio of fall-related injury were calculated using multivariable proportional hazards regression modeling. A total of 41 subjects, with 782 follow-up person-months in total, had 11 fall-related injury incidents (14.1/1,000 person-months). During follow-up, 56.1% of subjects reported falling and 26.8% reported fall-related injury. Multivariable proportional hazard modeling showed that women were nearly 6 times more likely as men to experience fall-related injury and people of non-white race were 13 times more likely than people of white race to experience fall-related injury. The final predictive model also included vascular amputation and age. Risk of fall-related injury requiring medical care in people with lower limb amputation appears to be higher than in older adult inpatients. Intervention programs to prevent fall-related injury in people with lower limb amputation should target women and racial minorities.
Venegas Sanabria, Luis Carlos; Barbosa Balaquera, Stephany; Suarez Acosta, Ana María; García Peña, Ángel Alberto; Cano Gutiérrez, Carlos Alberto
With the high incidence of cardiovascular events in the elderly population the effectiveness of statins in reducing mortality from coronary events has been demonstrated. However, there have been adverse effects, such as myalgia, myopathy, myonecrosis, not to mention the falls as a result of muscle damage with statin use. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review to assess the literature on the association between statin use and the risk of falls. The databases that were included PUBMED AND SCOPUS, with articles published from January 2000 to May 2016. The MESH terms used for the search were "FALLS" AND "STATIN". Selected studies included cohort populations from the community (>50 years old), and analysed using the Scottish Intercollegiate (SIGN) methodology guidelines, as no randomised controlled study was found. In the study by Ham et al., statin use was shown to be a protective factor for presence of falls. In the second study by Scott et al., there was an increased risk of falls (P=.029) and an impairment in muscle strength and quality muscle (P=.033 and P=.046, respectively). In the third study Haerer et al., found an increased risk of falls (P=.63). The association between use of statins and risk of falls could not be determined with the available evidence, although an association with the involvement of some determinants of muscular function was found. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Riva, F.; Toebes, M.J.P.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Stagni, R.; van Dieen, J.H.
Falls have major consequences both at societal (health-care and economy) and individual (physical and psychological) levels. Questionnaires to assess fall risk are commonly used in the clinic, but their predictive value is limited. Objective methods, suitable for clinical application, are hence
Gringauz, Irina; Shemesh, Yael; Dagan, Amir; Israelov, Irina; Feldman, Dana; Pelz-Sinvani, Naama; Justo, Dan; Segal, Gad
Falls during hospitalization harbor both clinical and financial outcomes. The modified Morse fall scale [MMFS] is widely used for an in-hospital risk-of-fall assessment. Nevertheless, the majority of patients at risk of falling, i.e. with high MMFS, do not fall. The aim of this study was to ascertain our study hypothesis that certain patients' characteristics (e.g. serum electrolytes, usage of a walking device etc.) could further stratify the risk of falls among hospitalized patients with MMFS. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine departments. The final cohort included 428 patients aged 76.8±14.0 years. All patients had high (9 or more) MMFS upon admission, and their mean MMFS was 16.2±6.1. A group of 139 (32.5%) patients who fell during their hospitalization was compared with a control group of 289 (67.5%) patients who did not fall. The fallers had higher MMFS, a higher prevalence of mild dependence, and a greater use of a cane or no walking device. Regression analysis showed the following patients' characteristics to be independently associated with an increased risk of falling: mild dependence (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.97-8.08; pfalling (OR=0.3, 95% CI 0.13-0.69; p=0.005 and OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.11-0.59; p= 0.002). Further risk stratification of hospitalized patients, already known to have a high MMFS, which would take into account the characteristics pointed out in this study, should be attained.
Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Koziel, Slawomir; Ignasiak, Zofia; Sławińska, Teresa; Skrzek, Anna; Kołodziej, Małgorzata
The constantly rising percentage of the elderly (60+), who are particularly at risk of the dangerous consequence of falls, results not only in the loss of independence in daily life, but also in a serious threat to health and life. Therefore, many authors emphasize the necessity of conducting prophylaxis and prevention among senior citizens. The most important aspect of fall prophylaxis is care about the optimum level of agility. Exercise should focus on increasing muscular strength, balance and dexterity. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between functional fitness and the risk for falls of older people in the light of maintaining physical independence. The research group consisted of 522 persons: 142 males and 380 females aged 60-84 years from Wroclaw (a city in the south-west of Poland). All subjects provided written consent, and were measured and tested in 2009 through 2015, excluding the winter months. Body height and weight were measured. Body mass index was calculated. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess functional capacity and efficiency. The results of the Senior Fitness Test were used to estimate Maintaining Physical Independence in Older Adults. The differences in the means of the results of all the tests between the age and sex-specific groups were assessed by means of a two-way analysis of variance, where sex and age were factors and results of appropriate test dependent variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk for fall, based on the incidence of fall in the last year, for each test comparing the individuals met referenced criteria to maintain functionally dependence and independent, controlled for age and BMI. The risk for falls was more than twice greater in the case of the studied females, whose muscular strength of the upper part of the body was lower. The females in whose cases no fewer than two tests failed to ascertain functional independence, had a greater risk for falls. In the case of the
Boelens, C.; Hekman, E. E. G.; Verkerke, G. J.
OBJECTIVE: Fall prevention is a major issue in the ageing society. This study provides an overview of all risk factors for falls of older citizens. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to retrieve studies of the past 25 years. All participants from the studies lived in the community or
Solis, Guillermina R; Champion, Jane Dimmitt
Unintentional falls and injuries is a major problem among older adults and the fourth cause of death in the United States. A previous fall event doubles the risk of recurrence and lessens the person's quality of life. Hispanic older adults have higher rates of disability and lower independent functioning due to poor medical health and risk for fall recurrence. Most fall studies focus on fall risk with few studies on fall recurrence in older adults receiving home health care services unrelated to fall incident. A descriptive pilot study of 30 homebound Hispanic older adults receiving home care services who reported a fall within 3 months was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to evaluate risk of fall recurrence. A heightened risk for fall recurrence was identified with high number of chronic illnesses, high intake of medications, vision problems, and prevalence of urinary incontinence. Findings highlight significant number of intrinsic factors for fall risk recurrence and injuries in a Hispanic older adults population that is homebound and receiving home care services. A multidisciplinary evaluation and culturally appropriate interventions to lessen the risk of fall recurrence are recommended.
Kamel, Mohammed Hany; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed; Ismail, Sally El-Sayed
Falling is one of the most common geriatric syndromes threatening the independence of older persons. Falls result from a complex and interactive mix of biological or medical, behavioral and environmental factors, many of which are preventable. Studying these diverse risk factors would aid early detection and management of them at the primary care level. This is a cross sectional study about risk factors of falls was conducted to 340 elders in Urban Suez. Those are all patients over 60 who attended two family practice centers in Urban Suez. When asked about falling during the past 12 months, 205 elders recalled at least one incident of falling. Of them, 36% had their falls outdoors and 24% mentioned that stairs was the most prevalent site for indoor falls. Falls were also reported more among dependant than independent elderly. Using univariate regression analysis, almost all tested risk factors were significantly associated with falls in the studied population. These risk factors include: living alone, having chronic diseases, using medications, having a physical deficit, being in active, and having a high nutritional risk. However, the multivariate regression analysis proved that the strongest risk factors are low level of physical activity with OR 0.6 and P value 0.03, using a cane or walker (OR 1.69 and P value 0.001) and Impairment of daily living activities (OR 1.7 and P value 0.001). Although falls is a serious problem among elderly with many consequences, it has many preventable risk factors. Health care providers should advice people to remain active and more research is needed in such an important area of Family Practice.
Kamel, Mohammed Hany; Abdulmajeed, Abdulmajeed Ahmed; Ismail, Sally El-Sayed
Introduction Falling is one of the most common geriatric syndromes threatening the independence of older persons. Falls result from a complex and interactive mix of biological or medical, behavioral and environmental factors, many of which are preventable. Studying these diverse risk factors would aid early detection and management of them at the primary care level. Methods This is a cross sectional study about risk factors of falls was conducted to 340 elders in Urban Suez. Those are all patients over 60 who attended two family practice centers in Urban Suez. Results When asked about falling during the past 12 months, 205 elders recalled at least one incident of falling. Of them, 36% had their falls outdoors and 24% mentioned that stairs was the most prevalent site for indoor falls. Falls were also reported more among dependant than independent elderly. Using univariate regression analysis, almost all tested risk factors were significantly associated with falls in the studied population. These risk factors include: living alone, having chronic diseases, using medications, having a physical deficit, being in active, and having a high nutritional risk. However, the multivariate regression analysis proved that the strongest risk factors are low level of physical activity with OR 0.6 and P value 0.03, using a cane or walker (OR 1.69 and P value 0.001) and Impairment of daily living activities (OR 1.7 and P value 0.001). Conclusion Although falls is a serious problem among elderly with many consequences, it has many preventable risk factors. Health care providers should advice people to remain active and more research is needed in such an important area of Family Practice. PMID:23504298
Clarke, Shane; Bradley, Rachel; Simmonds, Bethany; Salisbury, Chris; Benger, Jonathan; Marques, Elsa; Greenwood, Rosemary; Shepstone, Lee; Robinson, Maria; Appleby-Fleming, John; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael
Currently identification, and therefore, management of patients at risk of osteoporotic fracture in the UK is suboptimal. As the majority of patients who fracture have fallen, it follows that people who fall can usefully be targeted in any programme that aims to reduce osteoporotic fracture. Targeting vulnerable patients who are likely to benefit from intervention may help shift the management of fracture prevention into primary care, away from emergency departments. Paramedics who attend to patients who have fallen may be well placed to assess future fracture risk, using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and communicate that information directly to general practitioners (GPs). This feasibility study takes the form of a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial aimed at exploring and refining issues of study design, recruitment, retention, sample size and acceptability preceding a large-scale study with fracture as the end point. Patients (aged >50) who fall, call an ambulance, are attended by a study paramedic and give verbal consent will be asked FRAX and fall questions. Patients who subsequently formally consent to participation will be randomised to control (usual care) or intervention groups. Intervention will constitute transmission of calculated future fracture risk to the patients' GP with suitable, evidence-based recommendations for investigation or treatment. 3 months after the index fall, data (proportion of patients in each group undergoing investigation or starting new treatment, quality of life and health economic) will be collected and analysed using descriptive statistics. A nested qualitative study will explore issues of acceptability and study design with patients, paramedics and GPs. This protocol was approved by NRES Committee South Central Oxford C in October 2012. Research Ethics Committee ref.12/SC/0604. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and local public events. A publication
Carpenter, Christopher R; Scheatzle, Mark D; D'Antonio, Joyce A; Ricci, Paul T; Coben, Jeffrey H
Falls represent an increasingly frequent source of injury among older adults. Identification of fall risk factors in geriatric patients may permit the effective utilization of scarce preventative resources. The objective of this study was to identify independent risk factors associated with an increased 6-month fall risk in community-dwelling older adults discharged from the emergency department (ED). This was a prospective observational study with a convenience sampling of noninstitutionalized elders presenting to an urban teaching hospital ED who did not require hospital admission. Interviews were conducted to determine the presence of fall risk factors previously described in non-ED populations. Subjects were followed monthly for 6 months through postcard or telephone contact to identify subsequent falls. Univariate and Cox regression analysis were used to determine the association of risk factors with 6-month fall incidence. A total of 263 patients completed the survey, and 161 (61%) completed the entire 6 months of follow-up. Among the 263 enrolled, 39% reported a fall in the preceding year, including 15% with more than one fall and 22% with injurious falls. Among those completing the 6 months of follow-up, 14% reported at least one fall. Cox regression analysis identified four factors associated with falls during the 6-month follow-up: nonhealing foot sores (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73 to 7.95), a prior fall history (HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.32 to 5.18), inability to cut one's own toenails (HR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.04 to 4.01), and self-reported depression (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 0.83 to 3.55). Falls, recurrent falls, and injurious falls in community-dwelling elder ED patients being evaluated for non-fall-related complaints occur at least as frequently as in previously described outpatient cohorts. Nonhealing foot sores, self-reported depression, not clipping one's own toenails, and previous falls are all associated with falls after
Vivian Lemes Lobo Bittencourt
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyzing factors related to the risk of falls in hospitalized adult patients. METHOD A cross-sectional, analytical and quantitative study, developed in Clinical and Surgical Hospitalization Units from June to August 2015. Data collection instruments were sociodemographic and clinical forms, and the Morse Scale. Data were obtained with the patients and from medical records. Absolute and relative frequencies were used in the univariate statistical analysis, and chi-square test in the bivariate analysis. RESULTS 612 patients participated in the study. An association (p<0.001 was found between the high risk of falls and clinical neurological hospitalization, surgical trauma (hospitalization and comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, visual impairment, vertigo and fear of falling. CONCLUSION An association between the risk of falls was found due to hospitalization, comorbidities and intrinsic factors. Regarding extrinsic factors, an association between mats/carpets and risk of falls was found. No association between the risk of falls with other extrinsic factors was found.
Conclusion: The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk fac- tors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries. Keywords: Accidental fall, geriatrics, injury, trauma registry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i2.24.
Antonio Herculano de Araújo Neto
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova (Tukey, Chi-square, Mann Whitney. Statistically significance was p <0.05. Data were processed in SPSS version 19.0. Results: A total of 66.7% (30 falls occurred, 20% (9 of them in the external area, with 66.7% (30 of the participants having hypertension as a previous disease and, as consequence, the fracture was highlighted with 11.2% (5. The Berg Scale had different scores when compared to the falls suffered by the elderly and previous diseases influenced the occurrence of falls (p <0.05. Conclusion: It is necessary to implement public financing policies or partnerships that allow environments adaptations aiming at reducing the risks of falls.
Vela, Cory M; Grate, Lisa M; McBride, Ali; Devine, Steven; Andritsos, Leslie A
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare medications and potential risk factors between patients who experienced a fall during hospitalization compared to those who did not fall while admitted to the Blood and Marrow Transplant inpatient setting at The James Cancer Hospital. Secondary objectives included evaluation of transplant-related disease states and medications in the post-transplant setting that may lead to an increased risk of falls, post-fall variables, and number of tests ordered after a fall. Methods This retrospective, case-control study matched patients in a 2:1 ratio of nonfallers to fallers. Data from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (OSUWMC) reported fall events and patient electronic medical records were utilized. A total of 168 adult Blood and Marrow Transplant inpatients with a hematological malignancy diagnosis were evaluated from 1 January 2010 to 30 September 2012. Results Univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between potential predictor variables of interest and falls. Variables that were found to be significant predictors of falls from the univariable models include age group, incontinence, benzodiazepines, corticosteroids, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, and number of days status-post transplant. When considered for a multivariable model age group, corticosteroids, and a cancer diagnosis of leukemia were significant in the final model. Conclusion Recent medication utilization such as benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, corticosteroids, and antidepressants placed patients at a higher risk of experiencing a fall. Other significant factors identified from a multivariable analysis found were patients older than age 65, patients with recent corticosteroid administration and a cancer diagnosis of leukemia.
Khalaj, Nafiseh; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Mehdikhani, Mahboobeh; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar
Balance is essential for mobility and performing activities of daily living. People with knee osteoarthritis display impairment in knee joint proprioception. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate balance and risk of fall in individuals with bilateral mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis. Sixty subjects aged between 50 and 70 years volunteered in this study. They were categorized into three groups which were healthy (n = 20), mild (n = 20) and moderate (n = 20) bilateral knee osteoarthritis groups. Dynamic and static balance and risk of fall were assessed using Biodex Stability System. In addition, Timed Up and Go test was used as a clinical test for balance. Results of this study illustrated that there were significant differences in balance (dynamic and static) and risk of fall between three groups. In addition, the main (most significant) difference was found to be between healthy group and moderate group. Furthermore, on clinical scoring of balance, the "Timed Up and Go" test, all three groups showed significant difference. In conclusion, bilateral knee osteoarthritis impaired the balance and increased the risk of fall, particularly in people with moderate knee osteoarthritis.
Cakar, E; Durmus, O; Tekin, L; Dincer, U; Kiralp, M Z
Ankle foot orthoses (AFO) are commonly used orthotic device in order to restore the ankle foot function and to improve the balance and gait in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. However, there remain some discussions about their effectiveness on long term hemiparetic patients who had mild to moderate spasticity. To investigate the relative effect of prefabricated thermoplastic posterior leaf spring AFO (PLS-AFO) on balance and fall risk. A cross-over interventional study The Department of PMR of a tertiary hospital. Twenty-five chronic post-stroke long duration hemiparetic patients who had Ashworth grade 1-2 spasticity at affected calf muscles and lower limb Brunnstrom stage 2-3 and also able to walk independently without an assistive device. Berg Balance Scale (BERG), and the postural stability test (PST) and the fall risk test (FRT) of Biodex balance systems were used for the assessments. All of the patients were assessed with AFO and without AFO. All assessments were made with footwear. The mean post-stroke duration was 20,32±7,46 months. The BERG scores were 42,12±9,05 without AFO and 47,52±7,77 with AFO; the overall stability scores of FRT were 3,35±1,97 without AFO and 2,69±1,65 with AFO (Pbalance and provide fall risk reduction in chronic post-stroke ambulatory hemiparetic patients who had mild to moderate spasticity on their affected lower limb. These results encourage the usage of AFO on long duration hemiparetic patients in order to provide better balance and lesser fall risk.
Haasum, Ylva; Johnell, Kristina
The aim of this study is to systematically review the scientific literature to investigate if use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is associated with falls and/or recurrent falls in old age. We searched the literature for relevant articles in PubMed and Embase published up until 3rd December 2015. Studies on people aged 60 years and over with an observational design assessing the risk of fall in people exposed to AEDs compared to people not exposed to AED were included. We found 744 studies by searching Medline and Embase and an additional 9 studies by reviewing relevant reference lists. Of these studies, 13 fulfilled our predefined criteria. The articles were of various study design, sizes and follow-up times, and presented the results in different ways. Also, confounder adjustment varied considerably between the studies. Ten studies presented results for the association between use of any AED and any fall/injurious fall. Of these studies, 6 presented adjusted estimates, of which all but one showed statistically significant associations between use of any AED and any fall/injurious fall. Six studies investigated the association between use of any AED and recurrent falls. Of these, only 3 studies presented adjusted effect estimates of which 2 reached statistical significance for the association between use of AEDs and recurrent falls in elderly people. Our results indicate an association between use of AEDs and risk of falls and recurrent falls in older people. This finding may be clinically important given that a substantial amount of older people use these drugs. However, further research is needed to increase the knowledge about the actual risk of falls when using these drugs in old age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mary Lou Galantino
Full Text Available Falls are among the most common problems affecting older adults. At least 50% of those over the age of 80 fall annually. The goal of this pilot study was to assess the safety and feasibility of structured yoga in an elderly population with fall risk. Seniors at risk for falls were identified and enrolled in a single arm pilot trial. A chair based yoga program was provided twice a week for 8 weeks. The program was designed from previously published pilot data. A battery of validated instruments was administered at baseline and week eight and was used to identify which instruments may be sensitive to change as a result of a yoga program. Among sixteen seniors (median age of 88 with a previous history of falls, 87% provided data for assessment at the end of the intervention. Two patients withdrew, one due to a fall outside the institution and the other due to lack of time and interest. There were no adverse events during the yoga sessions. Paired-t tests compared pre-post changes and gains were noted in Fear of Falling (5.27 to 2.60; P = 0.029 and SPPB sit to stand subscale (0.31 to 1.00; P =.022. Improved trends were noted in anxiety and the timed up and go assessments. We found the modified chair-yoga program is safe and recruitment is feasible. Our data suggests that yoga may be beneficial in improving mobility and reducing fear of falling which warrants additional research via randomized controlled trial.
Catherine Maree Said
Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls screening tools are routinely used in hospital settings and the psychometric properties of tools should be examined in the setting in which they are used. The aim of this study was to explore the concurrent and predictive validity of the Austin Health Falls Risk Screening Tool (AHFRST, compared with The Northern Hospital Modified St Thomas’s Risk Assessment Tool (TNH-STRATIFY, and the inter-rater reliability of the AHFRST. Methods A research physiotherapist used the AHFRST and TNH-STRATIFY to classify 130 participants admitted to Austin Health (five acute wards, n = 115 two subacute wards n = 15; median length of stay 6 days IQR 3–12 as ‘High’ or ‘Low’ falls risk. The AHFRST was also completed by nursing staff on patient admission. Falls data was collected from the hospital incident reporting system. Results Six falls occurred during the study period (fall rate of 4.6 falls per 1000 bed days. There was substantial agreement between the AHFRST and the TNH-STRATIFY (Kappa = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52–0.78. Both tools had poor predictive validity, with low specificity (AHFRST 46.0%, 95% CI 37.0–55.1; TNH-STRATIFY 34.7%, 95% CI 26.4–43.7 and positive predictive values (AHFRST 5.6%, 95% CI 1.6–13.8; TNH-STRATIFY 6.9%, 95% CI 2.6–14.4. The AHFRST showed moderate inter-rater reliability (Kappa = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36–0.67, p < 0.001 although 18 patients did not have the AHFRST completed by nursing staff. Conclusions There was an acceptable level of agreement between the 3 item AHFRST classification of falls risk and the longer, 9 item TNH-STRATIFY classification. However, both tools demonstrated limited predictive validity in the Austin Health population. The results highlight the importance of evaluating the validity of falls screening tools, and the clinical utility of these tools should be reconsidered.
Muray, Mwali; Bélanger, Charles H; Razmak, Jamil
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to document the need for implementing a fall prevention strategy in an emergency department (ED). The paper also spells out the research process that led to approving an assessment tool for use in hospital outpatient services. Design/methodology/approach The fall risk assessment tool was based on the Morse Fall Scale. Gender mix and age above 65 and 80 years were assessed on six risk assessment variables using χ 2 analyses. A logistic regression analysis and model were used to test predictor strength and relationships among variables. Findings In total, 5,371 (56.5 percent) geriatric outpatients were deemed to be at fall risk during the study. Women have a higher falls incidence in young and old age categories. Being on medications for patients above 80 years exposed both genders to equal fall risks. Regression analysis explained 73-98 percent of the variance in the six-variable tool. Originality/value Canadian quality and safe healthcare accreditation standards require that hospital staff develop and adhere to fall prevention policies. Anticipated physiological falls can be prevented by healthcare interventions, particularly with older people known to bear higher risk factors. An aging population is increasing healthcare volumes and medical challenges. Precautionary measures for patients with a vulnerable cognitive and physical status are essential for quality care.
Full Text Available Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization.National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study.Community dwellers aged 65+ years living in Sweden between March 2006 and December 2009.Cases (n = 64,399 were identified in the national inpatient register and four controls per case were randomly matched by gender, date of birth and residential area. The association between number of prescribed medications, assessed through linkage with the Swedish prescribed drug register, and the risk of injurious falls was estimated with odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for demographic and health status.The number of medications was associated with an increased risk of fall injury in a dose-response fashion, even after adjustment for marital status, comorbidity and number of fall-risk-inducing drugs (FRIDs. Using ten or more medications was associated with an almost two-fold higher risk (adjusted OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.66 to 1.88. When stratified by use (or not of at least one FRID, the association weakened slightly among both non-users (adjusted OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.67 and users (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.58 to 1.77.In older people, not only large but also small numbers of medications may affect the risk for them to sustain injurious falls. Although the mechanisms lying behind this are complex, the finding challenges the prevention strategies targeting either specific types of medications (FRIDs or high numbers of them.
Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel; Johnell, Kristina; Elling, Berty; Möller, Jette
Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization. National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study. Community dwellers aged 65+ years living in Sweden between March 2006 and December 2009. Cases (n = 64,399) were identified in the national inpatient register and four controls per case were randomly matched by gender, date of birth and residential area. The association between number of prescribed medications, assessed through linkage with the Swedish prescribed drug register, and the risk of injurious falls was estimated with odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for demographic and health status. The number of medications was associated with an increased risk of fall injury in a dose-response fashion, even after adjustment for marital status, comorbidity and number of fall-risk-inducing drugs (FRIDs). Using ten or more medications was associated with an almost two-fold higher risk (adjusted OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.66 to 1.88). When stratified by use (or not) of at least one FRID, the association weakened slightly among both non-users (adjusted OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.67) and users (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.58 to 1.77). In older people, not only large but also small numbers of medications may affect the risk for them to sustain injurious falls. Although the mechanisms lying behind this are complex, the finding challenges the prevention strategies targeting either specific types of medications (FRIDs) or high numbers of them.
van Nieuwenhuizen, R.C.; van Dijk, N.; van Breda, F.G.; Scheffer, A.C.; Korevaar, J.C.; van der Cammen, T.J.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Goslings, J.C.; Rooij, S.E.
Objective: Falls in older people are a common presenting complaint. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors may lead to a more tailored approach to prevent recurrent falls and/or fractures. We investigated prevalence of 8 modifiable risk factors for recurrent falling and/or a serious consequence of the
Nieuwenhuizen, R.C. van; Dijk, N. van; Breda, F.G. van; Scheffer, A.C.; Korevaar, J.C.; Cammen, T.J. van der; Lips, P.; Goslings, J.C.; Rooij, S.E. de
OBJECTIVE: Falls in older people are a common presenting complaint. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors may lead to a more tailored approach to prevent recurrent falls and/or fractures. We investigated prevalence of 8 modifiable risk factors for recurrent falling and/or a serious consequence of the
Pecchia, L; Bath, P A; Pendleton, N; Bracale, M
A gap exists between evidence-based medicine and clinical-practice. Every day, healthcare professionals (HCPs) combine empirical evidence and subjective experience in order to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. Consequently, it is important to understand how HCPs interpret the research evidence and apply it in everyday practice. We focused on the prevention of falls, a common cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in later life, for which there is a wide range of known risk factors. To use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to investigate the opinions of HCPs in prioritizing risk factors for preventing falls. We used the AHP to develop a hierarchy of risk factors for falls based on the knowledge and experience of experts. We submitted electronic questionnaires via the web, in order to reach a wider number of respondents. With a web service, we pooled the results and weighted the coherence and the experience of respondents. Overall, 232 respondents participated in the study: 32 in the technical pilot study, nine in the scientific pilot study and 191 respondents in the main study. We identified a hierarchy of 35 risk factors, organized in two categories and six sub-categories. The hierarchy of risk factors provides further insights into clinicians' perceptions of risk factors for falls. This hierarchy helps understand the relative importance that clinicians place on risk factors for falls in older people and why evidence-based guidelines are not always followed. This information may be helpful in improving intervention programs and in understanding how clinicians prioritize multiple risk factors in individual patients. The AHP method allows the opinions of HCPs to be investigated, giving appropriate weight to their coherence, background and experience.
Saverino, A; Waller, D; Rantell, K; Parry, R; Moriarty, A; Playford, E D
There is a consistent body of evidence supporting the role of cognitive functions, particularly executive function, in the elderly and in neurological conditions which become more frequent with ageing. The aim of our study was to assess the role of different domains of cognitive functions to predict balance and fall risk in a sample of adults with various neurological conditions in a rehabilitation setting. This was a prospective, cohort study conducted in a single centre in the UK. 114 participants consecutively admitted to a Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit were prospectively assessed for fall accidents. Baseline assessment included a measure of balance (Berg Balance Scale) and a battery of standard cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed of information processing, verbal and visual memory, visual perception and intellectual function. The outcomes of interest were the risk of becoming a faller, balance and fall rate. Two tests of executive function were significantly associated with fall risk, the Stroop Colour Word Test (IRR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03) and the number of errors on part B of the Trail Making Test (IRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.49). Composite scores of executive function, speed of information processing and visual memory domains resulted in 2 to 3 times increased likelihood of having better balance (OR 2.74 95% CI 1.08 to 6.94, OR 2.72 95% CI 1.16 to 6.36 and OR 2.44 95% CI 1.11 to 5.35 respectively). Our results show that specific subcomponents of executive functions are able to predict fall risk, while a more global cognitive dysfunction is associated with poorer balance.
Full Text Available There is a consistent body of evidence supporting the role of cognitive functions, particularly executive function, in the elderly and in neurological conditions which become more frequent with ageing. The aim of our study was to assess the role of different domains of cognitive functions to predict balance and fall risk in a sample of adults with various neurological conditions in a rehabilitation setting.This was a prospective, cohort study conducted in a single centre in the UK. 114 participants consecutively admitted to a Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit were prospectively assessed for fall accidents. Baseline assessment included a measure of balance (Berg Balance Scale and a battery of standard cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed of information processing, verbal and visual memory, visual perception and intellectual function. The outcomes of interest were the risk of becoming a faller, balance and fall rate.Two tests of executive function were significantly associated with fall risk, the Stroop Colour Word Test (IRR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03 and the number of errors on part B of the Trail Making Test (IRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.49. Composite scores of executive function, speed of information processing and visual memory domains resulted in 2 to 3 times increased likelihood of having better balance (OR 2.74 95% CI 1.08 to 6.94, OR 2.72 95% CI 1.16 to 6.36 and OR 2.44 95% CI 1.11 to 5.35 respectively.Our results show that specific subcomponents of executive functions are able to predict fall risk, while a more global cognitive dysfunction is associated with poorer balance.
van Helden, SH; Nieuwenhuijzen-Kruseman, AC; Dinant, G; Pijpers, E; ten Broeke, R; Brink, PR; GEUSENS, Piet
Low BMD and fall risk are well-documented risk factors for fractures. The prevalence of both risk factors has only scarcely been reported in the same population of patients with recent clinical fractures. Methods : 261 consecutive patients (women and men of 50 years and older) admitted to the hospital with a recent clinical fracture were included and had extensive evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) and fall risk (135 patients with fracture of the upper limb, 94 of the lower limb, 12 of...
Welmer, Anna-Karin; Rizzuto, Debora; Laukka, Erika J; Johnell, Kristina; Fratiglioni, Laura
We aimed to quantify the independent effect of cognitive and physical deficits on the risk of injurious falls, to verify whether this risk is modified by global cognitive impairment, and to explore whether risk varies by follow-up time. Data on 2,495 participants (≥60 years) from the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) study were analyzed using flexible parametric survival models. Two cognitive domains (processing speed and executive function) were assessed with standard tests. Physical function tests included balance (one-leg-stands), walking speed, chair stands, and grip strength. Global cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. A total of 167 people experienced an injurious fall over 3 years of follow-up, 310 over 5 years, and 571 over 10 years. Each standard deviation worse balance, slower walking speed, and longer chair stand time increased the risk of injurious falls over 3 years by 43%, 38%, and 23%, respectively (p risk of injurious falls over 10 years (p falls only in people with cognitive impairment, whereas deficits in processing speed and executive function were associated with injurious falls only in people without cognitive impairment. Deficits in specific cognitive domains, such as processing speed and executive function, appear to predict injurious falls in the long term. Deficits in physical function predict falls in the short term, especially in people with global cognitive impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ben Natan, Merav; Heyman, Neomi; Ben Israel, Joshua
To identify risk factors for elder falls in a geriatric rehabilitation center in Israel. Retrospective chart review study. Four hundred and twelve medical records of inpatients in geriatric rehabilitation were retrospectively analyzed to compare between elders who sustained falls and those who did not. Of elders hospitalized during this year, 14% sustained falls. Fallers included a high proportion of males, with little comorbidity, not obese, and cardiovascular patients. Falls occurred frequently during patients' first week at the facility, mostly during the daytime. The falls occurred frequently in patients' rooms, and a common scenario was a fall during transition. The research findings single out patients who are allegedly at a lower risk of falls than more complex patients. Caregivers in geriatric rehabilitation settings should pay attention to patients who are allegedly at a lower risk of falls than more complex patients, and to cardiovascular patients in particular. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been using risk models to evaluate the risk significance of operational events in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants for more seventeen years. During that time, the models have evolved in response to the advances in risk assessment technology and insights gained with experience. Evaluation techniques fall into two categories, initiating event assessments and condition assessments. The models used for these analyses have become uniquely specialized for just this purpose
Hunter, Kathleen F; Voaklander, Donald; Hsu, Zoe Y; Moore, Katherine N
incorporate continence assessment within falls risk assessment.
Liddle, Jeannine L M; Lovarini, Meryl; Clemson, Lindy M; Jang, Haeyoung; Willis, Karen; Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine
Research on older men's views regarding fall prevention is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of older men regarding fall risk and prevention so that fall prevention programmes can better engage older men. Eleven men who had taken part in a group-based fall prevention programme called Stepping On conducted at Men's Sheds in Sydney, Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews during June and July 2015 which were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were coded and analysed using constant comparative methods. Over-arching theoretical categories were developed into a conceptual framework linking programme context and content with effects of programme participation on men. Men's Sheds facilitated participation in the programme by being inclusive, male-friendly places, where Stepping On was programmed into regular activities and was conducted in an enjoyable, supportive atmosphere. Programme content challenged participants to think differently about themselves and their personal fall risk, and provided practical options to address fall risk. Two major themes were identified: adjusting the mindset where men adopted a more cautious mindset paying greater attention to potential fall risks, being careful, concentrating and slowing down; and changing the ways where men acted purposefully on environmental hazards at home and incorporated fall prevention exercises into their routine schedules. Practitioners can engage and support older men to address falls by better understanding men's perspectives on personal fall risk and motivations for action. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Criter, Robin E; Honaker, Julie A
The primary purposes of this study were (1) to describe measures that may contrast audiology patients who fall from those who do not fall and (2) to evaluate the clinical performance of measures that could be easily used for fall risk screening in a mainstream audiology hearing clinic. Cross-sectional study Study sample: Thirty-six community-dwelling audiology patient participants and 27 community-dwelling non-audiology patients over 60 years of age. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) most accurately identified patients with a recent fall (sensitivity: 76.0%), while the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) most accurately identified patients without a recent fall (specificity: 90.9%). A combination of measures used in a protocol-including HHIE, DHI, number of medications, and the Timed Up and Go test-resulted in good, accurate identification of patients with or without a recent history of falls (92.0% sensitivity, 100% specificity). This study reports good sensitivity and excellent specificity for identifying patients with and without a recent history of falls when measures were combined into a screening protocol. Despite previously reported barriers, effective fall risk screenings may be performed in hearing clinic settings with measures often readily accessible to audiologists.
Hannan Marian T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are the sixth leading cause of death in elderly people in the U.S. Despite progress in understanding risk factors for falls, many suspected risk factors have not been adequately studied. Putative risk factors for falls such as pain, reductions in cerebral blood flow, somatosensory deficits, and foot disorders are poorly understood, in part because they pose measurement challenges, particularly for large observational studies. Methods The MOBILIZE Boston Study (MBS, an NIA-funded Program Project, is a prospective cohort study of a unique set of risk factors for falls in seniors in the Boston area. Using a door-to-door population-based recruitment, we have enrolled 765 persons aged 70 and older. The baseline assessment was conducted in 2 segments: a 3-hour home interview followed within 4 weeks by a 3-hour clinic examination. Measures included pain, cerebral hemodynamics, and foot disorders as well as established fall risk factors. For the falls follow-up, participants return fall calendar postcards to the research center at the end of each month. Reports of falls are followed-up with a telephone interview to assess circumstances and consequences of each fall. A second assessment is performed 18 months following baseline. Results Of the 2382 who met all eligibility criteria at the door, 1616 (67.8% agreed to participate and were referred to the research center for further screening. The primary reason for ineligibility was inability to communicate in English. Results from the first 600 participants showed that participants are largely representative of seniors in the Boston area in terms of age, sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity. The average age of study participants was 77.9 years (s.d. 5.5 and nearly two-thirds were women. The study cohort was 78% white and 17% black. Many participants (39% reported having fallen at least once in the year before baseline. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting
Cheng, Mei-Hsun; Chang, Shu-Fang
This study was conducted to investigate the relationships between different frailty stages and the fall incidence rates of community-dwelling older adults. The differences between various frailty indicators regarding assessment accuracy of the fall incidence rates of community-dwelling elders were also analyzed. Finally, the relationship between frailty and recurrent falls was explored. This study comprised a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Two researchers independently examined and extracted the related literature. The key search terms included frailty, frail, fall, older people, older, geriatric, and senior. The literature sampling period was from January 2001 to December 2016. The quality of each paper was assessed according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The databases of the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, and MEDLINE were used to conduct a systematic literature search by using the random effect mode to analyze the compiled papers. A total of 102,130 community-dwelling older adults ≥65 years of age and 33,503 older adults who had experienced a fall were compiled to investigate the relationship between frailty and falls. The meta-analysis results revealed that compared with robust older adults, frail older adults demonstrated the greatest risk for falls, followed by prefrail older adults. Furthermore, the use of different frailty indicators to predict the fall incidence rates of older adults yielded nonsignificantly different outcomes. In short, studies of either cardiovascular health or osteoporotic fracture indicators are effective for predicting the risk for falls in older people. Finally, this study confirmed that compared with robust older adults, frail older adults were more likely to experience recurrent falls. Frailty is a crucial healthcare topic of people with geriatric syndromes. Frail older adults are
Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls during hospitalization harbor both clinical and financial outcomes. The modified Morse fall scale [MMFS] is widely used for an in-hospital risk-of-fall assessment. Nevertheless, the majority of patients at risk of falling, i.e. with high MMFS, do not fall. The aim of this study was to ascertain our study hypothesis that certain patients' characteristics (e.g. serum electrolytes, usage of a walking device etc. could further stratify the risk of falls among hospitalized patients with MMFS. Methods This was a retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine departments. Results The final cohort included 428 patients aged 76.8±14.0 years. All patients had high (9 or more MMFS upon admission, and their mean MMFS was 16.2±6.1. A group of 139 (32.5% patients who fell during their hospitalization was compared with a control group of 289 (67.5% patients who did not fall. The fallers had higher MMFS, a higher prevalence of mild dependence, and a greater use of a cane or no walking device. Regression analysis showed the following patients' characteristics to be independently associated with an increased risk of falling: mild dependence (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.97-8.08; p<0.0001, treatment by anti-epileptics (OR=3.9, 95% CI 1.36-11.18; p=0.011, treatment by hypoglycemic agents (OR=2.64, 95% CI 1.08-6.45; p= 0.033, and hypothyroidism (OR=3.66, 05%CI 1.62-8.30; p=0.002. In contrast to their role in the MMFS, the use of a walker or a wheelchair was found to decrease the risk of falling (OR=0.3, 95% CI 0.13-0.69; p=0.005 and OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.11-0.59; p= 0.002. Conclusions Further risk stratification of hospitalized patients, already known to have a high MMFS, which would take into account the characteristics pointed out in this study, should be attained.
Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Wittink, Harriet; van de Port, Ingrid G; Wubbels, Gijs; van Dieën, Jaap H
Stroke survivors often fall during walking. To reduce fall risk, gait testing and training with avoidance of virtual obstacles is gaining popularity. However, it is unknown whether and how virtual obstacle crossing is associated with fall risk. The present study assessed whether obstacle crossing characteristics are reliable and assessed differences in stroke survivors who prospectively experienced falls or no falls. We recruited twenty-nine community dwelling chronic stroke survivors. Participants crossed five virtual obstacles with increasing lengths. After a break, the test was repeated to assess test-retest reliability. For each obstacle length and trial, we determined; success rate, leading limb preference, pre and post obstacle distance, margins of stability, toe clearance, and crossing step length and speed. Subsequently, fall incidence was monitored using a fall calendar and monthly phone calls over a six-month period. Test-retest reliability was poor, but improved with increasing obstacle-length. Twelve participants reported at least one fall. No association of fall incidence with any of the obstacle crossing characteristics was found. Given the absence of height of the virtual obstacles, obstacle avoidance may have been relatively easy, allowing participants to cross obstacles in multiple ways, increasing variability of crossing characteristics and reducing the association with fall risk. These finding cast some doubt on current protocols for testing and training of obstacle avoidance in stroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kabeshova, A; Annweiler, C; Fantino, B; Philip, T; Gromov, V A; Launay, C P; Beauchet, O
Regression tree (RT) analyses are particularly adapted to explore the risk of recurrent falling according to various combinations of fall risk factors compared to logistic regression models. The aims of this study were (1) to determine which combinations of fall risk factors were associated with the occurrence of recurrent falls in older community-dwellers, and (2) to compare the efficacy of RT and multiple logistic regression model for the identification of recurrent falls. A total of 1,760 community-dwelling volunteers (mean age ± standard deviation, 71.0 ± 5.1 years; 49.4 % female) were recruited prospectively in this cross-sectional study. Age, gender, polypharmacy, use of psychoactive drugs, fear of falling (FOF), cognitive disorders and sad mood were recorded. In addition, the history of falls within the past year was recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Among 1,760 participants, 19.7 % (n = 346) were recurrent fallers. The RT identified 14 nodes groups and 8 end nodes with FOF as the first major split. Among participants with FOF, those who had sad mood and polypharmacy formed the end node with the greatest OR for recurrent falls (OR = 6.06 with p falls (OR = 0.25 with p factors for recurrent falls, the combination most associated with recurrent falls involving FOF, sad mood and polypharmacy. The FOF emerged as the risk factor strongly associated with recurrent falls. In addition, RT and multiple logistic regression were not sensitive enough to identify the majority of recurrent fallers but appeared efficient in detecting individuals not at risk of recurrent falls.
Rudzińska, Monika; Bukowczan, Sylwia; Banaszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Stozek, Joanna; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Szczudlik, Andrzej
Falls are a common and serious problem among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, knowledge about the causes and risk factors of falls is limited. There have been a few attempts to classify the causes of falls. The classification suggested by Olanow seems to be the most comprehensive one. The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively the causes of falls and risk factors of falls in PD patients. One hundred and four patients with moderately advanced PD were included in the study. The patients were asked to describe the circumstances and consequences of falls which occurred during 12 months preceding the examination. The falls were classified according to the Olanow classification of causes of falls. Fifty-two patients (50%) reported at least one fall during the previous year with a mean number of 1.5 falls per year. The most common causes of falls were environmental factors, sudden falls and postural instability. There were no falls caused by severe dyskinesia, drugs or cardiovascular disorders. The only independent risk factors of the recurrent falls identified in this study were UPDRS part II score (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02-1.37) and Mini Mental State Examination score (OR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72-0.99). Considering these results we may be able to prevent most falls by means of the education of patients about environmental factors and using adequate rehabilitation techniques concentrating on postural stability and gait.
Yuen, Hon Keung; Carter, Rickey E
Relatively little is known about the interaction between behavioral and environmental circumstances associated with falls among community-dwelling older adults. This study is designed to develop an instrument that measures community-dwelling older adults' participation in and perceptions of fall risk behaviors. Eighty-seven community-dwelling older adults aged 60 or above (mean +/- SD = 76 +/- 7.9), who had experienced at least one fall in the past 12 months, completed a questionnaire dealing with frequency of their participation in fall risk behaviors, their perceptions of these behaviors, and their fall history. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis. A 20-item instrument consisting of three constructs was presented as the Fall Risk Behaviors and Perceptions Scale (FRB&PS). Two of the three constructs of the instrument were de-stabilizers and non-supports, both of which measure participation in fall risk behaviors; the third was perceptions of fall risk behaviors. Internal consistency coefficient of the FRB&PS is 0.733 with a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) score of 0.075, which indicates an adequate model fit. Results from the stepwise regression analyses indicated that adults aged 75 and above (the old-old) participated less frequently in fall risk activities (p = 0.025), and had more knowledge about fall risks as measured by a higher perception score (p = 0.025) than those aged 60 to 75 (the young-old). Older men tended to participate more frequently in fall risk activities (p = 0.020) than older women; in addition, those older adults who are more mobile (p = 0.002) also participated more frequently in fall risk behaviors than those who are less mobile. Preliminary findings indicate that the pilot FRB&PS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure community-dwelling older adults' participation in and perceptions of fall risk behaviors. Additional psychometric validation of the FRB&PS on predicting the likelihood of falls is
Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Omodei, Michelle Sako; Cangussu, Luciana Mendes; Nahas-Neto, Jorge
It was to evaluate the frequency and the risk factors of falls in early postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 women (age: 45-65 years and amenorrhea >12 months) with time since menopause fall was identified as an unexpected unintentional change in position which causes an individual to remain in a lower level in relation to the initial position. The history of self-reported falls during the previous 24 months, and clinical and anthropometric data (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) and bone densitometric measures were analyzed. For statistical analysis, c² trend test and the logistic regression method (odds ratio (OR)) were used for the comparison between groups of women with and without falls. Of the 358 women, 48.0% (172/358) had a history of falls and 17.4% (30/172) had fractures. The fall occurred indoors (at home) in 58.7% (101/172). The mean age was 53.7 ± 6.5 years, time since menopause 5.8 ± 3.5 years, BMI 28.3 ± 4.6 kg/m² and WC 89.0 ± 11.4 cm. There were differences as the occurrence of smoking and diabetes, with greater frequency among fallers vs. non-fallers, 25.6 versus 16.1% and 12.8 versus 5.9%, respectively (prisk of falls in the presence of influential variables, it was observed that risk increased with current smoking status (OR 1.93; 95%CI 1.01-3.71), whereas other clinical and anthropometric variables did not influence this risk. In early postmenopausal women there was higher frequency of falls. Current smoking was clinical indicators of risk for falls. With the recognition of factors for falling, preventive measures become important, as the orientation of abolishing smoking.
Mat, Sumaiyah; Tan, Maw Pin; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Ng, Chin Teck
osteoarthritis (OA) of knee has been reported as a risk factor for falls and reduced balance in the elderly. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of physical therapies in improving balance and reducing falls risk among patients with knee OA. a computerised search was performed to identify relevant studies up to November 2013. Two investigators identified eligible studies and extracted data independently. The quality of the included studies was assessed by the PeDro score. a total of 15 randomised controlled trials involving 1482 patients were identified. The mean PeDro score was 7. The pooled standardised mean difference in balance outcome for strength training = 0.3346 (95% CI: 0.3207-0.60, P = 0.01 falls risk outcomes in, strength training, Tai chi and aerobics also showed a significant reduction in reduced risk of falls significantly with pooled result 0.55 (95% CI: 0.41-0.68, P balance and falls risk in older individuals with knee OA, while water-based exercises and light treatment did not significantly improve balance outcomes. Strength training, Tai Chi and aerobics exercises can therefore be recommended as falls prevention strategies for individuals with OA. However, a large randomised controlled study using actual falls outcomes is recommended to determine the appropriate dosage and to measure the potential benefits in falls reduction. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Nankaku, Manabu; Kanzaki, Hideto; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Nakamura, Takashi
The purpose of this study is to evaluate hip fracture risk in relation to fall direction, and to elucidate factors that influence the impact force in falls on the hip. Eight healthy volunteers performed deliberate falls in three directions (lateral, posterolateral and posterior) on a force platform covered by a mattress of 13 cm thickness. Fall descent motions and impact postures were examined by a three-dimensional analyzer. The maximum ground force reaction, velocity of the greater trochanter at impact, and activity of quadriceps and gluteus medius were measured. In all trials of lateral and posterolateral falls, but not of posterior falls, the subjects hit their greater trochanter directly on the mattress. The impact forces were between 2,000 N and 4,000 N. Posterolateral falls showed significantly higher velocity at impact than did posterior falls. The height and the lower limb length exhibited positive correlations with the impact force in all directions of fall. In the lateral fall, there was a positive correlation between the activity of quadriceps and the impact force. In view of the impact point, force, and velocity, the posterolateral fall seemed to carry the highest risk of hip fracture.
Kozono, Aki; Isami, Keisuke; Shiota, Kimiko; Tsumagari, Kyouichi; Nagano, Masahisa; Inoue, Daisuke; Adachi, Rui; Hiraki, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Kamimura, Hidetoshi; Yamamichi, Ken
Falls are common in elderly patients and are often serious. Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of fall. Older adults often take multiple drugs for chronic diseases, and thus may be at increased risk from drugs associated with fall. We investigated the association between drug use and falling in hospitalized older people, with the goal of identifying medications that may increase the risk of a fall. A retrospective case control study was performed at the National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Saishunso Hospital in Japan. Medications taken by patients who fell (n=57) were compared with those taken by patients who did not fall (n=63). The median age (interquartile range; IQR) of the fall and non-fall groups were 75.0 (67.0-83.0) and 80.0 (70.3-84.5) years, respectively. The characteristics of the two groups were similar, with no significant differences in age, sex, or body weight. The probability of falling increased when the patients used zolpidem [odds ratio (OR)=2.47; 95%CI: 1.09-5.63; pfall due to sleepiness, and blood pressure control may be important to prevent orthostatic high blood pressure. In the treatment of elderly people, medical staff should try to choose drugs that prevent fall or are not associated with falling.
Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet
Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.
Obrist, Seraina; Rogan, Slavko; Hilfiker, Roger
Introduction. Falls are frequent in older adults and may have serious consequences but awareness of fall-risk is often low. A questionnaire might raise awareness of fall-risk; therefore we set out to construct and test such a questionnaire. Methods. Fall-risk factors and their odds ratios were extracted from meta-analyses and a questionnaire was devised to cover these risk factors. A formula to estimate the probability of future falls was set up using the extracted odds ratios. The understandability of the questionnaire and discrimination and calibration of the prediction formula were tested in a cohort study with a six-month follow-up. Community-dwelling persons over 60 years were recruited by an e-mail snowball-sampling method. Results and Discussion. We included 134 persons. Response rates for the monthly fall-related follow-up varied between the months and ranged from low 38% to high 90%. The proportion of present risk factors was low. Twenty-five participants reported falls. Discrimination was moderate (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81). The understandability, with the exception of five questions, was good. The wording of the questions needs to be improved and measures to increase the monthly response rates are needed before test-retest reliability and final predictive value can be assessed. PMID:27247571
Full Text Available Falls are an important health concern among older adults due to age-related changes in the body. Having a medical history of chronic health condition may pose even higher risk of falling. Only few studies have assessed a number of chronic health conditions as risk factor for falls over a large nationally representative sample of US older adults. In this study, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS 2014 participants aged 65 years and older (n = 159,336 were evaluated. It was found that 29.7% (n=44,550 of the sample experienced at least one fall and 16.3% (n=20,444 experienced more than one fall in the past 12 months. According to the study findings, having a medical history of stroke, CKD, arthritis, depression, and diabetes independently predict the risk of first-time falling as well as the risk of recurrent falling in older adult population while controlling for other factors. On the other hand, having a medical history of the heart attack, angina, asthma, and COPD did not predict the risk of first-time falling, but did predict the risk of recurrent falling after experiencing the first fall in this population.
Paliwal, Yoshita; Slattum, Patricia W; Ratliff, Scott M
Falls are an important health concern among older adults due to age-related changes in the body. Having a medical history of chronic health condition may pose even higher risk of falling. Only few studies have assessed a number of chronic health conditions as risk factor for falls over a large nationally representative sample of US older adults. In this study, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2014 participants aged 65 years and older ( n = 159,336) were evaluated. It was found that 29.7% ( n = 44,550) of the sample experienced at least one fall and 16.3% ( n = 20,444) experienced more than one fall in the past 12 months. According to the study findings, having a medical history of stroke, CKD, arthritis, depression, and diabetes independently predict the risk of first-time falling as well as the risk of recurrent falling in older adult population while controlling for other factors. On the other hand, having a medical history of the heart attack, angina, asthma, and COPD did not predict the risk of first-time falling, but did predict the risk of recurrent falling after experiencing the first fall in this population.
Persson, Carina U; Kjellberg, Sigvar; Lernfelt, Bodil; Westerlind, Ellen; Cruce, Malin; Hansson, Per-Olof
This study aimed to investigate incidence of falls and different baseline variables and their association with falling during hospitalization in a stroke unit among patients with acute stroke. Prospective observational study. A stroke unit at a university hospital. A consecutive sample of stroke patients, out of which 504 were included, while 101 declined participation. The patients were assessed a mean of 1.7 days after admission and 3.8 days after stroke onset. The primary end-point was any fall, from admission to the stroke unit to discharge. Factors associated with falling were analysed using univariable and multivariable Cox hazard regression analyses. Independent variables were related to function, activity and participation, as well as personal and environmental factors. In total, 65 patients (13%) fell at least once. Factors statistically significantly associated with falling in the multivariable analysis were male sex (hazard ratio (HR): 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-3.14, P = 0.015), use of a walking aid (HR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.24-3.60, P = 0.006) and postural control as assessed with the modified version of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SwePASS). No association was found with age, cognition or stroke severity, the HR for low SwePASS scores (⩽24) was 9.33 (95% CI: 2.19-39.78, P = 0.003) and for medium SwePASS scores (25-30) was 6.34 (95% CI: 1.46-27.51, P = 0.014), compared with high SwePASS scores (⩾31). Postural control, male sex and use of a walking aid are associated with falling during hospitalization after acute stroke.
Yu Mei O
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in risk factors of fall accidents among older people, and whether these factors differ between single and recurrent fallers. A total of 4,426 individuals aged ≥65 years from two large-scale health surveys provided data. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors and to determine the risk model for falling and recurrent falling in men and women separately. Three major risk factors for falling regardless of gender or fall history are fear of falling, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL, and age ≥75 years. Fear of falling remains one of the common modifiable risk factors. Among those without a fall history, the use of sedatives or tranquilizers increases the risk of falling. Regarding gender differences, ADL limitations and fear of falling appear to be stronger fall risk factors for men than for women. Among women, alcohol use and educational level are significant risk factors for falling, while loneliness is associated with recurrent falling. Men with fear of falling or ADL limitations are at higher risk to have a recurrent fall accident than women with these conditions. Having a visual impairment or living with someone is associated with recurrent falling among men. Our findings emphasize the importance of multifactorial fall interventions, taking into account a variety of subgroup characteristics such as gender and fall history.
Hohmann, Natalie; Hohmann, Lindsey; Kruse, Michael
Use of fall-risk medications (medications that increase risk of falling in the elderly as defined by Beers criteria, STOPP/START criteria, and other literature) or antithrombotics is common in the elderly, and the impact of their concomitant use should be assessed in regards to fall injuries. The primary objective of this study is to assess the simultaneous outpatient use of fall-risk medications and antithrombotics in elderly fall-patients, and secondarily to analyze the injury severity score and occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage. Consecutive chart review at a level 2 trauma center in California, USA from August 01, 2009 to October 31, 2010. Records included 112 patients at least 65 years of age admitted with an outpatient fall. Fisher's exact and Student's t-tests were used (alpha 0.05, two-tailed) to examine prescribing patterns, intracranial hemorrhage occurrence, and injury severity score. Regression adjusted for antithrombotic and fall-risk medication type and number, opiate use, co-morbidities, age, and gender. Thirty-nine percent (44/112) of outpatients were prescribed antithrombotics plus fall-risk medications. The mean injury severity score (ISS) was 13.3 (range 1-26, standard deviation 7.2) for patients taking both medication classes versus 9.7 (range 1-25, standard deviation 7.5) for patients taking antithrombotics alone (p = 0.027). Additionally, in patients over 80 years of age, intracranial hemorrhage occurred more frequently with the use of antithrombotics plus fall-risk medications versus antithrombotics alone (18/29 = 62.1% versus 7/24 = 29.2%, p = 0.027, odds ratio = 3.974, 95% confidence interval = 1.094-15.010). Multivariate analyses showed an independent relationship between intracranial hemorrhage occurrence and type of therapy, as well as injury severity score and simultaneous therapy with fall-risk medications and antithrombotics. Simultaneous prescribing of antithrombotics and fall-risk medications is common. For
Walker, Gemma M; Armstrong, Sarah; Gordon, Adam L; Gladman, John; Robertson, Kate; Ward, Marie; Conroy, Simon; Arnold, Gail; Darby, Janet; Frowd, Nadia; Williams, Wynne; Knowles, Sue; Logan, Pip A
Objective: To explore the feasibility of implementing and evaluating the Guide to Action Care Home fall prevention intervention. Design: Two-centre, cluster feasibility randomized controlled trial and process evaluation. Setting: Purposive sample of six diverse old age/learning disability, long stay care homes in Nottinghamshire, UK. Subjects: Residents aged over 50 years, who had fallen at least once in the past year, not bed-bound, hoist-dependent or terminally ill. Interventions: Intervention homes (n = 3) received Guide to Action Care Home fall prevention intervention training and support. Control homes (n = 3) received usual care. Outcomes: Recruitment, attrition, baseline and six-month outcome completion, contamination and intervention fidelity, compliance, tolerability, acceptance and impact. Results: A total of 81 of 145 (56%) care homes expressed participatory interest. Six of 22 letter respondent homes (27%) participated. The expected resident recruitment target was achieved by 76% (52/68). Ten (19%) residents did not complete follow-up (seven died, three moved). In intervention homes 36/114 (32%) staff attended training. Two of three (75%) care homes received protocol compliant training. Staff valued the training, but advised greater management involvement to improve intervention implementation. Fall risks were assessed, actioned and recorded in care records. Of 115 recorded falls, 533/570 (93%) of details were complete. Six-month resident fall rates were 1.9 and 4.0 per year for intervention and control homes, respectively. Conclusions: The Guide to Action Care Home is implementable under trial conditions. Recruitment and follow-up rates indicate that a definitive trial can be completed. Falls (primary outcome) can be ascertained reliably from care records. PMID:26385358
Atay, Selma; Vurur, Sevda; Erdugan, Necla
Patient falls and fall-related injuries are an important problem for patients, relatives, caregivers, and the health system at large. This study aims to identify opinions of nurses about the risk of falling among patients staying in hospitals. This study uses a qualitative descriptive design and employs a semistructured interview method to identify the opinions and experiences of nurses about patient falls. This study evaluated the opinions of a total of 12 staff nurses. It was found that nurses consider patients in the postoperative period to be most prone to falls. They think that most falls take place during transfers and that the medical diagnosis of the patient plays a crucial role in fall incidents. The most important problem associated with patient falls was symptoms of traumatic brain injury. According to the participating nurses, the risk of fall for every patient should be evaluated upon admission. Measures that the nurses take against patient falls include raising the bed's side rails and securing the bed brakes. The findings of this research suggest that in-service training programs about the evaluation of the risk of falling should be organized for nurses. Guidelines should be developed for patients with different levels of risk of falling. It is suggested that nurses should be in charge of training patients who are conscious, their relatives, and caregiver personnel. The training of nurses and caregivers helps to prevent the falls of inpatients.
Buatois, Séverine; Gueguen, René; Gauchard, Gérome C; Benetos, Athanase; Perrin, Philippe P
A poor postural stability in older people is associated with an increased risk of falling. The posturographic tool has widely been used to assess balance control; however, its value in predicting falls remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the predictive value of posturography in the estimation of the risk of recurrent falls, including a comparison with standard clinical balance tests, in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65. Two hundred and six healthy non-institutionalized volunteers aged over 65 were tested. Postural control was evaluated by posturographic tests, performed on static, dynamic and dynamized platforms (static test, slow dynamic test and Sensory Organization Test [SOT]) and clinical balance tests (Timed 'Up & Go' test, One-Leg Balance, Sit-to-Stand-test). Subsequent falls were monitored prospectively with self-questionnaire sent every 4 months for a period of 16 months after the balance testing. Subjects were classified prospectively in three groups of Non-Fallers (0 fall), Single-Fallers (1 fall) and Multi-Fallers (more than 2 falls). Loss of balance during the last trial of the SOT sensory conflicting condition, when visual and somatosensory inputs were distorted, was the best factor to predict the risk of recurrent falls (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10.11). Multi-Fallers showed no postural adaptation during the repetitive trials of this sensory condition, contrary to Non-Fallers and Single-Fallers. The Multi-Fallers showed significantly more sway when visual inputs were occluded. The clinical balance tests, the static test and the slow dynamic test revealed no significant differences between the groups. In a sample of non-institutionalized older persons aged over 65, posturographic evaluation by the SOT, especially with repetition of the same task in sensory conflicting condition, compared to the clinical tests and the static and dynamic posturographic test, appears to be a more sensitive tool to
Leat, Susan J; Zecevic, Aleksandra A; Keeling, Alexis; Hileeto, Denise; Labreche, Tammy; Brymer, Christopher
Despite poor vision being a risk factor for falls, current hospital policies and practices often do not include a vision assessment at patient admission or in the hospital's incident reporting system when a fall occurs. Our purpose was to document the prevalence of vision loss in hospital general medicine units to increase awareness of poor vision as a potential risk factor for falls that occur within the hospital, and inform future preventative practice. This cross-sectional study took place in medicine units of an acute care hospital. Participants were adult in-patients. Visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity were measured, and patients were screened for field loss, extinction and neglect. 115 participants took part (average age 67 ± 17, 48% female). Overall, 89% had a visual impairment defined as being outside the age-norms for one or more vision measure, 62% had low vision, and 36% had vision loss equivalent to legal blindness [VA equal to or poorer than 1.0 logMAR (6/60, 20/200) or ≥10x below age-norms]. There was a considerable discrepancy between the prevalence of low vision and the percentage of patients who reported an ocular diagnosis that would result in visual loss (30%). Ten patients fell during the study period, and of these 100% had visual impairment, 90% had low vision and 60% had vision loss equivalent to legal blindness, which compares to 58%, 22% and 9% for non-fallers. Similar high prevalences were found in those whose reason for admission to the hospital was a fall (92%, 63% and 33% respectively). Vision loss has a high prevalence among patients in hospital medicine units, and is higher still among those who fall. Since vision loss may be a contributing factor to falls that occur in hospitals, implementing an assessment of vision at hospital admission would be useful to alert staff to those patients who are at risk for falls due to poor vision, so that preventative measures can be applied. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic
Evron, L.; Schultz-Larsen, K.; Fristrup, T.
Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Thos...... the findings of this study to a public health message, we have to consider moving the focus of falls prevention strategies from disease control to the domain of health promotion in order to engage older adults in preventive healthcare Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9......Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Those...... system taking over their life. Conclusions: This study indicates that older at-risk patients acknowledge their falls problem, but refuse to participate in hospital-based assessment programmes because they expect to lose their authority and to be caught up in the healthcare system. In order to transform...
Evron, Lotte; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Fristrup, Tine
Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Thos...... the findings of this study to a public health message, we have to consider moving the focus of falls prevention strategies from disease control to the domain of health promotion in order to engage older adults in preventive healthcare.......Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Those...... system taking over their life. Conclusions: This study indicates that older at-risk patients acknowledge their falls problem, but refuse to participate in hospital-based assessment programmes because they expect to lose their authority and to be caught up in the healthcare system. In order to transform...
Schlick, Cornelia; Schniepp, Roman; Loidl, Verena; Wuehr, Max; Hesselbarth, Kristin; Jahn, Klaus
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most prevalent symptoms in neurologic disorders. Although many of these patients suffer from postural instability and gait disturbances, there is only limited data on their risk of falling. We conducted a controlled cross-sectional study at the tertiary care outpatient clinic of the German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders using a self-administered questionnaire to assess falls, fall-related injuries, and fear of falling. The recruitment period was 6 months. A total of 569 patients (mean age 59.6 ± 17.1 years, 55% females) and 100 healthy participants were included (response rate > 90%). Dizzy patients with central balance disorders (Parkinsonian, cerebellar, and brainstem oculomotor syndromes) had the highest fall rates (> 50% recurrent fallers, odds ratio > 10). The rate of recurrent fallers was 30% in bilateral vestibular failure and peripheral neuropathy (odds ratio > 5). Patients with functional dizziness (somatoform or phobic vertigo) were concerned about falling but did not fall more often than healthy controls (odds ratio 0.87). Falls are common in patients presenting to a dizziness unit. Those with central syndromes are at risk of recurrent and injurious falling. Fall rates and fear of falling should be assessed in balance disorders and used to guide the regimen of rehabilitation therapy. The identification of risk factors would help provide protective measures to these groups of patients.
Neumann, L; Hoffmann, V S; Golgert, S; Hasford, J; Von Renteln-Kruse, W
In-hospital falls in older patients are frequent, but the identification of patients at risk of falling is challenging. Aim of this study was to improve the identification of high-risk patients. Therefore, a simplified screening-tool was developed, validated, and compared to the STRATIFY predictive accuracy. Retrospective analysis of 4,735 patients; evaluation of predictive accuracy of STRATIFY and its single risk factors, as well as age, gender and psychotropic medication; splitting the dataset into a learning and a validation sample for modelling fall-risk screening and independent, temporal validation. Geriatric clinic at an academic teaching hospital in Hamburg, Germany. 4,735 hospitalised patients ≥65 years. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, Odds Ratios, Youden-Index and the rates of falls and fallers were calculated. There were 10.7% fallers, and the fall rate was 7.9/1,000 hospital days. In the learning sample, mental alteration (OR 2.9), fall history (OR 2.1), and insecure mobility (Barthel-Index items 'transfer' + 'walking' score = 5, 10 or 15) (OR 2.3) had the most strongest association to falls. The LUCAS Fall-Risk Screening uses these risk factors, and patients with ≥2 risk factors contributed to the high-risk group (30.9%). In the validation sample, STRATIFY SENS was 56.8, SPEC 59.6, PPV 13.5 and NPV 92.6 vs. LUCAS Fall-Risk Screening was SENS 46.0, SPEC 71.1, PPV 14.9 and NPV 92.3. Both the STRATIFY and the LUCAS Fall-Risk Screening showed comparable results in defining a high-risk group. Impaired mobility and cognitive status were closely associated to falls. The results do underscore the importance of functional status as essential fall-risk factor in older hospitalised patients.
Aronovitch, Sharon A
The risk of falling increases with age. Falls in the elderly have been found to raise mortality and morbidity rates and are a leading cause of premature admission to long-term care facilities. Attention to known intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predispose to falling is important in community dwelling and institutionalized older adults. New government guidelines for long-term care facilities have helped focus attention on the safety aspect of fall risk and information about the physical and psychological impact of falling is increasing. Implementation of fall prevention protocols, including the use of fall risk assessment tools, may help reduce the incidence of falls and resultant complications.
Arnold, C M; Faulkner, R A; Gyurcsik, N C
Older adults with decreased confidence in their ability to prevent a fall may benefit from an exercise programme that includes self-efficacy-enhancing education. The objectives of this study were to explore differences in fall-risk outcomes in older adults with higher vs. lower levels of falls efficacy and to evaluate the relationship between baseline falls-efficacy status and changes in fall risk factors following two interventions. Fifty-four older adults with hip osteoarthritis and at least one risk factor for falls received aquatic exercise twice weekly plus education once weekly (EE) or aquatic exercise only, twice weekly (EO), for 11 weeks. EE participants with low baseline falls efficacy demonstrated significantly (pfalls efficacy compared to EE participants with high baseline falls efficacy. In the EE group only, baseline falls-efficacy status (low vs. high median split on the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale) was significantly (pfalls-efficacy change scores (Spearman rank r=0.45 and 0.63 respectively). Individuals with one or more fall-risk factors and low falls efficacy may benefit from receiving an intervention that combines exercise with self-efficacy-enhancing education. Falls-efficacy screening may be important for decisions regarding referral to fall-prevention programmes.
Gustavsson, Johanna; Jernbro, Carolina; Nilson, Finn
Falls are the most common cause of injury in all ages and are especially difficult to prevent among residential care residents. Compliant flooring that absorbs energy generated within the fall, has been proposed as a measure to prevent fall-injury, however little is known regarding the implementation aspects in clinical settings. The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of falls, the risk of fall-injury, prevention in general and specifically compliant flooring as an injury preventative measure amongst frail elderly people living in a residential care facility with compliant flooring. Through this, generate a theory that further explains the underlying barriers of active prevention amongst elderly people. We used the grounded theory method and conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with eight elderly people in residential care (data collected between February and December 2017). The identified categories were Falling as a part of life, Fearing the consequences and A wish to prevent falls and injuries. Through the results it was clear that There is more to life than risk avoidance, permeated the interviews, therefore forming the grounded theory. The interviewees viewed falls as something common and normal, and were uninterested in focusing on the risk of falls. Although they wanted to prevent falls, it was often difficult to integrate preventative measures into their everyday life. They embraced the idea of an injury-reducing compliant flooring, however their main interests lay elsewhere, preferring to focus on social interaction and issues concerning daily activities. The theory generated in this paper proposes explanations on the obstacles of implementing fall prevention measures in an elderly frail population. The findings give insights as to why interest and compliance for active fall prevention measures are low. We conclude that complaint flooring, from the perspective of the residents, can work well in residential care.
Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M.; McCarter, Kevin S.; Wood, Robert H.
We examined the measurement properties of fall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey of Activities and Fear of…
Faulkner, R.A.; Gyurcsik, N.C.
ABSTRACT Purpose: Older adults with decreased confidence in their ability to prevent a fall may benefit from an exercise programme that includes self-efficacy-enhancing education. The objectives of this study were to explore differences in fall-risk outcomes in older adults with higher vs. lower levels of falls efficacy and to evaluate the relationship between baseline falls-efficacy status and changes in fall risk factors following two interventions. Method: Fifty-four older adults with hip osteoarthritis and at least one risk factor for falls received aquatic exercise twice weekly plus education once weekly (EE) or aquatic exercise only, twice weekly (EO), for 11 weeks. Results: EE participants with low baseline falls efficacy demonstrated significantly (pbalance and falls efficacy compared to EE participants with high baseline falls efficacy. In the EE group only, baseline falls-efficacy status (low vs. high median split on the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale) was significantly (pbalance and falls-efficacy change scores (Spearman rank r=0.45 and 0.63 respectively). Conclusions: Individuals with one or more fall-risk factors and low falls efficacy may benefit from receiving an intervention that combines exercise with self-efficacy-enhancing education. Falls-efficacy screening may be important for decisions regarding referral to fall-prevention programmes. PMID:22942514
Bassett, Alaina M; Siu, Ka-Chun; Honaker, Julie A
This review explores the evidence pertaining to the use of functional ability measures for fall risk in the acute care setting. We included studies from six bibliographic databases that investigated fall risk functional ability measures in hospitalized older adults (≥55 years). We utilized the following search terms: acute care, subacute care, critical care, inpatient, fall, and fall prevention. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Timed "Up and Go" (TUG) was identified as a feasible fall risk functional ability measure for clinicians; it demonstrated clinical performance of fair sensitivity (56%-68%) and good specificity (74%-80%). Clinical performance of other measures (Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach test) was not as favorable as the TUG. Functional ability measures are underutilized in the acute care setting, potentially due to limited knowledge and training on administration. Combining functional measures with subjective screening tools may optimize performance and accuracy of identifying fall risk identification.
Rapp, Kilian; Ravindren, Johannes; Becker, Clemens; Lindemann, Ulrich; Jaensch, Andrea; Klenk, Jochen
There is evidence about time-dependent fracture rates in different settings and situations. Lacking are data about underlying time-dependent fall risk patterns. The objective of the study was to analyse fall rates as a function of time after admission to sub-acute hospital units and to evaluate the time-dependent impact of clinical factors at baseline on fall risk. This retrospective cohort study used data of 5,255 patients admitted to sub-acute units in a geriatric rehabilitation clinic in Germany between 2010 and 2014. Falls, personal characteristics and functional status at admission were extracted from the hospital information system. The rehabilitation stay was divided in 3-day time-intervals. The fall rate was calculated for each time-interval in all patients combined and in subgroups of patients. To analyse the influence of covariates on fall risk over time multivariate negative binomial regression models were applied for each of 5 time-intervals. The overall fall rate was 10.2 falls/1,000 person-days with highest fall risks during the first week and decreasing risks within the following weeks. A particularly pronounced risk pattern with high fall risks during the first days and decreasing risks thereafter was observed in men, disoriented people, and people with a low functional status or impaired cognition. In disoriented patients, for example, the fall rate decreased from 24.6 falls/1,000 person-days in day 2-4 to about 13 falls/1,000 person-days 2 weeks later. The incidence rate ratio of baseline characteristics changed also over time. Fall risk differs considerably over time during sub-acute hospitalisation. The strongest association between time and fall risk was observed in functionally limited patients with high risks during the first days after admission and declining risks thereafter. This should be considered in the planning and application of fall prevention measures.
Di Rosa, Mirko; Hausdorff, Jeff M; Stara, Vera; Rossi, Lorena; Glynn, Liam; Casey, Monica; Burkard, Stefan; Cherubini, Antonio
Falls are a major health problem for older adults with immediate effects, such as fractures and head injuries, and longer term effects including fear of falling, loss of independence, and disability. The goals of the WIISEL project were to develop an unobtrusive, self-learning and wearable system aimed at assessing gait impairments and fall risk of older adults in the home setting; assessing activity and mobility in daily living conditions; identifying decline in mobility performance and detecting falls in the home setting. The WIISEL system was based on a pair of electronic insoles, able to transfer data to a commercially available smartphone, which was used to wirelessly collect data in real time from the insoles and transfer it to a backend computer server via mobile internet connection and then onwards to a gait analysis tool. Risk of falls was calculated by the system using a novel Fall Risk Index (FRI) based on multiple gait parameters and gait pattern recognition. The system was tested by twenty-nine older users and data collected by the insoles were compared with standardized functional tests with a concurrent validity approach. The results showed that the FRI captures the risk of falls with accuracy that is similar to that of conventional performance-based tests of fall risk. These preliminary findings support the idea that theWIISEL system can be a useful research tool and may have clinical utility for long-term monitoring of fall risk at home and in the community setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Seijo-Martinez, M; Cancela, J M; Ayán, C; Varela, S; Vila, H
Information relating the severity of cognitive decline to the fall risk in institutionalized older adults is still scarce. This study aims to identify potential fall risk factors (medications, behavior, motor function, and neuropsychological disturbances) depending on the severity of cognitive impairment in nursing home residents. A total of 1,167 nursing home residents (mean age 81.44 ± 8.26 years; 66.4% women) participated in the study. According to the MEC, (the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) three levels of cognitive impairment were established: mild (20-24) "MCI", moderate (14-19) "MOCI", and severe (≤14) "SCI". Scores above 24 points indicated the absence cognitive impairment (NCI). Information regarding fall history and fall risk during the previous year was collected using standardized questionnaires and tests. Sixty falls (34%) were registered among NCI participants and 417 (43%) among people with cognitive impairment (MCI: 35%; MOCI: 40%; SCI: 50%). A different fall risk model was observed for MCI, MOCI, SCI, and NCI patients. The results imply that the higher the level of cognitive impairment, the greater the number of falls (F1,481 = 113.852; Sig = 0.015), although the level of significance was not maintained when MOCI and SCI participants were compared. Depression, neuropsychiatric disturbances, autonomy constraints in daily life activity performance, and low functional mobility were factors closely associated with fall risk. This study provides evidence indicating that fall risk factors do not hold a direct correlation with the level of cognitive impairment among elderly nursing home care residents.
Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Hays, Ron D; Wallace, Steven P; Shapiro, Martin F; Yakusheva, Olga; Ettner, Susan L
Falls and fall-related injuries (FRI) are common and costly occurrences among older adults living in the community, with increased risk for those with physical and cognitive limitations. Caregivers provide support for older adults with physical functioning limitations, which are associated with fall risk. Using the 2004-2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we examined whether receipt of low (0-13 weekly hours) and high levels (≥14 weekly hours) of informal care or any formal care is associated with lower risk of falls and FRIs among community-dwelling older adults. We additionally tested whether serious physical functioning (≥3 activities of daily living) or cognitive limitations moderated this relationship. Caregiving receipt categories were jointly significant in predicting noninjurious falls (P=0.03) but not FRIs (P=0.30). High levels of informal care category (P=0.001) and formal care (Pfall risk relative to low levels of informal care. Among individuals with ≥3 activities of daily living, fall risks were reduced by 21% for those receiving high levels of informal care; additionally, FRIs were reduced by 42% and 58% for those receiving high levels of informal care and any formal care. High levels of informal care receipt were also associated with a 54% FRI risk reduction among the cognitively impaired. Fall risk reductions among older adults occurred predominantly among those with significant physical and cognitive limitations. Accordingly, policy efforts involving fall prevention should target populations with increased physical functioning and cognitive limitations. They should also reduce financial barriers to informal and formal caregiving.
Doheny, Emer P; Greene, Barry R; Foran, Timothy; Cunningham, Clodagh; Fan, Chie Wei; Kenny, Rose Anne
One in three adults aged over 65 falls every year, resulting in enormous costs to society. Incidents of falling vary with time of day, peaking in the early morning. The aim of this study was to determine if the ability of instrumented gait and balance assessments to discriminate between participants based on their falls history varies diurnally. Body-worn sensors were used during a 3 m gait assessment and a series of quiet standing balance tests. Each assessment was performed four times during a single day under supervised conditions in the participant's homes. 40 adults aged over 60 years (19 fallers) participated in this study. A range of parameters were derived for each assessment, and the ability of each parameter to discriminate between fallers and non-fallers at each recording time was examined. The effect of falls history on single support time varied significantly with recording time, with a significantly reduced single support time observed at the first and last recording session of the day. Differences were observed between fallers and non-fallers for a range of other gait parameters; however, these effects did not vary with assessment time. The quiet standing assessments examined in this study revealed significant variations with falls history; however, the sensitivity of the examined quiet standing assessments to falls risk does not appear to be time dependent. These results indicate that, with the exception of single support time, the association of gait and quiet standing balance parameters with falls risk does not vary diurnally. (paper)
Full Text Available Introduction. Falls are frequent in older adults and may have serious consequences but awareness of fall-risk is often low. A questionnaire might raise awareness of fall-risk; therefore we set out to construct and test such a questionnaire. Methods. Fall-risk factors and their odds ratios were extracted from meta-analyses and a questionnaire was devised to cover these risk factors. A formula to estimate the probability of future falls was set up using the extracted odds ratios. The understandability of the questionnaire and discrimination and calibration of the prediction formula were tested in a cohort study with a six-month follow-up. Community-dwelling persons over 60 years were recruited by an e-mail snowball-sampling method. Results and Discussion. We included 134 persons. Response rates for the monthly fall-related follow-up varied between the months and ranged from low 38% to high 90%. The proportion of present risk factors was low. Twenty-five participants reported falls. Discrimination was moderate (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81. The understandability, with the exception of five questions, was good. The wording of the questions needs to be improved and measures to increase the monthly response rates are needed before test-retest reliability and final predictive value can be assessed.
Kim, Insook; Won, Seonae; Lee, Mijin; Lee, Won
The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors through analysis of seven medical malpractice judgments related to fall injuries. The risk factors were analysed by using the framework that approaches falls from a systems perspective and comprised people, organisational or environmental factors, with each factor being comprised of subfactors. The risk factors found in each of the seven judgments were aggregated into one framework. The risk factors related to patients (i.e. the people factor) were age, pain, related disease, activities and functional status, urination state, cognitive function impairment, past history of fall, blood transfusion, sleep endoscopy state and uncooperative attitude. The risk factors related to the medical staff and caregivers (i.e. people factor) were observation negligence, no fall prevention activities and negligence in managing high-risk group for fall. Organisational risk factors were a lack of workforce, a lack of training, neglecting the management of the high-risk group, neglecting the management of caregivers and the absence of a fall prevention procedure. Regarding the environment, the risk factors were found to be the emergency room, chairs without a backrest and the examination table. Identifying risk factors is essential for preventing fall accidents, since falls are preventable patient-safety incidents. Falls do not happen as a result of a single risk factor. Therefore, a systems approach is effective to identify risk factors, especially organisational and environmental factors.
Bromfield, Samantha G; Ngameni, Cedric-Anthony; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Bowling, C Barrett; Shimbo, Daichi; Reynolds, Kristi; Safford, Monika M; Banach, Maciej; Toth, Peter P; Muntner, Paul
Antihypertensive medication and low systolic blood pressure (BP) and diastolic BP have been associated with an increased falls risk in some studies. Many older adults have indicators of frailty, which may increase their risk for falls. We contrasted the association of systolic BP, diastolic BP, number of antihypertensive medication classes taken, and indicators of frailty with risk for serious fall injuries among 5236 REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Difference in Stroke) participants ≥65 years taking antihypertensive medication at baseline with Medicare fee-for-service coverage. Systolic BP and diastolic BP were measured, and antihypertensive medication classes being taken assessed through a pill bottle review during a study visit. Indicators of frailty included low body mass index, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, exhaustion, impaired mobility, and history of falls. Serious fall injuries were defined as fall-related fractures, brain injuries, or joint dislocations using Medicare claims through December 31, 2014. Over a median of 6.4 years, 802 (15.3%) participants had a serious fall injury. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for a serious fall injury among participants with 1, 2, or ≥3 indicators of frailty versus no frailty indicators was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.40), 1.49 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.87), and 2.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.67), respectively. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, and number of antihypertensive medication classes being taken at baseline were not associated with risk for serious fall injuries after multivariable adjustment. In conclusion, indicators of frailty, but not BP or number of antihypertensive medication classes, were associated with increased risk for serious fall injuries among older adults taking antihypertensive medication. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Contrary to the present tendency of partially impact-independent technology assessment, the author does not see a difference between a risk-benefit analysis and an ethical technology assessment. As long as the risk-benefit analysis is truly comprehensive, both fall together. This does not mean that convictions of those who have their doubts about some new technologies, independently of impact assessments, may be disregarded in purely consequential risk evaluations. On the contrary, qualms of representatives of these principles, just as any other stable non-acceptance, have to be included as aggravating negative elements in technology assessments. (orig./HSCH) [de
Teresa S. Radebaugh
Full Text Available Falls are a serious health risk for older adults. But for those living in rural and frontier areas of the USA, the risks are higher because of limited access to health care providers and resources. This study employed a community-based participatory research approach to develop a fall prevention toolkit to be used by residents of rural and frontier areas without the assistance of health care providers. Qualitative data were gathered from both key informant interviews and focus groups with a broad range of participants. Data analysis revealed that to be effective and accepted, the toolkit should be not only evidence based but also practical, low-cost, self-explanatory, and usable without the assistance of a health care provider. Materials must be engaging, visually interesting, empowering, sensitive to reading level, and appropriate for low-vision users. These findings should be useful to other researchers developing education and awareness materials for older adults in rural areas.
Patel, Dipesh; Ackermann, Richard J
One in three older adults falls each year. There are approximately 2.5 million falls among older adults treated in emergency departments. Falls account for 87% of all fractures in this age group. The biggest risk factor for falling is a history of falls. Other risk factors include frailty, sedative and anticholinergic drugs, polypharmacy, and a variety of medical conditions. Current recommendations are that all patients age 65 years and older should be asked about falls each year. Patients also can be screened for fall risk with a variety of approaches including questionnaires and the Timed Up & Go test. For patients who have fallen or are at risk, care should focus on correcting reversible home environmental factors that predispose to falls, minimizing the use of drugs with sedating properties, addressing vision conditions, recommending physical exercise (including balance, strength, and gait training), and managing postural hypotension as well as foot conditions and footwear. In addition, vitamin D and calcium supplementation should be considered. For patients needing anticoagulation for medical reasons, an assessment must balance fall risk (and thus bleeding from a fall) versus the risk of discontinuing anticoagulation (eg, sustaining an embolic stroke from atrial fibrillation). Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Independent from muscle power and balance performance, a creatinine clearance below 65 ml/min is a significant and independent risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures in elderly men and women diagnosed with osteoporosis.
Dukas, L; Schacht, E; Runge, M
We assessed in a cross-sectional study in elderly men and women with osteoporosis, the association between the creatinine clearance (CrCl) and the performance in different balance and muscle power and function tests and found that a decreasing creatinine clearance was significantly associated with lower balance and muscle power. To determine if a creatinine clearance of balance and an increased risk for falls and fractures. We assessed in a cross-sectional-study in 1781 German osteoporotic patients, the association between the CrCl, the physical performance, and the number of falls and fractures. Controlling for age, gender, BMI, and osteoporosis treatment (fracture analysis only), a decreasing CrCl was associated with lower physical performance in the timed-up-and-go test (corr -0.2337, P risk for falls (47.7% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.0008) and fall-related fractures (33.1% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.0003) compared with a CrCl of >or=65 ml/min. In this study, we found a significant gender-independent correlation between decreasing CrCl and lower performance in balance and muscle power tests. Reduced muscle power and balance may therefore be involved in the low creatinine clearance associated increased risk for falls and fall-related fractures. Furthermore, we found that a CrCl balance tests, is a significant risk factor for falls and fractures.
Latt, Mark Dominic; Loh, K Florence; Ge, Ludi; Hepworth, Annie
We examined the validity of the Ontario Modified STRATIFY (OM) (St Thomas's Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly Inpatients), The Northern Hospital Modified STRATIFY (TNH) and STRATIFY in predicting falls in an acute aged care unit. Data were collected prospectively from 217 people presenting consecutively and falls identified during hospitalisation. Sensitivities of OM (80.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 58.4 to 91.9%), TNH (85, CI 64.0 to 94.8%) and STRATIFY (80.0, CI 58.4 to 91.0%) were similar. The STRATIFY had higher specificity (61.4, CI 54.5 to 67.9%) than OM (37.1, CI 30.6 to 44.0%) and TNH (51.3, CI 44.3 to 58.2%). Accuracy (percentage of patients correctly classified as 'faller' or 'non-faller') was higher using STRATIFY (63.1, CI 56.5 to 69.3%) and TNH (54.4, CI 47.8 to 61.0%) than with OM (41.0, CI 34.7 to 47.7%, P patients at high risk of falls. © 2016 AJA Inc.
Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara; Sherrington, Cathie; Keay, Lisa; Tiedemann, Anne; Coombes, Julieann; Clemson, Lindy; Ivers, Rebecca
To examine the risk factors, incidence, consequences and existing prevention strategies for falls and fall-related injury in older indigenous people. Relevant literature was identified through searching 14 electronic databases, a range of institutional websites, online search engines and government databases, using search terms pertaining to indigenous status, injury and ageing. Thirteen studies from Australia, the United States, Central America and Canada were identified. Few studies reported on fall rates but two reported that around 30% of indigenous people aged 45 years and above experienced at least one fall during the past year. The most common hospitalised fall injuries among older indigenous people were hip fracture and head injury. Risk factors significantly associated with falls within indigenous populations included poor mobility, a history of stroke, epilepsy, head injury, poor hearing and urinary incontinence. No formally evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention interventions were identified. Falls are a significant and growing health issue for older indigenous people worldwide that can lead to severe health consequences and even death. No fully-evaluated, indigenous-specific fall prevention programs were identified. Implications for Public Health: Research into fall patterns and fall-related injury among indigenous people is necessary for the development of appropriate fall prevention interventions. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
Timed up and go test combined with self-rated multifactorial questionnaire on falls risk and sociodemographic factors predicts falls among community-dwelling older adults better than the timed up and go test on its own.
Ibrahim, Azianah; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Shahar, Suzana; Omar, Mohd Azahadi
Early detection of falls risk among older adults using simple tools may assist in fall prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to identify the best parameters associated with previous falls, either the timed up and go (TUG) test combined with sociodemographic factors and a self-rated multifactorial questionnaire (SRMQ) on falls risk or the TUG on its own. Falls risk was determined based on parameters associated with previous falls. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study was conducted in a community setting. The participants were 1,086 community-dwelling older adults, with mean age of 69.6±5.6 years. Participants were categorized into fallers and nonfallers based on their history of falls in the past 12 months. Participants' sociodemographic data was taken, and SRMQ consisting of five falls-related questions was administered. Participants performed the TUG test twice, and the mean was taken as the result. A total of 161 participants were categorized as fallers (14.8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the model ( χ 2 (6)=61.0, p factors (gender, cataract/glaucoma and joint pain), as well as the SRMQ items "previous falls history" (Q1) and "worried of falls" (Q5), was more robust in terms of falls risk association compared to that with TUG on its own ( χ 2 (1)=10.3, p factors and SRMQ with TUG is more favorable as an initial falls risk screening tool among community-dwelling older adults. Subsequently, further comprehensive falls risk assessment may be performed in clinical settings to identify the specific impairments for effective management.
Lee, Hyun Haeng; Jung, Se Hee
To evaluate characteristics of the postural instability in patients with stroke and to present a prediction model of post-stroke falls. Patients with a first-ever stroke who had been evaluated by the Balance Master (BM) at post-stroke 3 months (±1 month) between August 2011 and December 2015 were enrolled. Parameters for the postural instability, such as the weight bearing asymmetry (WBA) and postural sway velocity (PSV), were obtained. The fall events in daily lives were assessed via structured telephone interview with a fall related questionnaire. A total of 71 patients (45 men; 45 with ischemic stroke) were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent BM evaluation at 3.03±0.40 months after stroke. The mean WBA was 17.18%±13.10% and mean PSV (measured as °/s) were noted as 0.66±0.37 (eyes-open on firm surface), 0.89±0.75 (eyes-closed on firm surface), 1.45±1.09 (eyes-open on soft surface), and 3.10±1.76 (eyes-closed on soft surface). A prediction model of post-stroke falls was drawn by multiple logistic regression analysis as follows: Risk of post-stroke falls = -2.848 + 1.878 x (PSV ECSS ) + 0.154 x (age=1 if age≥65; age=0 if agerisk of post-stroke falls.
Makino, Keitaro; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki
Fear of falling (FOF) is a major health problem for older adults, present not just in fallers, but also nonfallers. This study examined the impact of FOF and fall history on disability incidence among community-dwelling older adults from a prospective cohort study. A total of 5104 older adults living in community settings participated in baseline assessment and were followed up for about 4 years (median 52 mo, range 49-55 mo). At baseline, participants were assessed the presence of FOF and their fall history, and divided into 4 groups: Fall (-) FOF (-), Fall (+) FOF (-), Fall (-) FOF (+), and Fall (+) FOF (+). Disability incidence was defined as national long-term care insurance certification for personal support or care. During the follow-up period, 429 participants (9.9%) were newly certified as having a disability and needing personal support for long-term care insurance. Fall (-) FOF (+) group and Fall (+) FOF (+) group showed a significantly higher risk of disability incidence than Fall (-) FOF (-) group even after adjusting for covariates (Fall (-) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.62, Fall (+) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.98). Fear of falling could be a simple and useful predictor of disability incidence in community-dwelling older adults. Identifying and decreasing fall risk factors may prevent fall-related injuries, but excessive FOF may be associated with increased risk of disability incidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Suttanon, Plaiwan; Hill, Keith D; Said, Catherine M; Dodd, Karen J
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of change in falls risk and balance and mobility performance in people with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with those of healthy older people over a 1-yr period. A 1-yr follow-up study of change in levels of falls risk, balance, and mobility performance in 15 community-dwelling older people with mild to moderate AD and 15 healthy age-matched older people was conducted. Each participant completed a comprehensive assessment of balance and mobility, falls and falls risk, and level of physical activity at baseline and 1 yr later. The rate of increase in the number of falls and risk of falling was greater in people with AD. The rate of deterioration on a number of balance and mobility measures was also significantly greater in people with AD compared with the healthy older people. People with mild to moderate AD have an increased rate of decline in falls risk, balance, and mobility over a 12-mo period compared with age-matched healthy older people. Given this increased rate of decline, intermittent review of falls, balance and mobility, and interventions to address identified contributory risk factors should be considered by health practitioners.
Maruf, Fatai Adesina; Muonwe, Chidile; Odetunde, Marufat
Reports on social risk factors for falls are scarce. This study explored the associations of selected sociodemographic and health variables with falls among rural Nigerian community-dwelling older adults. The present cross-sectional study involved 131 community-dwelling older adults (84 women and 47 men) recruited at an outreach center. Demographic (age, sex and marital status), social (frequency of visiting relations and friends, and number of consistent informal carers) and health (number of comorbid conditions) variables were recorded. Having fewer than two informal carers (0.26, 95% CI 0.10-0.68) was independently associated with reduced risk for falls. Visiting relations and friends less than twice per week was independently associated with greater risks for falls (3.85, 95% CI 1.42-10.46) and recurrent falls (4.86, 95% CI 1.25-18.85). The number of informal carers and frequency of social visits are risk factors for falls in older adults, and need to be taken into consideration in any strategy for fall prevention in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; ●●: ●●-●●. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.