WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing environmental risks

  1. Environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a current overview of the basic elements of environmental risk assessment within the basic four-step process of hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and risk characterization. These general steps have been applied to assess both human and ecological risks from environmental exposures. Approaches used to identify hazards and exposures are being refined, including the use of optimized field sampling and more representative, rather than conservative,upper-bound estimates. In addition, toxicity data are being reviewed more rigorously as US and European harmonization initiatives gain strength, and the classification of chemicals has become more qualitative to more flexibly accommodate new dose-response information as it is developed. Finally, more emphasis is being placed on noncancer end points, and human and ecological risks are being weighed against each other more explicitly at the risk characterization phase. Recent advances in risk-based decision making reflect the increased transparency of the overall process, with more explicit incorporation of multiple trade-offs. The end result is a more comprehensive life-cycle evaluation of the risks associated with environmental exposures at contaminated sites.

  2. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sabre J. Coleman; Zalk, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues b...

  3. Modern biogeochemistry environmental risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    Most books deal mainly with various technical aspects of ERA description and calculationsAims at generalizing the modern ideas of both biogeochemical and environmental risk assessment during recent yearsAims at supplementing the existing books by providing a modern understanding of mechanisms that are responsible for the ecological risk for human beings and ecosystem

  4. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  5. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, ...

  6. Building better environmental risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eLayton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERA for genetically modified (GM crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data, and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  7. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems - examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines. PMID:26301217

  8. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    OpenAIRE

    Saša T. Bakrač; Mladen M. Vuruna; MIŠKO M. MILANOVIĆ

    2012-01-01

    Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be imple...

  9. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  10. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  11. Assessing the Environmental Risks of Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    decisionmakers better decide on which risk assessment/analysis framework may be best suited for the specific risk decision at hand. Among other results, we find that while many of the assessed frameworks have their advantages along with limitations, most may require potentially lengthy decision-making processes...... of uncertainty, degree of precaution, inclusion of quantitative or qualitative data, inclusion of life-cycle perspective, iterative and/or adaptive, ensuring timely decision making, and degree of transparency. This analysis can ultimately assist scientists, government agencies, organizations, and other......Assessing the environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (NM) is currently an intensely contested subject among scientists, organizations, governments, and policymakers. The shear number, variety, and market penetration of NM in consumer goods and other applications, including environmental...

  12. Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified or engineered organisms (GMOs, GEOs) are utilised in agriculture, expressing traits of interest, such as insect or herbicide resistance. Soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape are the GM crops with the largest acreage in the world. The distribution of GM acreage in the different countries is related with the different positions concerning labelling of GMO products: based on the principle of substantial equivalence, or rather based on the precautionary principle. The paper provides an overview on how the risks associated with release of GMO in the environments can be analysed and predicted, in view of a possible coexistence of GM and non-GM organisms in agriculture.Risk assessment procedures, both qualitative and quantitative, are compared in the context of application to GMOs considering also legislation requirements (Directive 2001/18/EC). Criteria and measurable properties to assess harm for human health and environmental safety are listed, and the possible consequences are evaluated in terms of significance.Finally, a mapping of the possible risks deriving from GMO release is reported, focusing on gene transfer to related species, horizontal gene transfer, direct and indirect effects on non target organisms, development of resistance in target organisms, and effects on biodiversity. PMID:21384330

  13. Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified or engineered organisms (GMOs, GEOs) are utilised in agriculture, expressing traits of interest, such as insect or herbicide resistance. Soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape are the GM crops with the largest acreage in the world. The distribution of GM acreage in the different countries is related with the different positions concerning labelling of GMO products: based on the principle of substantial equivalence, or rather based on the precautionary principle. The paper provides an overview on how the risks associated with release of GMO in the environments can be analysed and predicted, in view of a possible coexistence of GM and non-GM organisms in agriculture.Risk assessment procedures, both qualitative and quantitative, are compared in the context of application to GMOs considering also legislation requirements (Directive 2001/18/EC). Criteria and measurable properties to assess harm for human health and environmental safety are listed, and the possible consequences are evaluated in terms of significance.Finally, a mapping of the possible risks deriving from GMO release is reported, focusing on gene transfer to related species, horizontal gene transfer, direct and indirect effects on non target organisms, development of resistance in target organisms, and effects on biodiversity.

  14. Environmental risk assessment: an Australian perspective. Supervising Scientist Report 102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental risk assessment can be used as a strategic tool to set environmental priorities and as a tactical tool to set environmental standards. This report is designed to inform Australian environmental managers about the techniques and applications of environmental risk assessment and to familiarize risk analysts with some of the issues that are of concern to environmental managers. The use of risk assessment is illustrated by applying its techniques to five case studies which include: risk from chemicals and from contaminated sites; risk to people and to the natural environment from development, such as uranium mining; climate change; and risk associated with political decision-making. Then, by considering Australian and overseas practice, a generic framework is presented within which environmental risk assessment in Australia can be undertaken, and possible methods of implementation are discussed. refs., 38 figs

  15. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m-3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m-3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m-3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m-3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m-3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m-3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m-3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m-3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m-3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m-3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m-3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m-3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m-3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m-3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas

  16. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the

  17. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently

  18. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Sun; Ping Ning; Xiaolong Tang; Honghong Yi; Kai Li; Lianbi Zhou; Xianmang Xu

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the...

  19. Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

  20. Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  1. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  2. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

  3. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of plant pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsne Simon, E.;

    2011-01-01

    the environmental risks of plant pests that have previously been used in pest risk assessment. The limitations identified by the review led the Panel to define the new methodology for environmental risk assessment which is described in this guidance document. The guidance is primarily addressed to the EFSA PLH...... Panel and has been conceived as an enhancement of the relevant parts of the “Guidance on a harmonised framework for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of pest risk management options by EFSA”. Emphasizing the importance of assessing the consequences on both the structural...... and for ecosystem services in the current area of invasion and in the risk assessment area. To ensure the consistency and transparency of the assessment, a rating system has also been developed based on a probabilistic approach with an evaluation of the degree of uncertainty. Finally, an overview of the available...

  4. Advancing environmental risk assessment for transgenic biofeedstock crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolt Jeffrey D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transgenic modification of plants is a key enabling technology for developing sustainable biofeedstocks for biofuels production. Regulatory decisions and the wider acceptance and development of transgenic biofeedstock crops are considered from the context of science-based risk assessment. The risk assessment paradigm for transgenic biofeedstock crops is fundamentally no different from that of current generation transgenic crops, except that the focus of the assessment must consider the unique attributes of a given biofeedstock crop and its environmental release. For currently envisioned biofeedstock crops, particular emphasis in risk assessment will be given to characterization of altered metabolic profiles and their implications relative to non-target environmental effects and food safety; weediness and invasiveness when plants are modified for abiotic stress tolerance or are domesticated; and aggregate risk when plants are platforms for multi-product production. Robust risk assessments for transgenic biofeedstock crops are case-specific, initiated through problem formulation, and use tiered approaches for risk characterization.

  5. A mathematical model for environmental risk assessment in manufacturing industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莉萍; 徐盛明; 陈大川; 党创寅

    2002-01-01

    Environmental conscious manufacturing has become an important issue in industry because of market pressure and environmental regulations. An environmental risk assessment model was developed based on the network analytic method and fuzzy set theory. The "interval analysis method" was applied to deal with the on-site monitoring data as basic information for assessment. In addition, the fuzzy set theory was employed to allow uncertain, interactive and dynamic information to be effectively incorporated into the environmental risk assessment. This model is a simple, practical and effective tool for evaluating the environmental risk of manufacturing industry and for analyzing the relative impacts of emission wastes, which are hazardous to both human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, the model is considered useful for design engineers and decision-maker to design and select processes when the costs, environmental impacts and performances of a product are taken into consideration.

  6. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CADMIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium consumed in foods grown on soils contaminated by industrial Cd+Zn discharge has caused renal tubular dysfunction in exposed humans in discrete situations. However, lack of understanding about environmental Cd has caused wide concern that generalpopulations may...

  7. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R. M.; Brenner, D; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L; Smith, S.; Warburton, D; Young, T. L.; Tsai, W. Y.; Hemminki, K; Brandt-Rauf, P

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers h...

  8. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R.M.; Brenner, D.; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L.; Smith, S.; Warburton, D.; Young, T.L.; Tsai, W.Y.; Brandt-Rauf, P. (Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)); Hemminki, K. (Finnish School of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment.

  9. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment

  10. Cooperative network for environmental risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A North Atlantic Treaty Organization Advanced Research Workshop (NATO-ARW) - 'The Role of Risk Assessment in Environmental Security and Emergency Preparedness in the Mediterranean Region' was held in Eilot, Israel during April 15-18, 2004. Two groups were formed, one to discuss risk assessments the other to discuss environmental security. This group discussed risk assessment and plans to set up an information network based on national and regional approaches. It was agreed that a strategy should include: a multidisciplinary view for environmental protection, financing, training policy for specialists and technicians, preventive action for protection and sensitization of the public, starting at the primary education level, according to the specific need and social conventions for information dissemination. As there are no formal procedures to evaluate environmental and health issues, this group suggested to set up an information network to develop and sustain cooperation in the region. The suggested name was 'Middle-East Environmental Risk Assessment and Management: Developing a Sustainable Cooperative Network' (MEERA-NET). This group discussed the importance to have an objective database and justify the establishment of MEERA-NET with financial support from an international organization. Furthermore this group concluded the necessity to include a scale of measuring its usefulness. Selected topics of interest as well as the tools and methods to be used were discussed

  11. 76 FR 48119 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of a Risk Assessment and an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), (2) regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality for...@aphis.usda.gov ). To obtain copies of the risk assessment (also the manufacturer's risk analysis with... vaccination field trial in West Virginia. The environmental assessment, which is based on a risk...

  12. Assessment of environmental and economic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Потапова, Е. В.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological and economic risk - is a probability measure of negative changes (damage) in the ecosystem caused by human activities or the development of dangerous natural processes and causing loss of time Эколого-экономический риск представлен как вероятностная мера негативных изменений (ущербов) в экосистеме, обусловленных хозяйственной деятельностью человека или развитием опасных природных процессов и вызывающих возможные потери за определенное время....

  13. Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision

  14. Observations on work force and training needs for assessing environmental health risks.

    OpenAIRE

    DeRoos, R L; Anderson, P N; Berberich, N J; Maugans, B; Omenn, G S; Rentos, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    The continuing discoveries of hazardous waste sites have stimulated environmental health risk assessment efforts in State and local environmental health agencies. Elements of risk assessment are defined, showing how risk assessment interfaces with risk management. Environmental health risk assessment involves work components (tasks, activities, and technologies), the worker (position, classification, and occupation), and work organization (purpose, outputs, and objectives). Information from s...

  15. Selection of reproductive health end points for environmental risk assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Savitz, D A; Harlow, S D

    1991-01-01

    In addition to the challenges inherent in environmental health risk assessment, the study of reproductive health requires thorough consideration of the very definition of reproductive risk. Researchers have yet to determine which end points need to be considered to comprehensively evaluate a community's reproductive health. Several scientific issues should be considered in the selection of end points: the severity of the outcomes, with a trade-off between clinical severity and statistical or ...

  16. Validation of the EU Environmental Risk Assessment for Veterinary Medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montforts, M.H.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    An alarming decline of vulture populations (up to 95%) in Pakistan in the late 1990’s has recently been attributed to the use of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in cattle. Several species are now threatened with extinction, a tragedy that demonstrates that an environmental risk assessment of v

  17. Environmental risk assessment : handbook for pesticide registration in China

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, F. M.; Qu, M.; Piao, X.; Valk, van der, A.; Tao, C.

    2014-01-01

    The handbook focusses on environmental and beneficial animals. Aquatic ecosystems, birds, honeybees, silkworms end groundwater are selected as protection goals and for each of the protection the following three questions were answered: What do we want to protect? Where do we want to protect? How strict do we want to protect? For each protection goal risk assessment procedures are described.

  18. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed. PMID:19940966

  19. Environmental risk assessment for medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliker, B; Longhurst, S; Buchholz, C J

    2010-01-01

    Many gene therapy medicinal products and also some vaccines consist of, or contain, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which require specific consideration in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) before marketing authorisation or clinical trial applications. The ERA is performed in order to identify the potential risks for public health and the environment, which may arise due to the clinical use of these medicinal products. If such environmental risks are identified and considered as not acceptable, the ERA should go on to propose appropriate risk management strategies capable to reduce these risks. This article will provide an overview of the legal basis and requirements for the ERA of GMO-containing medicinal products in the context of marketing authorisation in the EU and clinical trials in Germany. Furthermore, the scientific principles and methodology that generally need to be followed when preparing an ERA for GMOs are discussed.

  20. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2013-01-01

    This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of living genetically modified (GM) animals, namely fish, insects and mammals and birds, to be placed on the European Union (EU) market in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 or Directive 2001/18/EC. It provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM animals on animal and human health and the environment and the rationales for data requirements for a comprehensive ERA. The ERA should be carried out on...

  1. Some perspectives for environmental risk assessment of urban stormwater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Baun, Anders; Ledin, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of new technologies for disposing stormwater locally, e.g. via infiltration into the ground, implies that the 'traditional' list of key-substances is not exhaustive and consequently, consultants and authorities have difficulties deciding whether to approve new technologies for...... stormwater disposal. The risk for contamination of surface waters also needs to be assessed, even though this contamination is silently accepted by society. A proper risk assessment needs to consider contamination of all environmental compartments within the urban environment, i.e. surface water, soil and...

  2. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  3. Making the EU "Risk Window" transparent: The normative foundations of the environmental risk assessment of GMOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.K.; Gamborg, C.; Madsen, K.H.;

    2003-01-01

    ethical principles recognized in the Member States. However, the directive fails to reflect the critical role of value judgements in scientific risk assessment and any subsequent approval procedure. In this paper we argue that it is important to make all ethically relevant assumptions involved...... in the approval procedure transparent and thus available for public scrutiny. Mapping the value judgements that are made in an environmental risk assessment and approval procedure, we describe the political liberal nature of the EU legislation. We then look more closely at the prescriptions for environmental risk...... assessment and approval of GMOs outlined in the directive. An environmental risk assessment views the world through a "risk window" that only makes visible that which has been predefined as a relevant risk. The importance of the value judgements that define the risk window consists in limiting...

  4. Environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical drug substances - conceptual considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Länge, Reinhard; Dietrich, Daniel R

    2002-01-01

    Drugs, i.e. active ingredients of human medicinal products, may be introduced into the environment after use in patients by sewage effluent pathways and consequently are detected at low concentrations in sewage effluents and in surface waters. Legal requirements in a number of geographical regions (Europe, US, and intended in Canada) demand environmental risk assessments (ERA) for new drug substances. Existing regulatory concepts of ERA are based initially on a set of short-term ecotoxicologi...

  5. Validation of the EU Environmental Risk Assessment for Veterinary Medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Montforts, M.H.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    An alarming decline of vulture populations (up to 95%) in Pakistan in the late 1990’s has recently been attributed to the use of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in cattle. Several species are now threatened with extinction, a tragedy that demonstrates that an environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines is legitimate. The fate and behaviour of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been studied incidentally since the second half of the 20th century. The possible effect of resid...

  6. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Doris, E-mail: doris.voelker@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency Germany, Section IV 2.2, Wörlitzer Platz 1, 06844 Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Schlich, Karsten [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Department of Ecotoxicology, Auf dem Aberg 1, 57392 Schmallenberg (Germany); Hohndorf, Lars; Koch, Wolfgang; Kuehnen, Ute [Federal Environment Agency Germany, Section IV 2.2, Wörlitzer Platz 1, 06844 Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Polleichtner, Christian; Kussatz, Carola [Federal Environment Agency Germany, Section IV 2.4, Schichauweg 58, 12307 Berlin (Germany); Hund-Rinke, Kerstin [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Department of Ecotoxicology, Auf dem Aberg 1, 57392 Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  7. Approach on environmental risk assessment of nanosilver released from textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the increased utilization of nanosilver (silver nanomaterials=AgNM) as antibacterial agent, there is the strong need to assess the potential environmental implication associated with its new application areas. In this study an exemplary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of AgNM applied in textiles was performed. Environmental exposure scenarios (via municipal sewage treatment plant (STP)) with wastewater supply from domestic homes) were developed for three different types of textiles equipped with AgNM. Based on these scenarios predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were deduced for STPs and for the environmental compartments surface water, sediment as well as soil. These PECs were related to PNECs (predicted no effect concentrations). PNECs were deduced from results of ecotoxicity tests of a selected AgNM (NM-300K). Data on ecotoxicology were derived from various tests with activated sludge, cyanobacteria, algae, daphnids, fish, duckweed, macrophytes, chironomids, earthworms, terrestrial plants as well as soil microorganisms. Emission data for the AgNM NM-300K from textiles were derived from washing experiments. The performed ERA was based on the specifications defined in the ECHA Guidances on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Based on the chosen scenarios and preconditions, no environmental risk of the AgNM NM-300K released from textiles was detected. Under conservative assumptions a risk quotient for surface water close to 1 indicated that the aquatic compartment may be affected by an increased emission of AgNM to the environment due to the high sensitivity of aquatic organisms to silver. Based on the successful retention of AgNM in the sewage sludge and the still ongoing continual application of sewage sludge on farmland it is recommended to introduce a threshold for total silver content in sewage sludge into the respective regulations. Regarding potential risk mitigation measures, it is emphasized to preferably directly

  8. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs.

  9. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs. PMID:27376857

  10. Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

  11. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  12. A comparison of radiological risk assessment methods for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of risks to human health from exposure to ionizing radiation at radioactively contaminated sites is an integral part of the decision-making process for determining the need for remediation and selecting remedial actions that may be required. At sites regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a target risk range of 10-4 to 10-6 incremental cancer incidence over a lifetime is specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as generally acceptable, based on the reasonable maximum exposure to any individual under current and future land use scenarios. Two primary methods currently being used in conducting radiological risk assessments at CERCLA sites are compared in this analysis. Under the first method, the radiation dose equivalent (i.e., Sv or rem) to the receptors of interest over the appropriate period of exposure is estimated and multiplied by a risk factor (cancer risk/Sv). Alternatively, incremental cancer risk can be estimated by combining the EPA's cancer slope factors (previously termed potency factors) for radionuclides with estimates of radionuclide intake by ingestion and inhalation, as well as radionuclide concentrations in soil that contribute to external dose. The comparison of the two methods has demonstrated that resulting estimates of lifetime incremental cancer risk under these different methods may differ significantly, even when all other exposure assumptions are held constant, with the magnitude of the discrepancy depending upon the dominant radionuclides and exposure pathways for the site. The basis for these discrepancies, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and the significance of the discrepant results for environmental restoration decisions are presented

  13. How strategic environmental assessment can inform lenders about potential environmental risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhalmi-Zakar, Zsuzsa; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to be a useful tool for banks to manage environmental risks and inform lending decisions. SEA is an environmental assessment tool that was developed to assist strategic-level decision-makers, such as policy...... at a time when it can be used as an input to bank lending decisions, which can assist banks in making lending decisions with better environmental outcomes. For these reasons, we argue that in some circumstances, and particularly for project finance transactions, SEA may be a more useful environmental...

  14. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Chueca, Cristina; De-Schrijver, Adinda;

    This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) plants submitted within the framework of Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 on GM food and feed or under Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified...... organisms (GMOs). This document provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM plants on the environment and the rationales for the data requirements for a comprehensive ERA of GM plants. The ERA should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, following a step-by-step assessment approach...... assessment; (5) impact of the specific cultivation, management and harvesting techniques; including consideration of the production systems and the receiving environment(s); (6) effects on biogeochemical processes; and (7) effects on human and animal health. Each specific area of concern is considered...

  15. Assessment of the environmental risk of long chain alcohols (LCOH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, Scott; Sanderson, Hans; Fisk, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    An environmental assessment of long-chain alcohols (LCOH) has recently been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Aliphatic Alcohols Consortium. LCOH are used primarily as intermediates, as a precursor...... on a toxic units (TU) approach were determined for various scenarios of exposure and effects extrapolation. The global average TU ranged from 0.048 to 0.467 depending on the scenario employed suggesting a low risk to the environment. The fact that environmental exposure calculations include large fractions...... to alcohol-based surfactants and as alcohol per se in a wide variety of consumer product applications. Global production volume is approximately 1.58 million metric tonnes. The OECD HPV assessment covers linear to slightly branched LCOH ranging from 6 to 22 alkyl carbons (C). LCOH biodegrade exceptionally...

  16. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA of living genetically modified (GM animals, namely fish, insects and mammals and birds, to be placed on the European Union (EU market in accordance with Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 or Directive 2001/18/EC. It provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM animals on animal and human health and the environment and the rationales for data requirements for a comprehensive ERA. The ERA should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, following a step-by-step assessment approach. This document describes the six sequential steps for the ERA of GM animals, as indicated in Directive 2001/18/EC: (1 problem formulation including hazard and exposure identification; (2 hazard characterisation; (3 exposure characterisation; (4 risk characterisation; (5 risk management strategies; and (6 an overall risk evaluation. The Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority follows Annex II of Directive 2001/18/EC, considering specific areas of risk to be addressed by applicants and risk assessors during the ERA of GM fish, GM insects and GM mammals and birds. Each specific area of risk is considered in a structured and systematic way following the aforementioned six steps. In addition, this Guidance Document describes several generic cross-cutting considerations (e.g. choice of comparators, use of non-GM surrogates, experimental design and statistics, long-term effects, uncertainty analysis that need to be accounted for throughout the whole ERA.

  17. Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, B.; Kjær, C.; Hindar, K.;

    of genetically modified plants. This chapter describes both the legislation within the EU and the state of the technology (existing and coming cases). Furthermore, a presentation of the ecological concerns discussed in the report, i.e. invasion, introgression and adverse effects on non-target organisms...... for annual plants, trees and fish, respectively, and suggests a structural/hierarchical decision system for information requirements. The latter should aid to eliminate the 'high-risk' products at an early stage and to improve the design of tests at higher tiers. The second section works with specific...... by answers to the following questions: 1) Are the abiotic conditions under which tests for environmental risk assessment have been conducted relevant for the northern settings? 2) Does the inserted traits alter the cold tolerance of the transgenic organism, and if so, is range expansion likely? 3...

  18. Environmental Risk Assessment of Selected Antibiotics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alighardashi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the increasing use of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs, especially antibiotics, has become a particular concern because of their undesirable potential ecological and human health effects. This study presents an environmental risk assessment for the aquatic environment of some frequently used antibiotics in Iran in three stages including; a short literature review about antibiotic consumption in Iran, a comprehensive estimation regarding acute toxicity of selected antibiotics and finally calculation of Risk Quotient (RQ using the predicted environmental concentration (PEC and the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC. According to recently published data, the consumption of antibiotics in Iran is several times greater than European countries and in case of antibiotics (e.g. Penicillin is approximately 10 times greater than Scandinavian region. The calculated PECs were ranged from 0.0071 to 0.8570 and the PNECs value based on ecotoxicity data was found for all studied antibiotics (varied from 0.0037 to 177. The RQ exceeded one for Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Sulfamethoxazole, and Erythromycin. Amoxicillin has the highest risk to aquatic organisms based on this study. With respect to the emergence of microbial resistance, it is important to begin monitoring the most frequently used antibiotics

  19. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  20. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  1. Environmental Risk Assessment for Veterinary Medicinal Products Part 3. Validation of environmental exposure models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montforts MHMM; Verschoor AJ; SEC

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates the validity of exposure and distribution models for soil, groundwater and surface water for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) at registration. The functional validations with (oxy)tetracycline and sulphonamides indicate that it

  2. Environmental and industrial risk and crisis assessment: a cognitive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author have tried to show that rational risk analysis exhibits some severe shortcomings in areas where the danger is new and the scientific knowledge is limited and controversial. In such contexts, the traditional dichotomy between objective and subjective risk is not of much help. Thus, traditional risk communication based on information, education, trust in institutions, is not adapted here. The first elements of analysis proposed in this tentative paper suggest that in such contexts, risk communication should be based on participatory methods such as forums for debate. The stake is therefore the democratization of assessment procedure and the development of different means which allow to couple risk and technology assessment. (authors)

  3. Bigheaded carps : a biological synopsis and environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cindy S.; Chapman, Duane C.; Courtenay, Walter R., Jr.; Housel, Christine M.; Williams, James D.; Jennings, Dawn P.

    2007-01-01

    The book is a detailed risk assessment and biological synopsis of the bigheaded carps of the genus Hypophthalmichthys, which includes the bighead, silver, and largescale silver carps. It summarizes the scientific literature describing their biology, ecology, uses, ecological effects, and risks to the environment.

  4. Genome-Environmental Risk Assessment of Cocaine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changshuai eWei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine-associated biomedical and psychosocial problems are substantial 21st century global burdens of disease. This burden is largely driven by a cocaine dependence process that becomes engaged with increasing occasions of cocaine product use. For this reason, the development of a risk prediction model for cocaine dependence may be of special value. Ultimately, success in building such a risk prediction model may help promote personalized cocaine dependence prediction, prevention, and treatment approaches not presently available. As an initial step toward this goal, we conducted a genome-environmental risk prediction study for cocaine dependence, simultaneously considering 948,658 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, six potentially cocaine-related facets of environment, and three personal characteristics. In this study, a novel statistical approach was applied to 1045 case-control samples from the Family Study of Cocaine Dependence. The results identify 330 low- to medium-effect size SNPs (i.e., those with a single locus p-value of less than 10-4 that made a substantial contribution to cocaine dependence risk prediction (AUC=0.718. Inclusion of six facets of environment and three personal characteristics yielded greater accuracy (AUC=0.809. Of special importance was childhood abuse (CA among trauma experiences, with a potentially important interaction of CA and the GBE1 gene in cocaine dependence risk prediction. Genome-environmental risk prediction models may become more promising in future risk prediction research, once a more substantial array of environmental facets are taken into account, sometimes with model improvement when gene-by-environment product terms are included as part of these risk predication models.

  5. Sediment ingestion rates in waterfowl (Anatidae) and their use in environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Perry, Matthew C.; Osenton, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    When waterfowl (Anatidae) ingest sediment as they feed, they are exposed to the environmental contaminants in those sediments. The rate of ingestion may be key to assessing environmental risk. Rates of sediment ingestion were estimated as from risk assessments designed to protect waterfowl.

  6. Environmental Epigenetics: Potential Application in Human Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although previous studies have shown a significant involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in human diseases, the applicability of epigenetic data in the current human health risk assessment paradigm is unclear. The goals of this study are to compare the relative sensitivities of...

  7. Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Countermeasures on a Fire Extinguisher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.K.; Jeong, D.W. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs). The objective of this project is to develop a management strategy for all problematic brominated flame retardants. A number of studies have shown that several of the brominated flame retardants occur in increasing concentrations in nature and in human beings. This is of concern because certain of the brominated flame retardants are suspected of having undesirable effects on the environment and health. The substances are generally very stable, especially so in the case of PBBs and PBDEs. These are strong reasons for hastening the phase-out of PBBs and PBDEs as group. Moreover, PBBs and PBDEs have attracted international attention. Within the OECD, business organisations have made voluntary agreements concerning PBBs and PBDEs. Rules of the EU forbid the use of PBBs in textiles coming into contact with the skin. The environmental and health risks of PBDEs are currently being evaluated as a part of an EU programme for existing substances. In Germany, PBBs and PBDEs are restricted through the Dioxin Ordinance and voluntary agreements with industry. Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl

  8. [Status Quo, Uncertainties and Trends Analysis of Environmental Risk Assessment for PFASs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xue-wen; Li, Li; Wang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Liu, Jian-guo

    2015-08-01

    This study systematically combed the definition and change of terms, category and application of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in international academic, focusing on the environmental risk and exposure assessment of PFASs, to comprehensively analyze the current status, uncertainties and trends of PFASs' environmental risk assessment. Overall, the risk assessment of PFASs is facing a complicated situation involving complex substance pedigrees, various types, complex derivative relations, confidential business information and risk uncertainties. Although the environmental risk of long-chain PFASs has been widely recognized, the short-chain PFASs and short-chain fluorotelomers as their alternatives still have many research gaps and uncertainties in environmental hazards, environmental fate and exposure risk. The scope of risk control of PFASs in the international community is still worth discussing. Due to trade secrets and market competition, the chemical structure and risk information of PFASs' alternatives are generally lack of openness and transparency. The environmental risk of most fluorinated and non-fluorinated alternatives is not clear. In total, the international research on PFASs risk assessment gradually transfer from long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) represented by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to short-chain PFAAs, and then extends to other PFASs. The main problems to be solved urgently and researched continuously are: the environmental hazardous assessment indexes, such as bioaccumulation and environmental migration, optimization method, the environmental release and multimedia environmental fate of short-chain PFASs; the environmental fate of neutral PFASs and the transformation and contribution as precursors of short-chain PFASs; the risk identification and assessment of fluorinated and non-fluorinated alternatives of PFASs. PMID:26592048

  9. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management

  10. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management.

  11. Novel Transformations of Trenbolone Acetate Metabolites Suggest Incomplete Environmental Risk Assessment for Trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, E. P.; Jones, G.; Cwiertny, D. M.; Qu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In general, the existing regulatory and risk assessment paradigm for veterinary pharmaceuticals and other potential environmental contaminants is relatively simplistic as it equates contaminant degradation with significant reduction in associated ecological risk. However, it is becoming clear that there exist a number of environmental contaminants whose behaviors in the environment confound this assessment paradigm and whose environmental risk cannot be accurately assessed by laboratory studies demonstrating degradation or attenuation of compound concentrations in model environmental systems. For example, trenbolone acetate (TBA) is an androgenic growth promoting steroid used widely in animal agriculture in the United States, with the vast majority of U.S. beef cattle receiving TBA implants. Despite their significant economic value ( $1 billion annually), TBA metabolites can be potent endocrine disrupting compounds for sensitive species of aquatic organisms, capable of endocrine disruption at low ng/L concentrations. TBA metabolites are often considered rather reactive and prone to degradation, and risk assessment studies specifically point to their rapid degradation as evidence for limited ecological risks. However, we have recently demonstrated a most unexpected observation for TBA metabolite fate in environmental systems: namely that product-to-parent reversion is possible for certain TBA metabolites. Also, a variety of structural analogs and stereoisomers can arise from environmental transformation processes of TBA metabolites, potentially yielding a range of uncharacterized steroid structures capable of receptor interactions. None of these possibilities are accounted for in current risk assessment approaches for trenbolone or any other veterinary pharmaceutical. These observations confound most all current environmental risk assessment and contaminant fate models, and therefore improving our approach to environmental risk assessment needs to specifically

  12. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with <10(-6)-fold increase in uterus weight and immune response outcomes, respectively. Moreover, our results indicated that there was 50 % risk probability that the response outcomes of CVD, diabetes, and behavior change with or without skin absorption would increase 10(-4)-10(-2)-fold. We conclude that our approach provides a powerful tool for tracking and managing human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  13. Transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future management of radioactive and hazardous waste at the facilities of the DOE complex. The alternatives involve facilities to be used for treatment, storage, and disposal of various wastes generated from DOE's environmental restoration activities and waste management operation. Included in the evaluation are six types of waste (five types of radioactive waste plus hazardous waste), 49 sites, and numerous cases associated with each different alternative for waste management. In general, the alternatives are evaluated independently for each type of waste and reflect decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches. Transportation of waste materials is an integral component of the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The estimated impact on human health that is associated with various waste transportation activities is an important element leading to a complete appraisal of the alternatives. The transportation risk assessment performed for the EM PEIS is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful and consistent

  14. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  15. Environmental risk assessment of metals: tools for incorporating bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, C R; Heijerick, D G; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Allen, H E

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, some of the main processes and parameters which affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment and its implications for metal risk assessment procedures will be discussed. It has become clear that, besides chemical processes (speciation, complexation), attention should also be given to physiological aspects for predicting metal toxicity. The development of biotic ligand models (BLMs), which combine speciation models with more biologically oriented models (e.g. GSIM), has offered an answer to this need. The various BLMs which have been developed and/or refined for a number of metals (e.g. Cu, Ag, Zn) and species (algae, crustaceans, fish) are discussed here. Finally, the potential of the BLM approach is illustrated through a theoretical exercise in which chronic zinc toxicity to Daphnia magna is predicted in three regions, taking the physico-chemical characteristics of these areas into account.

  16. Risk Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Strategies, Nordic Workshop, Vedbæk 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian

    . This report compiles the papers and presentations given at the workshop. The papers present and discuss the different assessment tools and procedures - for individual chemicals through hazard and risk assessments and for products, materials and services through life-cycle assessment. The report also contains......, consultants and private enterprises to consider these well-established tools as individually necessary for the future regulation of the chemical pressure on the environment and to accept them as complementary to each other. Together with other process- or chain oriented tools like Substance or Material Flow...... Analyses, Input/output analysis, Environmental Audits and Performance evaluations and Cost Accounting they constitute the toolbox of analysis and management tools required for a full product-related strategy towards a sustainable development....

  17. Methods for assessing the environmental risks from the resistant pesticide contamination

    OpenAIRE

    T. Moklyachuk

    2014-01-01

    Methods of assessing environmental risk has been considered in order to identify and then apply an optimal recovery method of remediation of soils contaminated with persistent pesticides. Value of risk from contamination in two different models — the situational risk and CalTOX has been counted and compared. A mathematical model that describes a distribution of the site contamination by persistent pesticides depending on the distance from the depot, and gives an opportunity to assess the si...

  18. Environmental risk assessment of acid rock drainage under uncertainty: The probability bounds and PHREEQC approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrie, Getnet D; Sadiq, Rehan; Nichol, Craig; Morin, Kevin A; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2016-01-15

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a major environmental problem that poses significant environmental risks during and after mining activities. A new methodology for environmental risk assessment based on probability bounds and a geochemical speciation model (PHREEQC) is presented. The methodology provides conservative and non-conservative ways of estimating risk of heavy metals posed to selected endpoints probabilistically, while propagating data and parameter uncertainties throughout the risk assessment steps. The methodology is demonstrated at a minesite located in British Columbia, Canada. The result of the methodology for the case study minesite shows the fate-and-transport of heavy metals is well simulated in the mine environment. In addition, the results of risk characterization for the case study show that there is risk due to transport of heavy metals into the environment.

  19. Use of Monte Carlo methods in environmental risk assessments at the INEL: Applications and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPA is increasingly considering the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques as an alternative or refinement of the current point estimate of risk. This report provides an overview of the probabilistic technique called Monte Carlo Analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of implementing a Monte Carlo analysis over a point estimate analysis for environmental risk assessment are discussed. The general methodology is provided along with an example of its implementation. A phased approach to risk analysis that allows iterative refinement of the risk estimates is recommended for use at the INEL

  20. Benefits, Potential Risks and Environmental Safety Assessments of Herbicide-resistant Transgenic Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei; LI Xinhai; WANG Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant transgenic soybean was rapidly and commercially utilized in the world since 1996, and the planted percentage was up to 77% in 2009. Although multiple benefits have achieved through transgenic soybean utilization, the potential risk to environment is widely being concerned. It is essential to reduce the environmental risks for transgenic soybean and for other similar transgenic crops by using available biosafty knowledge to establish the risk assessment system. This review emphasized the herbicide- resistant transgenic soybean production, research and development, benefits and potential risks, and environment risk assessing methods for giving advisory opinion to commercially plant herbicide-resistant transgenic soybean in China.

  1. Use of Monte Carlo methods in environmental risk assessments at the INEL: Applications and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G.; Van Horn, R.

    1996-06-01

    The EPA is increasingly considering the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques as an alternative or refinement of the current point estimate of risk. This report provides an overview of the probabilistic technique called Monte Carlo Analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of implementing a Monte Carlo analysis over a point estimate analysis for environmental risk assessment are discussed. The general methodology is provided along with an example of its implementation. A phased approach to risk analysis that allows iterative refinement of the risk estimates is recommended for use at the INEL.

  2. Nutrition Can Modulate the Toxicity of Environmental Pollutants: Implications in Risk Assessment and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, Bernhard; Ormsbee, Lindell; Craig J. McClain; Watkins, Bruce A.; Blumberg, Bruce; Bachas, Leonidas G.; Sanderson, Wayne; Thompson, Claudia; Suk, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paradigm of human risk assessment includes many variables that must be viewed collectively in order to improve human health and prevent chronic disease. The pathology of chronic diseases is complex, however, and may be influenced by exposure to environmental pollu-tants, a sedentary lifestyle, and poor dietary habits. Much of the emerging evidence suggests that nutrition can modulate the toxicity of environmental pollutants, which may alter human risks associated with toxicant...

  3. Assessment of reduction in perception of nuclear risk related to perception of environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a bibliographic research accomplished to evaluate the matter of reduction in risk perception, on people in general, that nuclear energy can show, for generation of electric power, face to perception of risk associated to environmental questions, as the global warming, from greenhouse effect, addressing the matter to the relevance of public acceptance for the development of new technologies. (author)

  4. Recommendations on the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: Effect characterization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, H.; Boucard, T.; Garric, J.; Jensen, J.; Parrott, J.; Pery, A.; Rombke, J.; Straub, J.O.; Hutchinson, T.H.; Sanchez-Arguello, P.; Wennmalm, A.; Duis, K.

    2010-01-01

    The effects testing of pharmaceuticals consists of a tiered investigation of ecotoxicological endpoints. However, effects testing has to be performed only when the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pharmaceuticals are above certain action limits. To study the appropriateness of these

  5. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. - Highlights: • Growing need to develop new resources for the evaluation of the environmental status. • Identification of gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination. • Employment of genomics to evaluate the environmental status of Venice lagoon areas. • Hurdles and future outlooks of genomic tools in environmental risk assessment. - Genomics in risk assessment of Venice lagoon

  6. Integrated approach of environmental impact and risk assessment of Rosia Montana Mining Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefănescu, Lucrina; Robu, Brînduşa Mihaela; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact assessment of mining sites represents nowadays a large interest topic in Romania. Historical pollution in the Rosia Montana mining area of Romania caused extensive damage to environmental media. This paper has two goals: to investigate the environmental pollution induced by mining activities in the Rosia Montana area and to quantify the environmental impacts and associated risks by means of an integrated approach. Thus, a new method was developed and applied for quantifying the impact of mining activities, taking account of the quality of environmental media in the mining area, and used as case study in the present paper. The associated risks are a function of the environmental impacts and the probability of their occurrence. The results show that the environmental impacts and quantified risks, based on quality indicators to characterize the environmental quality, are of a higher order, and thus measures for pollution remediation and control need to be considered in the investigated area. The conclusion drawn is that an integrated approach for the assessment of environmental impact and associated risks is a valuable and more objective method, and is an important tool that can be applied in the decision-making process for national authorities in the prioritization of emergency action.

  7. Analytical Methods for Environmental Risk Assessment of Acid Sulfate Soils: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of acid sulfate soil risk is an important step for acid sulfate soil management and its reliability depends very much on the suitability and accuracy of various analytical methods for estimating sulfide-derived potential acidity, actual acidity and acid-neutralizing capacity in acid sulfate soils. This paper critically reviews various analytical methods that are currently used for determination of the above parameters, as well as their implications for environmental risk assessment of acid sulfate soils.

  8. The Role of Cumulative Risk Assessment in Decisions about Environmental Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Sexton; Linder, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    There is strong presumptive evidence that people living in poverty and certain racial and ethnic groups bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk. Many have argued that conducting formal assessments of the health risk experienced by affected communities is both unnecessary and counterproductive—that instead of analyzing the situation our efforts should be devoted to fixing obvious problems and rectifying observable wrongs. We contend that formal assessment of cumulative heal...

  9. Analysis of risk assessment and risk management processes in the derivation of maximum levels for environmental contaminants in food

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Klaus; Ollroge, Inga; Clauberg, Martin; Schuhmacher-Wolz, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Environmental contaminants are substances that originate from diffuse sources and may appear in foods based on their ubiquitous presence in the environment. This paper analyses how maximum levels for environmental contaminants in food were derived by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, by the European Union and by national authorities (USA, Germany). Both the risk assessment process (derivation of tolerable intake values and intake assessment by scientific bodies) and the r...

  10. Microbial pesticides [data requirements for environmental risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; Linders JBHJ; CSR

    1997-01-01

    The market for microbial pesticides is, though slowly, expanding. Therefore more research with these pesticides will be carried out in the near future, not only for agronomical and economical, but also for environmental reasons. As more chemical pesticides are going to be banned, microbial pesticid

  11. Environmental risk assessment : handbook for pesticide registration in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, F.M.; Qu, M.; Piao, X.; Valk, van de H.; Tao, C.

    2014-01-01

    The handbook focusses on environmental and beneficial animals. Aquatic ecosystems, birds, honeybees, silkworms end groundwater are selected as protection goals and for each of the protection the following three questions were answered: What do we want to protect? Where do we want to protect? How str

  12. Application of probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Jonatas F.C. da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: jonatasfmata@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi, occurred in Japan in 2011, brought reflections, worldwide, on the management of nuclear and environmental licensing processes of existing nuclear reactors. One of the key lessons learned in this matter, is that the studies of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Severe Accidents are becoming essential, even in the early stage of a nuclear development project. In Brazil, Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, conducts the nuclear licensing. The organism responsible for the environmental licensing is Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, IBAMA. In the scope of the licensing processes of these two institutions, the safety analysis is essentially deterministic, complemented by probabilistic studies. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is the study performed to evaluate the behavior of the nuclear reactor in a sequence of events that may lead to the melting of its core. It includes both probability and consequence estimation of these events, which are called Severe Accidents, allowing to obtain the risk assessment of the plant. Thus, the possible shortcomings in the design of systems are identified, providing basis for safety assessment and improving safety. During the environmental licensing, a Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA), including probabilistic evaluations, is required in order to support the development of the Risk Analysis Study, the Risk Management Program and the Emergency Plan. This article aims to provide an overview of probabilistic risk assessment methodologies and their applications in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil. (author)

  13. U.S. EPA Authority to Use Cumulative Risk Assessments in Environmental Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Rosenbaum

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, in its decision-making, the U.S. EPA has evaluated the effects and risks associated with a single pollutant in a single exposure medium. In reality, people are exposed to mixtures of pollutants or to the same pollutant through a variety of media, including the air, water, and food. It is now more recognized than before that environmental exposure to pollutants occurs via multiple exposure routes and pathways, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Moreover, chemical, biologic, radiologic, physical, and psychologic stressors are all acknowledged as affecting human health. Although many EPA offices attempt to consider cumulative risk assessment and cumulative effects in various ways, there is no Agency-wide policy for considering these risks and the effects of exposure to these risks when making environmental decisions. This article examines how U.S. courts might assess EPA’s general authority and discretion to use cumulative risk assessment as the basis for developing data in support of environmental decision-making, and how courts might assess the validity of a cumulative risk assessment methodology itself.

  14. Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  15. Methodology for environmental risk assessment associated with the use of veterinary medicinal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Valentina Tihulca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risk assessment (ERA is mandatory for all new applications for centralized marketing authorization or national regardless of their legal basis. ERA aims to protect the environment. Risk assessment has two phases of veterinary product evaluation possible role of exposure and its effects. Phase I of the ERA isbased on filling a decision tree with 19 questions. If the answers to these questions do not stop the assessment at this stage then is advancing to Phase II. It uses a two stage approach stage A and stage B. The first stage, stage A, studies using simple, less expensive studies. I f the assessment is not complete, then is appealed to Step B to drill ERA. If there is still a risk indicator after filling and assessment in stage B, then, to mitigate risk, is recommended the file discussing and of the proposals for additional data.

  16. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With China’s rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China’s environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. - This paper reviews the current situation of industrial chemical management in China, and discusses the application of risk assessment and further research needs in this field.

  17. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Lebret

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder p...

  18. Oil spill environmental risk assessment of stationary sources in offshore zones (Innovating a mathematical model)

    OpenAIRE

    Razavian, Fateme

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, risks arising from the rapid development of oil and gas industries are significantly increasing. As a result, one of the main concerns of either industrial or environmental managers is the identification and assessment of such risks in order to develop and maintain appropriate proactive measures. Oil spill from stationary sources in offshore zones is one of the accidents resulting in several adverse impacts on marine ecosystems. Considering a site's current situation and relevant re...

  19. Relevance of Crop Biology for Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Akinbo, Olalekan; Hancock, James F.; Makinde, Diran

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the crop biology of economic crops in Africa is needed for regulators to accurately review dossiers and conduct comprehensive environmental risk assessments (ERAs). This information allows regulators to decide whether biotech crops present a risk to biodiversity, since crossing between domesticated crops and their wild relatives could affect the adaptations of the wild species. The criteria that should be used in the evaluation of African crops for ERA include growth habit, ce...

  20. Stakeholders' perspective on ecological modeling in environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; Meli, Mattia; Thit, Amalie;

    2013-01-01

    The paper closely examines the role of mechanistic effect models (e.g., population models) in the European environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides. We studied perspectives of three stakeholder groups on population modeling in ERA of pesticides. Forty-three in-depth, semi-structured inte...

  1. Statistical aspects of environmental risk assessment of GM plants for effects on non-target organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous European guidance for environmental risk assessment of genetically-modified plants emphasized the concepts of statistical power but provided no explicit requirements for the provision of statistical power analyses. Similarly, whilst the need for good experimental designs was stressed, no m...

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 7. Environmental transport and consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consequence models have been designed to assess health and economic risks from potential accidents at nuclear power plants. These models have been applied to an ever increasing variety of problems with ever increasing demands to improve modeling capabilities and provide greater realism. This course discusses the environmental transport of postulated radiological releases and the elements and purpose of accident consequence evaluation

  3. Scientific Opinion on the environmental risk assessment of the apple snail for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health, (PLH); Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    At EFSA’s request, the Plant Health Panel (PLH) performed an environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the apple snail for the EU and validated the ERA approach presented in the PLH ERA guidance document. Improvements and suggestions for simplification of the ERA are provided. One service-providing uni

  4. Environmental risk assessment for pesticides in the atmosphere : The results of an international workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.; Bakker, D.J.; Voogt, P. de; Berg, F. van den; Dijk, H.F.G. van; Pul, W.A.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The Health Council of the Netherlands organised an international workshop on the fate of pesticides in the atmosphere and possible approaches for their regulatory environmental risk assessment. Approximately forty experts discussed what is currently known about the atmospheric fate of pesticides and

  5. The application of an ecological risk assessment approach to define environmental impact of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frameworks for assessing and managing environmental risks are normally organized in three different stages: 1) the problem formulation stage where the purpose of the assessment is determined, based on considerations for hazard identification and characterization, temporal and spatial scales, as well as levels of simplification and conservatism; 2) the assessment stage, where the most suitable methodology, including the exposure and effect analyses, is selected and employed, resulting in a characterization of the risk; and 3) the risk management stage involving methodologies to eliminate, mitigate and/or prevent environmental consequences. No international guidance is available on a methodology for assessments and management of environmental risks resulting from radioactive contaminants. Whereas the current ICRP system addresses both the problem formulation and assessment stages, it is not concerned with the environment per se, and the usefulness of the management principles (justification, optimization and dose limits) in environmental radiological protection is debatable. The present paper explores approaches, commonalties, differences and applicability of recent developed methodologies, notably the European Commission funded FASSET (Framework for ASSessment of Environmental impacT) project, and the BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Furthermore, reference is given to the regulatory guidance in England and Wales to protect wildlife from ionizing radiation. The paper considers, inter alia, the following elements: methods for selection of radionuclides, based on, e.g. toxicity, persistence, particle-reactivity, dispersion, and type of source; the need for generalizations, e.g. reference ecosystems, reference organisms and stylized dosimetric models, and the applicability of probabilistic approaches; and the selection of biological effects, covering the range from acute to chronic effects. (author)

  6. Critical analysis of frameworks and approaches to assess the environmental risks of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Linkov, Igor; Hansen, Steffen Foss;

    qualitative and quantitative data. We also find that many of the frameworks and approaches may be adapted for iterative or adaptive elements and timely decision making if needed, although these criteria were not inherently embedded in many of the strategies based on their current format. Furthermore, most...... Email: kdg@env.dtu.dk Scientists, organizations, governments, and policy-makers are currently involved in reviewing, adapting, and formulating risk assessment frameworks and strategies to understand and assess the potential environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (NM). It is becoming...... and approaches which have been developed or proposed by large organizations or regulatory bodies for NM. These frameworks and approaches were evaluated and assessed based on a select number of criteria which have been previously proposed as important parameters for inclusion in successful risk assessment...

  7. An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Oliver Straub

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An environmental risk assessment (ERA for the aquatic compartment in Europe from human use was developed for the old antibiotic Trimethoprim (TMP, comparing exposure and effects. The exposure assessment is based on European risk assessment default values on one hand and is refined with documented human use figures in Western Europe from IMS Health and measured removal in wastewater treatment on the other. The resulting predicted environmental concentrations (PECs are compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs from Europe, based on a large dataset incorporating more than 1800 single MECs. On the effects side, available chronic ecotoxicity data from the literature were complemented by additional, new chronic results for fish and other organisms. Based on these data, chronic-based deterministic predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs were derived as well as two different probabilistic PNEC ranges. The ERA compares surface water PECs and MECs with aquatic PNECs for TMP. Based on all the risk characterization ratios (PEC÷PNEC as well as MEC÷PNEC and risk graphs, there is no significant risk to surface waters.

  8. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. PMID:24161465

  9. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  11. Assessment of transportation risk for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future management of radioactive and hazardous waste at the facilities of the DOE complex. The alternatives involve facilities to be used for treatment, storage, and disposal of various wastes generated from DOE environmental restoration activities and waste management operations. The evaluation includes five types of waste (four types of radioactive waste plus hazardous waste), 49 sites, and numerous cases associated with each alternative for waste management. In general, the alternatives are evaluated independently for each type of waste and reflect decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches. Transportation of waste materials is an integral component of the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The estimated impact on human health that is associated with various waste transportation activities is an important component of a complete appraisal of the alternatives. The transportation risk assessment performed for the EM PEIS is designed to ensure through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful and consistent. Among other tasks, Argonne National Laboratory is providing technical assistance to the EM PEIS on transportation risk assessment. The objective is to perform a human health risk assessment for each type of waste relative to the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The transportation risk assessed is part of the overall impacts being analyzed for the EM PEIS to determine the safest, most environmentally and economically sound manner in which to satisfy requirements for waste management in the coming decades

  12. Assessment of the health impact of an environmental pollution and quantitative assessment of health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report made by a working group is written for experts in health risk assessment or for professionals involved in risk management. It proposes a methodological and conceptual framework which could build a unified approach to a quantitative assessment of health risks. In the first part, under the form of questions and answers, it defines the health impact, describes how to assess the excess of individual risk and the related hypothesis, how to pass from the excess of individual risk to the health impact, how to express the results of an health impact calculation, how to take the lack of knowledge into account at the different steps of this calculation, what is the significance of the result of such a calculation, and how useful an health impact assessment can be. The second part proposes a more detailed presentation of the scientific background for the health impact calculation with its indicators, its uncertainties, its practice in other countries, its relevance, and its fields of application. Then, after a comment of the dose-response relationship, it reports the scientific validity of the assessment of a number of cases

  13. Environmental risk assessment of combined effects in aquatic ecotoxicology: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jonny; Petersen, Karina; Song, You; Ruus, Anders; Grung, Merete; Bakke, Torgeir; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-05-01

    Environmental regulatory edicts within the EU, such as the regulatory framework for chemicals REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), the Water Framework Directive (WFD), and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) focus mainly on toxicity assessment of individual chemicals although the effect of contaminant mixtures is a matter of increasing concern. This discussion paper provides an overview of the field of combined effects in aquatic ecotoxicology and addresses some of the major challenges related to assessment of combined effects in connection with environmental risk assessment (ERA) and regulation. Potentials and obstacles related to different experimental, modelling and predictive ERA approaches are described. On-going ERA guideline and manual developments in Europe aiming to incorporate combined effects of contaminants, the use of different experimental approaches for providing combined effect data, the involvement of biomarkers to characterize Mode of Action and toxicity pathways and efforts to identify relevant risk scenarios related to combined effects are discussed.

  14. Assessing and managing health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing awareness that it is necessary to identify, assess, and manage the risks of energy and other complex industrial activities in order to minimize their potential to harm public health and the environment. Therefore, quantitative risk analysis with emphasis on risk management has become an important aspect in high level decision making for regulation in developed and developing countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have initiated a project to promote the use of risk assessment and risk management in environmental health and safety decision making throughout the world. A meeting was held in Paris, France on October 13-17, 1986. The purpose of the meeting was to: a) Discuss the state of the art of national and international experience in conducting case studies in the field of assessing and managing industrial risks from energy and other complex industrial systems either at the plant level or in highly industrialized areas within a country; b) Present and discuss planned regional risk management case studies within a country or international research projects on risk management to be implemented in the future; and c) Review the Project Document on ''Assessing, Controlling, and Managing Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems''. The full texts, together with abstracts, of the papers given at the meeting are presented. The summary reviews briefly some of the major points that arose in papers or in the ensuing discussions. Where a consensus view resulted, conclusions were drawn. Major differences of opinion are also noted

  15. SYMBIOSE: A modeling and simulation platform for environmental chemical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental systems are considered among the most complex ones because they involve a large number of diverse components, interactions, scale issues, spatial heterogeneity and significant sources of uncertainty. An Environmental Chemical Risk Assessment (ECRA) require therefore the integration of a wide range of data and modeling approaches, while accounting for sources and propagation of uncertainties in the system. Further, the level of detail to be achieved in an assessment depends mainly on environmental management objectives and the difficulty of adequately describing exposure, toxicity and other properties of the chemicals with site-specific data. This can range from simplistic conservative analyses to more realistic spatiotemporal modeling approaches. As a consequence, there is a pressing need for integrated, flexible (and user-friendly) tools that could adapt to this shifting and expanding assessment context. The SYMBIOSE project aims at developing such a modeling and simulation platform, for assessing the fate, transport and effects of chemicals - radionuclides and heavy metals, mainly - on humans and biota, in a multi-media environment. The various aspects of an environmental chemical risk assessment process, and existing relationships between them, are first revisited in a comprehensive way with emphasis on valuable modeling techniques. The modeling approach that will be implemented in the platform is then described through keystone aspects such as conceptual, mathematical and spatial modeling aspects. Finally, some key ideas about the object-oriented software architecture that is foreseen are presented. (author)

  16. A regional approach to the environmental risk assessment in the Campania region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minolfi, Giulia; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment and analysis has a crucial role for guaranteeing the safety of the population, especially in intensive urbanized and industrialized areas, such as the Campania region (Italy). In Italy, since 2006, the human health risk assessment has become mandatory for contaminated soil and waters at contaminated sites. While traditional risk assessment procedures are usually run at site specific level (brownfields), with this work we would like to introduce a freshly developed method to assess risks at regional level by means of GIS, considering the hazard due to the presence in the environment of a contaminated media, the land use variability and the actual distribution of the population. 3535 top soils were collected across the whole Campania region (Italy) with a sampling density of 1 sample/4 km2. Samples were analyzed at ACME Analytical Lab. Ltd (Vancouver, Canada), to determine the concentration of 52 elements, with a combined methods of ICP-MS and ICP-ES following an aqua regia digestion. After a detailed statistical data analysis and geochemical mapping, we reclassified the interpolated maps of some potentially toxic elements (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn), in accordance with the Italian environmental law (D.Lgs 152/2006), on the base of the trigger and action limits (CSC) for human safety established by this latter. The obtained maps were summed up in the GIS environment in order to get a cumulative map of the potential hazard for the topsoils of Campania region. Considering that environmental risk for the population is strongly influenced by the exposure pathways followed by contaminants to reach the human target, in the case of Campania region we evaluated as relevant pathways both the soil/dust and food ingestion. Furthermore to consider the influence of the land use in the onset of the risk, each land use type was associated with a specific value of a Land Use Risk Coefficient (LURC) which is also dependent on

  17. Scientific Opinion on the environmental risk assessment of the apple snail for the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At EFSA’s request, the Plant Health Panel (PLH performed an environmental risk assessment (ERA of the apple snail for the EU and validated the ERA approach presented in the PLH ERA guidance document. Improvements and suggestions for simplification of the ERA are provided. One service-providing unit—shallow fresh water areas—was identified for this ERA. The effects of resistance, resilience and management on snail population dynamics in the short (5 years and the long term (30 years were estimated. In line with the PLH ERA guidance rating system, expert judgement was used to evaluate separately the impacts on (i ecosystem traits, (ii ecosystem services and (iii biodiversity components. Snail biomass values were predicted to be higher in the short term than in the long term. For ecosystem services, moderate risk was estimated for genetic resources, climate regulation, pest and disease regulation and pollination in both the short and long term; for food, risk was assessed as moderate in the short term and major in the long term; for water and erosion regulation, risk was assessed as major both in the short term and in the long term; for fresh water, risk was assessed as massive both in the short term and in the long term; and for nutrient cycling and photosynthesis and primary production of macrophytes, risk was assessed as massive in the short term and as major in the long term. For biodiversity components, risk for genetic diversity and native species diversity was estimated as major in both the short and the long term; risk for native habitats was assessed massive in the short term and major in the long term; and for threatened species and habitats of high conservation value, risk was determined as massive in both the short and the long term.

  18. Environmental health risk assessment of ambient lead levels in Lisbon, Portugal: A full chain study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casimiro, E.; Philippe Ciffroy, P.; Serpa, P.;

    2011-01-01

    to calculate the Pb levels in the various body systems. Our results showed a low health risk from Pb exposures. It also identified that ingestion of leafy vegetables (i.e. lettuce, cabbage, and spinach) and fruits contribute the most to total Pb blood levels. This full chain assessment approach of the 2FUN......The multi-causality interactions between environment and health are complex and call for an integrated multidisciplinary study approach. Emerging computational toxicology tools that link toxicology, chemistry, environmental sciences, biostatistics, and computer sciences are proving to be very...... useful for integrated full-chain human health risk assessments. In this study we use a newly developed computational tool – the 2FUN player to conduct a full-chain assessment combining measured ambient air lead concentrations with multi-media modelling and PBPK simulations to estimate the health risks...

  19. An assessment methodology of environmental risks associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major environmental concerns associated with the projected increase in nuclear power generation is the treatment and storage or disposal of radioactive wastes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in collaboration with the University of New Mexico has been developing a detailed assessment methodology of both the short-term as well as long-term quantitative risks on the environment resulting from the release of radionuclides during all phases of radioactive waste management operations. This past year a comprehensive model has been developed for the public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of high-level and transuranic waste in geological formations. Parametric studies have been performed with this model for various geological disposal media and for waste in different forms. EPA has planned to utilize these parametric risk calculations to translate probabilities and consequences of risk occurrences into a cost-effectiveness perspective for decision-making purposes. This comprehensive model has consisted of a release or fault tree model, an environmental model, and an economic model. Fault trees have been constructed to provide the relationships between various geophysical, meteorological, and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material to the environment from waste repositories. The environmental model includes the transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, including a determination of pathways from environmental input concentrations to radiation dose to man. Finally, the economic results are used to compare and assess the various disposal concepts as a basis for formulating policy decisions. Implementation of this assessment methodology is possible for a whole range of both radioactive as well as non-radioactive hazardous materials which require perpetual care. Further, the output will be used by EPA in the short-term to develop general environmental standards

  20. Oil and gas property transfers: Analyzing the environmental risk through the environmental site assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superfund Act made anyone buying contaminated real estate liable for cleanup costs whether they know about the contamination or contributed to the contamination. In 1986, SARA amended the Superfund Act to include a provision known as the ''Innocent Landowner Defense.'' This provision created a defense for purchasers of contaminated property who did not contribute to the contamination and had no reason to believe that the property was contaminated at the time of the real estate transfer. SARA allows the purchasers and lenders to perform an environmental assessment using ''due diligence'' to identify contamination problems existing at a site. Since the passing of SARA, the environmental site assessment (ESA) process has become commonplace during the transfer of commercial real estate. Since the introduction of SARA, many professional associations, governmental agencies, and proposed federal legislation have struggled to produce a standard for conducting Phase 1 ESAs. Only recently has a standard been produced. Until recently, the domestic oil and gas industry has been relatively unconcerned about the Superfund liability issues. This approach was created by Congress's decision in 1980 to temporarily exempt the majority of oil and gas exploration and production wastes from federal hazardous waste rulings. However, new stringent rules governing oil and gas waste management practices are being considered by federal and state regulatory agencies. Based upon this knowledge and the awakening of public awareness, the use of ESAs for oil and gas transactions is increasing

  1. 78 FR 47272 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ...\\ published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, ] (77 FR 41354-41355, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0020), APHIS... petition. \\1\\ On March 6, 2012, APHIS published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment...

  2. Environmental toxicology and risk assessment: Standardization of biomarkers for endocrine disruption and environmental assessment: Eighth volume. Special technical publication 1364

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshel, D.S.; Black, M.C.; Harrass, M.C. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    This conference was held April 20--22, 1998 in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on biological markers in toxicology and risk assessment, including endocrine disrupter screening assays. Attention is focused on the following: aquatic toxicology; behavioral toxicology; biochemical indicators; developmental indicators; endocrine indicators; biodegradation and fate of chemicals; quality assurance and quality control within laboratory and field studies; risk assessment and communication, and harmonization of standards development. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation hormesis hypothesis is discussed claiming that low dose ionizing radiation shows positive biological effects. The hypothesis could not be demonstrably proved. In the last decade, new disciplines have been developing, such as risk assessment and risk management that, on the basis of proven results and the consideration of all circumstances quantitatively assess and test possible risks. (M.D.). 1 fig

  4. Point process models in asthma attacks for assessing environmental risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kamakura, T; Yanagimoto, T

    1985-01-01

    Point process models are reviewed and discussed for assessing the effects of environmental risk factors on asthma attacks. It is pointed out that the logit model and proportional intensity model are useful for analyzing the data based on the diaries recorded consecutively during several months or during a few years. Some covariates that seems to influence upon asthmatics are explored using these models. Further work on estimating the smoothed base-line intensity function is briefly discussed ...

  5. DNA Barcoding Simplifies Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops in Biodiverse Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Nzeduru, Chinyere V.; Sandra Ronca; Wilkinson, Mike J.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM) crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs) represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs) used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive li...

  6. Selection of bee species for environmental risk assessment of GM cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sílvia Soares Pires; Fernando Amaral Silveira; Carolina Ferreira Cardoso; Edison Ryotii Sujii; Débora Pires Paula; Eliana Maria Gouveira Fontes; Joseane Padilha da Silva; Sandra Maria Morais Rodrigues; David Alan Andow

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to list potential candidate bee species for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) cotton and to identify the most suited bee species for this task, according to their abundance and geographical distribution. Field inventories of bee on cotton flowers were performed in the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso, and in Distrito Federal, Brazil. During a 344 hour sampling, 3,470 bees from 74 species were recovered, at eight sites. Apis mellifer...

  7. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  8. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William;

    2009-01-01

    States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United...

  9. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder perspectives and differences in impact indicators that emanate from these different fields and paradigms.

  10. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential societal benefits of the causes of the stressors. This paper emphasises some differences and difficulties in the integration across professional paradigms and scientific fields, across stakeholder perspectives and differences in impact indicators that emanate from these different fields and paradigms. PMID:26703709

  11. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  12. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  13. Human health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from environmental matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Elom, Nwabueze

    2012-01-01

    In assessing human health risk of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), it is not the concentration of PTEs in the environmental matrices that is of greatest concern but the fraction that is absorbed into the body via the exposure pathways. The determination of this fraction (i.e. the bioaccessible fraction) through the application of bioaccessibility protocols is the focus of this work. The study investigated human health risk of PTEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) from oral ingestion of s...

  14. Assessing Environmental Risks for Established Invasive Weeds: Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica) and Yellow (L. vulgaris) Toadflax in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Robert K.D.; Sing, Sharlene E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental risk assessments characterizing potential environmental impacts of exotic weeds are more abundant and comprehensive for potential or new invaders than for widespread and well-established species such as Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica [L.] Mill.) and yellow (L. vulgaris Mill.) toadflax. Specific effects evaluated in our assessment of environmental risks posed by yellow and Dalmatian toadflax included competitive displacement of other plant species, reservoirs of plant disease, anim...

  15. Pollution characteristics and environmental risk assessment of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiangji; Gao, Shixiang; Shan, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    Scientific interest in pollution from antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during recent years. However, there have been few studies on the vertical exposure characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in different exposure matrices from different livestock farms. This study explores the distribution and migration of antibiotics from feed to manure, from manure to soil, and from soil to vegetables, by investigating the exposure level of typical antibiotics in feed, manure, soil, vegetables, water, fish, and pork in livestock farms. A screening environmental risk assessment was conducted to identify the hazardous potential of veterinary antibiotics from livestock farms in southeast China. The results show that adding antibiotics to drinking water as well as the excessive use of antibiotic feed additives may become the major source of antibiotics pollution in livestock farms. Physical and chemical properties significantly affect the distribution and migration of various antibiotics from manure to soil and from soil to plant. Simple migration models can predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil and plants. The environmental risk assessment results show that more attention should be paid to the terrestrial eco-risk of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin, and to the aquatic eco-risk of chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. This is the first systematic analysis of the vertical pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in southeast China. It also identifies the ecological and human health risk of veterinary antibiotics.

  16. Ecological Recovery Potential of Freshwater Organisms: Consequences for Environmental Risk Assessment of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergs, Andre; Classen, Silke; Strauss, Tido; Ottermanns, Richard; Brock, Theo C M; Ratte, Hans Toni; Hommen, Udo; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants released into the in the environment may have adverse effects on (non-target) species, populations and communities. The return of a stressed system to its pre-disturbance or other reference state, i.e. the ecological recovery, may depend on various factors related to the affected taxon, the ecosystem of concern and the type of stressor with consequences for the assessment and management of risks associated with chemical contaminants. Whereas the effects caused by short-term exposure might be acceptable to some extent, the conditions under which ecological recovery can serve as a decision criterion in the environmental risk assessment of chemical stressors remains to be evaluated. For a generic consideration of recovery in the risk assessment of chemicals, we reviewed case studies of natural and artificial aquatic systems and evaluate five aspects that might cause variability in population recovery time: (1) taxonomic differences and life-history variability, (2) factors related to ecosystem type and community processes, (3) type of disturbance, (4) comparison of field and semi-field studies, and (5) effect magnitude, i.e., the decline in population size following disturbance. We discuss our findings with regard to both retrospective assessments and prospective risk assessment.

  17. From chemical risk assessment to environmental resources management: the challenge for mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Skolout, John W F; Oates, Christopher J; Plant, Jane A

    2013-11-01

    On top of significant improvements and progress made through science and engineering in the last century to increase efficiency and reduce impacts of mining to the environment, risk assessment has an important role to play in further reducing such impacts and preventing and mitigating risks. This paper reflects on how risk assessment can improve planning, monitoring and management in mining and mineral processing operations focusing on the importance of better understanding source-pathway-receptor linkages for all stages of mining. However, in light of the ever-growing consumption and demand for raw materials from mining, the need to manage environmental resources more sustainably is becoming increasingly important. The paper therefore assesses how mining can form an integral part of wider sustainable resources management, with the need for re-assessing the potential of mining in the context of sustainable management of natural capital, and with a renewed focus on its the role from a systems perspective. The need for understanding demand and pressure on resources, followed by appropriate pricing that is inclusive of all environmental costs, with new opportunities for mining in the wastes we generate, is also discussed. Findings demonstrate the need for a life cycle perspective in closing the loop between mining, production, consumption and waste generation as the way forward.

  18. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  19. Linking environmental risk assessment and communication: An experiment in co-evolving scientific and social knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffy, E.A.; Booth, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Dissemination of information to decision-makers and enhanced methods of public participation are often put forward as antidotes to a perceived disconnect between risk assessment and risk communication in the public domain. However, mechanisms that support both the provision of routine, timely and relevant technical knowledge to the public and meaningful opportunities for public participation in the evaluation and management of risk are few. We argue for the need to re-conceptualise the institutional context in which risk research and communication occur as one in which scientific knowledge and public understanding are co-evolutionary instead of independent or sequential. Here, we report on an experiment to promote coevolution of environmental risk assessment and risk communication through the instrumental use of a web-based platform that dynamically links expert and public discourses through common information sources, linked scenario evaluations, and opportunities for iterative dialogue. On the basis of technical feasibility, research value and public communication capacity, we conclude that there is potential for further refinement of the methodologies presented here. Copyright ?? 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  20. Using a risk assessment approach to handle 'hot spot' remediation in an environmentally-sensitive habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of different approaches have been used to address site restoration following an accidental discharge or spill. Removal of all contamination with subsequent site restoration has been a favored approach. The authors' presentation will focus on a case study where a risk assessment approach was used to establish the criteria for is the restoration. Waste oil from a gasoline service station had leaked, over time, into a swale system in an ecologically-sensitive coastal forested habitat. The initial regulatory recommendation was to excavate all soils and restore the area. Their initial investigations revealed that only a limited area was heavily contaminated, predominantly with paraffinic hydrocarbons. They used a risk assessment approach coupled with sediment elutriate testing to demonstrate that leaving the lightly contaminated material in place would not present an environmental hazard from the waste oil, while causing less damage to the swale bed and forested area. Bioassay tests were conducted on sediments collected along the length of the swale from the areas with the highest remaining hydrocarbon concentrations using fathead minnow and Daphnia magna. The bioassay studies confirmed the results of the risk assessment which determined that no environmental toxicity would be expected from allowing lightly contaminated material to remain in-place at this site

  1. A comparison between integrated risk assessment and classical health/environmental assessment: Emerging beneficial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both humans and wildlife are exposed to various types of halogenated organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), typically old chemicals, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPM) and brominated flame retardants, some new chemicals, simultaneously. Classical risk assessment has evaluated health and ecological risks independently by experts from different disciplines. Taking into considerations the recent concerns about endocrine disrupting chemicals and the progress of research in related areas, we integrated and assessed data on exposure and potential effects in humans and wildlife. Comparisons were made for organ concentrations, body burdens of several organochlorine compounds (OCs), metabolic capacities between humans and various wildlife. When we integrate the knowledge on effects and exposure in humans and in wildlife, new insights were suggested about similarities and/or differences in potential effects among various human populations living on different foods and having different body burdens. Combining existing information with emerging knowledge of mechanisms of actions on endocrine disrupting chemicals after exposure to above chemicals during early developmental stages will further elucidate potential risks from exposure to those chemicals

  2. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated.

  3. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated

  4. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed

  5. A framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment of systemic risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, David J

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods of risk assessment have provided good service in support of policy, mainly in relation to standard setting and regulation of hazardous chemicals or practices. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that many of the risks facing society are systemic in nature - complex risks, set within wider social, economic and environmental contexts. Reflecting this, policy-making too has become more wide-ranging in scope, more collaborative and more precautionary in approach. In order to inform such policies, more integrated methods of assessment are needed. Based on work undertaken in two large EU-funded projects (INTARESE and HEIMTSA), this paper reviews the range of approaches to assessment now in used, proposes a framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment (both as a basis for bringing together and choosing between different methods of assessment, and extending these to more complex problems), and discusses some of the challenges involved in conducting integrated assessments to support policy. Integrated environmental health impact assessment is defined as a means of assessing health-related problems deriving from the environment, and health-related impacts of policies and other interventions that affect the environment, in ways that take account of the complexities, interdependencies and uncertainties of the real world. As such, it depends heavily on how issues are selected and framed, and implies the involvement of stakeholders both in issue-framing and design of the assessment, and to help interpret and evaluate the results. It is also a comparative process, which involves evaluating and comparing different scenarios. It consequently requires the ability to model the way in which the influences of exogenous factors, such as policies or other interventions, feed through the environment to affect health. Major challenges thus arise. Chief amongst these are the difficulties in ensuring effective stakeholder participation, in

  6. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Huang; Meiting Ju; Juan Yang; Xiaogang Tian; Chaofeng Shao

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was develope...

  7. Contribution o the assessment of the environmental risk associated with uranium releases in the Ritord drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the application to aquatic environments and more particularly to the case of a drainage basin of methods of assessment of the environmental risk presented in another report. The objective is to determine the environmental risk related to releases of uranium from ancient mining sites. The method is applied to available data to diagnose a possible chemical and/or radiological risk due to these releases. Should the occasion occurs, probabilistic approaches are used to refine the assessment of the possible risk identified by the screening. After a presentation of the context, the different screening steps are reported: methodology (exposure analysis, effect analysis, and risk characterization), deterministic characterization of the chronic radiological risk, deterministic characterization of the chronic chemical risk. The next part reports the probabilistic assessment of the chemical or radiological risk. In conclusion, the authors indicate actions to be performed to better analyse exposures, and desirable actions to better analyse effects

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT UNDER ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARD AND SAFETY-FIRST CONSTRAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Intarapapong, Walaiporn; Hite, Diane; Renck, Ashley Wood

    2002-01-01

    The uncertainty weather condition could pose some challenge in achieving environmental target. In this study, we use a bioeconomic model to calculate the impacts of alternative management systems. Under different safety-first constraints on the levels of environmental runoff, obtaining from APEX, optimal net return of alternative cropping practices is estimated.

  9. A simplified method for quantitative assessment of the relative health and safety risk of environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, S.A.; Smith, T.H.; Peatross, R.G.; Stepan, I.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents a simplified method to assess the health and safety risk of Environmental Management activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The method applies to all types of Environmental Management activities including waste management, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning. The method is particularly useful for planning or tradeoff studies involving multiple conceptual options because it combines rapid evaluation with a quantitative approach. The method is also potentially applicable to risk assessments of activities other than DOE Environmental Management activities if rapid quantitative results are desired.

  10. Risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    International research suggests that using formalized risk assessment methods may improve the predictive validity of professionals' predictions of risk of future violence. This study presents data on forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a forensic unit in Denmark in year 2001-2002 (n=107...

  11. Environmental risk assessment of arsenic and fluoride in the Chaco Province, Argentina: research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhamer, Edgar E; Blanes, Patricia S; Osicka, Rosa M; Giménez, M Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The arsenic (As) and fluoride (F⁻) concentration in groundwater and potential adverse human health risk was investigated in the Central-West Region of the Chaco Province, northern Argentina. The mean concentration of As in shallow groundwater was 95 μg/L, where 76% of samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 10 μg/L, while in deep groundwater it was 90 μg/L, where 63% samples exceeded 10 μg/L. For As health risk assessment, the average daily dose, hazard quotient (HQ), and cancer risk were calculated. The values of HQ were found to be >1 in 77% of samples. This level of contamination is considered to constitute a high chronic risk compared with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. Further, a significant portion of the population has lifetime carcinogenic risk >10⁻⁴ and may suffer from cancer. A positive correlation was observed between As and F⁻ in groundwater. The Código Alimentario Argentino (CAA) suggested a limit of F⁻ in drinking water as low as 0.8 mg/L under tropical environmental conditions; however, in shallow (39%) and deep groundwater (32%), samples exceeded these values. Exposure to F⁻ was calculated and compared with the adequate intake of minimal safe level exposure dose of 0.05 mg/kg/d and it was noted that 42% of population may be at high risk of fluorosis. Chronic exposure to high As and F⁻ levels in this population represents a concern due to possible adverse health effects attributed to these elements.

  12. Assessing the environmental justice consequences of flood risk: a case study in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Marilyn C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Recent environmental justice (EJ) research has emphasized the need to analyze social inequities in the distribution of natural hazards such as hurricanes and floods, and examine intra-ethnic diversity in patterns of EJ. This study contributes to the emerging EJ scholarship on exposure to flooding and ethnic heterogeneity by analyzing the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population residing within coastal and inland flood risk zones in the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Florida—one of the most ethnically diverse MSAs in the U.S. and one of the most hurricane-prone areas in the world. We examine coastal and inland flood zones separately because of differences in amenities such as water views and beach access. Instead of treating the Hispanic population as a homogenous group, we disaggregate the Hispanic category into relevant country-of-origin subgroups. Inequities in flood risk exposure are statistically analyzed using socio-demographic variables derived from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2007-2011 American Community Survey estimates, and 100-year flood risk zones from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Social vulnerability is represented with two neighborhood deprivation indices called economic insecurity and instability. We also analyze the presence of seasonal/vacation homes and proximity to public beach access sites as water-related amenity variables. Logistic regression modeling is utilized to estimate the odds of neighborhood-level exposure to coastal and inland 100-year flood risks. Results indicate that neighborhoods with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Hispanic subgroups of Colombians and Puerto Ricans are exposed to inland flood risks in areas without water-related amenities, while Mexicans are inequitably exposed to coastal flood risks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of treating coastal and inland flood risks separately while controlling for water-related amenities, and

  13. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT BASED ON STAKEHOLDER’ QUALITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: A CASE OF MAPTAPHUT MUNICIPALITY, RAYONG PROVINVE, THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    JANMAIMOOL, Piyapong; Watanabe, Tsunemi

    2014-01-01

    Difference in risk judgments among stakeholders potentially contributes to barriers inenvironmental risk communication and management. This study had explored how each stakeholder judgedrisks associated with Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the area adjacent to Maptaphut industrial estatecomplex in Thailand, and proposed a guideline for sustainable environmental risk communication andmanagement by integrating stakeholders’ risk judgments. The study has three research objectives. The first...

  15. Environmental risk management for radiological accidents: integrating risk assessment and decision analysis for remediation at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsalo, Boris; Sullivan, Terrence; Didenko, Vladimir; Linkov, Igor

    2011-07-01

    The consequences of the Tohuku earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, and led to the release of radioactive materials into the environment. Although the full extent of the contamination is not currently known, the highly complex nature of the environmental contamination (radionuclides in water, soil, and agricultural produce) typical of nuclear accidents requires a detailed geospatial analysis of information with the ability to extrapolate across different scales with applications to risk assessment models and decision making support. This article briefly summarizes the approach used to inform risk-based land management and remediation decision making after the Chernobyl, Soviet Ukraine, accident in 1986. PMID:21608109

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOME COPPER BASED FUNGICIDES ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga GRĂDILĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data demonstrating the functionality of biological systems reconstituted with aquatic organisms developed under Good Laboratory Practice testing facility within Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection Bucharest for environmental risk assessment of four fungicides based on copper, according to Good Laboratory Practice requirements. For risk assessment, according to GLP were made the following steps: Good Laboratory Practice test facility was established, we have ensured adequate space for growth, acclimatization and testing for each test species, it was installed a complex water production instalation needed to perform tests, it was achieved control system for checking environmental conditions and have developed specific operating procedures that have been accredited according to Good Laboratory Practice.The results showed that biological systems model of the Good Laboratory Practice test facility in Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection meet the requirements of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines regarding GLP, and after testing copper-based fungicides in terms of acute toxicity Cyprinus carpio and to Daphnia magna revealed that three of them (copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide and copper sulphate showed ecological efficiency, ie low toxicity. Metallic copper based fungicides showed a higher toxicity, resulting in fish toxicity symptoms: sleep, sudden immersion, faded, weakness, swimming in spiral, lack of balance, breathing slow and cumbersome, spasms and mortality.

  17. Nuclear risk assessment for the Mars 2020 mission environmental impact statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Daniel James; Bignell, John L.; Jones, Christopher Andrew; Rohe, Daniel Peter; Flores, Gregg J.; Bartel, Timothy James; Gelbard, Fred; Le, San; Morrow, Charles.; Potter, Donald L.; Young, Larry W.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2020, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch a spacecraft as part of the Mars 2020 mission. One option for the rover on the proposed spacecraft uses a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to provide continuous electrical and thermal power for the mission. An alternative option being considered is a set of solar panels for electrical power with up to 80 Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for local component heating. Both the MMRTG and the LWRHUs use radioactive plutonium dioxide. NASA is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The EIS will include information on the risks of mission accidents to the general public and on-site workers at the launch complex. This Nuclear Risk Assessment (NRA) addresses the responses of the MMRTG or LWRHU options to potential accident and abort conditions during the launch opportunity for the Mars 2020 mission and the associated consequences. This information provides the technical basis for the radiological risks of both options for the EIS.

  18. Nuclear Risk Assessment for the Mars 2020 Mission Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Daniel J.; Bignell, John; Jones, Christopher A.; Rohe, Daniel P.; Flores, Gregg J.; Bartel, Timothy J.; Gelbard, Fred; Le, San; Morrow, Charles W.; Potter, Donald L.; Young, Larry W.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2020, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch a spacecraft as part of the Mars 2020 mission. One option for the rover on the proposed spacecraft uses a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to provide continuous electrical and thermal power for the mission. An alternative option being considered is a set of solar panels for electrical power with up to 80 Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for local component heating. Both the MMRTG and the LWRHUs use radioactive plutonium dioxide. NASA is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The EIS will include information on the risks of mission accidents to the general public and on-site workers at the launch complex. This Nuclear Risk Assessment (NRA) addresses the responses of the MMRTG or LWRHU options to potential accident and abort conditions during the launch opportunity for the Mars 2020 mission and the associated consequences. This information provides the technical basis for the radiological risks of both options for the EIS.

  19. Endogenous Risk and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Shogren, Jason F.; Crocker, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of endogenous risk implies that an individual can privately influence many of the hazards he or she confronts. This realization has profound impacts on environmental policy, which in the past has been driven by an assumption of exogenous risk. Three key interdependencies now come to the forefront and must be addressed explicitly by environmental managers. First, accepting the presence of endogenous risk means rejecting the traditional risk assessment-risk management bifurcation cu...

  20. Accurate measurements of {sup 210}Pb in industrial wastes for environmental radiation risk assessment purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonczyk, Michal; Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Lead {sup 210}Pb is a naturally occurring radioactive nuclide element of the uranium ({sup 238}U) radioactive series. It is produced as a result of the decay of so-called short-lived progenies of {sup 222}Rn, i.e. {sup 214}Po (99.98%) and {sup 214}Bi by {sup 219}Tl (0.02%). Activity concentration of lead {sup 210}Pb could vary independently from parent radionuclides due to its physical and chemical properties, especially, due to its half-life (T{sub 1/2} = 22,3 years). Hence, its behaviour in natural environment is very complex and difficult in forecasting. Lead {sup 210}Pb in substantial amount occurs in mining, gas and oil extraction industry wastes, which are deposited in natural environment very often. Due to lack of secular equilibrium proper radiation risk assessment requires accurate concentration of {sup 210}Pb in such materials. The laboratory measurements seem to be the only reliable method in environmental radioactivity monitoring. One of the methods is gamma-ray spectrometry, which is very fast and cost-effective method to determine {sup 210}Pb concentration. On the other hand, the self-attenuation of gamma ray from {sup 210}Pb (46,5 keV) is significant and not depends only on sample density as well the chemical composition (sample matrix) is crucial. Current work describes how the self-attenuation correction factors in the case of {sup 210}Pb concentration analysis in mining wastes are important when environmental radiation risk assessment is carried out. The measurements were done for such industrial wastes as mine sediments which contain significant amount of elements with high Z-number (Barium, Lead, etc.) Experimentally obtained correction factors range between 0.51-6.96 cm{sup 2}/g. Neglecting this factor can cause a significant error or underestimations in radiological risk assessment. (authors)

  1. A framework for techno-economic & environmental sustainability analysis by risk assessment for conceptual process evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Gernaey, Krist;

    2016-01-01

    The need to achieve a sustainable process performance has become increasingly important in order to keep a competitive advantage in the global markets. Development of comprehensive and systematic methods to accomplish this goal is the subject of this work. To this end, a multi-level framework...... for techno-economic and environmental sustainability analysis through risk assessment is proposed for the early-stage design and screening of conceptual process alternatives. The alternatives within the design space are analyzed following the framework’s work-flow, which targets the following: (i) quantify...... for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of sustainability at the decision-support level. Through the application of appropriate methods in a hierarchical manner, this tool leads to the identification of the potentially best and more sustainable solutions. Furthermore, the application of the framework...

  2. Environmental risk assessment of low density polyethylene unit using the method of failure mode and effect analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salati Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ninth olefin plan of Arya Sasol Petrochemical Company (A.S.P.C. is regarded the largest gas Olefin Unit located on Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (P.S.E.E.Z. Considering the importance of the petrochemical unit, its environmental assessment seems necessary to identify and reduce potential hazards. For this purpose, after determining the scope of the study area, identification and measurement of the environmental parameters, environmental risk assessment of the unit was carried out using Environment Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (EFMEA. Using the noted method, sources causing environmental risks were identified, rated and prioritized. Beside, the impacts of the environmental aspects derived from the unit activities as well as their consequences were also analyzed. Furthermore, the identified impacts were prioritized based on Risk Priority Number (RPN and severity level of the consequences imposed on the affected environment. After performing statistical calculations, it was found that the environmental aspects owing the risk priority number higher than 15 have a high level of risk. Results obtained from Low Density Polyethylene Unit revealed that the highest risk belongs to the emergency vent system with risk priority number equal to 48. It is occurred due to imperfect performance of the reactor safety system leading to the emissions of ethylene gas, particles, and radioactive steam as well as air and noise pollutions. Results derived from secondary assessment of the environmental aspects, through difference in calculated RPN and activities risk levels showed that employing modern methods and risk assessment are have remarkably reduced the severity of risk and consequently detracted the damages and losses incurred on the environment.

  3. Assessing farmers' risk attitudes based on economic, social, personal, and environmental sources of risk: evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines farmers' risk attitudes, obtained by responses to sources of risk, using an attitudinal scale approach. Economic, social, personal, and environmental sources of risk are considered in the measurement of risk attitudes. In addition, use of various types of expertise and information sources are included as risk management tools. Inferences are drawn from results of a survey mailed to a representative random sample of 500 farmers drawn from the population of medium to large f...

  4. Assessing Malaria Risks in Greater Mekong Subregion based on Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard; Soika, Valerii; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health s decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Socioeconomic factors that may influence malaria transmissions will also be incorporated into the predictive models.

  5. Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be ap...

  6. Environmental risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes: Methodology and database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a methodology and database for the assessment of environmental risks resulting from transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Discussion covers two situations: normal transportation operations and accident conditions. The methodology described includes the identification of the environmental pathways leading to radioactive exposure of humans and the health risks incurred. Databases include those for the radioactivity inventory, traffic accidents, population distribution, agricultural productivity, and meteorological data. Special situations are discussed for which regional considerations are needed for the risk assessment. 11 refs

  7. 76 FR 37770 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk... petition from the Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status for soybean designated as... to pose a plant pest risk. We are making available for public comment the Monsanto petition,...

  8. 76 FR 27303 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk... petition from the Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status for corn designated as... pose a plant pest risk. We are making available for public comment the Monsanto petition, our...

  9. Environmental risk assessment in an oil production station near a mangrove area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z' Graggen, M.; Moraes, R.; Ferreira, H.; Thomas, C. [Golder Associates, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, M.; Vaqueiro, R.L.C.; Sauerbronn, J.L.B. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Pedra Branca Station is an oil production area that pumps, stores and transfers crude oil from wells located near the station. It is located 2 km of the mouth of the Sao Paulo River, northeast Brazil, in a mangrove area of social, economical and environmental importance. During the past 30+ years of operation, the area has been contaminated with leaks and spills of crude oil from pipelines and storage tanks. The assessment aimed to verify if local conditions represent risk to maintenance workers at the Station, nearby residents that collect firewood and shellfish and that consume shellfish from the Site. Crab and oyster samples were collected and analyzed and a questionnaire concerning activities of workers and residents was administrated. Contaminants of potential concern included barium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons. Potential risks associated with soil/sediment ingestion, dermal contact with soil/sediment and ingestion of shellfish were evaluated. The study indicated that risks to maintenance worker and nearby residents due to exposure to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic substances present in soil, sediment, and shellfish were below limits considered acceptable to regulatory authorities. The evaluation provided scientific bases for decision making regarding the management of the contaminated area. (author)

  10. Towards an integrated environmental risk assessment of emissions from ships' propulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Julián; Durán-Grados, Vanesa; Hampel, Miriam; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Large ships, particularly container ships, tankers, bulk carriers and cruise ships are significant individual contributors to air pollution. The European Environment Agency recognizes that air pollution in Europe is a local, regional and transborder problem caused by the emission of specific pollutants, which either directly or through chemical reactions lead to negative impacts, such as damage to human health and ecosystems. In the Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament emissions from ships are mentioned explicitly in the list of pressures and impacts that should be reduced or minimized to maintain or obtain a good ecological status. While SOx and NOx contribute mainly to ocean and soil acidification and climate change, PM (particularly ultrafine particles in the range of nanoparticles) has the potential to act more directly on human and ecosystem health. Thus, in terms of risk assessment, one of the most dangerous atmospheric aerosols for environmental and human health is in the size range of nanoparticles. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out on the effects of the fraction that ends up in the water column and to which aquatic and sediment-dwelling organisms are exposed. Therefore, an integrated environmental risk assessment of the effects of emissions from oceangoing ships including the aquatic compartment is necessary. Research should focus on the quantitative and qualitative determination of pollutant emissions from ships and their distribution and fate. This will include the in situ measurement of emissions in ships in order to derive realistic emission factors, and the application of atmospheric and oceanographic transportation and chemistry models.

  11. Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals from Portuguese wastewaters: geographical and seasonal occurrence, removal and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Meisel, Leonor M; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence, fate, geographical and seasonal influence and environmental risk assessment of eleven of the most consumed pharmaceuticals in Portugal were studied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) influents and (WWI) and effluents (WWE). WWI and WWE samples, from two sampling campaigns (spring and summer), in 2013, were evaluated in 15 different WWTPs across the country, by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass detection (LC-MS-MS). Lipid regulators were the most frequently found in WWI and WWE (184.1 and 22.3mg/day/1000 inhab., respectively), followed by anti-inflammatories (1339.4 and 15.0mg/day/1000 inhab., respectively), and antibiotics (330.7 and 68.6 mg/day/1000 inhab., respectively). Anxiolytics were the least detected with 3.3 and 3.4 mg/day/1000 inhab. in WWI and WWE, respectively. The mass loads, both in WWI and WWE, were higher in summer than those found during the spring season, being remarkable the high values registered in a region where population triplicates in this time of the year. The mean removal efficiency achieved was of 94.5%, nonetheless, between the different therapeutic groups, as well as within each group, important variations in removal were observed, going from not eliminated to 100%. In the summer higher efficiencies were observed regarding lipid regulators and antibiotics. Furthermore, an important outcome was the evaluation, by means of risk quotients (RQs), of the potential ecotoxicological risk posed by the selected pharmaceuticals to different aquatic organisms, exposed to the effluents studied. Ciprofloxacin, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil, simvastatin and diclofenac showed RQs higher than one, being expected that these pharmaceuticals might pose a threat to the three trophic levels (algae, daphnids and fish) evaluated. These results highlight the importance of these monitoring studies, as required by the Directive 2013/39/EU, in order to minimize their aquatic environmental contamination

  12. Investigation of PPCPs in wastewater treatment plants in Greece: occurrence, removal and environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Christina I; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, an extensive study on the presence of eighteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Greece has been conducted. The study covered four sampling periods over 1-year, where samples (influents; effluents) from eight WWTPs of various cities in Greece were taken. All WWTPs investigated are equipped with conventional activated sludge treatment. A common pre-concentration step based on SPE was applied, followed by LC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS. Further confirmation of positive findings was accomplished by using LC coupled to a high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The results showed the occurrence of all target compounds in the wastewater samples with concentrations up to 96.65 μg/L. Paracetamol, caffeine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac and salicylic acid were the dominant compounds, while tolfenamic acid, fenofibrate and simvastatin were the less frequently detected compounds with concentrations in effluents below the LOQ. The removal efficiencies showed that many WWTPs were unable to effectively remove most of the PPCPs investigated. Finally, the study provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in wastewaters by means of the risk quotient (RQ). RQs were more than unity for various compounds in the effluents expressing possible threat for the aquatic environment. Triclosan was found to be the most critical compound in terms of contribution and environmental risk, concluding that it should be seriously considered as a candidate for regulatory monitoring and prioritization on a European scale on the basis of realistic PNECs. The results of the extensive monitoring study contributed to a better insight on PPCPs in Greece and their presence in influent and effluent wastewaters. Furthermore, the unequivocal identification of two transformation products of trimethoprim in real wastewaters by using the advantages of the LTQ Orbitrap capabilities

  13. Direct and inverse modelling for environmental risk assessment and emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penenko, V.; Baklanov, A.; Tsvetova, E.; Mahura, A.

    2009-04-01

    A concept of environmental modelling and its applications for Siberian regions are presented. The regions are considered both as sources and receptors of pollution as elements of the global climatic system. A methodology has been developed to build the combined methods of forward and inverse modelling for the problems of the air quality, environmental risk assessment and control. It is based on variational principles and methods of adjoint sensitivity theory. This allows obtaining the optimal numerical schemes and universal algorithm of the forward-inverse modelling. Following the concept, the functionals (describing the generalised characteristics of the processes, data, and models) are considered together with the basic model components. To combine all these elements in the frames of forward and inverse relations, we suppose that each of them may contain uncertainty. In this case, it is naturally to formulate a weak-constraint variational principle for the augmented functional which contains the model description in the form of integral identity and the cost functional including the total measure of all uncertainties. The stationary conditions for the augmented functional with respect to the variations its functional arguments define the mutually agreed structure of numerical schemes for forward and adjoint problems, and sensitivity relations. For quantitative risk assessment the following characteristics are useful: (i) values of goal functionals and their variations in a form of sensitivity relations; (ii) risk and sensitivity functions to the variations of the sources. It is convenient to take the risk function multiplied by the source function as a distributed risk measure. The variational technique provides the backward propagation of information, contained in the target functionals, to parameters and sources of the models through the sensitivity and uncertainty functions. This gives a base for realisation of the feedback algorithms and methods of control

  14. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazards has increased, and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade, causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing in frequency as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in flood-prone area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the undeniable effect of climate change is projected to strongly modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events at the local, regional and global scale. Within this context, the need for developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow one to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threatens different relevant receptors becomes urgent. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). This paper is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to appraise the risk posed by floods from a physical-environmental perspective. The methodology, developed within the recently completed FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. plain rivers, mountain torrents, urban and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from catchment to the urban scale). The FD compliant KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard

  15. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  16. Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes – application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, A. G.; García Alba, J.; Puente, A; Juanes, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitabi...

  17. An integrated environmental modeling framework for performing quantitative microbial risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standardized methods are often used to assess the likelihood of a human-health effect from exposure to a specified hazard, and inform opinions and decisions about risk management and communication. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is specifically adapted to detail potential human-heal...

  18. 76 FR 44891 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... in the Federal Register (76 FR 27303-27304, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0023) a notice\\1\\ advising the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk... Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status for corn designated as MON 87460, which...

  19. 78 FR 13303 - Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Register on December 5, 1997 (62 FR 64350-64351, Docket No. 97-052-2), APHIS announced our determination of... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Stine Seed Farm, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk... Health Inspection Service has prepared a preliminary decision regarding a request from Stine Seed...

  20. Non-coding RNAs in crop genetic modification: considerations and predictable environmental risk assessments (ERA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S V

    2013-09-01

    Of late non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs)-mediated gene silencing is an influential tool deliberately deployed to negatively regulate the expression of targeted genes. In addition to the widely employed small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing approach, other variants like artificial miRNA (amiRNA), miRNA mimics, and artificial transacting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) are being explored and successfully deployed in developing non-coding RNA-based genetically modified plants. The ncRNA-based gene manipulations are typified with mobile nature of silencing signals, interference from viral genome-derived suppressor proteins, and an obligation for meticulous computational analysis to prevaricate any inadvertent effects. In a broad sense, risk assessment inquiries for genetically modified plants based on the expression of ncRNAs are competently addressed by the environmental risk assessment (ERA) models, currently in vogue, designed for the first generation transgenic plants which are based on the expression of heterologous proteins. Nevertheless, transgenic plants functioning on the foundation of ncRNAs warrant due attention with respect to their unique attributes like off-target or non-target gene silencing effects, small RNAs (sRNAs) persistence, food and feed safety assessments, problems in detection and tracking of sRNAs in food, impact of ncRNAs in plant protection measures, effect of mutations etc. The role of recent developments in sequencing techniques like next generation sequencing (NGS) and the ERA paradigm of the different countries in vogue are also discussed in the context of ncRNA-based gene manipulations.

  1. Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) for Environmental Development and Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Amézquita, Alejandro; BACKHAUS Thomas; Borriello, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Collignon, Peter; Coors, Anja; Finley, Rita; Gaze, William H.; Heberer, Thomas; Lawrence, John R.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim; McEwen, Scott A.; Ryan, James J.; Schönfeld, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Background: Only recently has the environment been clearly implicated in the risk of antibiotic resistance to clinical outcome, but to date there have been few documented approaches to formally assess these risks. Objective: We examined possible approaches and sought to identify research needs to enable human health risk assessments (HHRA) that focus on the role of the environment in the failure of antibiotic treatment caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Methods: The authors participate...

  2. Population-based registries to assess environmental health risks and to evaluate public health measures

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Nearly a quarter of the global disease burden and premature mortality is expected to be caused by environmental exposures, and the environmental health burden in children is even larger. Among the most hazardous environmental risk factors are tobacco smoke and ambient air pollution. Also temperature extremes have been linked to different adverse health outcomes, which is a concern because of the expected increase in extreme weather events due to climate change. It is well accepted that prenat...

  3. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique

  4. Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Holly M., E-mail: mortensen.holly@epa.gov [Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, 109 TW Alexander Dr., Mailcode B205-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, US EPA, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Mail Code 8623P, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be applied to account for the lack of information about susceptibility. Defining genetic susceptibility in response to environmental chemicals across human populations is an area of interest in the NAS' new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessment. Data from high-throughput/high content (HT/HC), including -omics (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) technologies, have been integral to the identification and characterization of drug target and disease loci, and have been successfully utilized to inform the mechanism of action for numerous environmental chemicals. Large-scale population genotyping studies may help to characterize levels of variability across human populations at identified target loci implicated in response to environmental chemicals. By combining mechanistic data for a given environmental chemical with next generation sequencing data that provides human population variation information, one can begin to characterize differential susceptibility due to genetic variability to environmental chemicals within and across genetically heterogeneous human populations. The integration of such data sources will be informative to human health risk assessment.

  5. Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be applied to account for the lack of information about susceptibility. Defining genetic susceptibility in response to environmental chemicals across human populations is an area of interest in the NAS' new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessment. Data from high-throughput/high content (HT/HC), including -omics (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) technologies, have been integral to the identification and characterization of drug target and disease loci, and have been successfully utilized to inform the mechanism of action for numerous environmental chemicals. Large-scale population genotyping studies may help to characterize levels of variability across human populations at identified target loci implicated in response to environmental chemicals. By combining mechanistic data for a given environmental chemical with next generation sequencing data that provides human population variation information, one can begin to characterize differential susceptibility due to genetic variability to environmental chemicals within and across genetically heterogeneous human populations. The integration of such data sources will be informative to human health risk assessment

  6. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507 for cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2012-01-01

    The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize 1507 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Scientific Opinion updating the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on...

  7. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Backhaus, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Only recently has the environment been clearly implicated in the risk of antibiotic resistance to clinical outcome, but to date there have been few documented approaches to formally assess these risks. Objective: We examined possible approaches and sought to identify research needs to...

  8. Cultivation of the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum and validation of its use in marine toxicity testing for environmental risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, C.A.; Dubbeldam, M.; Feist, S.W.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    To study environmental risk assessment, echinoderms provide a useful model for ecotoxicological testing. However, limited knowledge of the life history of field collected heart urchins is a problem and the use of cultured urchins has been investigated here. The present study describes a culture meth

  9. Integration of environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials: a quantitative multi criteria approach for environmental decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, E; Talinli, I; Aydin, E

    2011-02-01

    Environmental management, for which environmental and human health risk assessment is the first stage, is a requirement for industries both before construction and during operation in order to sustain improved quality of life in the ecosystem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to propose an approach that integrates environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials in order to support environmental decision makers with quantitative and directive results. Analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy logic are used as tools to handle problems caused by complexity of environment and uncertain data. When the proposed approach is implemented to a scenario, it was concluded that it is possible to define risk sources with their risk classes and related membership degrees in that classes which enable the decision maker to decide which risk source has priority. In addition, they can easily point out and rank the factors contributing those risk sources owing to priority weights of them. As a result, environmental decision makers can use this approach while they are developing management alternatives for unfounded and on-going industrial plants using hazardous materials. PMID:21111481

  10. Environmental Risk Assessment of Produced Water Discharges on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, H.J.C.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The OSPAR Offshore Industry Committee (OIC) has decided, in its meeting of 2008, to evaluate the possibility of implementing a risk based approach towards produced water management. Currently, Norway has made most progress in this field as it has fully implemented the Environmental Impact Factor as the basis of their biannual reporting obligations. The Netherlands has for as yet mainly followed a source (immission) based approach, and therefore did not adopt a specific risk based approach. In...

  11. Leakage and accidental releases from Sillamaee waste depository and environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment has been performed for the Sillamaee depository. The object of the study is to illustrate the consequences to man if the hazardous substances contained in the depository reach the sea. Two cases were studied: 1) the environmental impact at present conditions with a relatively low continuous leakage of the elements from the dam, and 2) the impact from a sudden dam collapse. The radiological dose impact on the population in the Baltic Sea area has been calculated for the observed leaking rate. The highest individual dose is less than 1μSv while for the dam collapse the dose will be in the order of 2 μSv and the dominant exposure pathway is via consumption of fish. The collective dose is about 1 manSv (emanating from fish caught in all parts of the Baltic Sea for both cases). Furthermore, the consequences of release of some metals (copper, zinc, niobium and molybdenum) were studied in the case of a dam break. In the Bay of Narva, outside the nearest coast, the additional contribution to the natural concentration in water will be neglectable for zinc and niobium. However, for copper and molybdenum the concentration will rise considerably during the first year. The additional load from the depository will still after 50 years be in the same order as published concentrations in the sea. The intake by man of those metals via fish caught in the Bay of Narva will be well below the limits of intake for zinc and molybdenum, (no recommendation of limits for niobium was found), while the calculated intake of copper from the depository will be in the same order as internationally recommended limits of intake. 34 refs

  12. Soil lead levels in parks and playgrounds: an environmental risk assessment in Newcastle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devey, P; Jingda, L

    1995-04-01

    In June 1993 the National Health and Medical Research Council set a national goal for blood lead of below 10 micrograms/dl. There is a need to know if the lead contamination of the urban environment is so high as to put community health at risk. Decisions, including whether soil should be removed and replaced, will have to be made. During the second half of 1993, an environmental assessment of lead contamination of soil within the City of Newcastle was conducted. Samples, 108 from surface soil and 10 from subsurface soil, were taken from public parks and playgrounds in the city area and analysed for lead content. The proportion within and the proportion above the guidelines for soil contamination were reported. Lead concentrations ranged from 25 to 2400 parts per million (ppm); 21 per cent of samples had concentrations higher than the 300 ppm action level, and the geometric mean was 134 ppm. Both the range and the average lead levels were typically no more than, or were even less than, soil lead levels documented for other cities in Australia, the United States and United Kingdom. Although each sampling site was noted, it was not our intention to focus in on individual sites. Indeed, to draw health-risk implications from any one result may be misleading and inaccurate. The results indicated moderate lead contamination of soil that could be controlled by regular top-dressing of soils, the use of bark chip on playground surfaces and by government initiatives aimed at lowering lead levels in petrol.

  13. An adaptable mesocosm platform for performing integrated assessments of nanomaterial risk in complex environmental systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffan, Mélanie; Tella, Marie; Santaella, Catherine; Brousset, Lenka; Paillès, Christine; Barakat, Mohamed; Espinasse, Benjamin; Artells, Ester; Issartel, Julien; Masion, Armand; Rose, Jérôme; Wiesner, Mark R.; Achouak, Wafa; Thiéry, Alain; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-07-01

    Physical-chemists, (micro)biologists, and ecologists need to conduct meaningful experiments to study the environmental risk of engineered nanomaterials with access to relevant mechanistic data across several spatial and temporal scales. Indoor aquatic mesocosms (60L) that can be tailored to virtually mimic any ecosystem appear as a particularly well-suited device. Here, this concept is illustrated by a pilot study aimed at assessing the distribution of a CeO2-based nanomaterial within our system at low concentration (1.5 mg/L). Physico-chemical as well as microbiological parameters took two weeks to equilibrate. These parameters were found to be reproducible across the 9-mesocosm setup over a 45-day period of time. Recovery mass balances of 115 +/- 18% and 60 +/- 30% of the Ce were obtained for the pulse dosing and the chronic dosing, respectively. This demonstrated the relevance of our experimental approach that allows for adequately monitoring the fate and impact of a given nanomaterial.

  14. Selection of bee species for environmental risk assessment of GM cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Soares Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to list potential candidate bee species for environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM cotton and to identify the most suited bee species for this task, according to their abundance and geographical distribution. Field inventories of bee on cotton flowers were performed in the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso, and in Distrito Federal, Brazil. During a 344 hour sampling, 3,470 bees from 74 species were recovered, at eight sites. Apis mellifera dominated the bee assemblages at all sites. Sampling at two sites that received no insecticide application was sufficient to identify the three most common and geographically widespread wild species: Paratrigona lineata, Melissoptila cnecomola, and Trigona spinipes, which could be useful indicators of pollination services in the ERA. Indirect ordination of common wild species revealed that insecticides reduced the number of native bee species and that interannual variation in bee assemblages may be low. Accumulation curves of rare bee species did not saturate, as expected in tropical and megadiverse regions. Species-based approaches are limited to analyze negative impacts of GM cotton on pollinator biological diversity. The accumulation rate of rare bee species, however, may be useful for evaluating possible negative effects of GM cotton on bee diversity.

  15. New techniques for environmental monitoring and risk assessment in water surface systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios-Theodosios; Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Escudero, Javier; Vagras, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Our society is continuously impacted by significant weather events many times resulting in catastrophes that interrupt our normal way of life. In the context of climate change and increasing urbanisation these "extreme" hydrologic events are intensified both in magnitude and frequency, inducing costs of the order of billions of pounds. The vast majority of such costs and impacts (even more to developed societies) are due to water related catastrophes such as the geomorphic action of flowing water (including scouring of critical infrastructure, bed and bank destabilisation) and flooding. New tools and radically novel concepts are in need, to enable our society becoming more resilient. In this presentation, new research at the interface of sensors and water engineering is presented, focusing on addressing the above challenges in a holistic and comprehensive manner. In particular, the design, development, testing and calibration, as well as preliminary field implementation of a new tool for risk assessment and environmental monitoring in water surface systems, is explored in this work. It is demonstrated that novel advances in conceptual approaches in water engineering and specifically in the field of hydrodynamic transport of solids (such as the impulse and energy criteria) can be successfully combined with rapid advances in sensors to help monitor and increase the resilience of our society against catastrophic hydrologic events.

  16. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507 for cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize 1507 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Scientific Opinion updating the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on maize 1507. Here, risk managers are provided with additional evidence and further clarifications to those previous conclusions and risk management recommendations. This Scientific Opinion provides background scientific information to inform the decision-making processes; the EFSA GMO Panel reiterates that risk managers should choose risk mitigation and management measures that are proportionate to the level of identified risk according to the protection goals pertaining to their regions.

  17. A statistical simulation model for fiels testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, P.W.; Voet, van der, E.; Baldacchino, F.; Arpaia, S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in...

  18. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants:EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Detlef; Chueca, Cristina; De-Schrijver, Adinda; Gathmann, Achim; Hails, Rosie; Messéan, Antoine; Perry, Joe; Roda, Lucia; Sessitsch, Angela; Squire, Geoff; Arpaia, Salvatore; Delos, Marc; Kiss, Jozsef; Krogh, Paul Henning; Manachini, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) plants submitted within the framework of Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 on GM food and feed or under Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This document provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM plants on the environment and the rationales for the data requirements for a comprehensive ERA of GM plants. The...

  19. Atmospheric aerosol dispersion models and their applications to environmental risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Mazur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Numerical models of dispersion of atmospheric pollutants are widely used to forecast the spread of contaminants in the air and to analyze the effects of this phenomenon. The aim of the study is to investigate the possibilities and the quality of diagnosis and prediction of atmospheric transport of aerosols in the air using the dispersion model of atmospheric pollutants, developed at the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM in Warsaw. Material and methods. A model of the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants, linked with meteorological models in a diagnostic mode, was used to simulate the transport of the cloud of aerosols released during the crash near the town of Ożydiw (Ukraine and of volcanic ash – during the volcanic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. Results. Possible directions of dispersion of pollutants in the air and its concentration in the atmosphere and deposition to the soil were assessed. The analysis of temporal variability of concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere confirmed that the model developed at IMWM is an effective tool for diagnosis of air quality in the area of Poland as well as for determination of exposure duration to the aerosol clouds for different weather scenarios. Conclusions. The results are a confirmation of the thesis, that because in the environmental risk assessment, an important element is not only current information on the level of pollution concentrations, but also the time of exposure to pollution and forecast of these elements, and consequently the predicted effects on man or the environment in general; so it is necessary to use forecasting tools, similar to presented application. The dispersion model described in the paper is an operational tool for description, analysis and forecasting of emergency situations in case of emissions of hazardous substances.

  20. Environmental Risk Assessment of Produced Water Discharges on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The OSPAR Offshore Industry Committee (OIC) has decided, in its meeting of 2008, to evaluate the possibility of implementing a risk based approach towards produced water management. Currently, Norway has made most progress in this field as it has fully implemented the Environmental Impact Factor as

  1. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines). (U.K.)

  2. FEAT - Flash Environmental Assessment Tool to identify acute environmental risks following disasters. The tool, the explanation and a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk S; Brand E; de Zwart D; Posthuma L; Middelaar J van; IMG

    2009-01-01

    Voor veldteams van de Verenigde Naties die bij (natuur)rampen worden ingezet is de methode Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT) ontwikkeld. Hiermee kan worden ingeschat in welk gebied effecten van vrijgekomen chemische stoffen voor mens en milieu te verwachten zijn. De methode geeft aan welk

  3. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  4. A review of plutonium environmental data with a bibliography for use in risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, B.W.; Wilkinson, M.J.

    1983-06-15

    Plutonium fueled radioisotopic heat sources find space, terrestrial, and undersea applications to generate electrical power. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population in the form of radiological doses and associated health effects. The evaluation of the radiological impact of postulated scenarios involving releases of activity into the environment includes identification of postulated accident release modes, including the probability of release and the release location; source term definition, including the activity of each radionuclide released and the corresponding chemical form and particle size distribution; analysis of the environmental behavior of the released radioactivity to determine the concentrations in environmental media (air, soil, and water) as a function of time; and analysis of the interaction between the environmental concentrations and man, leading to ingestion, inhalation, and external doses through each environmental exposure pathway. 443 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Exposure levels, environmental fate modelling and human health risk assessment of lindane in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis discusses an innovative approach of combining chemical trace analysis including the use of 13C-labelled isotopes as internal and recovery standards) with multi-media modelling for assessing health risks of Lindane which is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) and a commercial formulated insecticide also known as Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH). Samples studied were background air, human breast milk, and edible fish (tilapia and catfish). The investigations focused on the exposure of the general population. For the first time levels and seasonal variation of Lindane, α-HCH and β-HCH in background air of Lake Bosumtwi, Kwabenya and East Legon in Ghana were studied with polyurethane foam based passive air samplers. Lindane (average concentration 53 pg m-3) was measured in all samples with (i) gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometer operated in electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). Agricultural application and revolatilisation from soils were main primary and secondary sources of HCH releases. Levels and variation of Lindane, α-HCH and β-HCH in pooled and individual human breast milk samples collected from lactating mothers countrywide were determined using a high-resolution gas chromatography interfaced with a high-resolution gas chromatography interfaced with a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS). This constitutes the first comprehensive nationwide human breast milk study of assessing risks of HCHs for the general population of Ghana. Mothers were selected from three major cities (Accra, Kumasi and Tamale) and three rural communities (Ada, Jachie/Pramso and Tolon) representing the Southern, Middle and Northern sectors respectively. The results of the study showed that the general population of Ghana is widely exposed to HCHs although the current levels are generally low; and also suggest that the usage pattern and exposure levels of Lindane vary among the various regions in Ghana.

  6. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys

  7. Spatial and temporal variation in radiation exposure of amphibians - Implications for environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K. [Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Although amphibians are threatened world-wide, many amphibian species are protected in national legislation. Thus, amphibians need special attention in many environmental risk assessments for releases of contaminants such as radionuclides. In fact, amphibians' ecology and physiology (including, for example, a complex life-cycle with both aquatic and terrestrial life stages, and a thin skin) makes them sensitive to radiation exposure. In current dose models for wildlife, homogenous distribution of radionuclides in soil is assumed. However, soils are heterogeneous environments and radionuclide contamination can be very unevenly distributed. As a consequence, bioaccumulation of radionuclides in biota may vary on a local scale. Specifically, organisms' spatial location and movement within habitats may affect both their external and internal exposure pattern to radionuclides. Therefore, measuring the spatial location of individual amphibians within ecosystems and understanding why they use these different locations is essential for predicting potential effects of released radionuclides on these populations. The aim of this study was to investigate amphibians' spatial distribution in a {sup 137}Cs contaminated wetland area and their body content of {sup 137}Cs at the beginning and end of the summer period. The study site was a wetland nature reserve called Bladmyra near Gaevle in the central-eastern part of Sweden. This area received fallout of {sup 137}Cs after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study measured the spatial distributions of two amphibian species (Rana arvalis and Bufo bufo) with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags in a mark-and-recapture study during 2012-2014. In addition, {sup 137}Cs body content in the two species was measured by whole body counting in spring and autumn of 2013. The results showed differences between years in how marked animals used the study area: More individuals stayed in a small area during 2012 than in 2013

  8. DNA barcoding simplifies environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in biodiverse regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeduru, Chinyere V; Ronca, Sandra; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2012-01-01

    Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM) crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs) represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs) used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins). Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level) and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was completed within four months at a cost of less than 10,000 US$. The broader implications of the findings for food security and the capacity for safe adoption of GM technology are briefly explored. PMID:22567120

  9. DNA barcoding simplifies environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in biodiverse regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyere V Nzeduru

    Full Text Available Transgenes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis have been widely introduced into Genetically Modified (GM crops to confer protection against insect pests. Concern that these transgenes may also harm beneficial or otherwise valued insects (so-called Non Target Organisms, NTOs represents a major element of the Environmental Risk Assessments (ERAs used by all countries prior to commercial release. Compiling a comprehensive list of potentially susceptible NTOs is therefore a necessary part of an ERA for any Cry toxin-containing GM crop. In partly-characterised and biodiverse countries, NTO identification is slowed by the need for taxonomic expertise and time to enable morphological identifications. This limitation represents a potentially serious barrier to timely adoption of GM technology in some developing countries. We consider Bt Cry1A cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in Nigeria as an exemplar to demonstrate how COI barcoding can provide a simple and cost-effective means of addressing this problem. Over a period of eight weeks, we collected 163 insects from cowpea flowers across the agroecological and geographic range of the crop in Nigeria. These individuals included 32 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs spanning four Orders and that could mostly be assigned to genus or species level. They included 12 Lepidopterans and two Coleopterans (both potentially sensitive to different groups of Cry proteins. Thus, barcode-assisted diagnoses were highly harmonised across groups (typically to genus or species level and so were insensitive to expertise or knowledge gaps. Decisively, the entire study was completed within four months at a cost of less than 10,000 US$. The broader implications of the findings for food security and the capacity for safe adoption of GM technology are briefly explored.

  10. Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: a procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, G.; Schrader, G.; Baker, R.H.A.;

    2014-01-01

    The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose. By inc...... citrus long-horn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis....

  11. STEROID HORMONES AS BIOMARKERS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN WILDLIFE. IN: ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standardization of Biomarkers for Endocrine Disruption and Environmental Assessment. 8th Volume, ASTM STP 1364. D.S. Henshel, M.C. Black, and M.C. Harrass, Editors. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA. Pp. 254-270.

  12. A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E.; Vargo, G.J. Jr.; Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Pajunen, A.L.; Hoyt, R.C.; Ludowise, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.

  13. Risk-oriented approach for assessing the environmental safety of radioactive waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the risk-oriented approach for assessing the ecological security of radioactive waste storage facilities. On the basis of probability indicators the condition of ecological safety is found to be met at Odessa State Multiregional Facility on the normative criteria of deaths

  14. Improving the risk assessment of lipophilic persistent environmental chemicals in breast milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: A breastfeeding infant’s intake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may be much greater than his/her mother’s average daily POP exposure. In many cases, current human health risk assessment methods do not account for differences between maternal and infant POP exp...

  15. [Operative guidelines for the shoe industry: risk assessment and environmental hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraluppi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Considering the most relevant factors for occupational safety and health, the Safety Check application in the footwear industry makes little and medium size factories employers able to carry out risk assessment. However, in specific cases, it is necessary to achieve an in-depth evaluation. PMID:22697034

  16. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Here we present possible approaches and identify research needs to enable human health risk assessments that focus on the role the environment plays in antibiotic treatment failure of patients. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop sub-committee to define t...

  17. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects.

  18. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects

  19. A framework for the assessment of the environmental risk posed by pharmaceuticals originating from hospital effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aukidy, Mustafa; Verlicchi, Paola; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-09-15

    The consumption of pharmaceuticals is increasing in both hospitals and households. After administration, many compounds enter the water cycle as parent compounds or their metabolites via excretion. Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants are unable to efficiently remove all the different compounds found in sewage and, consequently, treated effluents are one of the main sources of persistent micropollutants in the environment. Hospital patients are administered relatively high quantities of drugs and therefore hospital wastewaters can consistently contribute to treatment plant influent loads, with the magnitude of environmental risk posed by pharmaceuticals originating from hospital effluents largely unknown. This study has therefore developed a framework to enable authorities responsible for hospital management and environmental health to evaluate such risk, considering site-specific information such as the contribution of human population and hospital sizes, wastewater treatment removal efficiency, and potential dilution in the receiving water body. The framework was applied to three case studies, that are representative of frequent situations in many countries, and findings demonstrated that the degree of risk posed by any compound was site-specific and depended on a combination of several factors: compound concentration and toxicity, compound removal efficiency in the wastewater treatment plant and dilution factor. Ofloxacin, 17α-ethinylestradiol, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole were identified as compounds of concern and might require management in order to reduce risk. PMID:24937492

  20. Health-safety and environmental risk assessment of power plants using multi criteria decision making method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozi Ali Seyed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of environmental issues at global and regional levels including pollution of water, air etc. as well as the outcomes such as global warming and climate change has led to being considered environmental aspects as effective factors for power generation. Study ahead, aims at examination of risks resulting from activities of Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant located in Iran. Method applied in the research is analytical hierarchy process. After identification of factors causing risk, the analytical hierarchy structure of the power plant risks were designed and weight of the criteria and sub-criteria were calculated by intensity probability product using Eigenvector Method and EXPERT CHOICE Software as well. Results indicate that in technological, health-safety, biophysical and socio economic sections of the power plant, factors influenced by the power plant activities like fire and explosion, hearing loss, quantity of groundwater, power generation are among the most important factors causing risk in the power plant. The drop in underground water levels is the most important natural consequence influenced on Yazd Combined Cycle Power Plant.

  1. Defining the role of risk assessment in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation process at the DOE-OR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk assessment strategy that will be implemented on the Oak Ridge Reservation has been standardized to ensure consistency and technical defensibility in all risk assessment activities and is presented within this document. The strategy emphasizes using existing environmental data in screening risk analyses to aid in identifying chemicals of potential concern, operable units that could pursue a no further investigation determination, and operable units that may warrant early response actions. The screening risk analyses include a comparison of measured chemical concentrations to preliminary remediation goals, performing a most likely exposure and integration point assessment, and performing a screening ecological risk assessment. This document focuses heavily on the screening risk analyses and relies on existing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment guidance to provide specific details on conducting baseline risk assessments. However, the document does contain a section on the baseline risk assessment process that details the exposure pathways to be evaluated on the Oak Ridge Reservation. This document will be used in conjunction with existing Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Environmental Restoration risk assessment standards, policies, procedures, and technical memoranda. The material contained herein will be periodically updated as the strategy is tried and tested and as the risk assessment methodology is revised. The primary purpose for this document is to present the proposed strategy to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV and receive concurrence or additional comments on the material presented herein

  2. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  3. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  4. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report

  5. Environmental sensitivity mapping and risk assessment for oil spill along the Chennai Coast in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankara, R S; Arockiaraj, S; Prabhu, K

    2016-05-15

    Integration of oil spill modeling with coastal resource information could be useful for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills. A scenario-based risk assessment and sensitivity indexing were performed for the Chennai coast by integrating a coastal resource information system and an oil spill trajectory model. The fate analysis of spilled oil showed that 55% of oil out of a total volume of 100m(3) remained in the water column, affecting 800m of the shoreline. The seasonal scenarios show major impact during the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons and more fatal effects on marine pelagic organisms during SW monsoon. The Oil Spill Risk Assessment Modeler tool was constructed in a geographic information systems (GIS) platform to analyze the risks, sensitivity mapping, and priority indexing of resources that are likely to be affected by oil spills along the Chennai coast. The results of sensitivity mapping and the risk assessment results can help organizations take measures to combat oil spills in a timely manner.

  6. Environmental sensitivity mapping and risk assessment for oil spill along the Chennai Coast in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankara, R S; Arockiaraj, S; Prabhu, K

    2016-05-15

    Integration of oil spill modeling with coastal resource information could be useful for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills. A scenario-based risk assessment and sensitivity indexing were performed for the Chennai coast by integrating a coastal resource information system and an oil spill trajectory model. The fate analysis of spilled oil showed that 55% of oil out of a total volume of 100m(3) remained in the water column, affecting 800m of the shoreline. The seasonal scenarios show major impact during the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons and more fatal effects on marine pelagic organisms during SW monsoon. The Oil Spill Risk Assessment Modeler tool was constructed in a geographic information systems (GIS) platform to analyze the risks, sensitivity mapping, and priority indexing of resources that are likely to be affected by oil spills along the Chennai coast. The results of sensitivity mapping and the risk assessment results can help organizations take measures to combat oil spills in a timely manner. PMID:27016958

  7. Environmental Risk Assessment of Fluctuating Diazinon Concentrations in an Urban and Agricultural Catchment Using Toxicokinetic–Toxicodynamic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ashauer, Roman; Wittmer, Irene; Stamm, Christian; Escher, Beate I.

    2011-01-01

    Temporally resolved environmental risk assessment of fluctuating concentrations of micropollutants is presented. We separated the prediction of toxicity over time from the extrapolation from one to many species and from acute to sublethal effects. A toxicokinetic–toxicodynamic (TKTD) model predicted toxicity caused by fluctuating concentrations of diazinon, measured by time-resolved sampling over 108 days from three locations in a stream network, representing urban, agricultural and mixed lan...

  8. Managing Environmental, Health, and Safety Risks: A Comparative Assessment of the Minerals Management Service and Other Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Scarlett, Lynn; Fraas, Arthur; Morgenstern, Richard; Murphy, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts regulatory and related practices—in particular, regulatory decisionmaking, risk assessment and planning processes, inspection and compliance, and organization structure, budgets, and training—of the Minerals Management Service (MMS, now the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement, or BOEMRE) with those of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparing MMS practices with those of other ...

  9. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects.

  10. Contributions to resource and environmental risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis charts a research journey through the disciplines of waste chemistry, environmental risk assessment, policy analysis and corporate risk governance since award of the candidate’s PhD in 1990. The insights gained present a distinctive perspective on resource and environmental risk management - assessments of risk must reflect our understanding of the science and evidence that supports them; and the protection of public and environmental health, as an overarching motiv...

  11. Heavy metals of Santiago Island (Cape Verde) top soils: Estimated Background Value maps and environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral Pinto, M. M. S.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Silva, M. M. V. G.; Melo-Gonçalves, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present maps of estimates of background values of some harmful metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in the soils of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, analyse their relationships with the geological cartography, and assess their environmental risks. The geochemical survey (soil sampling at a spatial resolution of 3 sites per 10 km2, sample preparation, geochemical analysis, data treatment, and mapping) was conducted following the guidelines proposed by the International Projects IGCP 259 and IGCP 360. The concentration of the selected elements was determined in the fraction cartography. These links are identified by a direct comparison of the geochemical maps with the geological cartography, and confirmed by either simple statistics and a Principal Component Analysis. The metals with higher loadings in the first Principal Component, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, and V, clearly show the influence of a lithology rich in siderophile elements, typical of basic rocks and of its related minerals. The elements with higher loadings in the second Principal Component, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Hg, and Cd, are chalcophile elements, except for Mn, but an anthropogenic contamination for these elements cannot be discarded. We propose an index to numerically access the environmental risk of one element, which we denominate by Environmental Risk Index, and a Multi-element Index which is simply the average taken over all elements. The occurrence of values greater than 1 in the maps of the Environmental Risk Index shows where the content of the respective element is above the permissible levels according to the available legislation for agricultural and residential purposes. The same applies to the multi-element risk index maps. High values of these risk indices are found, both for agricultural and residential purposes, for Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, and V. These metals are precisely those with higher loadings in PC1, which are demonstrated to be of natural origin in Santiago. This

  12. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and poor

  13. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and

  14. Integrated assessment of behavioral and environmental risk factors for Lyme disease infection on Block Island, Rhode Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Finch

    Full Text Available Peridomestic exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected Ixodes scapularis nymphs is considered the dominant means of infection with black-legged tick-borne pathogens in the eastern United States. Population level studies have detected a positive association between the density of infected nymphs and Lyme disease incidence. At a finer spatial scale within endemic communities, studies have focused on individual level risk behaviors, without accounting for differences in peridomestic nymphal density. This study simultaneously assessed the influence of peridomestic tick exposure risk and human behavior risk factors for Lyme disease infection on Block Island, Rhode Island. Tick exposure risk on Block Island properties was estimated using remotely sensed landscape metrics that strongly correlated with tick density at the individual property level. Behavioral risk factors and Lyme disease serology were assessed using a longitudinal serosurvey study. Significant factors associated with Lyme disease positive serology included one or more self-reported previous Lyme disease episodes, wearing protective clothing during outdoor activities, the average number of hours spent daily in tick habitat, the subject's age and the density of shrub edges on the subject's property. The best fit multivariate model included previous Lyme diagnoses and age. The strength of this association with previous Lyme disease suggests that the same sector of the population tends to be repeatedly infected. The second best multivariate model included a combination of environmental and behavioral factors, namely hours spent in vegetation, subject's age, shrub edge density (increase risk and wearing protective clothing (decrease risk. Our findings highlight the importance of concurrent evaluation of both environmental and behavioral factors to design interventions to reduce the risk of tick-borne infections.

  15. Using agricultural practices information for multiscale environmental assessment of phosphorus risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos Moreira, Mariana; Lemercier, Blandine; Michot, Didier; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In intensively farmed areas, excessive applications of animal manure and mineral P fertilizers to soils have raised both economic and ecological concerns. P accumulation in agricultural soils leads to increased P losses to surface waterbodies contributing to eutrophication. Increasing soil P content over time in agricultural soils is often correlated with agricultural practices; in Brittany (NW France), an intensive livestock farming region, soil P content is well correlated with animal density (Lemercier et al.,2008). Thus, a better understanding of the factors controlling P distribution is required to enable environmental assessment of P risk. The aim of this study was to understand spatial distribution of extractable (Olsen method) and total P contents and its controlling factors at the catchment scale in order to predict P contents at regional scale (Brittany). Data on soil morphology, soil tests (including P status, particles size, organic carbon…) for 198 punctual positions, crops succession since 20 years, agricultural systems, field and animal manure management were obtained on a well-characterized catchment (ORE Agrhys, 10 km²). A multivariate analysis with mixed quantitative variables and factors and a digital soil mapping approach were performed to identify variables playing a significant role in soil total and extractable P contents and distribution. Spatial analysis was performed by means of the Cubist model, a decision tree-based algorithm. Different scenarios were assessed, considering various panels of predictive variables: soil data, terrain attributes derived from digital elevation model, gamma-ray spectrometry (from airborne geophysical survey) and agricultural practices information. In the research catchment, mean extractable and total P content were 140.0 ± 63.4 mg/kg and 2862.7 ± 773.0 mg/kg, respectively. Organic and mineral P inputs, P balance, soil pH, and Al contents were

  16. An approach for environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-01-01

    The usage of Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products is relatively new and there is a need to conduct environmental risk assessment (ERA) to evaluate their impacts on the environment. However, alternative approaches are required for ERA of ENPs because of the huge gap in data and knowledge compared to conventional pollutants and their unique properties that make it difficult to apply existing approaches. This study aims to propose an ERA approach for ENPs by integrating Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference models which provide a systematic evaluation of risk factors and reducing uncertainty about the data and information, respectively. Risk is assumed to be the combination of occurrence likelihood, exposure potential and toxic effects in the environment. A hierarchy was established to evaluate the sub factors of these components. Evaluation was made with fuzzy numbers to reduce uncertainty and incorporate the expert judgements. Overall score of each component was combined with fuzzy inference rules by using expert judgements. Proposed approach reports the risk class and its membership degree such as Minor (0.7). Therefore, results are precise and helpful to determine the risk management strategies. Moreover, priority weights calculated by comparing the risk factors based on their importance for the risk enable users to understand which factor is effective on the risk. Proposed approach was applied for Ag (two nanoparticles with different coating) and TiO2 nanoparticles for different case studies. Results verified the proposed benefits of the approach. PMID:27131016

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment and nuclear waste transportation: A case study of the use of RADTRAN in the 1986 Environmental Assessment for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the risks of transporting irradiated nuclear fuel to a federal repository, Appendix A of the DOE Environmental Assessment for Yucca Mountain (DOE84), is based on the RADTRAN model and input parameters. The RADTRAN computer code calculates the radiation exposures and health effects under normal or incident-free transport, and over all credible accident conditions. The RADTRAN model also calculates the economic consequences of transportation accidents, though these costs were not included in the Department's Environmental Assessment for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

  18. Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, V; Gunnarsson, L; Fick, J; Larsson, D G J; Rudén, C

    2012-04-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly; some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. PMID:22361586

  19. A "weight of evidence" approach for the integration of environmental "triad" data to assess ecological risk and biological vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Alessandro; Sforzini, Susanna; Dondero, Francesco; Fenoglio, Stefano; Bona, Elisa; Jensen, John; Viarengo, Aldo

    2008-07-01

    A new Expert Decision Support System (EDSS) that can integrate Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites has been developed. Starting with ecosystem relevance, the EDSS assigns different weights to the results obtained from Triad disciplines. The following parameters have been employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecotoxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates), 3) biomarkers (showing sublethal pollutant effects), and 4) ecological parameters (assessing changes in community structure and functions). For each Triad discipline, the EDSS compares the data obtained at the studied field sites with reference values and calculates different 0-1 indexes (e.g., Chemical Risk Index, Ecotoxicological Risk Index, and Ecological Risk Index). The EDSS output consists of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk index (EnvRI), quantifying the levels of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index (BVI), assessing the potential threats to biological equilibriums, and 3) Genotoxicity Index (GTI), screening genotoxicity effects. The EDSS has been applied in the integration of a battery of Triad data obtained during the European Union-funded Life Intervention in the Fraschetta Area (LINFA) project, which has been carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soils of a highly anthropized area (Alessandria, Italy) mainly impacted by deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Results obtained during 4 seasonal sampling campaigns (2004-2005) show maximum values of EnvRI in sites A and B (characterized by industrial releases) and lower levels in site D (affected by vehicular traffic emissions). All 3 potentially polluted sites have shown high levels of BVI and GTI, suggesting a general change from reference conditions (site C). PMID:18393577

  20. A "weight of evidence" approach for the integration of environmental "triad" data to assess ecological risk and biological vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Alessandro; Sforzini, Susanna; Dondero, Francesco; Fenoglio, Stefano; Bona, Elisa; Jensen, John; Viarengo, Aldo

    2008-07-01

    A new Expert Decision Support System (EDSS) that can integrate Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites has been developed. Starting with ecosystem relevance, the EDSS assigns different weights to the results obtained from Triad disciplines. The following parameters have been employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecotoxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates), 3) biomarkers (showing sublethal pollutant effects), and 4) ecological parameters (assessing changes in community structure and functions). For each Triad discipline, the EDSS compares the data obtained at the studied field sites with reference values and calculates different 0-1 indexes (e.g., Chemical Risk Index, Ecotoxicological Risk Index, and Ecological Risk Index). The EDSS output consists of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk index (EnvRI), quantifying the levels of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index (BVI), assessing the potential threats to biological equilibriums, and 3) Genotoxicity Index (GTI), screening genotoxicity effects. The EDSS has been applied in the integration of a battery of Triad data obtained during the European Union-funded Life Intervention in the Fraschetta Area (LINFA) project, which has been carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soils of a highly anthropized area (Alessandria, Italy) mainly impacted by deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Results obtained during 4 seasonal sampling campaigns (2004-2005) show maximum values of EnvRI in sites A and B (characterized by industrial releases) and lower levels in site D (affected by vehicular traffic emissions). All 3 potentially polluted sites have shown high levels of BVI and GTI, suggesting a general change from reference conditions (site C).

  1. Interspecific sensitivity of bees towards dimethoate and implications for environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Philipp; Franke, Lea A.; Rehberg, Christina; Wollmann, Claudia; Stahlschmidt, Peter; Jeker, Lukas; Brühl, Carsten A.

    2016-01-01

    Wild and domesticated bee species are exposed to a variety of pesticides which may drive pollinator decline. Due to wild bee sensitivity data shortage, it is unclear if the honey bee Apis mellifera is a suitable surrogate species in the current EU risk assessment scheme. Furthermore, the underlying causes for sensitivity differences in bees are not established. We assessed the acute toxicity (median lethal dose, LD50) of dimethoate towards multiple bee species, generated a species sensitivity distribution and derived a hazardous dose (HD5). Furthermore, we performed a regression analysis with body weight and dimethoate toxicity. HD5 lower 95% confidence limit was equal to honey bee mean LD50 when applying a safety factor of 10. Body weight proved to be a predictor of interspecific bee sensitivity but did not explain the pattern completely. Using acute toxicity values from honey bees and a safety factor of 10 seems to cover the interspecific sensitivity range of bees in the case of dimethoate. Acute endpoints of proposed additional test species, the buff-tailed bumblebee Bombus terrestris and the red mason bee Osmia bicornis, do not improve the risk assessment for the entire group. However, this might not apply to other insecticides such as neonicotinoids. PMID:27686060

  2. Structural equation models for meta-analysis in environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal;

    2010-01-01

    The potential of structural equation models for combining information from different studies in environmental epidemiology is explored. For illustration we synthesize data from two birth cohorts assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on childhood cognitive performance. One...... cohort was the largest by far, but a smaller cohort included superior assessment of the PCB exposure which has been considered an important confounder when estimating the mercury effect. The data were analyzed by specification of a structural equation model for each cohort. Information was then pooled...... based on a joint likelihood function with key parameters constrained to be equal in the different models. Modeling assumptions were chosen to obtain a meaningful biological interpretation of the joint effect parameters. Measurement errors in mercury variables were taken into account by viewing observed...

  3. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A., E-mail: chiu.weihsueh@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 20460 (United States); Euling, Susan Y.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) — i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on “augmentation” of weight of evidence — using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards “integration” of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for “expansion” of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual “reorientation” of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes.

  4. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice-wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  5. Environmental and human risk hierarchy of pesticides: A prioritization method, based on monitoring, hazard assessment and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaboula, Aggeliki; Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Vryzas, Zisis; Kotopoulou, Athina; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2016-05-01

    A pesticide prioritization approach was developed and implemented in the Pinios River Basin of Central Greece. It takes under consideration the Level of Environmental Risk containing information on the frequency of occurrence of pesticides above environmental thresholds, the intensity of this occurrence and the spatial distribution as well as information about the fate and behavior of pesticides in the environment and the potential to have adverse impact on humans' health. Original 3-year monitoring data from 102 Stationary Sampling Sites located on rivers and their tributaries, reservoirs, streams and irrigation/drainage canals giving rise to a collection of 2382 water samples resulting in 7088 data sets, were included in this integrated prioritization study. Among 302 monitored active ingredients, 119 were detected at least once and the concentrations found in the aquatic systems for 41% of compounds were higher than the respective lowest Predicted Non-Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. Sixteen and 5 pesticides were found with risk ratios (MECmax/PNEC) above 10 (high concern) and 100 (very high concern), respectively. However, pesticides with maximum Measured Environmental Concentration (MECmax) values exceeding by 1000 times the respective lowest PNEC values were also found which were considered of extremely high concern; in the latter group were included prometryn, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, λ-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, α-cypermethrin deltamethrin, ethalfluralin and phosmet. The sensitivity of the analytical methods used in the monitoring study was considered inadequate to meet the toxicological endpoints for 32 pesticides. The widest distribution of occurrence in the Stationary Sampling Sites of the monitoring program was found for the pesticides, prometryn, fluometuron, terbuthylazine, S-metolachlor, chlorpyrifos, diphenylamine, acetochlor, alachlor, 2,4-D, etridiazole, imidacloprid and lindane (γ-ΗCH). Among the 27 priority pesticides included in the

  6. Environmental and human risk hierarchy of pesticides: A prioritization method, based on monitoring, hazard assessment and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaboula, Aggeliki; Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Vryzas, Zisis; Kotopoulou, Athina; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2016-05-01

    A pesticide prioritization approach was developed and implemented in the Pinios River Basin of Central Greece. It takes under consideration the Level of Environmental Risk containing information on the frequency of occurrence of pesticides above environmental thresholds, the intensity of this occurrence and the spatial distribution as well as information about the fate and behavior of pesticides in the environment and the potential to have adverse impact on humans' health. Original 3-year monitoring data from 102 Stationary Sampling Sites located on rivers and their tributaries, reservoirs, streams and irrigation/drainage canals giving rise to a collection of 2382 water samples resulting in 7088 data sets, were included in this integrated prioritization study. Among 302 monitored active ingredients, 119 were detected at least once and the concentrations found in the aquatic systems for 41% of compounds were higher than the respective lowest Predicted Non-Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. Sixteen and 5 pesticides were found with risk ratios (MECmax/PNEC) above 10 (high concern) and 100 (very high concern), respectively. However, pesticides with maximum Measured Environmental Concentration (MECmax) values exceeding by 1000 times the respective lowest PNEC values were also found which were considered of extremely high concern; in the latter group were included prometryn, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, λ-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, α-cypermethrin deltamethrin, ethalfluralin and phosmet. The sensitivity of the analytical methods used in the monitoring study was considered inadequate to meet the toxicological endpoints for 32 pesticides. The widest distribution of occurrence in the Stationary Sampling Sites of the monitoring program was found for the pesticides, prometryn, fluometuron, terbuthylazine, S-metolachlor, chlorpyrifos, diphenylamine, acetochlor, alachlor, 2,4-D, etridiazole, imidacloprid and lindane (γ-ΗCH). Among the 27 priority pesticides included in the

  7. Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1992-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  8. Synopsis report : environmental oil spill risk assessment for the south coast of Newfoundland. Rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-06

    This study was conducted to assess the risks of oil pollution as a result of marine traffic in Canadian waters off the south coast of Newfoundland. The oil included crude oil, fuel oil sludge, oil refuse, and refined products carried by vessels. The probability of an oil spill occurring was assessed, as well as the consequences of potential spills. A 2-phase approach was used. An initial estimate was made using existing data, and the estimates were then reviewed and validated using a peer review process. The review included studies by independent experts and a consultation process involving authorities responsible for managing marine traffic in the area. The report described stakeholder consultations, oil spill scenarios, and potential changes in activity over the next 10 years. Estimates of the potential effect of oil spills on key species were provided, as well as estimates of the potential economic consequences of a significant oil spill. An estimate of the overall risk in the region was included. 39 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. The Development of Improved Risk Assessment Methods for Use in Industrial Environmental Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial sites that store or use chemicals are controlled in the UK under the COMAH (Control Of Major Accident Hazards) Regulations 1999 [1] based on their holdings of 'Dangerous Substances'. The COMAH Regulations [1] came into force in 1999 and are the UK's response to the European Union's Seveso II Directive. The purpose of these Regulations [1] is to: - Identify Major Accident Hazards (MAH); - Ensure that control measures are in place to prevent a MAH; - Ensure that mitigatory measures are in place to limit effects if MAH do occur. The UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), and the Environment Agency (EA) jointly enforce the Regulations [1]. The fundamental requirement is given in the statement below, which is taken directly from the Regulations [1]. 'Every operator shall take all measures necessary to prevent major accidents and limit their consequences to persons and the environment'. This paper describes the development of a six-step screening methodology designed to identify Major Accidents To The Environment (MATTE) and improved consequence definitions that can be used in risk matrices to define the severity of an environmental fault. The method has been designed to be compatible with existing Environmental Management Systems (EMS) used in the chemical and nuclear industry. (authors)

  10. Environmental and climate security: improving scenario methodologies for science and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. M.; Carlsen, H.

    2010-12-01

    Governments and popular discussions have increasingly referred to concepts of ‘climate security’, often with reference to IPCC data. Development of effective methodologies to translate complex, scientific data into risk assessments has lagged, resulting in overly simplistic political assumptions of potential impacts. Climate security scenarios have been developed for use by security and military agencies, but effective engagement by scientific communities requires an improved framework. Effective use of data requires improvement both of climate projections, and the mapping of cascading impacts across interlinked, complex systems. In this research we propose a process for systematic generation of subsets of scenarios (of arbitrary size) from a given set of variables with possible interlinkages. The variables could include climatic changes as well as other global changes of concerns in a security context. In coping with possible challenges associated with the nexus of climate change and security - where deep structural uncertainty and possible irreversible changes are of primary interest - it is important to explore the outer limits of the relevant uncertainties. Therefore the proposed process includes a novel method that will help scenario developers in generating scenario sets where the scenarios are in a quantifiable sense maximally different and therefore best ‘span’ the whole set of scenarios. When downscaled onto a regional level, this process can provide guidance to potentially significant and abrupt geophysical changes, where high uncertainty has often prevented communication of risks. Potential physical changes can then be used as starting points for mapping cascading effects across networks, including topological analysis to identify critically vulnerable nodes and fragile systems, the existence of positive or negative feedback loops, and possible intervention points. Advanced knowledge of both potential geo-physical shifts and related non

  11. Environmental risk assessment on capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbing; Shi, Ting; Yang, Xiaoling; Han, Wenya; Zhou, Yunrui

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradation experiments were carried out with capsaicin to evaluate its degradability. The results show that capsaicin was readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions. The values of Kow and the calculated bioconcentration factor indicate that capsaicin have a low potential for bioconcentration. The fish acute toxicity tests conducted with Brachydanio rerio show LC50 for capsaicin was 5.98 mg L(-1). The tests of alga growth inhibition conducted with Selenastrum capricornutum suggest EC50 for capsaicin was 114 mg L(-1). The calculated PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) was 4.9×10(-4) mg L(-1). The average PEC (Predicted Environmental Concentration) for OECD-EU commercial harbor and marina were 3.99×10(-6) and 2.49×10(-5) mg L(-1), respectively. These indicate that the PEC was much less than the PNEC for capsaicin. The low Kp value of capsaicin suggests the data about the risk of capsaicin to sediment organisms can be waived. According to the results from the analysis of the degradation, bioaccumulation, toxicity and accumulation in sediment, it can be concluded that capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships poses relatively low risk to marine environment.

  12. Potential application of ecological models in the European environmental risk assessment of chemicals: I. review of protection goals of EU directives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommen, U.; Baveco, J.M.; Galic, N.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Several European directives and regulations address the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We used the protection of freshwater ecosystems against plant protection products, biocidal products, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals and priority substances under the Water

  13. Estimating emissions from adhesives and sealants uses and manufacturing for environmental risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolls, Johannes; Gómez, Divina; Guhl, Walter; Funk, Torsten; Seger, Erich; Wind, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) requires that environmental exposure assessments be performed for all uses of dangerous substances that are marketed in the European Union in quantities above 10 tons per year. The quantification of emissions to the environment is a key step in this process. This publication describes the derivation of release factors and gives guidance for estimating use rates for quantifying the emissions from the manufacturing and application of adhesives and sealants. Release factors available for coatings and paints are read across to adhesives or sealants based on similarities between these 2 product groups with regard to chemical composition and to processing during manufacturing and application. The granular emission scenarios in these documents are mapped to the broad emission scenarios for adhesives or sealants. According to the mapping, the worst-case release factors for coatings or paints are identified and assigned to the adhesives or sealants scenarios. The resulting 10 specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) for adhesives and sealants are defined by differentiating between solvent and nonsolvent ingredients and between water-borne and solvent-borne or solvent-free products. These cover the vast majority of the production processes and uses and are more realistic than the 5 relevant emission estimation defaults provided in the REACH guidance. They are accompanied with adhesive or sealant consumption rates in the EU and with guidance for estimating conservative substance use rates at a generic level. The approach of combining conservative SPERC release factors with conservative estimates of substance rates is likely to yield emission estimates that tend to overpredict actual releases. Because this qualifies the approach for use in lower-tier environmental exposure assessment, the Association of the European Adhesive & Sealant Industry

  14. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Biomarkers of genotoxicity and other end-points in an integrated approach to environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, M; Nadal, J

    2004-05-01

    Risk is defined as the probability of a given toxicological hazard resulting in actual biological harm. This involves some form of mathematical relationship between exposure and toxic effects. Simplified models based on laboratory testing in surrogate species neglect potentially important factors in real life situations. Our own approach to the study of atmospheric and edaphic pollution, focused on realism, includes the use of sentinel species (animals as prospectors and integrators of information, along both the spatial and the temporal axes) and selected biomarkers. We aim to: (i) consider pollution as a complex mixture; (ii) take into account homeostasis of the environment and of living organisms; (iii) be realistic (all data obtained in the field; calculations based on actual effects; exposure measured as internal dose). The proposed test battery divides toxicological information into four blocks: systemic effects (serum biochemistry and histopathology in wild wood mice), reproduction (epididymis cell count in mice, malformations in amphibian larvae), genotoxicity (Comet test in mice and earthworms) and population effects (abundance and diversity in arthropods). Each block is represented by the sum of the results of the tests performed within the block (presented as a severity score from 0 to 3). A final value is obtained to represent the integrated toxicological harm (ITH) occurring at a given location. To assess exposure, taking into account bioavailability, we propose (i) for soil contamination studies, measuring EROD activity in liver; (ii) for atmospheric pollution, the gaseous fraction is taken from immission gases analysis, while the solid fraction is assessed through levels of metals in sentinel organisms, the values of both fractions then being combined. Finally, a regression line is established for exposure versus ITH in four to five locations with decreasing exposure levels, ranging from the immediate neighbourhood of the pollution focus to controls

  16. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) were rarely detected. Additionally, the detection frequencies and measured concentrations of all targets were clearly higher in mussels than in fish. Spatial distribution of studied UV filters indicated a positive correlation between their measured concentrations and the anthropogenic activities responsible for their direct emission. The ecological risk assessment specific to the marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment. PMID:27235899

  17. Specificity and combinatorial effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins in the context of GMO environmental risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eHilbeck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stacked GM crops expressing up to six Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis are today replacing the formerly grown single- transgene GM crop varieties. Stacking of multiple Cry toxins not only increase the environmental load of toxins but also raise the question on how possible interactions of the toxins can be assessed for risk assessment, which is mandatory for GM crops. However, no operational guidelines for a testing strategy or testing procedures exist. From the developers point of view, little data testing for combinatorial effects of Cry toxins is necessary as the range of affected organisms is focused on pest species and no evidence is claimed to exists pointing to combinatorial effects on nontarget organisms. We have examined this rationale critically using information reported in the scientific literature. To do so we address the hypothesis of narrow specificity of Cry toxins subdivided into three underlying different conceptual conditions i 'efficacy' in target pests as indicator for 'narrow specificity', ii lack of reported adverse effects of Cry toxins on nontarget organisms, and iii proposed modes of action of Cry toxins (or the lack thereof as mechanisms underlying the reported activity/efficacy/specificity of Cry toxins. Complementary to this information we evaluate reports about outcomes of combinatorial effect testing of Cry toxins in the scientific literature and relate those findings to the practice of the environmental risk assessment of Bt-corps in general and of stacked Bt-events in particular.

  18. Prioritising chemicals used in personal care products in China for environmental risk assessment: application of the RAIDAR model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Todd; van Egmond, Roger; Price, Oliver R; Hodges, Juliet E N

    2012-06-01

    China represents a significant market for the sale of personal care products (PCPs). Given the continuous emission of hundreds of chemicals used in PCPs to waste water and the aquatic environment after regular use, methods for prioritising the environmental risk assessment for China are needed. In an effort to assess the prioritisation of chemicals used in PCPs in China, we have identified the chemical ingredients used in 2500 PCPs released to the Chinese market in 2009, and estimated the annual emission of these chemicals. The physical-chemical property data for these substances have been estimated and used as model inputs in the RAIDAR model. In general, the RAIDAR model provides an overall assessment of the multimedia fate of chemicals, and provides a holistic approach for prioritising chemical ingredients. The prioritisation exercise conducted in this study is shown to be strongly influenced by loss processes, such as the removal efficiencies of WWT plants and biotransformation.

  19. Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Lomas, Martí

    2005-01-01

    Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inicià un estu...

  20. Guidelines for integrated risk assessment and management in large industrial areas. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) within the framework of the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated area wide approaches to risk management. An Inter-Agency Programme, which brings together expertise in health the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management, was established. The Inter-Agency Programme on the assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems aims at promoting and facilitating the implementation of integrated risk assessment and management for large industrial areas. This initiative includes the compilation of procedures and methods for environmental and public health risk assessment, the transfer of knowledge and experience amongst countries in the application of these procedures and the implementation of an integrated approach to risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. The UN organizations sponsoring this programme have been involved for several years in activities aimed at assessment and management of environmental and health risks, prevention of major accidents and emergency preparedness. These Guidelines have been developed on the basis of experience from these activities to assist in the planning and conduct of regional risk management projects. They provide a reference framework for the undertaking of integrated health and environmental risk assessment for large industrial areas and for the formulation of appropriate risk management strategies

  1. A statistical simulation model for field testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Paul W; van der Voet, Hilko; Baldacchino, Ferdinando; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in two flavors: difference testing and equivalence testing. It is important to know the statistical properties of these, for example, the power to detect environmental change of a given magnitude, before the start of an experiment. Such prospective power analysis can best be studied by means of a statistical simulation model. This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The simulation model, available as Supplementary Material, can be used to generate count data having different statistical distributions possibly with excess-zeros. In addition the model employs completely randomized or randomized block experiments, can be used to simulate single or multiple trials across environments, enables genotype by environment interaction by adding random variety effects, and finally includes repeated measures in time following a constant, linear or quadratic pattern in time possibly with some form of autocorrelation. The model also allows to add a set of reference varieties to the GM plants and its comparator to assess the natural variation which can then be used to set limits of concern for equivalence testing. The different count distributions are described in some detail and some examples of how to use the simulation model to study various aspects, including a prospective power analysis, are provided.

  2. Animal populations and environmental risks. Approaches for assessment and monitoring; Popolazioni animali e rischi ambientali. Approcci per la valutazione ed il monitoraggio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Girolamo, Irene [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Mantovani, Alberto [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1997-12-31

    The main contributions of the `4th Course Veterinary medicine and environmental contamination` held at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita` on September 18-22 1995 are presented. They are organized into three sections: a) general concepts (principles of ecology, toxicological risk assessment, risk communication and environmental regulations relevant to the activities of veterinary services); b) methodological approaches (indicators of environmental quality which can be used by the public health services; use of invertebrates and of domestic, synanthropic and wild animals to assess environmental from animal epidemics; radioactive contamination); c) field experiences (pollutants in honey; contamination from hydrocarbons in anthropic and coastal environments; problems of health education).

  3. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  4. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  5. Primer on Environmental Risk Analysis, A

    OpenAIRE

    Shogren, Jason F.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout history, hazardous material has represented a risk to individuals. The task of regulating risk can be overwhelming. A regulator must interpret and coordinate a wide variety of information from experts and the lay public. To aid the regulator, the loosely coordinated field of environmental risk analysis has evolved. This paper provides a nontechnical examination of the four steps in the analysis of risks associated with an environmental hazard. The steps are (1) risk assessment--the...

  6. Environmental assessment: How and why

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick-Dean, E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental assessment of a service station or garage may be required by financial institutions before approving a loan request. Environmental assessment can be defined as a systematic, objective method to cost-effectively identify potential hazards, risks, and liabilities from site conditions and operations, including the approximate financial risks involved. The sequence of events in conducting an environmental assessment study was described. Phase I, also called an environmental audit, identifies the presence of any environmental hazard and the potential for environmental problems. It involves detailed examination of the site, neighbouring properties, and former land use. If any significant problems are identified in Phase I, a Phase II assessment will be done, in order to characterize the environmental hazards in sufficient detail so that the environmental and human risk, or liability can be defined as accurately as possible. Substantial environmental problems uncovered in the second phase will necessitate a third phase, also called remediation, which will have to be completed before any loan is approved, or work on the site can be commenced.

  7. Modelling Environmental Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Suhejla Hoti; Michael McAleer; Laurent L. Pauwels

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have become increasingly important in economic research and policy for sustainable development, firms in the private sector have introduced environmental and social issues in conducting their business activities. Such behaviour is tracked by the Dow Jones Sustainable Indexes (DJSI) through financial market indexes that are derived from the Dow Jones Global Indexes. The sustainability activities of firms are assessed using criteria in three areas, namely economic, envir...

  8. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  9. Environmental risk assessment of acrylamide and methylolacrylamide from a grouting agent used in the tunnel construction of Romeriksporten, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weideborg, M; Källqvist, T; Odegård, K E; Sverdrup, L E; Vik, E A

    2001-08-01

    Increased focus on the possible evironmental risk associated with large-scale use of grouting agents has revealed that leakage of chemicals from grouting activities may cause harm to the environment. Chemical grouting agents are used to reduce water leakages in e.g. tunnel constructions. The present study focuses on monitoring results and environmental risk caused by releases of non-polymerised monomers during use of the acrylamide-based grouting agent Rhoca-Gil (Siprogel). Drainage water from the tunnel Romeriksporten was monitored with respect to acrylamide and methylolacrylamide, as leakage of these substances was observed earlier in connection with similar constructions where Rhoca-Gil was used. Concentrations of acrylamide and methylolacrylamide in the draining water showed that these substances leaked out both in connection with the injection of Rhoca-Gil and in connection with after-injection using other grouting agents. Gel formation studies with Rhoca-Gil showed that a low degree of polymerisation (and hence, large leakages of monomers) can be expected if the product is diluted with water. Results from investigation of the environmental fate of methylolacrylamide showed that this substance is chemically transformed at the high-pH conditions of the tunnel. Ecotoxicological testing of the substances and an environmental effects assessment for the receiving water (River Alna and the Oslofjord) showed that the discharge of acrylamide and methylolacrylamide may have caused effects on the aquatic life in the river and in a limited area of the fjord. PMID:11456163

  10. ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) and Risk Assessment Application in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    ATAYETER, Servet

    2014-01-01

    It is obvious that there is a strong pressure tion. In today's world, companies have to on aquaculture farms for their environmental decrease their negative impacts and show their impact on aquatic environments. Consumers commitment to the environment. An effective are also becoming more and more conscious environmental management system can help a about environmental issues and clean produccompany as an administrative tool.

  11. Environmental (Saprozoic Pathogens of Engineered Water Systems: Understanding Their Ecology for Risk Assessment and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Ashbolt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Major waterborne (enteric pathogens are relatively well understood and treatment controls are effective when well managed. However, water-based, saprozoic pathogens that grow within engineered water systems (primarily within biofilms/sediments cannot be controlled by water treatment alone prior to entry into water distribution and other engineered water systems. Growth within biofilms or as in the case of Legionella pneumophila, primarily within free-living protozoa feeding on biofilms, results from competitive advantage. Meaning, to understand how to manage water-based pathogen diseases (a sub-set of saprozoses we need to understand the microbial ecology of biofilms; with key factors including biofilm bacterial diversity that influence amoebae hosts and members antagonistic to water-based pathogens, along with impacts from biofilm substratum, water temperature, flow conditions and disinfectant residual—all control variables. Major saprozoic pathogens covering viruses, bacteria, fungi and free-living protozoa are listed, yet today most of the recognized health burden from drinking waters is driven by legionellae, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM and, to a lesser extent, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In developing best management practices for engineered water systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP or water safety plan (WSP approaches, multi-factor control strategies, based on quantitative microbial risk assessments need to be developed, to reduce disease from largely opportunistic, water-based pathogens.

  12. Environmental risk assessment of chemicals and nanomaterials — The best foundation for regulatory decision-making?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    and, subsequently, to quantify risk. In this paper we argue that since the quantification of risk is dominated by uncertainties, ERAs do not provide a transparent or an objective foundation for decision-making and they should therefore not be considered as a “holy grail” for informing risk management...

  13. Probabilistic risk assessment of the environmental impacts of pesticides in the Crocodile (west) Marico catchment, North-West Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ansara-Ross, T.; Wepener, V.; Brink, van den, R.B.A.; Ross, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    External agricultural inputs, such as pesticides, may pose risks to aquatic ecosystems and affect aquatic populations, communities and ecosystems. To predict these risks, a tiered approach was followed, incorporating both the PRIMET and PERPEST models. The first-tier PRIMET model is designed to yield a relatively worst-case risk assessment requiring a minimum of input data, after which the effects of the risks can be refined using a higher tier PERPEST model. The risk assessment initially dep...

  14. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  15. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  16. Environmental Risk Assessment of Fluctuating Diazinon Concentrations in an Urban and Agricultural Catchment Using Toxicokinetic–Toxicodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Temporally resolved environmental risk assessment of fluctuating concentrations of micropollutants is presented. We separated the prediction of toxicity over time from the extrapolation from one to many species and from acute to sublethal effects. A toxicokinetic–toxicodynamic (TKTD) model predicted toxicity caused by fluctuating concentrations of diazinon, measured by time-resolved sampling over 108 days from three locations in a stream network, representing urban, agricultural and mixed land use. We calculated extrapolation factors to quantify variation in toxicity among species and effect types based on available toxicity data, while correcting for different test durations with the TKTD model. Sampling from the distribution of extrapolation factors and prediction of time-resolved toxicity with the TKTD model facilitated subsequent calculation of the risk of undesired toxic events. Approximately one-fifth of aquatic organisms were at risk and fluctuating concentrations were more toxic than their averages. Contribution of urban and agricultural sources of diazinon to the overall risk varied. Thus using fixed concentrations as water quality criteria appears overly simplistic because it ignores the temporal dimension of toxicity. However, the improved prediction of toxicity for fluctuating concentrations may be small compared to uncertainty due to limited diversity of toxicity data to base the extrapolation factors on. PMID:21958042

  17. Environmental risk assessment of fluctuating diazinon concentrations in an urban and agricultural catchment using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; Wittmer, Irene; Stamm, Christian; Escher, Beate I

    2011-11-15

    Temporally resolved environmental risk assessment of fluctuating concentrations of micropollutants is presented. We separated the prediction of toxicity over time from the extrapolation from one to many species and from acute to sublethal effects. A toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) model predicted toxicity caused by fluctuating concentrations of diazinon, measured by time-resolved sampling over 108 days from three locations in a stream network, representing urban, agricultural and mixed land use. We calculated extrapolation factors to quantify variation in toxicity among species and effect types based on available toxicity data, while correcting for different test durations with the TKTD model. Sampling from the distribution of extrapolation factors and prediction of time-resolved toxicity with the TKTD model facilitated subsequent calculation of the risk of undesired toxic events. Approximately one-fifth of aquatic organisms were at risk and fluctuating concentrations were more toxic than their averages. Contribution of urban and agricultural sources of diazinon to the overall risk varied. Thus using fixed concentrations as water quality criteria appears overly simplistic because it ignores the temporal dimension of toxicity. However, the improved prediction of toxicity for fluctuating concentrations may be small compared to uncertainty due to limited diversity of toxicity data to base the extrapolation factors on. PMID:21958042

  18. European Environmental Priorities: an Integrated Economic and Environmental Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa K; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  19. Environmental risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional Risk Analysis (RA) relates usually a certain undesired event frequency with its consequences. Such technique is used nowadays in Brazil to analyze accidents and their consequences strictly under the human approach, valuing loss of human equipment, human structures and human lives, without considering the damage caused to natural resources that keep life possible on Earth. This paradigm was developed primarily because of the Homo sapiens' lack of perception upon the natural web needed to sustain his own life. In reality, the Brazilian professionals responsible today for licensing, auditing and inspecting environmental aspects of human activities face huge difficulties in making technical specifications and procedures leading to acceptable levels of impact, furthermore considering the intrinsic difficulties to define those levels. Therefore, in Brazil the RA technique is a weak tool for licensing for many reasons, and of them are its short scope (only accident considerations) and wrong a paradigm (only human direct damages). A paper from the author about the former was already proposed to the 7th International Conference on Environmetrics, past July'96, USP-SP. This one discusses the extension of the risk analysis concept to take into account environmental consequences, transforming the conventional analysis into a broader methodology named here as Environmental Risk Analysis. (author)

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS WITH OIL ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Zelenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The principles of estimation of losses to the environment components caused by the emergency spills of petroleum products and the methodical approaches to estimation of ecological risk of functioning of railways are offered.

  1. Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Mena, K. D.; Nickerson, C.A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, microbiological spaceflight requirements have been established in a subjective manner based upon expert opinion of both environmental and clinical monitoring results and the incidence of disease. The limited amount of data, especially from long-duration missions, has created very conservative requirements based primarily on the concentration of microorganisms. Periodic reevaluations of new data from later missions have allowed some relaxation of these stringent requirements. However, the requirements remain very conservative and subjective in nature, and the risk of crew illness due to infectious microorganisms is not well defined. The use of modeling techniques for microbial risk has been applied in the food and potable water industries and has exceptional potential for spaceflight applications. From a productivity standpoint, this type of modeling can (1) decrease unnecessary costs and resource usage and (2) prevent inadequate or inappropriate data for health assessment. In addition, a quantitative model has several advantages for risk management and communication. By identifying the variable components of the model and the knowledge associated with each component, this type of modeling can: (1) Systematically identify and close knowledge gaps, (2) Systematically identify acceptable and unacceptable risks, (3) Improve communication with stakeholders as to the reasons for resource use, and (4) Facilitate external scientific approval of the NASA requirements. The modeling of microbial risk involves the evaluation of several key factors including hazard identification, crew exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Many of these factors are similar to conditions found on Earth; however, the spaceflight environment is very specialized as the inhabitants live in a small, semi-closed environment that is often dependent on regenerative life support systems. To further complicate modeling efforts, microbial dose

  2. Toxicity Bioassays for Ecological Risk Assessment in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems. Reviews Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 168:43-98.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwiese, J.T.; Ryti, R.T.; Hooten, M.M.; Michael, D.I.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    2001-02-01

    This paper discusses current limitations for performing ecological risk assessments in dry environments (i.e., ecosystems that are characteristic of many DOE Facilities) and presents novel approaches to addressing ecological risk in such systems.

  3. Toxicity Bioassays for Ecological Risk Assessment in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems. Reviews Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 168:43-98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses current limitations for performing ecological risk assessments in dry environments (i.e., ecosystems that are characteristic of many DOE Facilities) and presents novel approaches to addressing ecological risk in such systems

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE HORTICULTURAL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Douglas D.; Helal, Uddin

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses environmental risk assessment as a nutrient management planning tool to determine the best set of actions to control nutrient nonpoint source pollution in the horticultural industry. The framework minimizes costs subject to obtaining an environmental risk management score at or below a threshold value.

  5. How to use mechanistic effect models in environmental risk assessment of pesticides: Case studies and recommendations from the SETAC workshop MODELINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Forbes, Valery; Grimm, Volker; Preuss, Thomas G; Thorbek, Pernille; Ducrot, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic effect models (MEMs) are useful tools for ecological risk assessment of chemicals to complement experimentation. However, currently no recommendations exist for how to use them in risk assessments. Therefore, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) MODELINK workshop aimed at providing guidance for when and how to apply MEMs in regulatory risk assessments. The workshop focused on risk assessment of plant protection products under Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 using MEMs at the organism and population levels. Realistic applications of MEMs were demonstrated in 6 case studies covering assessments for plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. From the case studies and their evaluation, 12 recommendations on the future use of MEMs were formulated, addressing the issues of how to translate specific protection goals into workable questions, how to select species and scenarios to be modeled, and where and how to fit MEMs into current and future risk assessment schemes. The most important recommendations are that protection goals should be made more quantitative; the species to be modeled must be vulnerable not only regarding toxic effects but also regarding their life history and dispersal traits; the models should be as realistic as possible for a specific risk assessment question, and the level of conservatism required for a specific risk assessment should be reached by designing appropriately conservative environmental and exposure scenarios; scenarios should include different regions of the European Union (EU) and different crops; in the long run, generic MEMs covering relevant species based on representative scenarios should be developed, which will require EU-level joint initiatives of all stakeholders involved. The main conclusion from the MODELINK workshop is that the considerable effort required for making MEMs an integral part of environmental risk assessment of pesticides is worthwhile, because

  6. THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING NEUROTOXIC RISK FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  7. METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION SITUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dinis, M. L.; fiuza, a

    2009-01-01

    Frequently environmental pollution results from different hazardous substances released in the environment, meaning that contaminated sites may have many different chemical sources and transport pathways. Problems concerning environmental pollution affect mainly physical, chemical and biological properties of air, water and soil. The relationships between the sources, exposure and effects of contaminants to human and ecological receptors are complex and many times are specific to a particular...

  8. Model project for the pollution investigation of a lake. The use of nuclear techniques for environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution monitoring and the protection of water resources are vital in terms of public health and economical consequences for many of the countries. The use of nuclear and isotopic techniques for pollution investigation of water resources on the other hand has been gaining more importance during the recent years. In recognition of the serious pollution problems of the surface water resources; a large scope multidisciplinary environmental management project with short title 'Lake Project' which is designed and developed by the group of scientists at the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority is presented. This multidisciplinary project has various important aspects; scientific, social, economic, educational, cultural and political. Specific problem a dressed was the serious pollution of Kucukcekmece Lake due to high population and industrial growth in the region as well as creation of public awareness on the peaceful activities of the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center. The main objective was to promote the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques in the assessment of local, national and regional environmental pollution control and management. The project implementation was carried out in two phases and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Water, biota and sediment samples were collected from several sampling stations seasonally. Some of the results are presented in tables for natural radioactivity, chemical and physical parameters. The first phases of the project has provided tools and methods for identifying types and magnitudes of contaminants in the Kucukcekmece Lake. Results obtained from the model project show that the radioactivity pollution levels have no significance in terms of human health and ecosystem. However, major problem regarding lake and marine environmental management is identified as eutrophication. This is a process of water quality degradation caused by mainly by domestic

  9. Modeling the fate of paddy field pesticide in surface water and environmental risk assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The risk of drinking water is greatly concerned because of the large amount of pesticide applied to paddy field and the contamination of drinking water sources due to the runoff. A mathematical model is developed, based on the mass balance, to predict the fate of paddy field pesticides from application, runoff and mixing in a river, taking account of the physical-chemical properties and processes of volatilization, degradation, adsorption and desorption. The model is applied to a river basin in Japan to estimate the contaminant level of several popularly used pesticides at the water intakes. The health risk in drinking water induced by each pesticide concerned is estimated and evaluated by comparing with the acceptable daily intake values (ADI) and with that induced by trihalomethanes. An index to evaluate the total risk of all pesticides appearing in water is proposed. The methods for risk management are also discussed.

  10. Cadmium mobility in sediments and soils from a coal mining area on Tibagi River watershed: Environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The cadmium sorption–desorption behavior on environmental samples was investigated. • The sorption decreased due to competition between Cd and protons in aqueous medium. • The experimental data were successfully adjusted to the Langmuir–Freundlich model. • The role of low-energy non-specific sites on the sample surfaces was elucidated. • The desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium pollution. -- Abstract: The risk of cadmium contamination in the Tibagi River watershed (Parana State, Brazil) affected by past coal mining activities was assessed through sorption–desorption modeling for sediment and soil samples. The acidic character of the samples resulted in more competition between the cadmium ions and protons, thereby influencing the cadmium sorption–desorption. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich single models and to the dual-site Langmuir–Freundlich (or Sips) model. The single-site models indicated a low-energy character of sorption sites on the sample sorption sites, whereas the dual-site model explained the availability of higher-affinity and lower-affinity non-specific sites. The correlation of the sorption and desorption constants with the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the samples showed that the cadmium sorption behavior was significantly affected by the pH, point of zero charge, and also by the magnesium, aluminum, calcium and manganese amounts. Besides, the desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium mobilization along the Tibagi River basin

  11. Cadmium mobility in sediments and soils from a coal mining area on Tibagi River watershed: Environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galunin, Evgeny; Ferreti, Jeferson; Zapelini, Iago; Vieira, Isadora; Ricardo Teixeira Tarley, César [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Abrão, Taufik [Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Santos, Maria Josefa, E-mail: mjyabe@uel.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • The cadmium sorption–desorption behavior on environmental samples was investigated. • The sorption decreased due to competition between Cd and protons in aqueous medium. • The experimental data were successfully adjusted to the Langmuir–Freundlich model. • The role of low-energy non-specific sites on the sample surfaces was elucidated. • The desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium pollution. -- Abstract: The risk of cadmium contamination in the Tibagi River watershed (Parana State, Brazil) affected by past coal mining activities was assessed through sorption–desorption modeling for sediment and soil samples. The acidic character of the samples resulted in more competition between the cadmium ions and protons, thereby influencing the cadmium sorption–desorption. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich single models and to the dual-site Langmuir–Freundlich (or Sips) model. The single-site models indicated a low-energy character of sorption sites on the sample sorption sites, whereas the dual-site model explained the availability of higher-affinity and lower-affinity non-specific sites. The correlation of the sorption and desorption constants with the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the samples showed that the cadmium sorption behavior was significantly affected by the pH, point of zero charge, and also by the magnesium, aluminum, calcium and manganese amounts. Besides, the desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium mobilization along the Tibagi River basin.

  12. A Review on Environmental Pollution and Human Risk Assessment Model%国内外环境健康风险评价框架研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡习邦

    2016-01-01

    环境污染与人体健康问题引起了世界各国的高度关注。本文对比研究了美国著名的环境健康风险评价“四步法”,即危害鉴别、剂量-效应关系评价、暴露评价和风险表征评价框架,欧盟EUSES健康风险评价模型框架,以及Briggs(2008)构建的一个综合污染源、危害、环境风险、剂量反应等过程的环境健康范式及风险评价框架。同时,还介绍了一些发达国家研究制订的系列环境与健康风险评价的框架以及相关法律、法规和指南,为我国环境污染与人体健康风险评估和管理提供参考。%More attention are payed on environmental pollution and human health issues in the world� This paper compared the well-known American “Four-step Method” for environmental health risk assessment, namely, hazard identification, dose-effect relationship assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization assessment, with the EU EUSES models for health risk assessment framework and with the environmental risk assessment framework constructed by Briggs ( 2008 ) for a comprehensive process of pollution sources, hazard, environmental risk and dose-response and so on. Meanwhile, a series of environmental health risk assessment and relevant laws, regulations and guidelines in some developed countries is provided for health risk assessment and management in China.

  13. Pipeline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

  14. Stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization of uncertainty and variability in risk assessments: A case study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil at a petroleum-contaminated site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Wang, Zesen; Wen, Jingya; Li, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Better decisions are made using risk assessment models when uncertainty and variability are explicitly acknowledged. Uncertainty caused by a lack of uniform and scientifically supported environmental quality guidelines and variability in the degree of exposure of environmental systems to contaminants are here incorporated in a stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization (SFERC) approach. The approach is based on quotient probability distribution and environmental risk level fuzzy membership function methods. The SFERC framework was used to characterize the environmental risks posed by 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil at a typical petroleum-contaminated site in China. This relied on integrating data from the literature and field and laboratory experiments. The environmental risk levels posed by the PAHs under four risk scenarios were determined using the SFERC approach, using "residential land" and "industrial land" environmental quality guidelines under "loose" and "strict" strictness parameters. The results showed that environmental risks posed by PAHs in soil are primarily caused by oil exploitation, traffic emissions, and coal combustion. The SFERC approach is an effective tool for characterizing uncertainty and variability in environmental risk assessments and for managing contaminated sites. PMID:27232725

  15. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:May 31,2016 We're sorry, but ... Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal ...

  16. Uncertainty in environmental health risk assessment: a framework for analysis and an application to a chronic exposure situation involving a chemical carcinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of uncertainty and inter-individual variability is not rigorously addressed in current environmental health risk assessments performed for regulatory purposes. The availability of such information on a systematic basis would not only serve to clarify technical assumptions underlying risk assessment, but would also greatly facilitate the application of more-sophisticated quantitative approaches to risk management decision making. Here, focusing on the particular context of regulatory risk assessment for chemical carcinogens, a taxonomy of uncertainty and variability in the elements of risk assessment is developed, potential generic sources are reviewed and a critical overview of some current approaches to incorporating uncertainty and variability into risk assessment is offered. The general problems of compounded uncertainty and creeping safety - regarding the degree to which uncertainty or safety assumed in each component of a risk assessment may be compounded or magnified in a final risk prediction - are described. A formal methodology is developed for qualitative uncertainty analysis, i.e., the quantitative analysis of the impact that modeled uncertainty and/or variability in each component of a risk assessment has on uncertainty and variability in final predicted risk.

  17. Integrated Assessment of Pesticides: methods for Predicting and Detecting Environmental Risks in a Safety Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, H.A.J.; Voogt, de P.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Roon, van A.; Kwast, O.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter a proposed pesticide safety net which covers all stages of the life cycle of a pesticide is discussed. The authors review the availability of methods of prediction and detection of environmental occurrence and effects of pesticides, their impurities and metabolites

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROBIAL METAGENOMIC MARKERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbiological water quality standards established by EPA depend on culturing fecal indicator bacteria to predict the risks associated with water usage. For decades this has been the favored approach to microbiological monitoring in spite of the fact that culture-based meth...

  19. Chapter 6: Ecotoxicology, Environmental Risk Assessment & Potential Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter examines potential risks posed by pharmaceuticals present in the aquatic environment to humans and aquatic life. We begin by describing the mechanisms by which pharmaceuticals enter the vertebrate body, produce effects and leave the body. Then we describe theoretical...

  20. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Martínez Bueno, María J; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. PMID:19932535

  1. Dose-response modeling for the environmental risk assessment in cases of technogenic soil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shitikov Vladimir Kirilloviсh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of regression models for the approximation of dependences "dose- response" was performed based on ecotoxicological results. The advantages and deficiencies of different models as well as the problems arising both in modeling and subsequent interpreting results are discussed for the purpose of ecological rationing and estimation of negative influence risk. Search procedures of best dependences based on statistical criteria and the methods of uncertainty estimation of calculated parameters are shown. Construction of models is illustrated in detail using the analysis of toxicity results of soil samples received from uranium mines tailings in Kadzhi-Say province (Kyrgyzstan. Threshold values of activity for U-238 and Ra-226 radionuclides providing the minimum probability of ecological risk were determined.

  2. Introducing a Transdisciplinary Approach in Studies regarding Risk Assessment and Management in Educational Programs for Environmental Engineers and Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoni, Scira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how long term risk prevention and civil protection may enter in university programs for environmental engineers and urban and regional planners. Design/methodology/approach: First the distinction between long term risk prevention and emergency preparedness is made, showing that while the first has…

  3. Health, safety, and environmental risk assessment of steel production complex in central Iran using TOPSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozi, S A; Majd, N Moradi

    2014-10-01

    This research was carried out with the aim of presenting an environmental management plan for steel production complex (SPC) in central Iran. Following precise identification of the plant activities as well as the study area, possible sources of environmental pollution and adverse impacts on the air quality, water, soil, biological environment, socioeconomic and cultural environment, and health and safety of the employees were determined considering the work processes of the steel complex. Afterwards, noise, wastewater, and air pollution sources were measured. Subsequently, factors polluting the steel complex were identified by TOPSIS and then prioritized using Excel Software. Based on the obtained results, the operation of the furnaces in hot rolling process with the score 1, effluent derived from hot rolling process with the score 0.565, nonprincipal disposal and dumping of waste at the plant enclosure with the score 0.335, walking beam process with the score 1.483 respectively allocated themselves the highest priority in terms of air, water, soil and noise pollution. In terms of habitats, land cover and socioeconomic and cultural environment, closeness to the forest area and the existence of four groups of wildlife with the score 1.106 and proximity of villages and residential areas to the plant with the score 3.771 respectively enjoyed the highest priorities while impressibility and occupational accidents with the score 2.725 and cutting and welding operations with score 2.134 had the highest priority among health and safety criteria. Finally, strategies for the control of pollution sources were identified and Training, Monitoring and environmental management plan of the SPC was prepared. PMID:25049141

  4. Use of information: environmental standards, assessments of risk, prevention and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklake, M R

    1985-07-22

    Information which relates morbidity or mortality to environmental conditions (exposure-response relationships) forms the basis for public health as well as for clinical action. For both types of action, the information base is the same, neither complete nor comprehensive. So, both types of action are based on hypothesis, the best available to explain the facts, but subject to review in the light of new facts. Even though the volume of information may be considerable, as in the case of asbestos, there are always gaps in knowledge to be bridged by judgement. This should be made on the basis of as complete an evaluation as possible of all the available evidence.

  5. Potential roles of omics data in the use of adverse outcome pathways for environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current approach to assessing adverse effects of chemicals in the environment is largely based on a battery of in-vivo study methods and a limited number of accepted in-silico approaches. For most substances the pool of data from which to predict ecosystem effects is limited ...

  6. Can a GIS toolbox assess the environmental risk of oil spills? Implementation for oil facilities in harbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Velarde, Víctor; Puente, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Oil spills are one of the most widespread problems in port areas (loading/unloading of bulk liquid, fuel supply). Specific environmental risk analysis procedures for diffuse oil sources that are based on the evolution of oil in the marine environment are needed. Diffuse sources such as oil spills usually present a lack of information, which makes the use of numerical models an arduous and occasionally impossible task. For that reason, a tool that can assess the risk of oil spills in near-shore areas by using Geographical Information System (GIS) is presented. The SPILL Tool provides immediate results by automating the process without miscalculation errors. The tool was developed using the Python and ArcGIS scripting library to build a non-ambiguous geoprocessing workflow. The SPILL Tool was implemented for oil facilities at Tarragona Harbor (NE Spain) and validated showing a satisfactory correspondence (around 0.60 RSR error index) with the results obtained using a 2D calibrated oil transport numerical model. PMID:26807821

  7. Can a GIS toolbox assess the environmental risk of oil spills? Implementation for oil facilities in harbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Velarde, Víctor; Puente, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Oil spills are one of the most widespread problems in port areas (loading/unloading of bulk liquid, fuel supply). Specific environmental risk analysis procedures for diffuse oil sources that are based on the evolution of oil in the marine environment are needed. Diffuse sources such as oil spills usually present a lack of information, which makes the use of numerical models an arduous and occasionally impossible task. For that reason, a tool that can assess the risk of oil spills in near-shore areas by using Geographical Information System (GIS) is presented. The SPILL Tool provides immediate results by automating the process without miscalculation errors. The tool was developed using the Python and ArcGIS scripting library to build a non-ambiguous geoprocessing workflow. The SPILL Tool was implemented for oil facilities at Tarragona Harbor (NE Spain) and validated showing a satisfactory correspondence (around 0.60 RSR error index) with the results obtained using a 2D calibrated oil transport numerical model.

  8. Dioxins levels in breast milk of women living in Caserta and Naples: assessment of environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Armando; Rivezzi, Gaetano; Carideo, Pietro; Ceci, Roberta; Diletti, Gianfranco; Ippoliti, Carla; Migliorati, Giacomo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Ripani, Alessandro; Salini, Romolo; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2014-01-01

    Naples and Caserta provinces are extensively affected by the illegal dumping of hazardous and urban wastes, which were periodically set to fire. Several studies were made on the possible health impact of this illegal waste management. The aim of the study was to detect dioxins levels in breast milk of volunteer primiparae and to assess the possible source of dioxins in the affected areas. The authors determined dioxins levels in breast milk from 100 primiparae from the study area and collected anamnestic information on donors. We determined dioxins levels in breast milk from 100 primiparae from the study area and collected anamnestic information on donors. As a measure of environmental risk of dioxins (EDR) we used the interpolated values of dioxins concentration in buffalo milk samples collected in the study area. Correlations between the EDR, age of the mother, smoking habit, cheese consumption, occupation in activity at risk, presence of plants for the disposal of toxic waste or illegal burning of solid waste near the residence of the donor and dioxin level in breast milk were investigated. The dioxin level in breast milk is significantly correlated to the EDR, the age of the sampled women and the presence of illegal burning of solid waste. PMID:24120012

  9. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  10. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... and toxicity. Whereas Risk Assessment (RA) aims to identify absolute risks, LCA assess potential or relative impacts. LCA is readily applicable to nanotechnologies and several studies have been carried out, but LCA faces large problems when addressing toxic impacts of nanomaterials emitted during the life...... the emissions, how should they be defined and classified and what should be measured? LCA have many of these issues in common with RA. There is a need to understand which properties of nanomaterials are crucial for the assessment of their potential transformation and fate as well as their ability to cause...

  11. Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter J; Jian, Jun

    2011-12-13

    The uncertainty associated with predicting extreme weather events has serious implications for the developing world, owing to the greater societal vulnerability to such events. Continual exposure to unanticipated extreme events is a contributing factor for the descent into perpetual and structural rural poverty. We provide two examples of how probabilistic environmental prediction of extreme weather events can support dynamic adaptation. In the current climate era, we describe how short-term flood forecasts have been developed and implemented in Bangladesh. Forecasts of impending floods with horizons of 10 days are used to change agricultural practices and planning, store food and household items and evacuate those in peril. For the first time in Bangladesh, floods were anticipated in 2007 and 2008, with broad actions taking place in advance of the floods, grossing agricultural and household savings measured in units of annual income. We argue that probabilistic environmental forecasts disseminated to an informed user community can reduce poverty caused by exposure to unanticipated extreme events. Second, it is also realized that not all decisions in the future can be made at the village level and that grand plans for water resource management require extensive planning and funding. Based on imperfect models and scenarios of economic and population growth, we further suggest that flood frequency and intensity will increase in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Yangtze catchments as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase. However, irrespective of the climate-change scenario chosen, the availability of fresh water in the latter half of the twenty-first century seems to be dominated by population increases that far outweigh climate-change effects. Paradoxically, fresh water availability may become more critical if there is no climate change.

  12. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  13. Risk assessment for the off-site transportation of high-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of high-level waste (HLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers risks to collective populations and individuals under both routine and accident transportation conditions for truck and rail shipment modes. The report discusses the scope of the HLW transportation assessment, describes the analytical methods used for the assessment, defines the alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, and details important assessment assumptions. Results are reported for four alternatives. In addition, to aid in the understanding and interpretation of the results, specific areas of uncertainty are described, with an emphasis on how the uncertainties may affect comparisons of the alternatives. The number and scope of the WM PEIS HLW alternatives were revised after the preparation of this report. An addendum has been added to make this HLW transportation risk assessment consistent with that presented in the WM PEIS

  14. Estimation of sport fish harvest for risk and hazard assessment of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of contaminated fish flesh can be a significant route of human exposure to hazardous chemicals. Estimation of exposure resulting from the consumption of fish requires knowledge of fish consumption and contaminant levels in the edible portion of fish. Realistic figures of sport fish harvest are needed to estimate consumption. Estimates of freshwater sport fish harvest were developed from a review of 72 articles and reports. Descriptive statistics based on fishing pressure were derived from harvest data for four distinct groups of freshwater sport fish in three water types: streams, lakes, and reservoirs. Regression equations were developed to relate harvest to surface area fished where data bases were sufficiently large. Other aspects of estimating human exposure to contaminants in fish flesh that are discussed include use of bioaccumulation factors for trace metals and organic compounds. Using the bioaccumulation factor and the concentration of contaminants in water as variables in the exposure equation may also lead to less precise estimates of tissue concentration. For instance, muscle levels of contaminants may not increase proportionately with increases in water concentrations, leading to overestimation of risk. In addition, estimates of water concentration may be variable or expressed in a manner that does not truly represent biological availability of the contaminant. These factors are discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  15. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, Hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  16. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  17. Strategic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  18. The environmental impact and risk assessment of CO2 capture, transport and storage - an evaluation of the knowledge base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.M.; Ramirez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we identify and characterize known and new environmental consequences associated with CO2 capture from power plants, transport by pipeline and storage in geological formations. We have reviewed (analogous) environmental impact assessment procedures and scientific literature on carbon

  19. State of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the growing importance assumed in recent years by scientific work on the calculation, quantification, evaluation and acceptance as well as behavior in the face of risks in general and more specifically, the risks of large industrial plants, the report attempts to provide a survey of the current situation, results and evaluation of this new branch of research, risk assessment. The emphasis of the report is on the basic discussion and criticism of the theoretical and methodological approaches used in the field of risk assessment (section 3). It is concerned above all with - methodical problems of determining and quantifying risks (3.1) - questions of the possibility of risk evaluation and comp arison (3.1, 3.2) - the premises of normative and empirical studies on decision making under risk (3.2, 3.3) - investigations into society's acceptance of risks involved in the introduction of new technologies (3.4) - attempts to combine various aspects of the field of risk assessment in a unified concept (3.5, 3.6, 3.7). Because risk assessment is embedded in the framework of decision theory and technology assessment, it can be implicitly evaluated at a more general level within this framework, as far as its possibilities and weaknesses of method and application are concerned (section 4). Sections 2 and 5 deal with the social context of origin and utilization of risk assessment. Finally, an attempt is made at a summary indicating the possible future development of risk assessment. (orig./HP)

  20. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms open-quote risk assessment close-quote and open-quote risk management close-quote are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of open-quotes... the most significant data and uncertainties...close quotes in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are open-quotes...those that define and explain the main risk conclusionsclose quotes. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation

  1. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

  2. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.

    1986-04-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report.

  3. Biogeochemical assessment of environmental risk by the example of Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Dmitry Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using annual rings of Pinus sylvestris L. to assess chemical pollution in the Republic of Karelia is discussed. With the help of principal component factor analysis the relationship between the contents of chemical elements and dendrological parameters – the width of annual rings and wood density - was revealed. The main factors contributing to the pollution of the northern part of the Republic of Karelia by the emission from iron-ore enterprise JSC «Karelsky Okatysh» are frequent ecologically significant wind directions, the distance from the source and the total mass of the emission. The value of radial growth (the average width of annual rings for five-years of Pinus sylvestris L. is connected negatively with the content of Cu, Cd, Ni and Fe. As an element of nutrition, Mn is positively correlated with the density of wood wherein it is an antagonist of Fe and partially of Cr in northern areas . Several peaks of Pb content coincide with the most intense tests of atomic weapons. Sharp maximums of Pb can also be due to a cross-border pollution and emission from regional sources.

  4. Selection of focal earthworm species as non-target soil organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelle, Christine; Schrader, Stefan; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    By means of a literature survey, earthworm species of significant relevance for soil functions in different biogeographical regions of Europe (Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean) were identified. These focal earthworm species, defined here according to the EFSA Guidance Document on the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified plants, are typical for arable soils under crop rotations with maize and/or potatoes within the three regions represented by Ireland, Sweden and Spain, respectively. Focal earthworm species were selected following a matrix of four steps: Identification of functional groups, categorization of non-target species, ranking species on ecological criteria, and final selection of focal species. They are recommended as appropriate non-target organisms to assess environmental risks of genetically modified (GM) crops; in this case maize and potatoes. In total, 44 literature sources on earthworms in arable cropping systems including maize or potato from Ireland, Sweden and Spain were collected, which present information on species diversity, individual density and specific relevance for soil functions. By means of condensed literature data, those species were identified which (i) play an important functional role in respective soil systems, (ii) are well adapted to the biogeographical regions, (iii) are expected to occur in high abundances under cultivation of maize or potato and (iv) fulfill the requirements for an ERA test system based on life-history traits. First, primary and secondary decomposers were identified as functional groups being exposed to the GM crops. In a second step, anecic and endogeic species were categorized as potential species. In step three, eight anecic and endogeic earthworm species belonging to the family Lumbricidae were ranked as relevant species: Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea longa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus friendi, Octodrilus complanatus and

  5. Selection of focal earthworm species as non-target soil organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelle, Christine; Schrader, Stefan; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    By means of a literature survey, earthworm species of significant relevance for soil functions in different biogeographical regions of Europe (Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean) were identified. These focal earthworm species, defined here according to the EFSA Guidance Document on the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified plants, are typical for arable soils under crop rotations with maize and/or potatoes within the three regions represented by Ireland, Sweden and Spain, respectively. Focal earthworm species were selected following a matrix of four steps: Identification of functional groups, categorization of non-target species, ranking species on ecological criteria, and final selection of focal species. They are recommended as appropriate non-target organisms to assess environmental risks of genetically modified (GM) crops; in this case maize and potatoes. In total, 44 literature sources on earthworms in arable cropping systems including maize or potato from Ireland, Sweden and Spain were collected, which present information on species diversity, individual density and specific relevance for soil functions. By means of condensed literature data, those species were identified which (i) play an important functional role in respective soil systems, (ii) are well adapted to the biogeographical regions, (iii) are expected to occur in high abundances under cultivation of maize or potato and (iv) fulfill the requirements for an ERA test system based on life-history traits. First, primary and secondary decomposers were identified as functional groups being exposed to the GM crops. In a second step, anecic and endogeic species were categorized as potential species. In step three, eight anecic and endogeic earthworm species belonging to the family Lumbricidae were ranked as relevant species: Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea longa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus friendi, Octodrilus complanatus and

  6. Comparison between three different LCIA methods for aquatic ecotoxicity and a product Environmental Risk Assessment – Insights from a Detergent Case Study within OMNIITOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Rana; Van Hoof, Geert; Feijtel, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    Background and Objective. In the OMNIITOX project 11 partners have the common objective to improve environmental management tools for the assessment of (eco)toxicological impacts. The detergent case study aims at: i) comparing three Procter & Gamble laundry detergent forms (Regular Powder......) with results from an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA). Material and Methods. The LCIA has been conducted with EDIP97 (chronic aquatic ecotoxicity) [1], USES-LCA (freshwater and marine water aquatic ecotoxicity, sometimes referred to as CML2001) [2, 3] and IMPACT 2002 (covering freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity......) [4]. The comparative product ERA is based on the EU Ecolabel approach for detergents [5] and EUSES [6], which is based on the Technical Guidance Document (TGD) of the EU on Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of chemicals [7]. Apart from the Eco-label approach, all calculations are based on the same...

  7. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R

    2015-03-01

    There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite

  8. Conceptual modeling for identification of worst case conditions in environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials using nZVI and C60 as case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Sørensen, Peter B.;

    2011-01-01

    studies which use engineered nanoparticles, namely nZVI in soil and groundwater remediation and C60 in an engine oil lubricant. Results generated from this analysis may ultimately help prioritize research areas for environmental risk assessments of nZVI and C60 in these applications as well as demonstrate...

  9. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  10. Techniques to Assess and Mitigate the Environmental Risk Posed by use of Airguns: Recent Advances from Academic Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. J.; Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; King, R.

    2006-05-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the ways in which marine mammals might react to noise, the biological significance of reactions, and the effectiveness of planning and real-time mitigation techniques. A planning tool commonly used to assess environmental risk of acoustic activities uses simulations to predict acoustic exposures received by animals, and translates exposure to response using a dose-response function to yield an estimate of the undesired impact on a population. Recent advances show promise to convert this planning tool into a real-time mitigation tool, using Bayesian statistical methods. In this approach, being developed for use by the British Navy, the environmental risk simulation is updated continuously during field operations. The distribution of exposure, set initially based on animal density, is updated in real-time using animal sensing data or environmental data known to correlate with the absence or presence of marine mammals. This conditional probability of animal presence should therefore be more accurate than prior probabilities used during planning, which enables a more accurate and quantitative assessment of both the impact of activities and reduction of impact via mitigation decisions. Two key areas of uncertainty in addition to animal presence/absence are 1.) how biologically-relevant behaviours are affected by exposure to noise, and 2.) whether animals avoid loud noise sources, which is the basis of ramp-up as a mitigation tool. With support from MMS and industry partners, we assessed foraging behaviour and avoidance movements of 8 tagged sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico during experimental exposure to airguns. The whale that was approached most closely prolonged a surface resting bout hours longer than typical, but resumed foraging immediately after the airguns ceased, suggesting avoidance of deep diving necessary for foraging near active airguns. Behavioral indices of foraging rate (echolocation buzzes produced during prey

  11. Exploration of the denotation and connotation of the environmental risk assessment%环境风险评价内涵与外延研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金惠; 李颖

    2012-01-01

    Hie present paper intends to make an exploration of the denotation and connotation of the environmental risk assessment by introducing the primary efforts made by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the USA, the European Environment A-gency, Japan and China in recent years, respectively. To make the general review of the advancements in the research in the environmental risk assessment (ERA), it seems necessary to have a retrospect of the problems ever encountered in the general risk assessment. That is to say, in terms of research advances at home and abroad, it is necessary to make a comment on a few popularly used ERA concepts proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA, UNEP and some other authoritative free-lance researchers in this connection, which can probably indicate that such unilateral ideas would not be enough to reflect the overwhelming significance of ERA in our time. According to an in-depth analysis of the denotation and connotation of ERA, a new idea with more comprehensive connotation has been proposed, in which it is recommended to perform a more comprehensive comparison of assessment procedures and methods involving three different evaluation indexes ( hazardous source item evaluation, human health risk assessment, and e-cological risk assessment) , and then ascribe the common features and correlated factors of the above three risk assessment indexes to the essential connotation of ERA. Moreover, technical supports for human health risk assessment and eco-environment risk assessment have been provided by using the probability risk assessment method, which can serve as a theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment. And, in turn, ecological risk assessment can also provide a scientific guide to the environment-protection decision-making. Besides, this paper has also made a survey of the application status of ERA in different fields, on the basis of which, we have delineated the extension of ERA from the

  12. Assessment of the risk of failure of high voltage substations due to environmental conditions and pollution on insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-07-01

    Pollution on electrical insulators is one of the greatest causes of failure of substations subjected to high levels of salinity and environmental pollution. Considering leakage current as the main indicator of pollution on insulators, this paper focuses on establishing the effect of the environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators and determining the significant change in the magnitude of the pollution on the insulators during dry and humid periods. Hierarchical segmentation analysis was used to establish the effect of environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to determine the significant changes in the magnitude of the pollution due to climate periods. An important result was the discovery that leakage current was more common on insulators during dry periods than humid ones. There was also a higher risk of failure due to pollution during dry periods. During the humid period, various temperatures and wind directions produced a small change in the risk of failure. As a technical result, operators of electrical substations can now identify the cause of an increase in risk of failure due to pollution in the area. The research provides a contribution towards the behaviour of the leakage current under conditions similar to those of the Colombian Caribbean coast and how they affect the risk of failure of the substation due to pollution.

  13. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  14. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  15. Biosafety risk assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson; Wagner, Stefan M.; Shigematsu, Mika; Risi, George; Kozlovac, Joe; Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke; Prat, Esmeralda

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  16. Pb isotopic constrains and environmental risk assessment of the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive geochemical environmental study focused on topsoil, groundwater, vegetable (corn) and human hair samples has been carried out in the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano areas in Southern Italy, covering 1287 km2 and including 90 municipalities. Within the framework of thethis study a focus was also carried on some specific sites (Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Giugliano, Castelvolturno and Acerra), that may have been affected by different sources of pollution (industrial and agricultural) and by the large presence of illegal buried waste disposals. Among the industrial sites that are expected to contribute to the contamination of the region a car and a chemical factory producing polyester fibres could be taken into account together with an urban waste incineration plant that is in operation since 2009 within the Acerra municipality administrative area. The research is based on 1064 topsoil samples, 27 groundwater samples, 24 samples of human hair and 13 corn samples taken in across the whole study area. Although samples were analysed for 53 elements at ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by means of ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua regia digestion, we focused on 15 key elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn), for which the Italian Environmental Law 152/06 establishes trigger and action limits for both residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use, based on the risks to human health. All the chemical data were statistically treated and dot and interpolated maps were produced by means of the GeoDAS software. Maps showing the distribution of contamination factors (1) (Hakanson,1980) for each key element were also created. In general, As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg resulted to be the most critical pollutants for the area. Furthermore, Pb isotopic analyses on soil, water, corn and hair were conducted in order to distinguish between possible sources of contamination and geogenic and/or anthropogenic

  17. Environmental risks of shale gas development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shale gas development in China can generate great potential economic benefits, but also poses serious environmental risks. In this paper, we offer a macro assessment of the environmental risks of shale gas development in China. We use the US experience to identify the nature of shale gas development activities and the types of potential burdens these activities may create. We then review the baseline environmental conditions and the effectiveness of environmental regulations in China and discuss the implications of these China-specific factors for risk assessment. We recommend China to conduct a strategic environmental assessment and to consider sector-specific environmental regulations. - Highlights: • We assess the environmental risks of shale gas development in China. • We use the US experience to identify the potential environmental burdens. • The effectiveness of environmental regulations in China is generally weak. • China lacks environmental regulations specific to the oil and gas sector. • We recommend China to adopt policies to reduce environmental risks

  18. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan, E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Martinez Bueno, Maria J., E-mail: mjbueno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, Ana, E-mail: aaguera@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R., E-mail: amadeo@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  19. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  20. Risk Management in environmental geotechnical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammemäe, Olavi; Torn, Hardi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the basis of risk analysis, assessment and management, accompanying problems and principles of risk management when drafting an environmental geotechnical model, enabling the analysis of an entire territory or developed region as a whole. The environmental impact will remain within the limits of the criteria specified with the standards and will be acceptable for human health and environment. An essential part of the solution of the problem is the engineering-geological model based on risk analysis and the assessment and forecast of mutual effects of the processes.

  1. Transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation to import countries for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Shuichi; Hoshikawa, Kana; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-12-01

    Requirement of in-country confined field trials for genetically modified (GM) crops prior to unrestricted release is well-established among countries with domestic regulations for the cultivation approval of GM crops. However, the requirement of in-country confined field trials is not common in countries where the scope of the application does not include cultivation. Nonetheless, Japan and China request in-country confined field trials for GM crops which are intended only for use as food, feed and processing. This paper considers the transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation countries (e.g. United States, Canada, and South American countries) to import countries like Japan for the environmental risk assessment of GM crops by reviewing: (1) the purpose of confined field trial assessment, (2) weediness potential, defined as "an ability to establish and persist in an unmanaged area that is frequently disturbed by human activity", of host crops, and (3) reliability of the confined field trial data obtained from cultivation countries. To review the reliability of the confined field data obtained in the US, this paper describes actual examples of three confined field trials of approved GM corn events conducted both in the US and Japan. Based on the above considerations, this paper concludes that confined field data of GM corn and cotton is transportable from cultivation countries to importing countries (e.g. from the US to Japan), regardless of the characteristics of the inserted gene(s). In addition, this paper advocates harmonization of protocols for confined field trials to facilitate more efficient data transportability across different geographies.

  2. Transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation to import countries for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Shuichi; Hoshikawa, Kana; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-12-01

    Requirement of in-country confined field trials for genetically modified (GM) crops prior to unrestricted release is well-established among countries with domestic regulations for the cultivation approval of GM crops. However, the requirement of in-country confined field trials is not common in countries where the scope of the application does not include cultivation. Nonetheless, Japan and China request in-country confined field trials for GM crops which are intended only for use as food, feed and processing. This paper considers the transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation countries (e.g. United States, Canada, and South American countries) to import countries like Japan for the environmental risk assessment of GM crops by reviewing: (1) the purpose of confined field trial assessment, (2) weediness potential, defined as "an ability to establish and persist in an unmanaged area that is frequently disturbed by human activity", of host crops, and (3) reliability of the confined field trial data obtained from cultivation countries. To review the reliability of the confined field data obtained in the US, this paper describes actual examples of three confined field trials of approved GM corn events conducted both in the US and Japan. Based on the above considerations, this paper concludes that confined field data of GM corn and cotton is transportable from cultivation countries to importing countries (e.g. from the US to Japan), regardless of the characteristics of the inserted gene(s). In addition, this paper advocates harmonization of protocols for confined field trials to facilitate more efficient data transportability across different geographies. PMID:26138875

  3. On the need to assess cancer risk in populations environmentally and occupationally exposed to virus and chemical agents in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Netto Guilherme

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence exists that exposure to poultry oncogenic viruses may produce elevated cancer mortality in human populations, particularly excesses of cancer of lung and excesses of cancer of lymphopoietic tissues. To date, this potential risk is unknown in populations from the developing countries. This paper suggests the need to assess cancer risk in populations of developing countries with reported environmental exposure to chicken meat products and eggs; the need to assess risk of cancer in populations inoculated with vaccines from infected chicken embryos; and the need to assess risk of cancer in occupational populations highly exposed to poultry oncogenic viruses, and with potential concurrent exposure to chemical agents known or suspected to be carcinogens.

  4. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  5. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met

  6. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  7. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations for the cultivation of the genetically modified insect resistant maize Bt11 and MON 810

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2012-01-01

    The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize Bt11 or MON 810 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Statement supplementing the evaluation of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendati...

  8. Transportation radiological risk assessment for the programmatic environmental impact statement: An overview of methodologies, assumptions, and input parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future configuration of radioactive waste management at its network of facilities. Because the transportation of radioactive waste is an integral component of the management alternatives being considered, the estimated human health risks associated with both routine and accident transportation conditions must be assessed to allow a complete appraisal of the alternatives. This paper provides an overview of the technical approach being used to assess the radiological risks from the transportation of radioactive wastes. The approach presented employs the RADTRAN 4 computer code to estimate the collective population risk during routine and accident transportation conditions. Supplemental analyses are conducted using the RISKIND computer code to address areas of specific concern to individuals or population subgroups. RISKIND is used for estimating routine doses to maximally exposed individuals and for assessing the consequences of the most severe credible transportation accidents. The transportation risk assessment is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful. This is accomplished by uniformly applying common input parameters and assumptions to each waste type for all alternatives. The approach presented can be applied to all radioactive waste types and provides a consistent and comprehensive evaluation of transportation-related risk

  9. Ideology and Environmental Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the influence of ideology (including both psychological and political dimensions) on an individual's approach to environmental risk management. Compares and contrasts technocratic and humanist forms of environmental ideologies. Also reviews the implications of socio-political and psychological constraints on environmental decision…

  10. Method of assessment of the environmental risk associated with releases of radioactive substances. Adaptation to the case of mining sites in Haute-Vienne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents methods which aim at proposing a first quantification (screening) of the potential impact and risk of releases from mining installations at the scale of a drainage basin for a given period, and at refining the characterization of the radiological and/or chemical risk when a potential risk is revealed by the screening step. The screening method allows a parallel assessment of the radio-ecological risk (for the whole set of radionuclides belonging to the uranium family) and of the chemical risk associated with uranium. The refinement is based on the use of probabilistic methods. These approaches lead to the calculation of a deterministic risk index by comparing Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) with Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs) in the same media

  11. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-05-01

    An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF) is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti) as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%), covering a total area of 121 km2, were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%), covering 133 km2, were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%), covering 180 km2, were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%), covering 726 km2, were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole. PMID:22639119

  12. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Khormi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%, covering a total area of 121 km², were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%, covering 133 km², were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%, covering 180 km², were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%, covering 726 km², were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  13. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-05-01

    An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF) is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti) as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%), covering a total area of 121 km2, were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%), covering 133 km2, were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%), covering 180 km2, were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%), covering 726 km2, were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  14. Power and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew Asa; Richardson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently...

  15. Risk assessment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the use of risk assessment techniques in the field of environment protection. I will argue that in some important instances the development of environment policy has been a source of fruitful development of a risk based methodologies. In other cases the importation of risk assessment techniques has proved much more problematic. As the scope of environmental regulation increases so does the possibility of inconsistent and arbitrary solutions to problems. The need for a more systematic approach to the development of environmental regulation has never been stronger, so it is important to understand the reasons for the mixed success of risk assessment. This applies equally to those nations with long traditions of the regulation of private sector industry and those just beginning on this course. The way ahead may be to extend our ideas of how to express risk and uncertainty. Some of the recent cause celebres of environment policy show this challenge very clearly. As an example, this paper will look at the problem of assessing the risk of man-made climate change

  16. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  17. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, M.H.; Alexander, L.; Ross Anderson, H.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for preven

  18. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H. Ross;

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the fi rst of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantifi cation, particularly of modifi able risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for ...

  19. AN OPERATING MODEL FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT APPLIED TO ITALIAN SITES OF COMMUNITY IMPORTANCE: IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL EFFECTS ON SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rastelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of agro-biotechnologies asks for a harmonized approach in risk analysis of GMOs releases. An Italian experts group has elaborated an operating model for the environmental risk assessment (OMERA based on the assumption that the occurring of a risk is related to the presence of four components: source, diffusion factors, dispersal routes, receptors. This model has been further developed to become a Decision Supporting System based on Fuzzy logic (FDSS to assessors and notifiers. It is a web based Questionnaire that conducts the user through a decision tree from the source to the receptors and leads to the identification and assessment of the risks. The FDSS has been tested on case studies, simulating, as source, herbicide tolerant oilseed rape and insect resistant maize. The resulting identified potential effects on soil are changes to structure and microbial diversity.

  20. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations for the cultivation of the genetically modified insect resistant maize Bt11 and MON 810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize Bt11 or MON 810 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Statement supplementing the evaluation of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on insect resistant genetically modified maize Bt11 for cultivation. Here, risk managers are provided with additional evidence and further clarifications to those previous conclusions and risk management recommendations. This Scientific Opinion provides background scientific information to inform the decision-making process; the EFSA GMO Panel reiterates that risk managers should choose risk mitigation and management measures that are proportionate to the level of identified risk according to the protection goals pertaining to their regions.

  1. 国内外累积性环境风险评估研究进展%Research Progress of Cumulative Environmental Risk Assessment at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁鹏; 李文秀; 彭剑峰; 宋永会; 许伟宁

    2015-01-01

    随着环境风险评估的重点由单一源、单一传播途径、单受体转向多来源、多传播途径、多受体的评估,累积性环境风险评估逐渐成为当前研究热点。通过概念辨析和文献调研的方法,综述了美国累积性环境风险评估的发展历史、评估流程,并对国内外累积性环境风险评估方法、应用研究进展进行了评述。指出了目前国内开展累积性环境风险评估存在的方法不完善、基础科研工作不足、宏观环境管理政策亟待加强等问题。建议应尽快明确累积性环境风险评估概念与管理要求,制订累积性环境风险评估的流程、框架与技术指南,加强基础数据库建立和实践探索,为长效的环境风险管理提供决策依据。%With the focuses of environmental risk assessment gradually evolving from assessment of single source or stressor, single exposure route and single risk receptor toward integrated assessment involving several sources or stressors, multiple exposure routes and multiple receptors in recent years, the cumulative risk assessment has become a study hot spot.Through concepts discrimination and literatures search, the development history and assessment procedure in the US, and the methods and practices of cumulative risk assessment both at home and abroad were reviewed.It was pointed out that there were several problems in conducting cumulative risk assessment in China, such as lack of assessment methods, lack of basic scientific data and urgent need of reinforcement of macro-environmental management policy and so on.It was suggests that the concept and management requirements of cumulative environmental risk assessment should be defined, the evaluation process, framework and technical guide be formulated, and the construction of foundational databases and practical explorations be reinforced as soon as possible,which can provide the decision support for the long-term effective environmental

  2. Landslide risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, P.; Messina, C.P.; Fonner, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Landslide risk can be assessed by evaluating geological conditions associated with past events. A sample of 2,4 16 slides from urban areas in West Virginia, each with 12 associated geological factors, has been analyzed using SAS computer methods. In addition, selected data have been normalized to account for areal distribution of rock formations, soil series, and slope percents. Final calculations yield landslide risk assessments of 1.50=high risk. The simplicity of the method provides for a rapid, initial assessment prior to financial investment. However, it does not replace on-site investigations, nor excuse poor construction. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  3. Strategic environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    1997-01-01

    The integration of environmental considerations into strategic decision making is recognized as a key to achieving sustainability. In the European Union a draft directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is currently being reviewed by the member states. The nature of the proposed SEA...... directive is outlined, together with its relationship with the process of spatial planning and public participation in Denmark. This paper analyses the adoption of the proposed directive and discusses whether the SEA is an appropriate tool for opening and democratizing political structures. It concludes...

  4. Risk assessment and uncertainty of the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of California considering environmental variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis César Almendarez-Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp fishery off the Mexican Pacific coast is the country's most important fishery from the economic standpoint. However, it faces serious problems, including the fleet's overcapitalization and age, in addition to the environmental variability that affects the size of catches. Thus, this activity depends on a variety of factors that add uncertainty to the profitability of fishing vessels. This study aims to estimate the probability of success and economic risk of "type vessels" under two different environmental variability scenarios in the Gulf of California. The results from the economic simulation pointed to the vessel type used in Guaymas (Sonora as the most efficient one under a neutral climate change scenario, showing a homogeneous behaviour in physical characteristics and mode of operation. By contrast, under a scenario of a monotonic rise in sea surface temperature, the shrimp fishery faces a greater risk of incurring economic losses. The simulated climate behaviour scenarios revealed that the activity involves a moderate economic profitability under the neutral scenario; however, under the warming scenario, profitability may be low or even nil due to the risks and uncertainty resulting from the influence of environmental phenomena.

  5. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  6. Environmental risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A professional, audit able environmental approach is the only path a responsible government, institution or company can take. Such an approach can be applied to a small petrol station, an oil refinery or a multi-million dollar mining development. Environmental issues cannot be divorced from socio-economic criteria; each impacts on the other. Twenty years ago, financial criteria ruled decision making and the environment tagged along a poor third to social and safety issues. Today, financial issued are still dominant, but decision makers realised that environmental issues hold the same weight as socio-economic criteria and the three are inexorably intertwined. (author)

  7. Public Risk Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeck, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The Public Entry Risk Assessment (PERA) program addresses risk to the public from shuttle or other spacecraft re-entry trajectories. Managing public risk to acceptable levels is a major component of safe spacecraft operation. PERA is given scenario inputs of vehicle trajectory, probability of failure along that trajectory, the resulting debris characteristics, and field size and distribution, and returns risk metrics that quantify the individual and collective risk posed by that scenario. Due to the large volume of data required to perform such a risk analysis, PERA was designed to streamline the analysis process by using innovative mathematical analysis of the risk assessment equations. Real-time analysis in the event of a shuttle contingency operation, such as damage to the Orbiter, is possible because PERA allows for a change to the probability of failure models, therefore providing a much quicker estimation of public risk. PERA also provides the ability to generate movie files showing how the entry risk changes as the entry develops. PERA was designed to streamline the computation of the enormous amounts of data needed for this type of risk assessment by using an average distribution of debris on the ground, rather than pinpointing the impact point of every piece of debris. This has reduced the amount of computational time significantly without reducing the accuracy of the results. PERA was written in MATLAB; a compiled version can run from a DOS or UNIX prompt.

  8. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  9. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to assess cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring ... LDL-C but does not respond to typical strategies to lower LDL-C such as diet, exercise, ...

  10. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  11. Conceptual modeling for identification of worst case conditions in environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials using nZVI and C60 as case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Khara D; Hansen, Steffen F; Sørensen, Peter B; Baun, Anders

    2011-09-01

    Conducting environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials has been an extremely challenging endeavor thus far. Moreover, recent findings from the nano-risk scientific community indicate that it is unlikely that many of these challenges will be easily resolved in the near future, especially given the vast variety and complexity of nanomaterials and their applications. As an approach to help optimize environmental risk assessments of nanomaterials, we apply the Worst-Case Definition (WCD) model to identify best estimates for worst-case conditions of environmental risks of two case studies which use engineered nanoparticles, namely nZVI in soil and groundwater remediation and C(60) in an engine oil lubricant. Results generated from this analysis may ultimately help prioritize research areas for environmental risk assessments of nZVI and C(60) in these applications as well as demonstrate the use of worst-case conditions to optimize future research efforts for other nanomaterials. Through the application of the WCD model, we find that the most probable worst-case conditions for both case studies include i) active uptake mechanisms, ii) accumulation in organisms, iii) ecotoxicological response mechanisms such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell membrane damage or disruption, iv) surface properties of nZVI and C(60), and v) acute exposure tolerance of organisms. Additional estimates of worst-case conditions for C(60) also include the physical location of C(60) in the environment from surface run-off, cellular exposure routes for heterotrophic organisms, and the presence of light to amplify adverse effects. Based on results of this analysis, we recommend the prioritization of research for the selected applications within the following areas: organism active uptake ability of nZVI and C(60) and ecotoxicological response end-points and response mechanisms including ROS production and cell membrane damage, full nanomaterial characterization taking

  12. Corrosion-included metal runoff from external constructions and its environmental interaction : a combined field and laboratory investigation of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni for risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bertling, Sofia

    2005-01-01

    The 1990s has seen an increased awareness of possible environmental effects of corrosion-induced metal release from outdoor constructions. Considerable efforts have been initiated to perform critical assessments of possible risks of selected metals. Gaps of knowledge have been identified and research investigations started. This doctoral thesis is the result of an interdisciplinary research effort in which scientific insight into corrosion, soil chemistry and ecotoxicology has been integrated...

  13. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  14. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases at the National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Health and Ecological Assessment Div.; Shan, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    1997-04-01

    This risk assessment calculates the probability of experiencing health effects, including cancer incidence due to tritium exposure for three groups of people: (1) LBNL workers near the LBNL facility--Building 75--that uses tritium; (2) other workers at LBNL and nearby neighbors; and (3) people who use the UC Berkeley campus area, and some Berkeley residents. All of these groups share the same probability of health effects from the background radiation from natural sources in the Berkeley area environment, including an increased risk of developing a cancer of 11,000 chances per million. In calculating risk the authors assumed continuous operation in Building 75 for at least a human lifetime. Under this assumption, LBNL workers located near Building 75 have an additional risk of 60 chances out of one million to suffer a cancer; other workers at LBNL and people who live near LBNL have an additional risk of six chances out of one million over a lifetime of exposure; and users of the UC Berkeley campus area and other residents of Berkeley have an additional risk of less than once chance out of one million over a lifetime.

  15. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases at the National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This risk assessment calculates the probability of experiencing health effects, including cancer incidence due to tritium exposure for three groups of people: (1) LBNL workers near the LBNL facility--Building 75--that uses tritium; (2) other workers at LBNL and nearby neighbors; and (3) people who use the UC Berkeley campus area, and some Berkeley residents. All of these groups share the same probability of health effects from the background radiation from natural sources in the Berkeley area environment, including an increased risk of developing a cancer of 11,000 chances per million. In calculating risk the authors assumed continuous operation in Building 75 for at least a human lifetime. Under this assumption, LBNL workers located near Building 75 have an additional risk of 60 chances out of one million to suffer a cancer; other workers at LBNL and people who live near LBNL have an additional risk of six chances out of one million over a lifetime of exposure; and users of the UC Berkeley campus area and other residents of Berkeley have an additional risk of less than once chance out of one million over a lifetime

  16. Integrated health and environmental risk assessment and risk management in large industrial areas. Case study Zagreb (CSZ). Final report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of the Phase 1 of the research within the Case Study Zagreb co-financed by the IAEA according to the project YUG/9/029. The basic long term aim of the project is the reduction in hazards to human health and to the environment in the area of Zagreb. This project is about risk assessment and risk management to achieve the environment protection goals

  17. The perception of exposure to environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication reports and comments the results of a survey performed every 6 years on the perception of exposure to environmental risks. It notably comments the evolution between 2007 and 2013 of the perception of exposure to different types of risks: seismic risks, terrorism, major industrial risks, flooding risks, nuclear risks, food-related risks, risks related to climate change, unemployment, air pollution, and cancer. The perceptions of inhabitants of cities exposed or not exposed to some risks (industrial, climate, flooding) are compared. Risks are ranked from very important to not important at all. The influence of the existence of a risk when choosing to settle in a dwelling is also assessed, as well as the already lived consequences of catastrophes, the level of concern about possible consequences of a catastrophe, the respective roles of the State and citizen in the field of risk prevention, the opinions on law efficiency to protect people and goods, the knowledge of prevention arrangements against natural and technological risk, the level of confidence in public action regarding risks to which interviewed people are actually exposed (industrial risks, risks related to climate, flooding)

  18. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH...

  19. The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resources Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Introduction to a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Techincal Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SETAC Technical Workshop titled “The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Understanding and Improving the Common Scientific Underpinnings,” was held 18–22 August 2008 in Gregson, Montana, USA, to examine the linkage, nexu...

  20. Assessment of environmental risk for red mud storage facility in China: a case study in Shandong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Chao; Ma, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Red mud storage facility (RM-SF) pollution remains a serious problem in China mainly due to the RM's huge quantity, little recyclability, and high alkalinity. And, there is also a risk of dam failure because almost all RM-SFs are processed by damming. In order to address this challenge and improve the level of risk management, it is necessary to evaluate the environmental risk of RM-SFs systematically. So, this paper firstly designs a comprehensive evaluation index system with a three-level evaluation index in the terms of RM characteristics, RM-SF characteristics, ambient environment of RM-SF, the management of RM-SF, and the application aspect of RM by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Then, a case of RM-SF from a typical alumina production enterprise is studied according to this system, as is assisted by several experts from different fields when determining the weights of all indicators. The results show that the risk of selected RM-SF primarily depends on the former factors, that is, RM and RM-SF characteristics, while the contributions of the other factors are quite smaller. PMID:26920533

  1. Use of genetic markers for ecological risk assessment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory: Microsatellite mutation rate of burrowing mammals. Genetic markers for ecorisk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiological and hazardous waste have been disposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1952. Escape of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from uncontained wastes, and from deterioration of waste containers and waste disposal practices has resulted in contamination of the subsurface soils in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) and at other facilities. To assess the risks to human and ecological health, the potential impacts of contaminant exposure on identified receptors must be determined. Burrowing and excavation of the soil by small mammals, including deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), is responsible for some radionuclide transport through the SDA environment; however, the genomic effects of exposure to contaminants are not known. This research will evaluate if molecular genetics can be used to determine whether exposure to contaminants affects organisms at the genomic level. The ratio of microsatellite mutant alleles vs. the non-mutant alleles (m/nm) was used as a direct assessment of mutation, using parent/offspring comparison of allele differences. Preliminary allele scoring was performed with 10 microsatellite markers for females and offspring from two uncontaminated control locations (Burn and Atomic City), and two contaminated test locations (SL-1 and RWMC). Fetal genotypes that gave a single inconsistent genotype with the mother were scored as mutations. The proportion of mutant alleles from each population was compared and tested for significant differences using the Fisher's exact test. Preliminary data suggest that the contaminated SL-1 site may have higher mutation rates in comparison to at least one of the control sites (Atomic City). The rather small sample size for Burn (N = 6) makes a quantitative estimate of the difference in mutation rate between contaminated and uncontaminated locations approximate at this time. Finally, the mutation rate obtained by combining the

  2. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John;

    2012-01-01

    A comparative life cycle assessment is presented for four different management options for a trichloroethene-contaminated site with a contaminant source zone located in a fractured clay till. The compared options are (i) long-term monitoring (ii) in-situ enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD...... impacts due to contaminant leaching into groundwater that is used for drinking water, whereas the secondary environmental impacts are related to remediation activities such as monitoring, drilling and construction of wells and use of remedial amendments. The primary impacts for the compared scenarios were...... determined by a numerical risk assessment and remedial performance model, which predicted the contaminant mass discharge over time at a point of compliance in the aquifer and at the waterworks. The combined assessment of risk reduction and life cycle impacts showed that all management options result...

  3. Environmental compliance assessment review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1972-1991, The United States Congress passed stringent environmental statues which the Environment Protection Agency implemented via regulations. The statues and regulations contain severe civil and criminal penalties. Civil violations resulted in fines, typically payable by the company. The act of willfully and knowingly violating the permit conditions or regulations can result in criminal charges being imposed upon the responsible part, i.e., either the company or individual. Criminal charges can include fines, lawyer fees, court costs and incarceration. This paper describes steps necessary to form an effective Environmental Compliance Assessment Review [CAR] program, train field and engineering personnel and perform a CAR audit. Additionally, the paper discusses the findings of a number of Exploration and Production [E and P] field audits

  4. MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS IN COASTAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Caprioli; R. Trizzino; R. Pagliarulo; Scarano, M; F. Mazzone; A. Scognamiglio

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the lan...

  5. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  6. Case-control analysis of breast cancer in a screened population: implications for the assessment of environmental exposure risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appropriateness of using epidemiologic data from screened populations is investigated. Particular emphasis is given to design advantages and disadvantages of case-control studies using such data, statistical issues that arise in their analysis, and implications for testing hypotheses concerning environmental exposures. Concepts and techniques are illustrated with a recently completed study of breast cancer among screenees. Adjustment of odds ratios for number of screenings, symptomticity and year of first screening was necessary to avoid bias. When case subgroups are compared by classical methods, it should be done directly, rather than indirectly to controls, otherwise spurious trends may appear that are the result of the choice of baseline exposure group rather than risk differences. The multiple logistic model was used to adjust for many factors simultaneously and to model interaction between study factors. It is shown how careful interpretation of logistic regression parameters enables one to design a unified test to compare case subgroups simultaneously to one another and to controls and to test for initiation and promotion of cancer by environmental risk factors

  7. Cumulative Risk Assessment and Environmental Equity in Air Permitting: Interpretation, Methods, Community Participation and Implementation of a Unique Statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Pratt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider “cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited.” Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase ‘environmental equity’. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the “cumulative levels and effects analysis”.

  8. Cumulative risk assessment and environmental equity in air permitting: interpretation, methods, community participation and implementation of a unique statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Kristie M; Sevcik, Sarah M; Burman, Shelley; Pak, Steven; Kohlasch, Frank; Pratt, Gregory C

    2011-11-01

    In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider "cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited." Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase 'environmental equity'. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the "cumulative levels and effects analysis".

  9. Environmental pollution risk and insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fragnelli, Vito; Marina, Maria Erminia

    2002-01-01

    We consider environmental risks that are evaluated too much heavy for a single insurance company, but they can be insured by n companies which a premium is assigned to.This is precisely the Italian scenario where a pool of companies co-insures these risks.Under a game theoretic approach we start by analyzing how they should split the risk and the premium in order to be better off. Under suitable hypotheses, there exists an optimal decomposition of the risk, that allow us to define a cooperati...

  10. Lake Victoria basin in Kenya: A potential case study for the Joint WHO/UNEP/IAEA project on assessment and management of health and environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern is arising about pollution in Lake Victoria, the largest of the East African Great Lakes. Lake Victoria is at a cross-roads: it could become an ecological disaster, or it can provide a model of enlightened environmental planning. A comprehensive environmental assessment wiht a consequent action plan will be required to locate, monitor, control and, ultimately, diminish the sources of contamination to prevent further environmental degradation in the Lake Victoria Basin. While such a project must ultimately explore basin-wide problems of industrial development, deforestation, soil erosion, desertification, over-cropping, overgrazing, and population growth, a more limited project to begin some integrated assessment which focuses on industrial effluents from existing and future industrial activities in the river basins, and on pollutants from agricultural run-off within Kenya is proposed. The region is a limited, well-defined area hydrologically. Limiting the case study to the area within Kenya results in a politically unified region also. The region is impacted by industrial effluents superimposed on the problems of rapid population growth, fishing pressure, and expansion of farming into marginal lands with resulting deforestation and agricultural run-off. There are several, currently unrelated, projects on environmental risk assessment and management in the region which could be incorporated into the case study. A Government of Kenya agency with responsibility for coordination of environmental risk assessment and management, the Lake Basin Development Authority, already exists and is seeking outside assistance. It is far better to begin with a limited, practical first step which could eventually fold into a more comprehensive, basin-wide planning program. (author)

  11. Treatment of uncertainty and developing conceptual models for environmental risk assessments and radioactive waste disposal safety cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghonemy, Hamdi; Watts, Len; Fowler, Linda [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Environmental Risk Assessments, Risley (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The common approach to performing quantitative risk assessments in the contaminated land industry in the UK lacks a formal methodology for the treatment of the full range of uncertainties and for documenting decisions regarding the development of conceptual models and the selection of computer codes. The approach presented here represents an alternative, more detailed, and systematic approach for developing conceptual models and addressing uncertainties when undertaking contaminated land risk assessments. It is intended that the advantages of this approach are recognised by practitioners in the contaminated land industry and adopted, where appropriate, to help improve the quality of contaminated land risk assessments. The identification of features, events, and processes (FEPs) has been applied to safety assessments of deep geological and near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes. One of the primary benefits of using this approach is in the development of conceptual models. The approach identifies the FEPs that need to be addressed during the development of conceptual models and in the selection of suitable computer codes that can be used to represent the conceptual models. This approach has been applied by BNFL at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria and is currently being adopted for a contaminated land study at the Sellafield site, also in Cumbria. This paper presents the advantages of using FEPs in the development of conceptual models and the treatment of uncertainties. The paper also discusses the application of this approach to contaminated land studies and provides an example to demonstrate the application of the approach. BNFL's approach at the Drigg site involves the identification of components (features) and phenomena (events and processes) that govern interactions and dependencies between the components by arranging them in a matrix format. (Author)

  12. Treatment of uncertainty and developing conceptual models for environmental risk assessments and radioactive waste disposal safety cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghonemy, Hamdi; Watts, Len; Fowler, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The common approach to performing quantitative risk assessments in the contaminated land industry in the UK lacks a formal methodology for the treatment of the full range of uncertainties and for documenting decisions regarding the development of conceptual models and the selection of computer codes. The approach presented here represents an alternative, more detailed, and systematic approach for developing conceptual models and addressing uncertainties when undertaking contaminated land risk assessments. It is intended that the advantages of this approach are recognised by practitioners in the contaminated land industry and adopted, where appropriate, to help improve the quality of contaminated land risk assessments. The identification of features, events, and processes (FEPs) has been applied to safety assessments of deep geological and near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes. One of the primary benefits of using this approach is in the development of conceptual models. The approach identifies the FEPs that need to be addressed during the development of conceptual models and in the selection of suitable computer codes that can be used to represent the conceptual models. This approach has been applied by BNFL at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria and is currently being adopted for a contaminated land study at the Sellafield site, also in Cumbria. This paper presents the advantages of using FEPs in the development of conceptual models and the treatment of uncertainties. The paper also discusses the application of this approach to contaminated land studies and provides an example to demonstrate the application of the approach. BNFL's approach at the Drigg site involves the identification of components (features) and phenomena (events and processes) that govern interactions and dependencies between the components by arranging them in a matrix format. PMID:15607782

  13. Growing knowledge of using embryonic stem cells as a novel tool in developmental risk assessment of environmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Hodjat, Mahshid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Developmental toxicology is an important area of novel toxicology. In recent years, there have been big concerns toward the increasing exposure to pharmaceutical agents, food additives, pesticides, occupational toxicants, and environmental pollutants, as well as their possible association with all aspects of male or female-mediated transient or permanent defects in progeny. Therefore, it is of great importance to look for new predictive models to evaluate environmental toxicants before they can harm the human health and embryo development. In this regard, new cell-based in vitro screening models have been developed and validated in predictive toxicology to minimize assay costs and animal usage. Stem cell-based models have been increasingly applied for predicting the toxicity of chemicals. One of the most promising existing in vitro developmental toxicity tests is the validated embryonic stem cell test (EST) which employs marine or human embryonic stem cells to assess the potential of chemicals embryotoxicity. These cells are very suitable for embryotoxicity assessment as they have been demonstrated to specify cellular developmental processes during early embryogenesis and gene expression patterns of differentiation to functionally competent specialized cell types. The present paper aimed at criticizing the human and experimental evidence for developmental toxic effects of environmental toxicants based on ESCs models. Accordingly, pesticides, heavy metals, plasticizers, nanomaterials and some solvents have been considered as the main evaluated environmental toxicants inducing developmental toxicity. At the end, current challenges, pros and cons of using ESCs as an alternative validated in vitro model for specific developmental toxicity screening are discussed. PMID:27208651

  14. Sensitivity analysis of the leaching rate parameter in assessing the environmental risk of phosphogypsum application in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D.S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The attack with sulfuric acid to phosphate rock produces both phosphoric acid, basic raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers, as a by-product called phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum is composed mostly of calcium sulfate dihydrated, but may have high levels of impurities from the phosphate rock matrix as a series of natural radionuclides, and heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Zn) and metalloids (e.g. , As and Se). Although it is used for agricultural purposes and more recently in construction, in Brazil the generation rate estimated at six million tons per year is much higher than the amount spent on existing alternatives, and therefore mostly deposited in piles in the same place production, causing thereby the risk of contamination of soil and water resources of the region and providing risk to human health. Taken into account the need to find alternative arrangements for phosphogypsum and reduce the impact generated by its contaminants, this study aims to analyze the sensitivity of the leaching rate parameter in the environmental risk evaluation of the application of phosphogypsum in landfills through mathematical modeling, where it is evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the layer of the soil under the clay layer of the landfill.

  15. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  16. Proposal of an integrated methodology for environmental assessment of risks and impacts to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies for the oil and natural gas sector in offshore areas; Proposta de metodologia de avaliacao integrada de riscos e impactos ambientais para estudos de avaliacao ambiental estrategica do setor de petroleo e gas natural em areas offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza

    2007-03-15

    This thesis aims to purpose an integrated methodology of environmental risk and impact assessment of the exploration and production oil and natural gas activities, to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies. It also analyzes the environmental issues associated with the upstream segment of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry after the market opening, occurred in 1997. In this context, and under the international experience of countries that also have an open market, the strategic environmental assessment demonstrates to be the more suitable tool of public environmental management to consider the environment already during the planning phase of the oil and natural gas sector. (author)

  17. Performance assessment - risk assessment vive la differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sister worlds of radioactive waste management disposal and environmental restoration, there are two similar processes and computational approaches for determining the acceptability of the proposed activities. While similar, these two techniques can lead to confusion and misunderstanding if the differences are not recognized and appreciated. In the case of radioactive waste management, the performance assessment process is used to determine compliance with certain prescribed 'performance objectives'. These objectives are designed to ensure that the disposal of radioactive (high-level, low-level, and/or transuranic) waste will be protective of human health and the environment. The environmental link is primarily through assuring protection of the groundwater as a resource. In the case of environmental restoration, the risk assessment process is used to determine the proper remedial action response, if any, for a past hazardous waste release. The process compares the 'no action' or 'leave as is' option with both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic values for human health to determine the need for any action and to help to help determine just what the appropriate action would need to be. The impacts to the ecological system are evaluated in a slightly, different but similar fashion. Now the common objectives between these two processes notwithstanding. There are some key and fundamental differences that need to be answered that make direct comparisons or a common approach inappropriate. Failure to recognize this can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This can be particularly problematic when one is faced with an active disposal facility located within the boundaries of an environmental restoration site as is the case at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Through a critical evaluation of the performance assessment and risk assessment processes, highlighting both similarities and differences, it is hoped that greater understanding and appreciation

  18. Reducing the harms associated with risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk assessments are the intellectual products of dedicated public health and environmental professionals. Like many other products, risk assessments carry with them the potential for both good and harm. This paper briefly examines some of the harms to which risk assessments have contributed, and then suggests that the legal 'duty to warn' doctrine offers a logical and practical way to reduce some of these harms. The paper suggests concepts that could be incorporated into warnings accompanying every formal risk assessment as routine 'boiler plate' addenda, just as other potentially harmful products, such as lawn mowers and cook stoves, are accompanied by warnings. Finally, the paper briefly examines the 'Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals' (promulgated by the National Association of Environmental Professionals) and shows that the suggested warnings are consistent with recommended practices for environmental professionals

  19. Risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food. Comments by the German Federal Environmental Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, A.; Neumeier, G.; Rappolder, M.; Konietzka, R. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Potential health effects of dioxins are an important issue of concern to both politicians and the public. As all humans are exposed to measurable levels of dioxins and related substances, the determination of the tolerated daily intake is a very significant decision. Moreover the revision of this value is not only of academic interest but may also directly influence limit values guiding risk reduction measures, target levels such as those for tolerated residues in food. Council Regulation (EC) No 2375/2001 (setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food) states in 11: ''Target levels indicate the levels to be achieved in order to ultimately bring human exposure for the majority of the population down to the TWI set by the Scientific Committee''. These target values will be set before 31 December 2004. Thus the level of the TDI may indirectly influence entire sectors of industry in some member countries such as the fish industry of some Nordic States or the feed industry throughout the European Union. Recommendations of a daily intake should involve a very low likelihood of a risk for humans. In particular some prerequisites have to be fulfilled: The proposed TDI has to protect all subpopulations. In the case of dioxin this is of high importance as the exposure of infants through breast feeding may exceed the exposure of adults by one or two orders of magnitude. The degree of uncertainty should be indicated at every step of the risk assessment as requested by the Communication from the Commission on the Precautionary Principle ''Where possible, a report should be made which indicates the assessment of the existing knowledge and the available information, providing the views of the scientists on the reliability of the assessment as well as on the remaining uncertainties. If necessary, it should also contain the identification of topics for further scientific research'' Uncertainty of the models applied should be

  20. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb), and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3-) with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied impoundments were found to

  1. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levei Erika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb, and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3- with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied

  2. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Public Perceptions of Environmental Risk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    China, as a ‘double risk’ society, is in urgent need for effective environmental risk management systems. Compared with other risks, man-made environmental risks have not been given due weight. Public awareness and perceptions of environmental risks are crucial in all phases of effective risk manage

  4. Ecotoxicity and environmental risk assessment of larvicides used in the control of Aedes aegypti to Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Flavia Renata; Coleone, Ana Carla; Machado, Angela Aparecida; Gonçalves Machado-Neto, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Dengue transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, species aegypti, is a major public health concern in Brazil. The chemical control of the mosquito larvae has been performed with the larvicide temephos since 1967. However, vector resistance was reported to temephos in several Brazilian states, and the Ministry of Health ordered the replacement of this larvicide by diflubenzuron (DFB), an inhibitor of chitin synthesis. Both insecticides are diluted in water with larvae and are able to reach aquatic environments in which they subsequently adversely damage nontarget organisms. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity (EC50) and environmental risk (RQ) of DFB and temephos to the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, and (2) evaluate the chronic toxicity (no-observed-effect concentration [NOEC] and lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC]) of these larvicides to D. magna. The experiments were performed according to a completely randomized design. The estimated 48-h EC50 of temephos was 0.15 μg/L (lower limit = 0.1 and upper limit = 0.2 μg/L) and the 48-h EC50 of DFB was 0.06 μg/L (lower limit = 0.03 and upper limit = 0.1 μg/L). RQ values were 4.166.7 to DFB and 6.666.6 to temephos. NOEC and LOEC values were respectively 2.5 and 5 ng/L for DFB, and respectively 6.2 and 12.5 ng/L for temephos. Thus, temephos and DFB are classified as highly toxic to Daphnia magna and pose a high environmental risk to this species. Mortality of D. magna was observed at concentrations lower than those used in the field to control A. aegypti larvae. PMID:24555645

  5. Effect of Phopshate Fertilizer and Manure on Crop Yield, Soil P Accumulation, and the Environmental Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) applied from fertilizer and manure is important in increasing crop yield and soil fertility; however, excessive uses of phosphate fertilizer and manure may also increase P loss from agricultural soils, posing environmental impact. A long term experiment was conducted on a calcareous soil (meadow cinnamon) in Hebei Province, China, from 2003 to 2006 to investigate the effects of phosphate fertilizer and manure on the yield of Chinese cabbage, soil P accumulation, P sorption saturation, soluble P in runoff water, and P leaching. P fertilizer (P2O5) application at a rate of 360 kg ha-1 or manure of 150 t ha-1 significantly increased Chinese cabbage yield as compared to the unfertilized control. However, no significant yield response was found with excessive phosphate or manure application. Soil Olsen-P, soluble P, bioavailable P, the degree of phosphorus sorption saturation in top soil layer (0-20 cm), and soluble P in runoff water increased significantly with the increase of phosphate fertilizer and manure application rates, whereas the maximum phosphorus sorption capacity (Qm) decreased with the phosphate fertilizer and manure application rates. Soil Olsen-P and soluble P also increased significantly in the sub soil layer (20-40 cm) with the high P fertilizer and manure rates. It indicates that excessive P application over crop demand can lead to a high environmental risk owing to the enrichment of soil Olsen-P, soluble P,bioavailable P, and the degree of phosphorus sorption saturation in agricultural soils.

  6. Assessing the environmental availability of heavy metals in geogenically contaminated soils of the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park (SW Spain). Is there a health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, M B; Giráldez, M I; Fernández-Caliani, J C

    2016-08-01

    Soil developed on mineralised bedrock areas of the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park (SW Spain) is geochemically characterised by naturally high levels of heavy metals and metalloids (notably Zn, Pb, Ag and Cd, but also As, Sb, Cu and Tl). To assess environmental availability, geochemical speciation and potential health risk of such geogenic trace elements, 24 randomly selected soil samples were subjected to one-step extraction procedures (0.01M CaCl2 and 0.05M EDTA), aqueous speciation modelling, and site-specific risk analysis. Metal fraction available for plant uptake or leaching to groundwater was found to be negligible (modelling calculations, free metal ions, primarily Cd(2+) and Zn(2+), were the dominant species in solution over the soil pH range of 5.8 to 7.8. For most metals, the EDTA-extractable fraction generally accounted for <5% suggesting that a limited reservoir of trace elements, mainly bound to Fe oxy-hydroxides, could be potentially available. The results of the health risk assessment for ingestion exposure to groundwater affected by soil leaching revealed that the hazard quotients of heavy metals are within the acceptable risk level. The cumulative hazard index (HI=0.55) fell below the regulatory threshold value of 1.0, even in the worst-case scenario being evaluated, leading to the conclusion that no toxic effects are expected to humans under the conditions and assumptions of the assessment. PMID:27101462

  7. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH framework and the calculation structure. The main novelties compared to other LCA software are as follows. First, the focus is put on material flow modelling, as each flow is characterised as a mix of mate...

  8. Workshop on environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs

  9. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as well as examples of resulting SPGs obtained so far for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides is presented. The ecosystem services approach was used as an overarching concept for the development of SPGs, which will likely facilitate communication with stakeholders in general and risk managers in particular. It is proposed to develop SPG options for 7 key drivers for ecosystem services (microbes, algae, non target plants (aquatic and terrestrial), aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial non target arthropods including honeybees, terrestrial non-arthropod invertebrates, and vertebrates), covering the ecosystem services that could potentially be affected by the use of pesticides. These SPGs need to be defined in 6 dimensions: biological entity, attribute, magnitude, temporal and geographical scale of the effect, and the degree of certainty that the specified level of effect will not be exceeded. In general, to ensure ecosystem services, taxa representative for the key drivers identified need to be protected at the population level. However, for some vertebrates and species that have a protection status in legislation, protection may be at the individual level. To protect the provisioning and supporting services provided by microbes it may be sufficient to protect them at the functional group level. To protect biodiversity impacts need to be assessed at least at the scale of the watershed/landscape. - Research highlights: ► How to define specific protection goals (SPGs) for environmental risk assessment? ► The process uses the ecosystem services (ES

  10. Seasonal occurrence, removal, mass loading and environmental risk assessment of 55 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Kosma, Christina; Lambropoulou, Dimitra

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive study, which contains the seasonal occurrence, removal, mass loading and environmental risk assessment of 55 multi-class pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), took place in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Volos, Greece. A one year monitoring study was performed and the samples were collected from the influent and the effluent of the WWTP. Solid phase extraction was used for the pre-concentration of the samples followed by an LC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis. Positive samples were further confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The maximum concentrations of the PPCPs varied between 21 ng/L and 15,320 ng/L in the influents and between 18 ng/L and 9965 ng/L in the effluents. The most commonly detected PPCPs were the diuretic furosemide, the beta-blockers atenolol and metoprolol, the analgesics paracetamol, nimesulide, salicylic acid and diclofenac and the psychomotor stimulant caffeine. The removal efficiencies ranged between negative and high removal rates, demonstrating that the WWTP is not able to efficiently remove the complex mixture of PPCPs. The estimated mass loads ranged between 5.1 and 3513 mg/day/1000 inhabitants for WWTP influent and between 4.1 to 2141 mg/day/1000 inhabitants for WWTP effluent. Finally, environmental risk assessment has been regarded a necessary part of the general research. According to the results produced from the calculation of the risk quotient on three trophic levels, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and the antibiotics, trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin, identified to be of high potential environmental risk for acute toxicity, while diclofenac also for chronic toxicity. PMID:26613513

  11. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources. PMID:24531338

  12. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  13. Assessing environmental risk of pharmaceuticals in Portugal: An approach for the selection of the Portuguese monitoring stations in line with Directive 2013/39/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Lino, Celeste M; Meisel, Leonor M; Pena, Angelina

    2016-02-01

    In line with the Directive 2013/39/EU the most representative surface waters, regarding pharmaceuticals contamination, were selected based on a Portuguese nationwide monitoring exercise. To meet this purpose, and given that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as the major point sources of pharmaceuticals environmental contamination, the occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment (ERA) of eleven of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, belonging to several therapeutic classes were assessed in 15 WWTPs (influents (WWIs) and effluents (WWEs)), from five different regions during one year (4 sampling campaigns). Results showed that all samples were contaminated with at least 1, and up to 8 from the 11 targeted pharmaceuticals. The highest concentrations observed were 150 and 33 μg L(-1) for WWI and WWE, respectively. Regarding temporal and spacial influence, winter, Alentejo, Algarve and Center regions presented higher mass loads. The ERA posed by 7 of the selected pharmaceuticals presented a risk quotient higher than 1 to the three trophic levels. Our findings highlighted that the rivers Mondego, Tagus, Ave, Trancão, Fervença and Xarrama should be selected as surface water monitoring stations. This study gives a good overview on pharmaceuticals contamination in WWTPs and its impact on surface waters in Portugal. Thus, a more integrative approach to rank and prioritize pharmaceuticals, based on an integrated assessment of ERA and exposure of surface water, was provided to support the future selection of the 6 most representative monitoring stations in Portugal, as required by the above mentioned directive.

  14. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.)

  15. Assessing the microbiological risk to stored sixteenth century parchment manuscripts: a holistic approach based on molecular and environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Federica; Polo, Andrea; Villa, Federica; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The microbial risk for the conservation of seven sixteenth century parchment manuscripts, which showed brown discolouration putatively caused by microorganisms, was evaluated using non-invasive sampling techniques, microscopy, studies of surface-associated and airborne microflora with culture-independent molecular methods, and by measuring repository thermo-hygrometric values. Microscopic observations and ATP assays demonstrated a low level of contamination, indicating that the discolouration was not related to currently active microbial colonisation. Nevertheless, a culture-independent molecular approach was adopted to fully characterise surface-associated communities searching for biodeteriogens that could grow under appropriate thermo-hygrometric conditions. Indeed, potential biodeteriogens and microorganisms that are ecologically related to humans were found, suggesting the need to control the conservation environment and improve handling procedures. Microbial loads of air and thermo-hygrometric measurements showed that the repository was not suitable for preventing the microbial deterioration of parchment. A holistic approach to the assessment of risk of microbial deterioration of documents and heritage preservation is proposed for the first time.

  16. Cadmium mobility in sediments and soils from a coal mining area on Tibagi River watershed: environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galunin, Evgeny; Ferreti, Jeferson; Zapelini, Iago; Vieira, Isadora; Ricardo Teixeira Tarley, César; Abrão, Taufik; Santos, Maria Josefa

    2014-01-30

    The risk of cadmium contamination in the Tibagi River watershed (Parana State, Brazil) affected by past coal mining activities was assessed through sorption-desorption modeling for sediment and soil samples. The acidic character of the samples resulted in more competition between the cadmium ions and protons, thereby influencing the cadmium sorption-desorption. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich single models and to the dual-site Langmuir-Freundlich (or Sips) model. The single-site models indicated a low-energy character of sorption sites on the sample sorption sites, whereas the dual-site model explained the availability of higher-affinity and lower-affinity non-specific sites. The correlation of the sorption and desorption constants with the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the samples showed that the cadmium sorption behavior was significantly affected by the pH, point of zero charge, and also by the magnesium, aluminum, calcium and manganese amounts. Besides, the desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium mobilization along the Tibagi River basin.

  17. Potential application of ecological models in the European environmental risk assessment of chemicals. I. Review of protection goals in EU directives and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Baveco, J M Hans; Galic, Nika; van den Brink, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Several European directives and regulations address the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We used the protection of freshwater ecosystems against plant protection products, biocidal products, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals and priority substances under the Water Framework Directive as examples to explore the potential of ecological effect models for a refined risk assessment. Our analysis of the directives, regulations, and related guidance documents lead us to distinguish the following 5 areas for the application of ecological models in chemical risk assessment: 1) Extrapolation of organism-level effects to the population level: The protection goals are formulated in general terms, e.g., avoiding "unacceptable effects" or "adverse impact" on the environment or the "viability of exposed species." In contrast, most of the standard ecotoxicological tests provide data only on organism-level endpoints and are thus not directly linked to the protection goals which focus on populations and communities. 2) Extrapolation of effects between different exposure profiles: Especially for plant protection products, exposure profiles can be very variable and impossible to cover in toxicological tests. 3) Extrapolation of recovery processes: As a consequence of the often short-term exposures to plant protection products, the risk assessment is based on the community recovery principle. On the other hand, assessments under the other directives assume a more or less constant exposure and are based on the ecosystem threshold principle. 4) Analysis and prediction of indirect effects: Because effects on 1 or a few taxa might have consequences on other taxa that are not directly affected by the chemical, such indirect effects on communities have to be considered. 5) Prediction of bioaccumulation within food chains: All directives take the possibility of bioaccumulation, and thus secondary poisoning within the food chain, into account. PMID:20821697

  18. Towards an integrated environmental risk assessment of multiple stressors on bees: review of research projects in Europe, knowledge gaps and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews recent work on bee health carried out by EFSA, Member States (MSs and the European Commission (EC. It identifies data and knowledge gaps and provides research recommendations that may facilitate the transition towards an integrated environmental risk assessment of multiple stressors on bees. The report was produced by the EFSA Bee Task Force (TF, involved representatives from six different Scientific Units, and was coordinated by the Scientific Committee and Emerging Risks Unit (SCER. The TF consulted experts from MSs and the Bee Interservice Group of the EC. Additional scientific exchanges with experts were promoted by SCER through the organisation of a scientific colloquium on bee health in May 2013. The review identified a total of 220 research projects on bee health at EU level (EFSA, 19; MSs, 181; EC, 20, and 33 additional projects from other international organisations dealing with general aspects, non-research-focused, of bee issues. A quantitative assessment of the retrieved projects revealed that research projects on multiple stressors on bees and projects on bees other than honeybees were missing, especially with regard to monitoring and testing. EFSA projects were predominantly in the area of risk assessments of pesticides on bees. Research projects on in-hive treatments and bee exposure to chemicals funded at the EC level were scarce, as were those focusing on protection goals, bee diversity and pollination services at the MS level. The qualitative assessment of the retrieved projects revealed knowledge gaps at each step of the risk assessment, which led to several recommendations for future scientific work at EFSA and research to be undertaken in the framework of Horizon 2020. Additional recommendations are given for research coordination, planning and knowledge sharing with MSs and the EC. At EFSA level, further communication, internal collaborations and training on bee health are suggested.

  19. Environmental risk management for pharmaceutical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voulvoulis, N. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    Pharmaceuticals are a highly variable group of organic compounds with the potential to cause harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Thousands of tones of pharmacologically active substances are used annually but surprisingly little is known about their ultimate fate in the environment. The data collected to date, rarely provide information on the processes that determine their environmental fate and although they receive considerable pharmacological and clinical testing during development, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is poor. One major concern is that antibiotics found in sewage effluent may cause increased resistance amongst natural bacterial populations. The debate over risks associated with chemicals in the environment represents more than just another disagreement in the scientific community. It has opened the door to a new way of thinking about the onset of uninherited diseases, the nature of scientific investigation, and the role of scientific knowledge in the policymaking process. For example, research evidence on endocrine disruption collected over the last few years has changed dramatically the way we think about chemical risks. In part, this change has also been attributed to the precautionary principle, as a new approach to environmental policy forged in Europe. The term ''precautionary approach'' declares an obligation to control the dangerous substances even before a definitive causal link had been established between the chemicals and health or environmental effects, and represents a radical departure from traditional approaches to risk assessment and particularly risk management, which includes an integration of the assessment, communication and mitigation of risks.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment: A Methodological Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Christensen, Frans Møller; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2001-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment are two different tools in environmental management. The paper identifies harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method ‘EDIP’ (En......-vironmental Design of Industrial Products) developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment due to the use of a functional unit. Risk assessment on the other hand is an absolute assessment, which may require very specific and detailed information on e.g. the exposure...... conditions. It is concluded that the conceptual background and the purpose of the tools are different but that there are overlaps where they may benefit from each other and they do complement each other in an overall environmental effort....

  1. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Saroff, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  2. Occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds at the wastewater treatment works in Pietermaritzburg (South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickum, T; John, W

    2014-01-15

    Steroid hormone Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) (natural estrogens (17-β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)), natural androgen (testosterone) (tes) and natural progestogen (progesterone) (pro)) at an activated sludge wastewater works (WWW), were quantitated using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The steroid hormone profile in the adjacent surface water was also determined. Pro was the most abundant (41%, 408 ng/L) in the influent, followed by tes (35%, 343 ng/L) and E2 (12%, 119 ng/L). E1 was the most abundant (35%, 23 ng/L) in effluent, followed by E2 (30%, 20 ng/L) and tes (17%, 11 ng/L). Chemical removal efficiencies of the steroid hormones by the WWW averaged 92%. High removal efficiency was observed for pro (98% ± 2) and tes (96% ± 1), compared to natural (72-100%) and synthetic estrogen (90% ± 3), with biodegradation being the major removal route for pro and tes. The lowest removal for E2 is in spring (65%), and maximum removal is in winter (95%). Natural (E2, E1) and synthetic estrogen (EE2) were major contributors to influent (E2 = 69%) and effluent (E2 = 73%) estrogenic potency. The estrogenic potency removal averaged 85% (range: 73-100). Risk assessment of the steroid hormones present in wastewater effluent, and surface water, indicated that EE2 and E2 pose the highest risk to human health and fish. EE2 was found to be much more resistant to biodegradation, compared to E2, in surface water. Estrone, as the breakdown product of E2 and EE2 in wastewater, appears to be suitable as an indicator of EDCs. The study suggests that a battery of tests: quantitative chemical assay, bioassay for estrogenic activity and risk assessment methods, collectively, are preferred in order to make meaningful, accurate conclusions regarding potential adverse effects of EDCs present in treated wastewater effluent or surface water, to the aquatic environment, human health, and wildlife systems. PMID

  3. Risk assessment of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin in aquatic environment: are the current environmental concentrations safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Sunmi; Han, Sunyoung; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Yoonsuk; Choi, Kyunghee; Kho, Young-Lim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-10-01

    To understand potential risks of major pharmaceutical residues in waters, we evaluated ecotoxicities of five major veterinary pharmaceuticals, i.e., chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin, which have been frequently detected in freshwater environment worldwide. We conducted acute and chronic toxicity tests using two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) and a fish (Oryzias latipes). In general, D. magna exhibited greater sensitivity than M. macrocopa, and chronic reproduction was the most sensitive endpoints for both organisms. The population growth rate was adversely influenced by exposure to chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, or sulfathiazole in water fleas, but reduction in population size was not expected. In O. latipes, the tested pharmaceuticals affected several reproduction related endpoints including time to hatch and growth. Based on the toxicity values from the present study and literature, algae appeared to be the most sensitive organism, followed by Daphnia and fish. Hazard quotients derived from measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for erythromycin and oxytetracycline exceeded unity, suggesting that potential ecological effects at highly contaminated sites cannot be ruled out. Long-term consequences of veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in the environment deserve further investigation. PMID:22711548

  4. Risk assessment of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin in aquatic environment: are the current environmental concentrations safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Sunmi; Han, Sunyoung; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Yoonsuk; Choi, Kyunghee; Kho, Young-Lim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-10-01

    To understand potential risks of major pharmaceutical residues in waters, we evaluated ecotoxicities of five major veterinary pharmaceuticals, i.e., chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin, which have been frequently detected in freshwater environment worldwide. We conducted acute and chronic toxicity tests using two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) and a fish (Oryzias latipes). In general, D. magna exhibited greater sensitivity than M. macrocopa, and chronic reproduction was the most sensitive endpoints for both organisms. The population growth rate was adversely influenced by exposure to chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, or sulfathiazole in water fleas, but reduction in population size was not expected. In O. latipes, the tested pharmaceuticals affected several reproduction related endpoints including time to hatch and growth. Based on the toxicity values from the present study and literature, algae appeared to be the most sensitive organism, followed by Daphnia and fish. Hazard quotients derived from measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for erythromycin and oxytetracycline exceeded unity, suggesting that potential ecological effects at highly contaminated sites cannot be ruled out. Long-term consequences of veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in the environment deserve further investigation.

  5. Risk assessment of plant protection products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    EFSA’s Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel provides independent scientific advice in the field of risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs, pesticides. Since its establishment in 2003 under Regulation (EC No 178/2002, it has delivered a series of scientific outputs in support of evaluation of pesticide active substances, establishing scientific principles and guidance documents in the field of pesticide risk assessment and in support of decision making of European Union (EU law makers. Next to a series of scientific opinions evaluating specific adverse effects of PPPs for human health (like for instance carcinogenicity the Panel also delivered scientific opinions on general principles in the field of human health risk assessment (like reference value setting and is, in particular over the last years, very much engaged in development of methodologies to meet new challenges in regulatory risk assessments such as assessment of toxicity of pesticide metabolites and potential cumulative effects of pesticides to human health. Fate, behaviour and transformation of pesticides after their application and consequent release to the environment are a major aspect of pesticide risk assessment. The PPR Panel has achieved major accomplishments by delivering guidance and scientific opinions on degradation in soil, exposure of soil organisms and assessment of environmental risks by use of pesticides in greenhouses or grown under cover. A series of scientific opinions have been delivered also in the field of environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Scientific output covered specific issues arising in the peer review of specific active substances, revision of data requirements, development of risk assessment methodologies and the development of guidance documents. A major milestone of the PPR Panel was the development of the methodological framework for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk

  6. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay as an advantageous analytical method for assessing the total concentration and environmental risk of fluoroquinolones in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Jing-fu; Feng, Ting-ting; Yao, Yan; Gao, Li-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2013-01-01

    Due to the widespread occurrence in the environment and potential risk toward organisms of fluoroquinolones (FQs), it is of importance to develop high efficient methods for assessing their occurrence and environmental risk. A monoclonal antibody (Mab) with broad cross-reactivity to FQs was produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with a synthesized immunogen prepared by conjugating ciprofloxacin with bovine serum albumin. This developed Mab (C2F3C2) showed broad and high cross-reactivity (40.3-116%) to 12 out of the 13 studied FQs. Using this Mab and norfloxacin conjugated with carrier protein ovalbumin as coating antigen, a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) method was developed for determining the total concentration of at least 12 FQs in environmental waters. The respective detection limit (LOD) and IC(50) calculated from the standard curve were 0.053 μg/L and 1.83 μg/L for enrofloxacin (ENR). The LODs of the other FQs, estimated based on the corresponding cross-reactivity and the LOD of ENR, were in the range of 0.051-0.10 μg/L. The developed TRFIA method showed good tolerance to various interfering substances present in environmental matrix at relevant levels, such as humic acids (0-10 mg/L DOC), water hardness (0-2% Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), w/v), and heavy metals (0-1 mg/L). The spiked recoveries estimated by spiking 0.5, 1, and 2 μg/L of five representative FQs into various water samples including paddy water, tap water, pond water, and river water were in the range of 63-120%. The measured total FQ concentration by TRFIA agreed well with that of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and was applied to directly evaluate the occurrence and environmental risk of FQs in the surface water of a case area. TRFIA showed high efficiency and great potential in environmental risk assessment as it measures directly the total concentration of a class of pollutants.

  7. Comparative environmental impact assessment of herbicides used on genetically modified and non-genetically modified herbicide-tolerant canola crops using two risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Miller, Rosalind B; Correll, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is the third largest field crop in Australia by area sown. Genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola varieties released or being developed in Australia include Clearfield® (imidazolinone tolerant), TT (triazine tolerant), InVigor® (glufosinate-ammonium tolerant), Roundup Ready® - RR® (glyphosate tolerant) and Hyola® RT® (tolerant to both glyphosate and triazine). We used two risk assessment approaches - the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) - to compare the environmental risks associated with herbicides used in the canola varieties (GM and non-GM) that are currently grown or may be grown in the future. Risk assessments found that from an environmental impact viewpoint a number of herbicides used in the production of TT canola showed high relative risk in terms of mobility and ecotoxicity of herbicides. The EIQ field use rating values for atrazine and simazine in particular were high compared with those for glyphosate and trifluralin. Imazapic and imazapyr, which are only used in Clearfield® canola, had extremely low EIQ field use rating values, likely reflecting the very low application rates used for these chemicals (0.02 to 0.04kg/ha) compared with those used for atrazine and simazine (1.2 to 1.5kg/ha). The PIRI assessment showed that irrespective of the canola variety grown, trifluralin posed a high toxicity risk to fish (Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), algae and Daphnia sp. While the replacement of trifluralin with propyzamide had little effect on the mobility score, it greatly decreased the ecotoxicity score to fish, algae and Daphnia sp. due to the lower LC50 values for propyzamide compared with trifluralin. This study has shown that based on likelihood of off-site transport of herbicides in surface water and potential toxicity to non-target organisms, the GM canola varieties have no advantage over non-herbicide tolerant (non HT) or Clearfield® canola. PMID:27039064

  8. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments

  9. Environmental risk factors for autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Janice M. Dietert; DeWitt, Jamie C.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  10. Environmental risk analysis for nanomaterials: Review and evaluation of frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Linkov, Igor; Hansen, Steffen Foss;

    2012-01-01

    In response to the challenges of conducting traditional human health and ecological risk assessment for nanomaterials (NM), a number of alternative frameworks have been proposed for NM risk analysis. This paper evaluates various risk analysis frameworks proposed for NM based on a number of criteria...... the environmental risks of NM as well as increased applications and testing of the proposed frameworks for different NM....... to occupational settings with minor environmental considerations, and most have not been thoroughly tested on a wide range of NM. Care should also be taken when selecting the most appropriate risk analysis strategy for a given risk context. Given this, we recommend a multi-faceted approach to assess...

  11. Risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG ampersand G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers' needs and the product have been established

  12. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  13. Concepts in ecological risk assessment. Professional paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.K.; Seligman, P.F.

    1991-05-01

    Assessing the risk of impact to natural ecosystems from xenobiotic compounds requires an accurate characterization of the threatened ecosystem, direct measures or estimates of environmental exposure, and a comprehensive evaluation of the biological effects from actual and potential contamination. Field and laboratory methods have been developed to obtain direct measures of environmental health. These methods have been implemented in monitoring programs to assess and verify the ecological risks of contamination from past events, such as hazardous waste disposal sites, as well as future scenarios, such as the environmental consequences from the use of biocides in antifouling bottom paints for ships.

  14. Assessing Environmental Stewardship Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramston, Paul; Pretty, Grace; Zammit, Charlie

    2011-01-01

    Environmental stewardship networks flourish across Australia. Although the environment benefits, this article looks to identify what volunteers draw from their stewardship. The authors adapted 16 questions that purportedly tap environmental stewardship motivation and administered them to a convenience sample of 318 university students and then to…

  15. Risk assessment of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipelin, V. A.; Gmoshinski, I. V.; Khotimchenko, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles of metallic silver (Ag) are among the most widely used products of nanotechnology. Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) is presented in many kinds of production as solutions of particles with diameter less than 100 nm. NCS is used in a variety of fields, including food supplements, medicines, cosmetics, packaging materials, disinfectants, water filters, and many others. Problems of toxicity and related safety of NCS for humans and environmental systems are recently overestimated basing on data of numerous toxicological studies in vitro and in vivo. The article discusses the results of current studies in recent years and the data of author's own experiments on studying the safety of NCS, that allows to move on to risk assessment of this nanomaterial presented in consumer products and environmental samples.

  16. 亚磷酸项目环境风险评价实例分析%Example Analysis of Environmental Risk Assessment for Phosphorous Acid Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史永松; 杨羚

    2011-01-01

    环境风险评价是化工项目环境影响评价的重点工作之一,结合对亚磷酸生产过程中工艺过程及产污环节进行分析,了解原辅料及主副产品的理化特性,通过对工程潜在的环境风险环节进行识别和风险类型确定,从而科学准确地进行风险源项分析,确定事故发生的最大概率,进而完成事故状态下的后果影响分析,并根据事故产生的后果,提出防范和减缓事故发生后的风险,从组织措施、技术措施等诸多方面提出风险管理方案和应急防范预案,来保障事故一旦发生对环境的影响降低到最小程度。%Environmental risk assessment is one of major works for evaluating the environmental impacts of chemical industry. Based on the analysis of phosphorous acid production technological process and polluting links, this paper illustrated the physicochemical characteristic of the raw and auxiliary materials and the main products and byproducts. Through distinguishing the links of potential environmental risk and risk types, the risk source item analysis was studied scientifically and accurately to define the probability scale by trouble tree, and then proceed to complete the consequence affect analysis in the various accident states and advanced the prevention and postponement of accident' s consequence. This paper also put forward the risk administration plan and the emergency prevention plan from organization and technology measures and so on to minimize the environmental impacts once the accident is happened.

  17. Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis (also referred to as the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance or EJTG) is intended for use by Agency analysts, including risk assessors, economists, and other analytic staff that conduct analyse...

  18. Creation of a Risk Assessment Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    This report is a presentation of the work realised during an internship at the consultancy division of Thales Security Systems from September 2005 to June 2006. Thales Security Systems is part of Thales, an international group in defence, aeronautics, etc. The work realised consisted in the creation of a new risk assessment methodology for a commercial offer called HELP, standing for Human, Environmental, Logical and Physical security. As a basis for the work, 5 existing risk assessment metho...

  19. Probabilistic risk assessment of the environmental impacts of pesticides in the Crocodile (west) Marico catchment, North-West Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansara-Ross, T.; Wepener, V.; Brink, van den P.J.; Ross, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    External agricultural inputs, such as pesticides, may pose risks to aquatic ecosystems and affect aquatic populations, communities and ecosystems. To predict these risks, a tiered approach was followed, incorporating both the PRIMET and PERPEST models. The first-tier PRIMET model is designed to yiel

  20. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  1. Health risks associated with environmental radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much is known about health effects associated with exposure to ionising radiation. Numerous epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to radiation under a variety of circumstances have been conducted. These studies have clearly shown that radiation exposure can result in an increased risk of many types of cancer, and the findings are supported by a substantial body of literature from experimental studies. Despite the fact that radiation exposures from environmental sources comprise a relatively minor component of total population exposure, this type of exposure is often the most feared by the public. An accident like Chernobyl or a natural disaster like that at Fukushima provides a unique opportunity to learn more about the health risks from environmental radiation exposures. However, establishing the infrastructure and expertise required to design and conduct all aspects of a complex field study presents formidable challenges. This paper summarises the principal findings from the main studies of environmental radiation exposure that have been successfully undertaken. Although such studies are often exceedingly difficult to conduct, and may be limited by an ecologic design, they can be informative in assessing risk. Any new environmental study that is initiated should focus on special circumstances; additional ecological studies are not recommended. (note)

  2. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered.

  3. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered

  4. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered

  5. Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El Baz Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD as compared to their matched controls. Methods. One hundred ASD children were studied in comparison to 100 controls. All participants were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of mercury, lead, and aluminum through hair analysis which reflects past exposure. Results. The mean Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead, and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively. Conclusion. Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism.

  6. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  7. Environmental risks: scientific concepts and social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, P

    1995-06-01

    Using the example of air pollution, I criticize a restricted utilitarian view of environmental risks. It is likely that damage to health due to environmental pollution in Western countries is relatively modest in quantitative terms (especially when considering cancer and comparing such damage to the effects of some life-style exposures). However, a strictly quantitative approach, which ranks priorities according to the burden of disease attributable to single causes, is questionable because it does not consider such aspects as inequalities in the distribution of risks. Secondly, the ability of epidemiological research to identify some health effects is limited. Third, the environment has symbolic and aesthetic components that overcome a strict evaluation of damage based on the impairment of human health. It is not acceptable that priorities be set just balancing the burden of disease caused by pollution in the environment against economic constraints. As an example of a computation that inherently includes economic analysis, I refer to the proposal of an estimator of mortality in coal mining, i.e., a rate which puts deaths in the numerator and tons of coal extracted in the denominator. According to this estimator, mortality due to accidents decreased from 1.15 to 0.42 in the period 1950-1970 in the United States, for each million tons of coal extracted. However, considering the steep decline in the workforce in the same period, the traditional mortality rate (deaths over persons-time) actually increased. The proposal of a measure of mortality based on the amount of coal extracted is just one example of the attempts to influence decisions by including an economic element (productivity) in risk assessment. This paper has three purposes: One, to describe empirical research concerning the health effects of environmental pollutants; two, to discuss the scientific principles and methods used in the identification of environmental hazards; and three, to critically discuss

  8. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing foodregulations is growing with the globalization of our food supply. The World Trade Organization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. The relevant international organization for food standards, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, recognises risk analysis, and its component parts risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, as the basis for scientific decision-making. Risk assessment comprises two activities: hazard evaluation; and exposure estimation. A hazard may be chemical, microbiological or nutritional in origin. The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation by four examples involving: (1) food additives, (2) microbiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses, (3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  9. Practical Approaches to Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIMONBROOKE-TAYLOR

    2001-01-01

    The importance of using risk assessment in developing food regulations is growing with the globalization of our food supple,The World Trade Oranization has entrenched the principles of science-based risk assessment in the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.The relevant international organization for food standards,the Codex Alimentarius Commission,recognises risk analysis,and its component parts risk assessment,risk management and risk communication as the basis for scientific decision-making,Risk assessment comprises two activities:hazard evaluation;and exposure estimation.A hazard may be chemical,microbiological or nutritional in origin,The practical application of risk assessment in Australia is illustrated in this presentation y four examples involving:(1) food additives,(2) microiological safety of imported raw milk cheeses,(3) genetically modified foods and (4) imported food inspection.

  10. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria...... predictors, baseline caries experience had moderate/good accuracy in pre-school children and limited accuracy in schoolchildren/adolescents. The period of highest risk for caries incidence in permanent teeth was the first few years after tooth eruption. In general, the quality of evidence was limited....... CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate models and baseline caries prevalence performed better in pre-school children than in schoolchildren/adolescents. Baseline caries prevalence was the most accurate single predictor in all age groups. The heterogeneity of populations, models, outcome criteria, measures and reporting...

  11. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  12. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: potential use in environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Natália Rust; Oliva, Marco Antonio; da Cruz Centeno, Danilo; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ribas, Rogério Ferreira; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM(Fe)) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM(Fe) application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  13. Assessing environmental management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2012-01-01

    This paper incorporates interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics and suggests a holistic framework for assessing the forms and efficiency of environmental management in agriculture. First, it defines environmental management as a specific system of social order regulating behaviour and relations of various agents related to natural environment, and environmental management in agriculture as eco-management associated with agricultural production. Second, it specifies spectrum of modes and...

  14. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level waste (LLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLW. Included are definition of the LLW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of WM LLW, an overview of the risk assessment method, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLW alternative considered

  15. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level waste (LLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLW. Included are definitions of the LLW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of WM LLW, an overview of the risk assessment method, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLW case considered

  16. Integrating Risk Context into Risk Assessments: The Risk Context Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Daryl G.; Gray, Andrew L.; Goodrich, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The context in which offenders are released is an important component of conducting risk assessments. A sample of 257 supervised male parolees were followed in the community ("M" = 870 days) after an initial risk assessment. Drawing on community-based information, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the recently developed Risk Context Scale.…

  17. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  18. HTGR accident and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a synopsis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) performed by General Atomic Company. Principal topics presented include: HTGR safety assessments, peer interfaces, safety research, process gas explosions, quantitative safety goals, licensing applications of PRA, enhanced safety, investment risk assessments, and PRA design integration

  19. Uncertainty of Environmental Risk Assessment and Process Environmental Risk Management of Demolished Industrial Sites%工业拆迁场地环境风险评价的不确定性与环境风险过程管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红静; 李东

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing 6 uncertain factors that had affected the conclusions of environmental risk evaluation of relocation site, the paper pointed out there were limitations and drawbacks with a single environmental risk assessment system to control the environmental risk of industrial relocation site. Process management of environmental risk of demolished industrial sites was put forward with six essential elements of management system. It is considered that only the environmental risks process management model of industrial demolition site with introducing supervision of industrial demolition sites, environmental risk assessment and emergency disposal mechanisms of sudden events can monitor and control the potential environmental risks of demolition sites.%通过分析影响工业拆迁场地环境风险评价结论的6类不确定因素,指出了仅依靠单一的场地环境风险评价制度来控制工业拆迁场地环境风险的局限性和弊端.提出了工业拆迁场地环境风险过程管理理念,并列出了构成该管理体系的6个基本要件.认为只有引入涵盖工业拆迁场地监管、场地污染突现事件应急处置机制和场地环境风险评价工作的工业拆迁场地环境风险过程管理模式,才能对拆迁场地潜在的环境风险实施有效的监管和控制.

  20. GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER IRRIGATION: UNDERSTANDING HEALTH RISKS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO FOOD SECURITY USING AN ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research will quantify the extent of de facto reuse of untreated wastewater at the global scale. Through the integration of multiple existing spatial data sources, this project will produce rigorous analyses assessing the relationship between wastewater irrigation, hea...

  1. Environmental assessment of nanomaterial use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølholt, Jesper; Gottschalk, Fadri; Brinch, Anna;

    Protection Agency. The projects in NanoDEN have aimed to investigate and generate new environmentally relevant knowledge on of nanomaterials on the Danish market and to assess the possible associated risks to the environment. The results from the sub-projects are summarized in the current report...... to an overall assessment of nanomaterials risk to the environment in Denmark. The nine investigated nanomaterials are: Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, Silver, Carbon Nanotubes, Copper Oxide, Zero Valent Iron, Cerium Dioxide, Quantum Dots and Carbon Black....

  2. Probabilistic environmental risk assessment of five nanomaterials (nano-TiO2, nano-Ag, nano-ZnO, CNT, and fullerenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Claudia; Notter, Dominic; Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, Tianyin; Som, Claudia; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The environmental risks of five engineered nanomaterials (nano-TiO2, nano-Ag, nano-ZnO, CNT, and fullerenes) were quantified in water, soils, and sediments using probabilistic Species Sensitivity Distributions (pSSDs) and probabilistic predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). For water and soil, enough ecotoxicological endpoints were found for a full risk characterization (between 17 and 73 data points per nanomaterial for water and between 4 and 20 for soil) whereas for sediments, the data availability was not sufficient. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) were obtained from the pSSD and used to calculate risk characterization ratios (PEC/PNEC). For most materials and environmental compartments, exposure and effect concentrations were separated by several orders of magnitude. Nano-ZnO in freshwaters and nano-TiO2 in soils were the combinations where the risk characterization ratio was closest to one, meaning that these are compartment/ENM combinations to be studied in more depth with the highest priority. The probabilistic risk quantification allows us to consider the large variability of observed effects in different ecotoxicological studies and the uncertainty in modeled exposure concentrations. The risk characterization results presented in this work allows for a more focused investigation of environmental risks of nanomaterials by consideration of material/compartment combinations where the highest probability for effects with predicted environmental concentrations is likely. PMID:26554717

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on risk of death due to infections assessed in Danish twins, 1943-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Niels; Christensen, Kaare; Petersen, Inge;

    2010-01-01

    definitions, heritability was 40% (95% confidence interval: 12, 50) and 19% (95% confidence interval: 3, 35), respectively. The concordance rates were generally low, and, although a genetic influence on the risk of death......Genetic differences have been proposed to play a strong role in risk of death from infectious diseases. The study base of 44,005 included all same-sex twin pairs born in 1870-2001, with both twins alive on January 1, 1943, or those born thereafter. Cause of death was obtained from the Danish Cause...... of Death Register and was available for 18,359 deaths. The authors classified death due to infections by 3 definitions (narrow, broader, and broadest) and calculated concordance rates for same-sex monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Heritability was estimated by using structural equation models. When...

  4. Emerging methods and tools for environmental risk assessment, decision-making, and policy for nanomaterials: summary of NATO Advanced Research Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Linkov, Igor; Steevens, Jeffery; Adlakha-Hutcheon, Gitanjali; Bennett, Erin; Chappell, Mark; Colvin, Vicki; Davis, J. Michael; Davis, Thomas; Elder, Alison; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Hussain, Saber M.; Karkan, Delara; Korenstein, Rafi; Lynch, Iseult

    2008-01-01

    Nanomaterials and their associated technologies hold promising opportunities for the development of new materials and applications in a wide variety of disciplines, including medicine, environmental remediation, waste treatment, and energy conservation. However, current information regarding the environmental effects and health risks associated with nanomaterials is limited and sometimes contradictory. This article summarizes the conclusions of a 2008 NATO workshop designed to evaluate the wi...

  5. Ghana Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Vikas; D'Alessandro, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Improved agricultural risk management is one of the core enabling actions of the Group of Eight’s (G-8’s) New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition. The Agricultural Risk Management Team (ARMT) of the Agriculture and Environment Services Department of the World Bank conducted an agricultural sector risk assessment to better understand the dynamics of agricultural risks and identify appropriate responses, incorporate agricultural risk perspective into decision-making, and bui...

  6. A statistical simulation model for fiels testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, P.W.; Voet, van der H.; Baldacchino, F.; Arpaia, S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conve

  7. Transportable data from non-target arthropod field studies for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Negri, Ignacio; Oliveira, Wladecir; Brown, Christopher; Asiimwe, Peter; Sammons, Bernard; Horak, Michael; Jiang, Changjian; Carson, David

    2016-02-01

    As part of an environmental risk assessment, the potential impact of genetically modified (GM) maize MON 87411 on non-target arthropods (NTAs) was evaluated in the field. MON 87411 confers resistance to corn rootworm (CRW; Diabrotica spp.) by expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transcript and the Cry3Bb1 protein and tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate by producing the CP4 EPSPS protein. Field trials were conducted at 14 sites providing high geographic and environmental diversity within maize production areas from three geographic regions including the U.S., Argentina, and Brazil. MON 87411, the conventional control, and four commercial conventional reference hybrids were evaluated for NTA abundance and damage. Twenty arthropod taxa met minimum abundance criteria for valid statistical analysis. Nine of these taxa occurred in at least two of the three regions and in at least four sites across regions. These nine taxa included: aphid, predatory earwig, lacewing, ladybird beetle, leafhopper, minute pirate bug, parasitic wasp, sap beetle, and spider. In addition to wide regional distribution, these taxa encompass the ecological functions of herbivores, predators and parasitoids in maize agro-ecosystems. Thus, the nine arthropods may serve as representative taxa of maize agro-ecosystems, and thereby support that analysis of relevant data generated in one region can be transportable for the risk assessment of the same or similar GM crop products in another region. Across the 20 taxa analyzed, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 123 of the 128 individual-site comparisons (96.1%). For the nine widely distributed taxa, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 53 out of 56 individual

  8. Transportable data from non-target arthropod field studies for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Negri, Ignacio; Oliveira, Wladecir; Brown, Christopher; Asiimwe, Peter; Sammons, Bernard; Horak, Michael; Jiang, Changjian; Carson, David

    2016-02-01

    As part of an environmental risk assessment, the potential impact of genetically modified (GM) maize MON 87411 on non-target arthropods (NTAs) was evaluated in the field. MON 87411 confers resistance to corn rootworm (CRW; Diabrotica spp.) by expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transcript and the Cry3Bb1 protein and tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate by producing the CP4 EPSPS protein. Field trials were conducted at 14 sites providing high geographic and environmental diversity within maize production areas from three geographic regions including the U.S., Argentina, and Brazil. MON 87411, the conventional control, and four commercial conventional reference hybrids were evaluated for NTA abundance and damage. Twenty arthropod taxa met minimum abundance criteria for valid statistical analysis. Nine of these taxa occurred in at least two of the three regions and in at least four sites across regions. These nine taxa included: aphid, predatory earwig, lacewing, ladybird beetle, leafhopper, minute pirate bug, parasitic wasp, sap beetle, and spider. In addition to wide regional distribution, these taxa encompass the ecological functions of herbivores, predators and parasitoids in maize agro-ecosystems. Thus, the nine arthropods may serve as representative taxa of maize agro-ecosystems, and thereby support that analysis of relevant data generated in one region can be transportable for the risk assessment of the same or similar GM crop products in another region. Across the 20 taxa analyzed, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 123 of the 128 individual-site comparisons (96.1%). For the nine widely distributed taxa, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 53 out of 56 individual

  9. Monitoring release of pharmaceutical compounds: occurrence and environmental risk assessment of two WWTP effluents and their receiving bodies in the Po Valley, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aukidy, M; Verlicchi, P; Jelic, A; Petrovic, M; Barcelò, D

    2012-11-01

    This study describes an investigation on the occurrence of 27 pharmaceutical compounds, belonging to different classes, in the effluent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies in the sensitive area of the Po Valley (northern Italy). These canals were monitored upstream and downstream of the effluent discharge points in order to evaluate the effluent impact on the quality of surface waters, commonly used for irrigation. An environmental risk assessment was also conducted by calculating the risk quotient, i.e. the ratio between measured concentration and predicted no effect concentration. Collected data show that, although average values of the selected compounds were in general higher in the effluent than in the surface waters, some compounds not detected in the WWTP effluent were detected in the receiving water (upstream as well as downstream), indicating that sources other than treated effluents are present as contaminations during extraction and analysis have to be excluded. The most critical compounds for the environment were found to be the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin and azithromycin. The study shows that the potential toxicological effects of persistent micropollutants can be mitigated to some extent by a high dilution capacity, i.e. a high average flow rate in the receiving water body with respect to the effluent. PMID:22967493

  10. Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    In the agricultural sector, risks are inherent and ubiquitous, posing potentially serious consequences for stakeholders and consumers. Risks disrupt supply chains, causing extensive financial and economic losses. Agricultural risks are also the principal cause of transient food insecurity, creating a poverty trap for millions of households across the developing world that enforces a viciou...

  11. Frameworks and tools for risk assessment of manufactured nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hristozov, Danail; Gottardo, Stefania; Semenzin, Elena;

    2016-01-01

    Commercialization of nanotechnologies entails a regulatory requirement for understanding their environmental, health and safety (EHS) risks. Today we face challenges to assess these risks, which emerge from uncertainties around the interactions of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) with humans...

  12. Probabilistic assessment of environmental exposure to the polycyclic musk, HHCB and associated risks in wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and sludge amended soils in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federle, Thomas; Sun, Ping; Dyer, Scott; Kiel, Brian

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this work was to conduct an environmental risk assessment for the consumer use of the polycyclic musk, HHCB (CAS No. 1222-05-5) in the U.S. focusing on mixing zones downstream from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sludge amended soils. A probabilistic exposure approach was utilized combining statistical distributions of effluent and sludge concentrations for the U.S. WWTPs with distributions of mixing zone dilution factors and sludge loading rates to soil to estimate HHCB concentrations in surface waters and sediments below WWTPs and sludge amended soils. These concentrations were then compared to various toxicity values. Measured concentrations of HHCB in effluent and sludge from a monitoring program of 40 WWTPs across the U.S. formed the basis for estimating environmental loadings. Based upon a Monte Carlo analysis, the probability of HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) for pelagic freshwater organisms was greater than or equal to 99.87% under both mean and low flow regimes. Similarly, the probability of HHCB concentrations being less than the PNEC for freshwater sediment organisms was greater than or equal to 99.98%. Concentrations of HHCB in sludge amended soils were estimated for single and repeated annual sludge applications with tilling of the sludge into the soil, surface application without tilling and a combination reflecting current practice. The probability of soil HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC for soil organisms after repeated sludge applications was 94.35% with current sludge practice. Probabilistic estimates of HHCB exposures in surface waters, sediments and sludge amended soils are consistent with the published values for the U.S. In addition, the results of these analyses indicate that HHCB entering the environment in WWTP effluent and sludge poses negligible risk to aquatic and terrestrial organisms in nearly all exposure scenarios. PMID:24802072

  13. Safety Factors in Pesticide Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, N.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.

    Foreword It has become common practice to protect the environment from hazardous chemicals by use of risk assessment to establish environmental concentration at which only limited damage to the ecosystem can be expected. The methods and tools applied in the risk assessment need constant evaluation...... to secure that the methodology is adequate. As new knowledge surfaces the risk assessment procedures develops. The present report is a contribution to the development of safety factors used to account for the uncertainty when · extrapolating from the results of test with a single species in the laboratory...... factors used in pesticide risk assessment: the variability in species sensitivities, and the relationship between acute LC50's and chronic NOEC's....

  14. Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA’s Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) is a geographically-based model that helps policy makers and communities explore data on releases of toxic...

  15. Assessing Risk of Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's manufacturing systems and equipment must perform at levels thought impossible a decade ago. Companies must push operations, quality, and efficiencies to unprecedented levels while holding down costs. In this new economy, companies must be concerned with market shares, equity growth, market saturation, and profit. U.S. manufacturing is no exception and is a prime example of businesses forced to adapt to constant and rapid changes in customer needs and product mixes, giving rise to the term ''Agile Manufacturing''. The survival and ultimate success of the American Manufacturing economy may depend upon its ability to create, innovate, and quickly assess the impact that new innovations will have on its business practices. Given the need for flexibility, companies need proven methods to predict and measure the impact that new technologies and strategies will have on overall plant performance from an enterprise perspective. The Value-Derivative Model provides a methodology and approach to assess such impacts in terms of energy savings, production increases, quality impacts, emission reduction, and maintenance and operating costs as they relate to enabling and emerging technologies. This is realized by calculating a set of first order sensitivity parameters obtained from expanding a Taylor Series about the system's operating point. These sensitivity parameters are invariant economic and operational indicators that quantify the impact of any proposed technology in terms of material throughput, efficiency, energy usage, environmental effects, and costs. These parameters also provide a mechanism to define metrics and performance measures that can be qualified in terms of real economic impact. Value-Derivative Analysis can be applied across all manufacturing and production segments of our economy and has found specific use in steel and textiles. Where economic models give the cost of conducting a business, Value-Derivative Analysis provides the cost to conduct

  16. EPA's approach to assessment of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency has assessed the potential lung cancer risk to the general population due to radon based on the Agency's general principles of risk assessment. This is the same approach that has been used to assess the impact on public health of other carcinogenic environmental pollutants. This paper describes the application of this approach to radon. This paper includes a description of the method used by the Agency to estimate that 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year may be related to radon exposure. Also presented are the weight-of-evidence for classifying radon as a known human carcinogen and the uncertainties associated with estimating risks from radon exposure. These reflect the extent of the underlying support and context for these estimates

  17. MINI REVIEW - EPIGENETIC PROCESSES AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment encourages the use of mechanistic data in the assessment of human cancer risk at low (environmental) exposure levels. The key events that define a particular mode of action for tumor fo...

  18. Performance Assessment for Environmental Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Fewell, M.E.; Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Swift, P.N.; Trauth, K.M.; Vaughn, P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, R.J. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have, over the last twenty (20) years, developed unique, internationally-recognized performance and risk assessment methods to assess options for the safe disposal and remediation of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous waste/contamination in geohydrologic systems. While these methods were originally developed for the disposal of nuclear waste, ongoing improvements and extensions make them equally applicable to a variety of environmental problems such as those associated with the remediation of EPA designated Superfund sites and the more generic Brownfield sites (industrial sites whose future use is restricted because of real or perceived contamination).

  19. Predictions of models for environmental radiological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Sueli da Silva; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa, E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br, E-mail: dejanira@irg.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Servico de Avaliacao de Impacto Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, Claudio Fernando [Coppe. Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) - Programa de Engenharia Civil, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the field of environmental impact assessment, models are used for estimating source term, environmental dispersion and transfer of radionuclides, exposure pathway, radiation dose and the risk for human beings Although it is recognized that the specific information of local data are important to improve the quality of the dose assessment results, in fact obtaining it can be very difficult and expensive. Sources of uncertainties are numerous, among which we can cite: the subjectivity of modelers, exposure scenarios and pathways, used codes and general parameters. The various models available utilize different mathematical approaches with different complexities that can result in different predictions. Thus, for the same inputs different models can produce very different outputs. This paper presents briefly the main advances in the field of environmental radiological assessment that aim to improve the reliability of the models used in the assessment of environmental radiological impact. The intercomparison exercise of model supplied incompatible results for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, enhancing the need for developing reference methodologies for environmental radiological assessment that allow to confront dose estimations in a common comparison base. The results of the intercomparison exercise are present briefly. (author)

  20. Concepts of modern risk assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, S B

    1994-01-01

    An emerging and increasingly complex array of environmental health concerns face dental practitioners in both the private and public sectors. These concerns are challenging and possibly threatening the traditionally inviolable dentist-patient relationship. Regulatory bodies, health risk experts, attorneys, and enthusiastic media are inserting themselves into the process. Essential assets for "successful" dental practitioners include enhanced expertise in basic science and technology, including the area of risk assessment, and development of broadened perspectives and skills for communicating with patients and the public.

  1. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  2. Applying a weed risk assessment approach to GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keese, Paul K; Robold, Andrea V; Myers, Ruth C; Weisman, Sarah; Smith, Joe

    2014-12-01

    Current approaches to environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants are modelled on chemical risk assessment methods, which have a strong focus on toxicity. There are additional types of harms posed by plants that have been extensively studied by weed scientists and incorporated into weed risk assessment methods. Weed risk assessment uses robust, validated methods that are widely applied to regulatory decision-making about potentially problematic plants. They are designed to encompass a broad variety of plant forms and traits in different environments, and can provide reliable conclusions even with limited data. The knowledge and experience that underpin weed risk assessment can be harnessed for environmental risk assessment of GM plants. A case study illustrates the application of the Australian post-border weed risk assessment approach to a representative GM plant. This approach is a valuable tool to identify potential risks from GM plants.

  3. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be...... substantial enough to be a risk. A hazard does not necessarily constitute a risk, as efforts can be done to minimize risk by reducing the exposure. Thus, the relationship between hazard and risk must be treated cautiously. Fora robust risk assessment good data on exposure to the substance is needed and...... exposure data for other similarly acting substances are needed for assessing the risk for mixture effects. Such data may, however, often be absent. Toxicological potency, i.e. the lowest dose found to cause adverse effects, has been proposed as one of the key characteristics when evaluating safety of a...

  4. Risk-Assessment Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, William C.; Mittman, David S.

    1993-01-01

    RISK D/C is prototype computer program assisting in attempts to do program risk modeling for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment performed with respect to risk events, probabilities, and severities of potential results. Enables ranking, with respect to effectiveness, of risk-mitigation strategies proposed for exploration program architecture. Allows for fact that risk assessment in early phases of planning subjective. Although specific to SEI in present form, also used as software framework for development of risk-assessment programs for other specific uses. Developed for Macintosh(TM) series computer. Requires HyperCard(TM) 2.0 or later, as well as 2 Mb of random-access memory and System 6.0.8 or later.

  5. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Edward T.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2013-12-01

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner.

  6. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner. (letter)

  7. Emerging methods and tools for environmental risk assessment, decision-making, and policy for nanomaterials: summary of NATO Advanced Research Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Linkov@usace.army.mi [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Laboratory (United States); Steevens, Jeffery, E-mail: Jeffery.A.Steevens@us.army.mi [U.S. Army ERDC (United States); Adlakha-Hutcheon, Gitanjali, E-mail: Gitanjali.Adlakha-Hutcheon@drdc-rddc.gc.c [Defense Research and Development Canada (Canada); Bennett, Erin, E-mail: ebennett@bioengineering.co [Intertox Inc. and Bioengineering Group (United States); Chappell, Mark, E-mail: Mark.a.chappell@usace.army.mi [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Laboratory (United States); Colvin, Vicki, E-mail: colvin@rice.ed [Rice University, ICON (United States); Davis, J. Michael, E-mail: Davis.Jmichael@epa.go [Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment (United States); Davis, Thomas, E-mail: ta.davis@umontreal.c [University of Montreal, Environment Canada and Department of Chemistry (Canada); Elder, Alison, E-mail: Alison_Elder@urmc.rochester.ed [University of Rochester, Department of Environmental Medicine (United States); Foss Hansen, Steffen, E-mail: sfh@er.dtu.d [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, NanoDTU (Denmark); Hakkinen, Pertti Bert, E-mail: berthakkinen@gmail.co [Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA) (United States); Hussain, Saber M., E-mail: Saber.Hussain@wpafb.af.mi [Air Force Research Laboratory (United States); Karkan, Delara, E-mail: Delara_karkan@hc-sc.gc.c [Health Canada (Canada); Korenstein, Rafi, E-mail: korens@post.tau.ac.i [Marian Gertner Institute for Medical Nanosystems, Tel Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Lynch, Iseult, E-mail: iseult@fiachra.ucd.i [School of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Irish Centre for Colloid Science and Biomaterials (Ireland); Metcalfe, Chris, E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.c [Trent University (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    Nanomaterials and their associated technologies hold promising opportunities for the development of new materials and applications in a wide variety of disciplines, including medicine, environmental remediation, waste treatment, and energy conservation. However, current information regarding the environmental effects and health risks associated with nanomaterials is limited and sometimes contradictory. This article summarizes the conclusions of a 2008 NATO workshop designed to evaluate the wide-scale implications (e.g., benefits, risks, and costs) of the use of nanomaterials on human health and the environment. A unique feature of this workshop was its interdisciplinary nature and focus on the practical needs of policy decision makers. Workshop presentations and discussion panels were structured along four main themes: technology and benefits, human health risk, environmental risk, and policy implications. Four corresponding working groups (WGs) were formed to develop detailed summaries of the state-of-the-science in their respective areas and to discuss emerging gaps and research needs. The WGs identified gaps between the rapid advances in the types and applications of nanomaterials and the slower pace of human health and environmental risk science, along with strategies to reduce the uncertainties associated with calculating these risks.

  8. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  9. Ecosystem services as assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Wayne R; Rea, Anne W; Suter, Glenn W; Martin, Lawrence; Blake-Hedges, Lynne; Crk, Tanja; Davis, Christine; Ferreira, Gina; Jordan, Steve; Mahoney, Michele; Barron, Mace G

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Those outputs include food and drinking water, clean air and water, and pollinated crops. The need to protect the services provided by natural systems has been recognized previously, but ecosystem services have not been formally incorporated into ecological risk assessment practice in a general way in the United States. Endpoints used conventionally in ecological risk assessment, derived directly from the state of the ecosystem (e.g., biophysical structure and processes), and endpoints based on ecosystem services serve different purposes. Conventional endpoints are ecologically important and susceptible entities and attributes that are protected under US laws and regulations. Ecosystem service endpoints are a conceptual and analytical step beyond conventional endpoints and are intended to complement conventional endpoints by linking and extending endpoints to goods and services with more obvious benefit to humans. Conventional endpoints can be related to ecosystem services even when the latter are not considered explicitly during problem formulation. To advance the use of ecosystem service endpoints in ecological risk assessment, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Forum has added generic endpoints based on ecosystem services (ES-GEAE) to the original 2003 set of generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs). Like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are defined by an entity and an attribute. Also like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are broadly described and will need to be made specific when applied to individual assessments. Adoption of ecosystem services as a type of assessment endpoint is intended to improve the value of risk assessment to environmental decision making, linking ecological risk to human well-being, and providing an improved means of communicating those risks. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  10. Risks assessment of environmental exposure to certain organo chemicals in male rats: the possible modulatory effect of micro nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely volatile organic compound, because of its widespread commercial use. So, TCE become a major environmental pollutant. It is the most frequently reported organic contaminant in ground water, so a considerable numbers of people are exposed to TCE via inhalation, through the skin or through drinking water and rarely through food. The main symptoms of exposure are headache, dizziness, and confusion, beyond the effects on the central nervous system, work place exposure to TCE has been associated with toxic effects in many organs including liver, kidney and testes in addition to attenuation to the immune system. The present study aims to investigate the possible modulatory effect of certain micro nutrients such as vitamin C and zinc alone and in combination on the damage of liver, kidney and testes of male rats intoxicated with trichloroethylene for 20 and 105 days. The results showed significant decrease in body and testes weight and increase in liver and kidney weights after long period of treatment with TCE. Some of the selected hematological and biochemical parameters of the rats intoxicated by TCE for short and long period significantly changed. The results revealed significant decrease in free tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) (FT4) and significant increase in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (Thyrotropin) (TSH) in TCE-intoxicated rat groups for the two periods of treatment. Also results revealed significant decrease of total testosterone in TCE-intoxicated rat groups as compared to that of normal control. Also significant changes were detected in the level of immunoglobulins IgG and IgM.Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and testicular tissues showed significant alteration. The DNA damage was observed in both period of treatment and increased DNA damage with apoptosis was recorded after 105 days of the treatment. Withdrawal group recorded mild improvement in all changed parameters and the

  11. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  12. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  13. 39 CFR 775.10 - Environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental assessments. 775.10 Section 775.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.10 Environmental assessments. (a) An environmental assessment must contain: (1) A summary...

  14. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  15. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  16. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A;

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  17. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Environmental Assessment § 51.30 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment for proposed actions, other than those for a standard design certification under 10 CFR part 52 or a manufacturing license... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 51.30 Section 51.30...

  18. Development and application of an innovative expert decision support system to manage sediments and to assess environmental risk in freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Alessandro; Bo, Tiziano; Copetta, Andrea; Fenoglio, Stefano; Oliveri, Caterina; Bencivenga, Mauro; Felli, Angelo; Viarengo, Aldo

    2013-10-01

    With the aim of supporting decision makers to manage contamination in freshwater environments, an innovative expert decision support system (EDSS) was developed. The EDSS was applied in a sediment quality assessment along the Bormida river (NW, Italy) which has been heavily contaminated by an upstream industrial site for more than a century. Sampling sites were classified by means of comparing chemical concentrations with effect-based target values (threshold and probable effect concentrations). The level of each contaminant and the combined toxic pressure were used to rank sites into three categories: (i) uncontaminated (8 sites), (ii) mildly contaminated (4) and (iii) heavily contaminated (19). In heavily contaminated sediments, an environmental risk index (EnvRI) was determined by means of integrating chemical data with ecotoxicological and ecological parameters (triad approach). In addition a sediment risk index (SedRI) was computed from combining chemical and ecotoxicological data. Eight sites exhibited EnvRI values ≥0.25, the safety threshold level (range of EnvRI values: 0.14-0.31) whereas SedRI exceeded the safety threshold level at 6 sites (range of SedRI values: 0.16-0.36). At sites classified as mildly contaminated, sublethal biomarkers were integrated with chemical data into a biological vulnerability index (BVI), which exceeded the safety threshold level at one site (BVI value: 0.28). Finally, potential human risk was assessed in selected stations (11 sites) by integrating genotoxicity biomarkers (GTI index falling in the range 0.00-0.53). General conclusions drawn from the EDSS data include: (i) in sites classified as heavily contaminated, only a few exhibited some significant, yet limited, effects on biodiversity; (ii) restrictions in re-using sediments from heavily contaminated sites found little support in ecotoxicological data; (iii) in the majority of the sites classified as mildly contaminated, tested organisms exhibited low response levels

  19. Evolution of Public Participation in the Assessment and Management of Environmental Health Risks: A Brief History of Developments in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Sexton

    2013-01-01

    Significance for public health Risk-based decision making is a core feature of government actions aimed at protecting public health from the adverse effects of environmental hazards. In the past, it has often been an expert-driven, mostly obscure process used by federal agencies to justify and defend regulatory decisions made outside the public arena. But the nature of decision making has changed as it has become apparent that environmental health problems are more complicated, controversial,...

  20. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of transuranic waste (TRUW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) contact- and remote-handed (CH and RH) TRUW. Included are definitions of the TRUW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of CH and RH TRUW, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM TRUW case considered