WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing economic social

  1. Joint Social and Economic Assessment : Republic of Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Engelke, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Social and Economic Assessment (JSEA) has been prepared in response to a request from the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MoPIC) in Yemen, and was undertaken jointly by the World Bank, the United Nations, the European Union, and the Islamic Development Bank. The JSEA's main purpose is to assess the social and economic impact of the crisis in Yemen, and to iden...

  2. Lebanon : Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Syrian Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    To provide a solid basis to define its needs and frame its priorities in terms of the specific assistance it seeks from the international community as well as to inform its own domestic policy response, the Government of Lebanon (GoL) requested the World Bank to lead an Economic and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of the Syrian conflict on Lebanon. Upon an official request from the Prime M...

  3. Economic and social impact of introducing casino gambling: a review and assessment of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Mallach

    2010-01-01

    Reviews and assesses the existing literature on the potential economic impact of introducing casino gambling into a community or region, first by discussing the casinos? effect on economic activity and growth within a community or region, and then by exploring their effect on government revenues. Also discusses the literature related to the economic impact of social costs widely associated with gambling, such as increases in crime, bankruptcy, and problem gambling.

  4. Assessing the Social Impacts of the Economic Crisis in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Center of Social Expertise

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in three stages during 2009 through April 2011. The main objective of the study is to determine, on the basis of usage of qualitative data collection methods, impact of the economic crisis on the most vulnerable population groups, as well as to monitor dynamics of changes in the lives of the respondents by consistently comparing the results of each of the consec...

  5. Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: → National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. → We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. → The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

  6. Assessing social and economic effects of perceived risk: Workshop summary: Draft: BWIP Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy sponsored a one-day workshop to discuss the complex dimensions of risk judgment formation and the assessment of social and economic effects of risk perceptions related to the permanent underground storage of highly radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. Affected parties have publicly expressed concerns about potentially significant risk-related effects of this approach to waste management. A selective review of relevant literature in psychology, decision analysis, economics, sociology, and anthropology was completed, along with an examination of decision analysis techniques that might assist in developing suitable responses to public risk-related concerns. The workshop was organized as a forum in which a set of distinguished experts could exchange ideas and observations about the problems of characterizing the effects of risk judgments. Out of the exchange emerged the issues or themes of problems with probabilistic risk assessment techniques are evident; differences exist in the way experts and laypersons view risk, and this leads to higher levels of public concern than experts feel are justified; experts, risk managers, and decision-makers sometimes err in assessing risk and in dealing with the public; credibility and trust are important contributing factors in the formation of risk judgments; social and economic consequences of perceived risk should be properly anticipated; improvements can be made in informing the public about risk; the role of the public in risk assessment, risk management and decisions about risk should be reconsidered; and mitigation and compensation are central to resolving conflicts arising from divergent risk judgments. 1 tab

  7. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  8. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  9. ASPECTS CONCERNING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS DEVELOPMENTS - AN ASSESSMENT AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta AILINCĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global financial and economic crisis has dramatically changed the economic and social landscape of all world countries. In this context, economic factors and social variables have deteriorated even more and the interconditionality between them became increasingly stronger in the sense that the negative implications of economics have reflected more and more on the social domain. Thus, there was a dramatic decrease in the real GDP growth rate and an alarming and rapid growth of unemployment, a decline in the birth rate, a reduction of the employment, a deterioration in the level of education and training, an alarming increase of poverty, in a word, a "collapse" of all social life components. As the world has evolved rapidly to an increasingly deeper integration, through the globalization process, all economic and social progresses recorded until the crisis have been significantly reduced or even cancelled.

  10. Primer on Social Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Robert L.

    An elaboration of the author's booklet entitled "First Steps Toward Economic Understanding," this primer is designed to help the reader develop a functional understanding of the economic process so that he can make wiser decisions on issues of social policy and on matters affecting his economic well-being. The document is not "economics in one…

  11. Social Identity Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Valtonen, Jani

    2014-01-01

    This master's thesis is a literature review on social identity economics. Traditional economic models, in which decisions of a rational agent are analyzed, have been challenged by models and theories where concepts and insights from other sciences such as sociology and psychology are introduced. Identity economics - pioneered by George Akerlof and Rachel Kranton - is a field that brings now the social context in to the economic analysis. In this thesis, I collect together the essential t...

  12. MONITORING AND ASSESSING THE RESEARCH ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PUBLISHED IN ROMANIAN ECONOMIC JOURNALS

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana-Cristina GĂNESCU; Andreea-Daniela GANGONE

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate the interest of Romanian economic journals towards issues related to corporate social responsibility. The research began with drafting a list of Romanian economic journals, according to official classifications. We used content analysis to determine the characteristics of articles that address the issue of corporate social responsibility, based on the following criteria: number of articles whose titles include the term „corporate social responsibility”, rati...

  13. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  14. Combined assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts of structural solutions for residential construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraile-García, E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in construction is based on three fundamental pillars: economic, environmental and social. This type of approach aims to identify the best possible solutions for sustainably developing structures by conducting a joint evaluation of the impact on those three pillars. The proposed methodology incorporates metadata on the Spanish construction sector. First, a discrete database is generated with 360 alternatives covering a range of common solutions in residential building. A Pareto algorithm is utilized to select the optimal choices and the wide range of solutions is reduced to the 5 % of the initial group. The project manager is therefore provided with an objective assessment of suitable structural alternatives including the overall joint economic, social, and environmental impact. The results obtained demonstrate the importance and utility of the proposed methodology for sustainable construction.El desarrollo sostenible aplicado a la construcción se basa en tres pilares fundamentales: económico, medioambiental y social. El objetivo principal es identificar las mejores soluciones en términos de desarrollo sostenible de alternativas estructurales a partir de la evaluación conjunta de los impactos en dichos pilares. La metodología propuesta incorpora metadatos con información del sector de la construcción en España. Primero se genera una base de datos discreta de 360 alternativas estructurales que cubren el rango de soluciones habituales en edificación residencial. La selección de alternativas óptimas se realiza mediante el algoritmo de Pareto. El abanico de soluciones se reduce al 5 % de las iniciales. Se aporta una valoración objetiva que orienta al proyectista en la selección de alternativas estructurales idóneas, visualizando de forma conjunta el impacto económico, social y ambiental. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la importancia y utilidad de la metodología propuesta en el campo de la construcci

  15. Social capital, labour precariousness and the economic performance. An empirical assessment of the strength of weak ties in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Sabatini

    2005-01-01

    This paper carries out an assessment of the influence that different kinds of social ties exert on labour precariousness, on the state of health of urban environments and on the economic performance in Italy. Overall, the empirical evidence shows that weak ties connecting members of voluntary organizations positively affect the economic performance and the quality of urban ecosystems, differently from strong ties connecting family members and close friends, which, on the other side, are prove...

  16. Kurdistan Region of Iraq : Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Syrian Conflict and the ISIS Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The development objective of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) economic and social impact assessment is to provide the Iraqi Government with an impact analysis of the current crisis at the regional level. This will provide a foundation for international efforts to assist the KRG in its efforts to rally humanitarian support. The events which motivate this study include: the Syrian civ...

  17. Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Alternatives to DDT Usage for Antifouling Paint Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Xiao Yali; Lu Yongsen

    2008-01-01

    China is the only nation that uses DDT in antifouling pain at present, approximately 5% of DDT is applied as the additive of the antifouling paint production. Therefore, actions shall be taken urgently for banning the use of DDT and substituting with non-POPs alternatives in antifouling paints. The paper researches the social and economic backgrounds of DDT booster antifouling paint production and usage, analyzes the social and economic impact assessment of the alternatives to DDT usage for antifouiing paint. The implementation of the project of alternatives will completely eliminate the adverse impact of DDT booster antifouling paint on terrestrial, marine ecosystem and human health. The broad use of alkali silicate and pepper alkali as substitutes will be feasible if appropriate measures will be taken to encourage their development, and the social and economic risk will be reduced to accepted levels.

  18. Social-ecological-economic efficiency assessment of the existing scheme of communal solid waste handling in St. Petersburg

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbakova, Nadezda

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the existing scheme of communal solid waste handling in St. Petersburg. We assess the efficiency of the scheme by social, ecological and economic criteria. The results of this assessment allow us to conclude that all stages of communal solid waste handling in the city (collection, hauling, processing and disposal of wastes) are profitable. However, the level of waste recycling in the city is low in comparison with the industrially developed countries. Increasing the ...

  19. Economic, social, energy and environmental assessment of inter-municipality commuting: The case of Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commuting is one of the main contributors to the high energy consumption patterns in modern economies. The need to reduce the energy spent in commuting has attracted the attention of academics and policy makers. The main goal of this research is to improve knowledge of the economic, social, energy and environmental opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting and to support policy-oriented strategies that explicitly take them into account. For this, we use hypothetical assumptions based on the baseline scenario that Portuguese households do not travel between municipalities for commuting purposes coupled with the expected changes in private final consumption. Accordingly, the direct, indirect and induced opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting are assessed using an input–output model. The significance of the estimated virtual net benefits of commuting is analyzed according to their macroeconomic (GVA, taxes, international imports and employment), energy (primary energy consumption) and environmental (CO2 emissions) dimensions. The results obtained empirically indicate that inter-municipality commuting has significant opportunity costs in the GVA and GDP as well as in primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The results also indicate that commuters in metropolitan regions and long-distance commuters are responsible for a major share of these opportunity costs. - Highlights: • This paper provides an insight into the magnitude of opportunity costs of commuting. • Input–output modeling is valuable to assess changes in final consumption patterns. • About 25% of household's fuel consumption is due to inter-municipality commuting. • Inter-municipality commuting has net negative effects on GDP, GVA and employment. • The main opportunity costs come from metropolitan and long distance commuting

  20. ASSESSMENT OF ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIAN PART OF PRESPA PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Grazhdani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian part of Prespa Lakes Basin includes part of Macro Prespa and Micro Prespa Lakes, and the surrounding forested mountainous slopes, covering a total area of 27750 ha. Despite the contribution of a range of services to human wellbeing, these ecosystems are facing numerous challenges, stemming for the existing practices in many areas that directly or indirectly affect the lakes. An important dilemma encountered in the present situation is the need to sustain growth while preventing damage to environment through the degradation of natural resource. Current resource management practices including water and land-use planning, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and tourism are failing to maintain and restore the health of ecosystems within the Albanian Prespa Lakes area. This paper is focused on issues and opportunities arising from linkages between social economic development and environment. First a summary information on trends and constrains of social economic indicators are provided. Then, associations of environmental issues with social economic activities are analyzed using SWOT analysis method. Finally, some remedies and possible ways for sustainable development are presented in the present paper.

  1. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  2. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  3. Assessing social and economic effects of perceived risk: Workshop summary: Draft: BWIP Repository Project. [Basalt Waste Isolation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Liebow, E.B. (eds.)

    1988-03-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored a one-day workshop to discuss the complex dimensions of risk judgment formation and the assessment of social and economic effects of risk perceptions related to the permanent underground storage of highly radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. Affected parties have publicly expressed concerns about potentially significant risk-related effects of this approach to waste management. A selective review of relevant literature in psychology, decision analysis, economics, sociology, and anthropology was completed, along with an examination of decision analysis techniques that might assist in developing suitable responses to public risk-related concerns. The workshop was organized as a forum in which a set of distinguished experts could exchange ideas and observations about the problems of characterizing the effects of risk judgments. Out of the exchange emerged the issues or themes of problems with probabilistic risk assessment techniques are evident; differences exist in the way experts and laypersons view risk, and this leads to higher levels of public concern than experts feel are justified; experts, risk managers, and decision-makers sometimes err in assessing risk and in dealing with the public; credibility and trust are important contributing factors in the formation of risk judgments; social and economic consequences of perceived risk should be properly anticipated; improvements can be made in informing the public about risk; the role of the public in risk assessment, risk management and decisions about risk should be reconsidered; and mitigation and compensation are central to resolving conflicts arising from divergent risk judgments. 1 tab.

  4. Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Taiki Takahashi

    2005-01-01

    Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit- for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner fs dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during face-to-face social interactions, which might ...

  5. Social development is economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Birdsall, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    The author makes four main points in this paper: (1) social development, in addition to improving human welfare directly, is an excellent investment. The hard-nosed economic fact is that it contributes to economic growth. Even a narrow interest in growth for growth's sake dictates putting your money into social development programs; (2) however, investing in social development does not guarantee growth all by itself, so those concerned with social progress cannot absent themselves from the la...

  6. Social Composition, Social Conflict, and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Strulik, Holger

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how social composition affects social conflict and economic development when property rights are unenforceable. Groups follow Markovian strategies for consumption and investment and may also spend effort in an resource appropriation contest. It is shown that conflict prevents investment and growth in a society of symmetric groups. In a society at peace economic growth may occur. Growth, however, is decreasing in the degree of social fractionalization and smaller than i...

  7. Clinical assessment of depression and type 2 diabetes in Morocco: Economical and social components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Bensbaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. In Morocco, diabetes and depression are major public health problems, requiring improvement in their care. Diabetes and depression are associated with morbidity and early mortality. This association contributes to raising the risk of the complications that occur, while causing higher suffering to patients, as also an increased cost toward healthcare. Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of depression in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and identify the main risk factors for depression in this category of diabetic patients. Patients and Methods: Type 2 diabetic patients and older than 18 years of age were recruited. The exclusion criteria included being type 1 diabetic, pregnant woman, hospitalized patients, a history of neurological disorders, such as, stroke, infectious episidodes, and history of psychiatric disorders. The individual patient data was collected through individual and confidential interviews lasting 30 minutes, at the end of the diabetology consultation, by the same diabetologist, trained to use the psychometric scales that were needed. The Moroccan-Arabic version of the Beck diagnostic scale of depression was used. Patients assessed with depressive disorders were reviewed in a specialized psychiatric consultation. The statistical analysis was achieved by using SPSS package (version 17. We retained a threshold P value of 0.05. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted that included adults with type 2 diabetes. The depression diagnosis was performed using the Arabic version of the Beck Depression scale. Statistical Analysis: We included 142 patients with type 2 diabetes, with an average age of 56.26 years. The prevalence of depression was 33.1%. The risk factors recognized for depression were, lack of social security, hypertension, and a history of type 2 diabetes of more than five years. Results and Conclusions: In this study, we

  8. Economics and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Navpreet Kaur

    2008-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an important economic phenomenon with broad implications for firms, employees, consumers, investors, governments and NGOs alike. This paper collects, structures and combines scattered pieces of economic theory and empirical evidence in novel ways that shed light on various fundamental economic questions related to CSR. The main conjecture presents individual preferences as the ultimate driving force behind any form of CSR. In the presence of social sta...

  9. Development of an Impact-Oriented Quantitative Coastal Inundation forecasting and early warning system with social and economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.; Babel, Mukand S.; Kawasaki, Akiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Coastal inundations are an increasing threat to the lives and livelihoods of people living in low-lying, highly-populated coastal areas. According to a World Bank Report in 2005, at least 2.6 million people may have drowned due to coastal inundation, particularly caused by storm surges, over the last 200 years. Forecasting and prediction of natural events, such as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones, inland flooding, and severe winter weather, provide critical guidance to emergency managers and decision-makers from the local to the national level, with the goal of minimizing both human and economic losses. This guidance is used to facilitate evacuation route planning, post-disaster response and resource deployment, and critical infrastructure protection and securing, and it must be available within a time window in which decision makers can take appropriate action. Recognizing this extreme vulnerability of coastal areas to inundation/flooding, and with a view to improve safety-related services for the community, research should strongly enhance today's forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities in order to improve the assessment of coastal vulnerability and risks and develop adequate prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures. This paper tries to develop an impact-oriented quantitative coastal inundation forecasting and early warning system with social and economic assessment to address the challenges faced by coastal communities to enhance their safety and to support sustainable development, through the improvement of coastal inundation forecasting and warning systems.

  10. Social and economic impacts of the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant: a confirmatory technology assessment. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trojan nuclear plant located 32 miles northwest of Portland, Oregon was chosen for a case study. A background of the physical, demographic, economic, and political context of the communities is provided. This is followed by an evaluation of the impacts of plant construction and operation including local taxation, employment, business activity and income, demography, public utilities and transportation, land use, housing, recreation, culture and lifestyle, public safety, education, health care, and politics and institutions

  11. The Approach to Assessing Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of Radioactive Waste Management in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body, which began operation in April 2005 with a remit to secure the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. This remit was widened when the Government announced on 25 October 2006 that, following recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), higher activity wastes will be managed in the long-term through geological disposal. Government also announced that it would be giving the NDA the responsibility for planning and implementing geological disposal. A new directorate within the NDA was created, the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD), to manage this new remit. RWMD's mission is to deliver geological disposal and provide radioactive waste management solutions. To achieve this mission, RWMD will: Engage with national and local governments and communities to identify a geological disposal facility site; Develop the specification, design, safety case and environmental and sustainability assessments for the disposal system and obtain regulatory support; In conjunction with waste producers, identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste; Develop and maintain an effective organisation and secure resources to deliver the geological disposal facility programme; Obtain and maintain stakeholder support for our activities; Deliver a focused RandD programme to support geological disposal and optimised packaging solutions; and Seek sustainable, innovative and cost effective solutions that have public support and are in the best interest of the UK. The Government White Paper placed a requirement on the NDA to assess potential social, environmental and economic impacts of implementing a geological disposal facility using SA, SEA and EIA. This paper outlines the NDA's approach to achieving this requirement. Key elements of the approach are: A staged approach linked to the MRWS site selection

  12. Clinical assessment of depression and type 2 diabetes in Morocco: Economical and social components

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Bensbaa; Loubna Agerd; Said Boujraf; Chadya Araab; Rachid Aalouane; Ismail Rammouz; Farida Ajdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The global prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. In Morocco, diabetes and depression are major public health problems, requiring improvement in their care. Diabetes and depression are associated with morbidity and early mortality. This association contributes to raising the risk of the complications that occur, while causing higher suffering to patients, as also an increased cost toward healthcare. Aim: This study aims to assess the prevalence of depression in patients w...

  13. Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2009-01-01

    representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies...

  14. The Economic Consequences of Social Network Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Rogers, Brian; Zenou, Yves

    2015-01-01

    We survey the literatures on the economic consequences of the structure of social networks. We develop a taxonomy of 'macro' and 'micro' characteristics of social inter-action networks and discuss both the theoretical and empirical findings concerning the role of those characteristics in determining learning, diffusion, decisions, and resulting behaviors. We also discuss the challenges of accounting for the endogeneity of networks in assessing the relationship between the patterns of interact...

  15. A critical evaluation of social impact assessment methodologies and a call to measure economic and social impact holistically through the External Rate of Return platform

    OpenAIRE

    Florman, Mark; Vidra, Robyn Klingler; Facada, Martim Jacinto

    2016-01-01

    Companies, investors, international organisations and non-governmental organisations have designed frameworks and tools for measuring the social impact of business. In this report we evaluate the landscape of existing social impact assessment methods. We first delineate the characteristics, context and development of leading methodologies. We then critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of today’s leading social impact assessment methodologies. We identify the strengths of existing a...

  16. Social Culture and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hanming Fang

    2001-01-01

    The connection between obtaining higher paying jobs and undertaking some seemingly irrelevant activity is interpreted as "social culture." In the context of a society trying to adopt a new technology, I show that by allowing the firms to give preferential treatment to workers based on some "cultural activity," the society can partially overcome an informational free-riding problem. Therefore, social culture may affect the economic performance by altering the effective production technology of...

  17. Assessing farmers' risk attitudes based on economic, social, personal, and environmental sources of risk: evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines farmers' risk attitudes, obtained by responses to sources of risk, using an attitudinal scale approach. Economic, social, personal, and environmental sources of risk are considered in the measurement of risk attitudes. In addition, use of various types of expertise and information sources are included as risk management tools. Inferences are drawn from results of a survey mailed to a representative random sample of 500 farmers drawn from the population of medium to large f...

  18. Health, social and economic impact of some tritium watches in Italy. Regulations, derogations and proposed scenarios for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    values have been compared with the constraints suggested by the IAEA Basic Safety Standards and by the 1996 Euratom Directive, below which the doses are considered trivial. Few, cheap and easy countermeasures to be taken for reducing the doses to trivial ones have been proposed in those rare cases in which the values slightly exceeded in the trivial dose. Though the concept of 'cost of detriment' is not accepted by the Italian authorities in such a context, using values found in literature and referred to nuclear power plants as well as to consumer products, we can conclude that the ALARA principle can be applied with success to the tritium watches taken in consideration, especially with reference to the social and economic factors. (author)

  19. Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-01-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

  20. Social costs and normative economics

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Ramazzotti

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the notion of social costs from an evolutionary institutionalist perspective. It argues that: social costs can be defined as the difference between the actual outcome of a historically defined capitalist market economy and the outcome desired by the members of society; markets are only one of the possible coordinating instances in such economies, albeit the prevalent one, the others including non-profit organizations, the welfare state, households, etc.; unde...

  1. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF PROPERTY INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond promptly. In this respect, we conducted a market analysis of real estate investments in Romania, highlighting economic and social efficiency of property investments.

  2. Social capital concept and economics 'imperialism'

    OpenAIRE

    Golubović Nataša

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of economic science social capital opened space for the analysis of social structure, social norms and institutions i.e. for the analysis of the long neglected influence of socio-cultural factors on economic changes and processes. Trying to explain how social structures emerge on the basis of individual optimization, i.e. to explain them by the logic of rational choice, economic science widened its analytical domain. The explanatory scope of the basic neoclassical princip...

  3. On Economics, Ethics, and Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Pérez, Félix Fernando; Encinar del Pozo, María Isabel; Cañibano, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that understanding questions such as those related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) re- quires economic theorizing to include in its explanatory models the very fact that (economic) agents have their own distinctive conception of how reality ought to be (which implies making judgments of value). Under standard economic theorizing, the relationship between social or ethical values and economics is one of mere juxtaposition. Ethical and economic issues are being put ...

  4. Construction Waste Recycling Technologies: How to Define and Assess Their Economic, Environmental and Social Effects by the use of Input-Output Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most important building materials and it entails a big environmental impact making recycling relevant from an environmental perspective. Recycling of construction and demolition waste (CDW) containing concrete is being performed in the Netherlands resulting in recycled...... aggregates that due to the less quality are used mainly in road construction and less in buildings. Within the EU FP7 project Advanced Technologies for the Production of Cement and Clean Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste (C2CA), an innovative technology for CDW recycling to clean aggregates...... for use in buildings is being developed and its impacts assessed under different scenarios. The assessment of the impacts, though, depends on how they are defined: is it only environmental impacts and economic profit, which are assessed? Does concrete recycling have other impacts, e.g. social, and on...

  5. Social capital concept and economics 'imperialism'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of economic science social capital opened space for the analysis of social structure, social norms and institutions i.e. for the analysis of the long neglected influence of socio-cultural factors on economic changes and processes. Trying to explain how social structures emerge on the basis of individual optimization, i.e. to explain them by the logic of rational choice, economic science widened its analytical domain. The explanatory scope of the basic neoclassical principles has been considerably widened to incorporate what has previously been considered to be the analytical terrain of other social sciences. This process has been labeled in scientific circles as 'colonisation' of social sciences, or economics 'imperialism'. The goal of this paper is to determine the implications of these changes for the relation between economic science and other social sciences.

  6. Economic-Social Interaction in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes economic-social interaction in China in connection with the country’s change of economic system. I define an economic system in terms of a multidimensional vector of broad institutional characteristics, and I emphasize that important features of the social development are closely related to specific changes in these various dimensions. I classify China’s options for future social improvements into three broad categories: policies that improve the stability and distribution...

  7. Social, economic and environmental assessment of energy and water desalination options for the Brazilian polygon of drought using the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discuss a project conceived to perform a social, economic and environmental assessment of the use of IRIS Reactor for electricity generation and water desalination in the most dry region of Brazil, the Polygon of Drought. The project is financed by the Fund of Energy of the Brazilian Council on Research and Development (CNPq) of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), and it will be performed by the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPe) and the Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The project will provide comparisons between nuclear and gas options. The final objective of the project is to offer effective evaluations considering the total costs (direct and externalisation) of the different energy options and also the social and environmental aspects associated with them.(author)

  8. Individuals and institutions in social economics

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Neva

    1991-01-01

    This is Chapter 4 from "Social Economics: An Alternative Theory" (St. Martin's Press, 1991). This chapter focuses on the human subjects of economic study, suggesting that the psychology offered in neoclassical economics is severely inadequate to serve as the foundation for a social science. Psychological issues that deserve more attention in economics include altruism, trust, learning processes, and the values of "doing" and "being" - these last being contrasted with the neoclassical emph...

  9. Social capital, economics and political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmo Barone; Guido de Blasio; Paolo Sestito

    2014-01-01

    The volume collects the essays presented at the conference "Social capital, economics and political economy" held in Rome on 27 June 2014. The first session analyzes definition and measurement issues about social capital. The second and third sessions examine its determinants and economic effects, respectively. The fourth session is devoted to the relationship between social capital and the public sector while the last session concentrates on the role of social capital in credit markets.

  10. Behavioral Economics: Cognitive Biases, Social Preferences and Economic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Luppi Barbara; Zarri Luca

    2009-01-01

    As far as recent developments in economic theory are concerned, "Behavioral Economics" constitutes one of the most promising frontiers in the last ten years, as the Nobel Prize for Economics recently won by the social psychologist Daniel Kahneman and the prestigious John Bates Clark Medal granted to the young economist Matthew Rabin testify. It is then worth asking the following questions: what is, exactly, Behavioral Economics? What are the reasons behind its recent success? This survey aims...

  11. 36 CFR 219.19 - Ecological, social, and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economic sustainability. 219.19 Section 219.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE..., Social, and Economic Sustainability § 219.19 Ecological, social, and economic sustainability. Sustainability, composed of interdependent ecological, social, and economic elements, embodies the...

  12. ECONOMICS OF BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the session was to describe procedures used in the estimation of economic cost of air pollution to agriculture in the U.S. and to present some examples of those estimates. In recent years, there has been great interest in the development of monetary estimates of ...

  13. EU economic freedoms and social dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cremers

    2015-01-01

    In the book, Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe, edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic freedoms has negatively af

  14. EU Economic Freedoms and Social Dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Bernaciak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    In the book, 'Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe', edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS and Tilburg University) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic f

  15. Spatial and Social Interactions in Economics, Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science, UCSB

    2003-01-01

    This meeting brought together researchers on spatial and social interactions in the economics profession with researchers in geography and related fields to explore developments in geographic information science (GIS) and in new spatial econometric tools for possible uses for economic investigations of social interactions.

  16. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  17. The Economics of Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Sacconi

    2012-01-01

    The recent era of economic turbulence has generated a growing enthusiasm for an increase in new and original economic insights based around the concepts of reciprocity and social enterprise. This stimulating and thought-provoking Handbook not only encourages and supports this growth, but also emphasises and expands upon new topics and issues within the economics discourse.

  18. Online Social Activity Reflects Economic Status

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  19. Online social activity reflects economic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  20. Ecological and economic risks under current economic conditions. social aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Залевський, Роман Антонович; Князєва, Ольга Павлівна

    2016-01-01

    Different approaches to the definitions of ecological and economic risks notions are considered in the paper. The analysis of various views on ecological and economic risks is given and the interaction between these categories in current social context is determined and grounded.

  1. Social capital, social cohesion, and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Jesus; Marcuello, Carmina; Montañes, Antonio; Pueyo, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The study of determinants of economic growth and development is a special interest area to the economists. Theoretical investigation in this topic is characterized by a growing complexity and empirical work has not obtained satisfactory results. The incorporation of human capital and technical progress with endogenous character have not obtained the appropriate results to explain with clarity the key mechanisms of this economic phenomenon. In the last years, the researchers have focused part ...

  2. Social norms and economic incentives in firms

    OpenAIRE

    Huck, Steffen; Kübler, Dorothea; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the interplay between economic incentives and social norms in firms. We introduce a general framework to model social norms arguing that norms stem from agents’ desire for, or peer pressure towards, social efficiency. In a simple model of team production we examine the interplay of different types of contracts with social norms. We show that one and the same norm can be output-increasing, neutral, or output-decreasing depending on the incentive scheme. We also show how soci...

  3. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-07-01

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  4. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is being heralded as a new technological revolution, one so profound that it will touch all aspects of human society. Some believe that these influences will be overwhelmingly positive, while others see more sinister implications. This report assesses this debate in the light of our current knowledge of nanotechnology. Conceptions of nanotechnology are not always clear or indeed agreed upon. The domain of nanotechnology is defined in terms of a length scale - from one nanometre up to 100 nanometres, called the nanoscale - and by the appearance at these scales of novel physical properties. These derive from the importance at these scales of physical phenomena that are less obvious for larger objects, such as quantum mechanics, strong surface forces and Brownian motion. Nanotechnotogy will produce economic and social impacts on three broad timescales. Current applications are largely the result of incremental advances in already well-established branches of applied science, such as material science and colloid technology. Medium-term applications of nanotechnology will apply principles only now being established in the laboratory to overcome foreseeable barriers to continued technological progress. In the tong term, entirely new applications may emerge. Current applications for nanotechnology are dominated by tools for scientists, and by new materials that are structured on the nanoscale. Such materials are used in cosmetics, health and medicine and in a variety of manufactured goods. The electronics and information technology industries are also a prominent driver for these new technologies. Debate on the social implications of nanotechnotogy has largely focused not on the relatively mundane applications that have arrived so far, but on the longer-term possibilities of radical nanotechnology. This debate anticipates a degree of control over matter on the nanoscale that permits fabrication from a molecular level of virtually any material or structure

  5. Economic, environmental and social assessment of briquette fuel from agricultural residues in China – A study on flat die briquetting using corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass can be relatively easily stored and transported compared with other types of renewable energy sources. Crop straw can be converted into densified solid biofuel via briquette fuel technology to expand its possible applications and enhance its utilisation efficiency. However, the potential economic, environmental and social impacts of crop straw briquette fuel need to be assessed before its large-scale use. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of these impacts for a fully-operating 2 × 104 t/a corn stalk briquette fuel plant in China. The results show that with a life time of 15 years, a purchase price of 150 RMB/t for corn stalk and the current sales price of 400 RMB/t for briquette fuel, the plant has a net present value of 9.6 million RMB or 1.5 million USD, an internal rate of return of 36% and a short investment payback period of 4.4 years. The life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are found to be 323 t CO2,e/year or 1 kg CO2,e/GJ, much lower than that of coal. Additionally, the process reduces pollution by decreasing the amount of corn stalk that is discarded or burnt directly in the field. In terms of social impacts, the use of corn stalk briquetting fuel plant is expected to play an important role in increasing local residents' income, improving rural ecological environments, alleviating energy shortages, guaranteeing energy security, and promoting socialism new rural reconstruction. - Highlights: • A fully-operating 2 × 104 t/a corn stalk briquette fuel plant in China is analysed. • The plant has net present value of $1.5 million and payback period of 4.4 years. • Life cycle GHG emissions are 323 t CO2,e/year or 1 kg CO2,e/GJ, much lower than coal. • The plant will also have significant social benefits

  6. Social and economic growth of developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations

  7. Designing and assessing groundwater management tools combining economic incentives and social preferences - the case of groundwater withdrawals for irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Figureau, Anne-Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent overexploitation of natural resources, decision makers have been implementing individual quota-based systems. Yet, in the particular case of groundwater abstraction for irrigation, farmers’ demand is likely to vary relevantly from year to year, due to annual agricultural, environmental and economic conditions. In this thesis, we propose two instruments for regulating groundwater withdrawals for irrigation that ensure compliance with the total abstractable volume while intr...

  8. Economic assessment of sterifeed process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economics of a processing technology depends on its cost. Two types of costs commonly used in the estimation are a fixed cost and the other is variable cost. The cost structure that included in the fixed cost, mainly, the cost of land, building and machineries, and the variable cost covers raw materials, salary / wages, utilities, irradiation charge, other miscellaneous expenses and contingencies. The assessment were made by treating the economic data using discounted cash flow projection method to deduce the economic indicators: Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit to Cost (B/C) ratio, that would suggest the project feasibility, either feasible or otherwise. The NPV, IRR, B/C deduced from Sterifeed Process showed the economic of this technology was infeasible due high cost incurred in transportation, labour as well as the cost of machinery. This is accomplished by sensitivity test performed on these cost components. However, cost structure derived from Sterifeed Plant serves as a model cost structure for economic assessment in production of Sterifeed, a fermented ruminant feed, and to work further on the economic of the project. This paper discuss economic evaluation of Sterifeed process in different scenarios that carried out in the Sterifeed process operations and deduction were made to derive a model production unit for commercialisation. (Author)

  9. Trust, Social Capital and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, P.; Zabojnik, J.

    2003-01-01

    Many argue that elements of a society s norms, culture or social capital are central to understanding its development.However, these notions have been difficult to capture in economic models.Here we argue that trustworthiness is the economically relevant component of a society s culture and hence comprises its social capital.Individuals are trustworthy when they perform actions they have promised, even if these do not maximize their payoffs.The usual focus on incentive structures in motivatin...

  10. Economics of intolerance and social conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2009-01-01

    An important consensus today is that intolerance and social conflict have a substantial economic dimension. This article models a person’s “returns” to acts of intolerance in terms of social approval or disapproval that this person’s peer-group may offer. It is found that high levels of intolerance may persist, that is, society is “in equilibrium,” even as this imposes economic costs.

  11. Social Capital and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Reino Hjerppe

    1998-01-01

    It is argued in order to explain large differences in the level of the development and the growth of economies cannot be adequately explained only by looking the traditional inputs of labour, capital and natural resources. The hypothesis is that also the role of social capital needs to be taken into account. First the concept of social capital is defined and discussed. Then the role of social capital in the development process is explained. Empirical test based on the cross-country data of 27...

  12. Economics and Research Assessment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Gillies

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the effects on Economics of Research Assessment Systems, such as the Research Assessment Exercise (or RAE) which was carried out in the UK between 1986 and 2008. The paper begins by pointing out that, in the 2008 RAE, economics turned out to be the research area which was accorded the highest valuation of any subject in the UK, even though economists were then under attack for failing to predict the global financial crash which had occurred a few months earlier. On...

  13. Social Consequences of Economic Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonseok Lee, Donggyun Shin, Kwanho Shin

    2013-01-01

    The empirical literature has not been successful in generating robust results for a positive relationship between income inequality and social unrest outcomes such as crime and suicide. This paper questions the use of standard income inequality measures (e.g., Gini coefficient) in such studies and shows that income-mobility-based measures are effective in explaining outcomes of social unrest. Analyses of Korean and the United States region-byyear data suggest that crime and suicide rates are ...

  14. The economic basis of social class

    OpenAIRE

    John H. Goldthorpe; McKnight, Abigail

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we adopt a theory of class positions based on employment relations to assess what implications individuals¿ class positions have for their economic life. In particular we consider economic security (the risk of unemployment), economic stability (the variability component in earnings) and economic prospects (lifetime earnings profiles). Our findings provide empirical support for the theory itself and little evidence for the currently fashionable claims of the decline, or even dea...

  15. An Evaluation of the Social Economic Assessment Toolbox (SEAT) Implementation on Stakeholder Relationships and Community Development in South Africa: A Case Study of Rustenburg Platinum Mine in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kapisha, Besa

    2008-01-01

    The information presented in this report is an outcome of the application of the Socio-Economic Assessment Toolbox (SEAT) to Rustenburg Platinum Mine (RPMR). SEAT was designed to assist Anglo American Group of companies identify and manage their social and economic impacts, both positive and negative. The project investigated the impacts achieved through the implementation of SEAT. The research aimed to collect and analyse data to determine whether the mine meets its sustainable development o...

  16. Economic impact assessment on SANREM

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, George W.; Alwang, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This PowerPoint summarizes findings from SANREM’s economic impact assessment cross-cutting research activity (CRRA-6). It describes results from budgeting studies, linear programming models, and aggregate impact analysis for several study sites. Additionally, it provides information about the CCRA’s publications and training activities.

  17. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

  18. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  19. The Economics of Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O

    2006-01-01

    The science of social networks is a central field of sociological study, a major application of random graph theory, and an emerging area of study by economists, statistical physicists and computer scientists. While these literatures are (slowly) becoming aware of each other, and on occasion drawing from one another, they are still largely distinct in their methods, interests, and goals. Here, my aim is to provide some perspective on the research from these literatures, with a foc...

  20. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  1. CREATING SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS TO ASSESS THE PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC VALUES OF GREENING CITIES - A STUDY OF THE MILLION TREES INITIATIVES IN LOS ANGELES, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    At a time of increasing concerns for urban sustainability, what are the physical, social, and economic values of urban forests in semi-arid climates where many of the world’s fastest growing cities are located? Although urban forests are increasingly popular to improve enviro...

  2. Economical modelling of social and moral norms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social norms and moral motivations are often ignored in economic models. It is possible, however, to model social and moral norms within the framework of economical theory. This may be useful even if the exposition is necessarily simplified. The article gives some examples. An analysis shows how the ''No Smoking Act'' may have led to a change in social norms in Norway and indirectly changed the behaviour of smokers in places where this act does not apply. Behaviour with moral motivation may also be affected by changes in regulations, economic incentives or other external conditions. For example, a more efficient collection system for source-separated waste may induce people to sharpen the moral claim on their own efforts. Indeed, interviews show that imposing a fee upon people not volunteering in communal work may cause the attendance to drop further

  3. Economic and social costs of coal and nuclear electric generation, a framework for assessment and illustrative calculations for the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for extending economic comparisons of nuclear and coal-fired electric power to include health, safety, and environmental impacts in the same quantitative framework. The method is illustrated by considering the decision between a light water nuclear reactor and a conventional coal-fired power plant to satisfy a 1000 MWe increase in electrical demand in the northeastern United States. For both alternatives, preliminary calculations of the economic and social costs expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour are reported. Economic costs consist of those faced by the utility, including capital charges, operating expenses, and fuel cycle costs. Social costs for each plant and its associated fuel cycle include routine environmental impacts such as air pollution as well as risk to the public from reactor accidents or sabotage

  4. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs.

  5. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs. PMID:26743684

  6. Economic Modeling in SocialWork Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry R. Cournoyer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic modeling provides academic administrators with a logical framework for analyzing costs associated with the processes involved in the delivery of social work education. The specific costs associated with activities such as teaching, research, and service may be determined for a school of social work as a whole or for specific responsibility centers (e.g., programs and services within the school. Economic modeling utilizes modern spreadsheet software that can be configured in relation to the idiosyncratic needs and budgeting strategies that exist in virtually all colleges and universities. As a versatile planning tool, it enables managers to identify specific “cost-drivers” that cause the occurrence of real costs in relation to designated programmatic initiatives. In addition, economic modeling provides academic planners and decision-makers a useful vehicle for considering the economic impact of various projected (“what if” scenarios.

  7. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis;

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  8. Economic Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Kitzmueller; Jay Shimshack

    2012-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the expanding corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. We define CSR from an economic perspective and develop a CSR taxonomy that connects disparate approaches to the subject. We explore whether CSR should exist and investigate conditions when CSR may produce higher welfare than other public good provision channels. We also explore why CSR does exist. Here, we integrate theoretical predictions with empirical findings from economic and noneconomic sources. We fi...

  9. The Social Provisioning Process and Heterodox Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    The social provisioning process is how heterodox economists define economics in general. Instead of having a narrow definition of what constitutes economics, such as the mainstream has with its allocation of scarce resources among competing ends via the price mechanism, heterodox economists have opted for a much more expansive definition that permits different theoretical explanations for ways in which the provisioning process can take place in different types of economies in different histor...

  10. Economic Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    KITZMUELLER, Markus

    2010-01-01

    What is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and how can we explain the phenomenon from an economic perspective? Is there a business case for CSR and was Milton Friedman right when writing in the New York Times in 1970 that "the social responsibility of business is to increase its profits"? Chapter 1 of this thesis will address all these questions and create a coherent conceptual framework for further analysis in the subsequent chapters. In this function it will serve as a natural introducti...

  11. Economic Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    KITZMUELLER, Markus

    2010-01-01

    What is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and how can we explain the phenomenon from an economic perspective? Is there a business case for CSR and was Milton Friedman right when writing in the New York Times in 1970 that "the social responsibility of business is to increase its profits"? Chapter 1 of this thesis will address all these questions and create a coherent conceptual framework for further analysis in the subsequent chapters. In this function it will serve as a natural introducti...

  12. Economics, Corporate Sustainability and Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    It is often argued that corporate sustainability requires a corporation to make a profit, to act in a socially responsible manner and to engage in policies that are environmentally sustainable. This is sometimes called the corporation’s triple bottom line. In this paper it is argued that in practice profitability or more general maintaining economic variability constitutes a corporation’s bottom line and that it is limited by this consideration in showing social responsibility and in acting w...

  13. The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Gloria M; San Buenaventura, Mariano

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and social impact of tourism in Pagsanjan in which tourism development project is located. Results show that the project’s various significant impacts include increases in employment and income and stimulation of political and women’s participation. While its impact on environment and on the people’s social life has been a mixture of positive and negative results, its impact on income distribution has been trifling. To maximize the tourism multiplier, the pape...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF SOCIAL FACTORS ON AGRIBUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvyakov, A.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes methodical approaches to an impact assessment of social factors on development of the agribusiness as a subsidiary tool applied in development and adjustment of social and economic programs and plans for the rural territories.

  15. The Measurement of Economic, Social and Environmental Performance of Countries: A Novel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracolici, Maria Francesca; Cuffaro, Miranda; Nijkamp, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical framework for assessing spatial disparities among countries. It takes for granted that the analysis of a country's performance cannot be limited solely to either economic or social factors. The aim of the paper is to combine relevant economic and "non-economic" (mainly social) aspects of a country's performance…

  16. Antipodean Social Policy Responses to Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I analyze the social policy reactions to economic crises in Australia and New Zealand. After the financial crisis of 2008, Australia built its crisis management strategy around a large fiscal stimulus with a significant social policy component, whereas New Zealand did not. While...... the government enacted fiscal stimulus measures, the social policy component was small and the government soon returned to welfare retrenchment and workfare policy. Based on a detailed account of recent crisis policies as well as a condensed overview of previous crisis responses (to the 1970s oil...

  17. Social identity strategies in recent economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Davis

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews three distinct strategies in recent economics for using the concept of social identity in the explanation of individual behavior: Akerlof and Kranton's neoclassical approach, Sen's commitment approach and Kirman et al.'s complexity approach. The primary focus is the multiple selve

  18. The Social Epistemology of Experimental Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Cordeiro dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAna Cristina Cordeiro dos Santos was born in Lisbon, Portugal, in 1971. She received her B.Sc. degree in Economics from Technical University of Lisbon, in Portugal, in 1994, and a MA degree in Social Policy from Roskilde University, in Denmark, in 1995. Since 1996 she has been a teach

  19. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan-Dragoș CÎRSTEA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a sector with a significant share in the economies of many countries. There are nations whose GDP consists of 40% of the total contribution of tourism to this indicator. One such segment requires permanent research of its economic, social and sustainability dimensions and their importance. This study outlines an overview of the main aspects related to economic and social importance of tourism and how tourism relates to the concept of sustainable development. The total contribution and the direct contribution of tourism to GDP are elements studied within this research. It is also studied the direct contribution of tourism to employment, and the main positive and negative effects of tourism on social life.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF MDR - TB/TB ON SOCIAL, FUNCTIONAL AND ECONOMIC WELL BEING OF PATIENTS – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with social stigma attached to it. Various problems which are social and economic in nature are faced by TB patient. Therefore , it is essential to explore the overall effect of MDR - TB/TB on health and patients perception of Well - being. AIMS : To Document the effect of MDR - TB/TB on social , functional and economic well - being of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A Cross - sectional study , Conveniently Recruited 68 MDR - TB Patients and 136 non - MDR - TB Patients (from Rural as well as urban Area of Surat District diagnosed by CBNAAT were interviewed for investigating the effect of Tuberculosis. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A pre - tested standardized semi - structured questionnaire was used. Data was collected about socio - demographic profile of patients and interpreted in table. Data about effect of MDR - TB/TB was collected on Likert Scale and Frequency was calculated and Data wa s plotted on multiple bar charts. RESULTS : As compared to healthy status in the past , 93% MDR - TB and 82% TB patients have decreased ability to do work , about half of MDR - TB Patients and TB Patients have detiorated relations with family members , 67% of stud y participants have developed disharmonious relations with neighbor’s , 55% of Study participants have decreased income , 88% of study participants have decreased performance in day to day activities and 78% of study participants have faced discordial and di srespectful behavior from co - workers. CONCLUSION : Working ability more detiorated in MDR - TB patients while rest of the effect on social , functional and economic well - being is same in both TB and Multi Drug Resistant TB patients. This study emphasizes very clearly that social stigma still persist in community about Tuberculosis which needs to be eliminated in community by behavior change communication by health workers at all levels of health care.

  1. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  2. Correlating Social Mobility and Economic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Güell, Maia; Pellizzari, Michele; PICA, Giovanni; Rodríguez Mora, José Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We apply a novel measure of intergenerational mobility (IM) developed by Güell, Rodríguez Mora, and Telmer (2014) to a rich combination of Italian data allowing us to produce comparable measures of IM of income for 103 Italian provinces. We then exploit the large heterogeneity across Italian provinces in terms of economic and social outcomes to explore how IM correlates with a variety of outcomes. We find that (i) higher IM is positively associated with a variety of “good” economic outcomes, ...

  3. Solar energy's economic and social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  4. Social Impact Assessment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Lyhne, Ivar;

    2015-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is applied worldwide to assess social impacts of plans and projects. In Europe, directives on environmental assessment (EA) require attention to social impacts, however, there is a need to investigate the implementation in practise. To this end, we study three Danish...... cases, which are characterised by debates and conflicts on social issues. Analysis of the EA statements shows inclusion of a broad range of social impacts. However, the EAs do not fully match the concerns of the public, and social impacts are not always analysed in depth, mitigation measures are not...... suggested or are postponed and the geographical distribution of impacts assessed is biased towards including negative local impacts. We discuss the scope and handling of social impacts, and possible implications. Based on this, we conclude with the view that EA might do the job of handling social impacts in...

  5. BERCENI VILLAGE - A SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina IORGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural modernization aims at maintaining rural societies through occupational diversification that will improvequality of life and avoid rural exodus. It aims to acquire some features of the modern world such as those related totechnical, increased productivity, infrastructure, whereby rural community enriches its identity, acquiring newmeanings.This study is a close social-economical analysis of the countryside households of Berceni village. Berceniis in the southern county of Ilfov near Bucharest. It is based on the statistical data provided by National Institute ofStatistics. The data have been processed into the following indicators:age structure and gender, births and deaths,feminization, migration .Considering that human resources is the main factor in developing and moderinization ofrural space, this study is aimed to investigate as well, the posibility of diversifying inhabitants’ occupationsaccording to pshicologycal, social and economical resources.

  6. Social Capital And Economic Behavior Of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliawaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.

  7. Social influences towards conformism in economic experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the economic experimental evidence on conformism. There is nothing to match the early psychology experiments where subjects were often swayed by the behaviour of others to an extraordinary degree, but there is plenty of evidence of conformism. This seems built-in to our sociality either because we have preferences for conversation or status which are activated by the knowledge of what others do, or because other people face relevantly similar decisions to our own an...

  8. Ethics, Economic Organisation and the Social Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Sacconi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter introduces a notion of social/ethical norm that integrates its description as a self- sustaining regularity of behavior with the normative meanings of the statements by which a norm is formulated in the moral language. This definition is applied to organizational ethics where the main problem Ð abuse of authority - is identified with the help of a critical reading of the new-institutional economic theory of the firm. Given a game theoretical definition of an institution, it is th...

  9. Knowledge of Social Affiliations Biases Economic Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Joel E.; Mack, Michael L.; Gelman, Bernard D.; Preston, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    An individual’s reputation and group membership can produce automatic judgments and behaviors toward that individual. Whether an individual’s social reputation impacts interactions with affiliates has yet to be demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that during initial encounters with others, existing knowledge of their social network guides behavior toward them. Participants learned reputations (cooperate, defect, or equal mix) for virtual players through an iterated economic game (EG). Then, participants learned one novel friend for each player. The critical question was how participants treated the friends in a single-shot EG after the friend-learning phase. Participants tended to cooperate with friends of cooperators and defect on friends of defectors, indicative of a decision making bias based on memory for social affiliations. Interestingly, participants’ explicit predictions of the friends’ future behavior showed no such bias. Moreover, the bias to defect on friends of defectors was enhanced when affiliations were learned in a social context; participants who learned to associate novel faces with player faces during reinforcement learning did not show reputation-based bias for associates of defectors during single-shot EG. These data indicate that when faced with risky social decisions, memories of social connections influence behavior implicitly. PMID:27441563

  10. Social Shaping in Danish Technology Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Grethe; Clausen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The term ‘social shaping of technology’ has been used broadly as a response to techno-economic deterministic understandings of the relations between technology and society. Social shaping has brought together analysts from different backgrounds who share a common interest in the role of social and...... these projects contributed to new insights into the processes of technological change and thus to policy formulation. The social shaping perspective and technology assessment experiences are suggested as important guides to future technology strategies....... political action for technology change. The authors of this article suggest that the social shaping perspective draws on lessons from technology assessments of earlier decades, lessons about the role of technology debate, participation and democratic control. We suggest that these are important for...

  11. Innovative Technology, Social and Economic Sustainability: Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Gobind M. Herani; Lodhi, Saeed A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the development, perspectives and prospects of innovative technology which would be supporting social and economic sustainability in Pakistan. The study specially examines following points: (i) The trend in growth rate of IT industry. (ii) Comparison of growth at the time of beginning and now. It also draws attention on four factors: introduction of IT, its development, policy issues and innovative methods to implement. Study reveals that Pakistan entered into information ...

  12. Social and macro economic impact of closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

  13. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC THEORETICAL CONNECTIONS: THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Dana Ignat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problematic nature of social change is evidenced by the diversity of the conceptions held by the earliest sociologists as well as by the wide variety of theories they generated. The opinions expressed in specialist literature, including those aimed at clarifying concepts, do not overlap completely. On the contrary, beyond the areas of contact and interchange, there exist different points of view, ranging from nuanced positions on the same issue to contrasts that can overshadow the understanding of phenomena and processes at the core of social change.Generally, we speak of social change when referring to modernisation,globalisation, regional development, and urbanisation and additionally when considering the human resources side, more exactly the behaviours and attitudes of groups of people. This article does not delve into the details of each theory, but rather aims to group them according to two perspectives,i.e. the systemic and the modern. The research has a documentation and theoretical intent, seeking to provide a summary of key views of social change. The method used relies on documentation and the theoretical analysis of the phenomenon in the social, economic and cultural fields.

  14. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF PROPERTY INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Oana Virlanuta; Daniela Nechita

    2013-01-01

    Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond...

  15. Social and economic impacts of climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Tamma A; Hsiang, Solomon M

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact. For example, we compute that temperature depresses current U.S. maize yields by ~48%, warming since 1980 elevated conflict risk in Africa by ~11%, and future warming may slow global economic growth rates by ~0.28 percentage points per year. In general, we estimate that the economic and social burden of current climates tends to be comparable in magnitude to the additional projected impact caused by future anthropogenic climate changes. Overall, findings from this literature point to climate as an important influence on the historical evolution of the global economy, they should inform how we respond to modern climatic conditions, and they can guide how we predict the consequences of future climate changes. PMID:27609899

  16. A Critical Assessment of Islamic Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Rasul

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a critical assessment of the widely discussed concept of Islamic Economics. The two different interpretations of Islamic economics as the study of the functioning of an interest-free economy and the validity of moral values in the economy are discussed. It is shown that none of these interpretations can help to create an acceptable foundation for an Islamic economics. Far away from laying the foundation for such an economics the question is raised how an Islamic economy wo...

  17. The Institutional System of Economic Agents’ Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Frolova Elena, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it was made an attempt to analyse the main characteristics of the institutional system of economic agents social responsibility. The institutional system can be described as a complex of norms, rules, regulations and enforcement mechanisms in the context of interactions and communications of economic agents. The institutional nature of social responsibility allow to solve social dilemmas through the internalization of social responsibility norms and creating social value orienta...

  18. Social freedom as a prerequisite for social responsibility of economic agents in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Zvonar, Viktor Pavlovych

    2014-01-01

    The paper is aimed at the development of theoretical understanding of social freedom as the basis for socially responsible behavior of economic agents acting in socially and economically diverse environment as well as at the analysis of social freedom realization in the economy of Ukraine. The reasoning presented in the paper suggests that social freedom as a precondition for social responsibility of economic agents means a state of socioeconomic relations which gives the proactive agents ful...

  19. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canon, P.

    1980-06-01

    The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

  20. 36 CFR 219.21 - Social and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sustainability. 219.21 Section 219.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Economic Sustainability § 219.21 Social and economic sustainability. To contribute to economic and social sustainability, the responsible official involves interested and affected people in planning for National...

  1. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  2. Las competencias sobre cooperativas y econom??a social

    OpenAIRE

    P??rez-Villalobos, M. Concepci??n

    2007-01-01

    El cap??tulo desarrolla la competencia sobre cooperativas y econom??a social de las Comunidades Aut??nomas espa??olas. El t??rmino "econom??a social" es nuevo en los Estatutos de autonom??a, aunque la constituci??n espa??ola apost?? fuerte por ??l como instituci??n que coopera al desarrollo del Estado social

  3. SOCIAL BALANCE - SUMMARY DOCUMENT AND REPORTING ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the annual social reports that have as main objective the good information of users of both the internal and external users of accounting information reported. In economic, financial reports along with reports of social attract itself an end, equally profitable and moral, individual and social welfare bringing. Social Balance is an instrument of human resource management information, retrospective summary that aims to satisfy the social information of employees and highlight the social resources of the economic entity and use, in order to know the case where the entity is economic profit or loss realized.

  4. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  5. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands of...... literature by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data set is available. The results indicate that trust affects...... schooling and the rule of law directly. These variables in turn affect the investment rate (schooling) and provide a direct effect (rule of law) on the growth rate. The paper closes with a short discussion of the relevance of the findings....

  6. The Social Stability Risk Assessment of Economic Indicators Construction%基于经济指标构建的社会稳定风险评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琦峰

    2015-01-01

    本文选用人均GDP、 GDP增速、基尼系数、物价指数和失业率等5项经济指标对社会稳定风险进行了评估,结果表明:国际横向比较,我国社会稳定程度目前处于中等偏上水平,主要得分在高速的GDP增长、较低的物价指数和失业率方面;自身纵向比较,我国社会稳定风险近年呈加大趋势,主要失分在贫富差距扩大和通货膨胀压力上升方面。笔者的分析结果显示,确保在贫富分化项上不再失分甚至有所加分,即确保贫富差距不再扩大并力争有所缩小,对于保持社会稳定极其重要。%In this research, we used the economic index of social stability risk assessment system.Looking at the economic situation on the basis of social stability, we selected five economic indicators ( per capita GDP, GDP growth rate, the Gini coefficient, CPI, and the unemployment rate) for social stability risk assessment.The results suggest that by international comparison, the social stability in China at present has reached the middle-upper level, mainly benefiting from rapid GDP growth as well as low CPI and unemployment rates; by the longitudinal comparison, the social stability risk in China in recent years shows an increasing trend, suffering from widening gap between the rich and the poor as well as rising inflation pressures.The next few years will be critical to the success of transformation in the mode of economic development in China, and its avoidance of the middle income trap.

  7. Economic assessment of crop loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report uses the change in producers' plus consumers' surplus as the criterion to judge the economic desirability of a change in ozone level. While this is the appropriate measure of aggregate welfare, economics also should provide information on the distribution of gains and losses to policymakers for consideration in setting ozone standards. The paper argues data on the change in equilibrium price and quantity produced by commodity, regional shifts in production, changes in producers' surplus by production region, and the division of changes in consumer surplus between domestic and foreign consumers should be provided. Two additional studies that should be included in the report are cited

  8. The Financial Accounting Reform in the New Social Economic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Weiliang Song; Mingguang Huang

    2009-01-01

    Along with WTO accession, China has gradually entered the world economy, there are greater changes inevitably in the social economic environment of China, and the change of
    the social economic environment will directly influence the development of the theory and practice of the accounting. This article made the analysis of which both the development of the change of the social economic environment and the influence of the financial accounting, then emphasized three ways from which ...

  9. THE APPLICATION OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Staatz, John M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly examines how social capital affects overall economic growth processes and individual firm development, both positively and negatively, in low- and middle-income countries. The paper discusses how the concept of social capital is related to simple economic growth models and to the analysis of economic networks these countries. The degree to which social capital can substitute for or complement other forms of capital investment is examined. The paper concludes with suggestion...

  10. The life cycle of social and economic systems

    OpenAIRE

    S.E. Sardak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify the components of social and economic systems life cycle. To achieve this aim, the article describes the traits and characteristics of the system, determines the features of social and economic systems functioning and is applied a systematic approach in the study of their life cycle. The results of the analysis. It is determined that the development of social and economic systems has signs of cyclicity and is explained methodolo...

  11. The Economic Socialization of Children: A Neo-Marxist Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Scott; Taebel, Del

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study which explored how children acquire ideas about capitalism suggest that economic socialization progressively orients children to a favorable view of capitalism and structured social inequality. (Author/EB)

  12. Developments in Social Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Along with environmental impact assessment, social impact assessment (SIA) has its origins in the 1970s and has developed from being a tool to meet regulatory requirements, to a discipline that seeks to contribute proactively to better project and policy development and to enhance the wellbeing of a

  13. Economic Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility Influence on Enterprise Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hájek, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    The Diploma thesis focuses on the issues related to Economic analysis of corporate social responsibility influence on enterprise performance. It describes and evaluates corporate social responsibility as a phenomenon linked to the socio-economic environment of an enterprise. The theoretical section summarizes current findings about corporate social responsibility, provides with insights into the theoretical background and introduce the predispositions of the socially responsible concept in co...

  14. The Institutional System of Economic Agents’ Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Elena, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it was made an attempt to analyse the main characteristics of the institutional system of economic agents social responsibility. The institutional system can be described as a complex of norms, rules, regulations and enforcement mechanisms in the context of interactions and communications of economic agents. The institutional nature of social responsibility allow to solve social dilemmas through the internalization of social responsibility norms and creating social value orientations, which are determine the prosocial behaviour of economic agents. The institutional system of social responsibility was described from the methodological institutionalism point of view. Analysing this phenomenon we are required to develop research on the objects of this system (norms, regulations, behaviour, on the subjects of this system (persons, business, government and on the institutional mechanisms (internalization of social responsibility norms, promoting prosocial behaviour, adaptation and transformation of the social responsibility norms aimed to ensure the understanding of origin and significance of social responsibility for modern society.

  15. TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todt Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.

  16. Electrification and social and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity supply is an essential component of any economic development strategy. Population growth and industrialization are driving forces that will increase electricity consumption rapidly in developing countries for many years to come. Indeed, modernization and increases in productivity are difficult to conceive without a substantial increase in per capita electricity consumption. The electricity supply industry is, however, a capital intensive industry. A substantial share of the scarce financial and technological resources is captured by the electricity sector, producing considerable macroeconomic and environmental impacts that are not always assessed correctly. The current trends in electricity consumption in developing countries are reviewed, as well as future plans. There was a substantial slowdown in the annual rates of increase in electricity consumption in the 1980s, mainly as a result of the debt crisis. Utility forecasts for future consumption remain high, although the financial situation is very poor. Population growth, the low level of electricity consumption per capita and the deep rooted perception that electricity supply is a key factor in economic development induce optimism for the future. The four key issues facing the electricity supply industry in developing countries are analysed: the financial crisis; the technology policy; regulation reform; and long term sustainability. Obviously, the difficult financial situation is the most pressing issue. Nevertheless, it is difficult to envisage any solution to the financial crisis if no changes are introduced, both in the regulatory regime and in the technology policy. Moreover, it is important to assess the long term effects carefully, particularly as far the environment and fuel markets are concerned. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  17. Social Capital and Economic Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi Sulaiman; Farhad Ameen

    2007-01-01

    The proposition that social capital expands household welfare is tested by estimating the effects of social interactions on per capita expenditure among a sample of 810 households in northern Bangladesh. Using data from BRAC’s 2004 Social Capital Survey, ordinary least square (OLS) estimates isolate the differential effects of physical assets, human capital, and social capital [CFPR WP 16].

  18. Interrelations between Energy Security Economics and Social Cohesion: Analysis of a Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Genys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention to sustainable development in academic discourse fosters discussions on how energy security affects society. In most cases the discussions consider the political and economic consequences, which affect or may affect the society. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania. To achieve this aim the interrelations between energy security, energy economics and social cohesion are discussed. The theoretical framework of social cohesion (introduced by J. Jenson and P. Bernard is presented and applied in empirical analysis. The operationalization of empirical variables is based on economic, political and socio-cultural - activity areas, which are analyzed to verify the dichotomies between public attitudes and the actual behavior of society. These dichotomies help to distinguish six analytical dimensions, on the basis of which we created 17 empirical indicators, which analysis allows for describing the impact of Lithuanian energy security economics on social cohesion in quantitative data. The statistical analyses showed that the impact of attitudinal dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has an almost neutral effect: 3.05 (1-very negative; 3-neutral, 5-very positive. Whereas, the impact of behavioural dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion has a negative effect: 2.47. The aggregated average of the overall impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has a negative effect: 2.76.

  19. Migration and the Economic and Social Landscape of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Cavounidis

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades migration has altered the economic and social landscape of Greece. Key migrant flows triggering this transformation were the massive migrant inflows that commenced with the collapse of socialist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe in the early 1990's, the return flows provoked by the severe economic crisis affecting Greece since 2008, and the outflows of Greek nationals sparked by the same recession. Some of the main economic and social consequences of these flows are ...

  20. Prioritizing social and economic effects of sport places on Urban Environment (A case study: Yazd City)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Soltanhosseini; M Salimi; M. Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Extended Abstract1- IntroductionSport facilities and sport places as one of important land uses in urban environment can have positive and negative effects on their surroundings, of which the most important can be addressed to economic and social ones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify, assess and prioritize the social and economic effects of sport places on the urban environment. Based on these objectives, five typical sport places (Shahid Sadoughi, Shahid Paak Nejad, Shahid Na...

  1. Economic Growth and Social Poverty: The Evolution of Social Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Antoci, Angelo; Sacco, Pier Luigi; Vanin, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    We develop an evolutionary model of growth in which agents choose how to allocate their time between private and social activities. We argue that a shift from social to private activities may foster market-based growth, but also generate social poverty. Within a formal framework that merges a game theoretic analysis of the evolution of social participation with a model of dynamic accumulation of its effects on social environment (i.e., of social capital accumulation), we show that growth and ...

  2. The Social in Assessing for Sustainability. Fisheries in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Barclay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion that sustainability rests on three pillars – economic, environmental and social – has been widely accepted since the 1990s. In practice, however, the economic and environmental aspects have tended to dominate the sustainability agenda, and social aspects have been sidelined. Two reasons for this are: 1 there is a lack of data collected about which to build meaningful pictures of social aspects of sustainability for populations over time, and 2 there is a lack of recognition of the role of social factors in sustainability, and a related lack of understanding of how to analyse them in conjunction with economic and environmental factors. This paper surveys the literature about sustainability in fisheries, focussing on Australia, and focussing on the way social aspects have been treated. The paper finds that the problems that have been identified for assessing the social in sustainability in general are certainly manifest in fisheries. Management of Australian fisheries has arguably made great improvements to biological sustainability over the last decade, but much remains to be done to generate similar improvements in social sustainability for fishing communities. This is the case for government-run resource management as well as for initiatives from the private sector and conservation organizations as part of movements for corporate social responsibility and ethical consumerism. A significant challenge for improving sustainability in Australian fisheries, therefore, lies in improving data collection on social factors, and in bridging disciplinary divides to better integrate social with economic and biological assessments of sustainability.

  3. Economics through Inquiry: Creating Social Businesses in Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon

    2015-01-01

    The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework from the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS) features an inquiry approach to teaching K-12 social studies in which social studies standards are organized into an "inquiry arc." Inquiry in elementary economics is often underused in practice (Laney 2001). This study describes how a…

  4. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  5. Social Determinants of Economic Behavior of Older Adults in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Youssim, Iaroslav

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the growing economic literature which studies effects of social and cultural variables on economic behavior of older adults in Europe. Landes, cited in Guiso et al. (2006), states that "if we learn anything from the history of economic development, it is that culture makes all the difference” (p. 29). Indeed, in the recent years economists put an effort to apply their analytical frameworks and empirical tools to study the role of culture on economic outcomes (Gu...

  6. Barbados : fostering economic development through social partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Fashoyin, Tayo

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the framework and processes of labour relations and social partnership at the national level in Barbados and explores experiences of social dialogue in relation to improving productivity, technical and vocational education, occupational health and safety and in the tourism sector. Includes a comparison of social dialogue in other Carribean countries.

  7. DUPIC fuel cycle economics assessment (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the current status of the DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis conducted by the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group of the DUPIC fuel development project. For the DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis, the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group has organized the 1st technical meeting composed of 8 domestic specialists from government, academy, industry, etc. and a foreign specialist of hot cell design from TRI on July 16, 1998. As a continuation of the 1st technical meeting, the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group has organized a 2nd technical meeting on March 9, 1999 with 10 domestic and 4 foreign specialists. This report contains the presentation material of the 2nd technical meeting which could be utilized for further DUPIC fuel cycle and back end fuel cycle economics analyses. (author). 10 charts

  8. Economic and Social Impacts of the Media

    OpenAIRE

    DellaVigna, Stefano; La Ferrara, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    We review the literature on the impact of exposure to the media. We cast a wide net and cover media impacts on education, family choices, labor and migration decisions, environmental choices, health, crime, public economics, attitudes, consumption and savings, and development economics. We stress five themes. First, the demand for entertainment plays a key role, with the economic impacts emerging largely as by-products. Second, to understand the media effects one cannot just focus on the dire...

  9. Economic and Social Impacts of the Media

    OpenAIRE

    DellaVigna, Stefano; La Ferrara, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    In this survey, we review the literature on the impact of exposure to the media. We cast a wide net and cover media impacts on education, family choices, labor and migration decisions, environmental choices, health, crime, public economics, attitudes, consumption and savings, and development economics. We stress five themes. First, the demand for entertainment plays a key role, with the economic impacts emerging largely as by-products. Second, to understand the media effects one cannot just f...

  10. Economic, Social and Political Scenarios of Mexico in the Next Two Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josè G.   Jose

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research proposal aims to analyze the economic, social and political foreseeable scenarios of Mexico by the year 2030. Approach: Starting from the analyzes of the recent economic, social and political developments, to searching the trends in specific economic issues such as international commerce, energy, employment, environmental constraints; social trends such as demographic transition, fertility, population growth, aging, migration, education, health, housing, human development and political trends such as democratization processes, social upheaval, human rights. Results: Finally, concluded described and discussed the scenarios at three levels: pessimistic, realistic and optimistic. The key findings will be analyzed in more details. The methodology used are time series analysis for historical data, correlation analysis for data series of the different variables, the Delphi technique, panel of experts, interviews to some clue economic, social and political actors. For the analysis, the prospective techniques are also used. Conclusion: At the end of the study the most important factors in shaping the economic, social and political landscape of Mexico in 2030 and beyond are identified. It is also examined how the Mexican society will cope with the broad range of challenges furthermore it is assessed what conditions may be key to transforming economic, social and political trends into security and social welfare issues.

  11. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  12. The Economics of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Crifo, Patricia; Forget, Vanina

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the economics of Corporate Social Responsible behaviors, namely the voluntary integration of environmental, social and governance factors in firms' strategy. We review theoretical and empirical literature and provide a unified framework of the forces driving corporate social responsibility, relying on three categories of market imperfections: the existence of externalities and public good; consumer heterogeneity; and imperfects contracts. The impacts of corporate social ...

  13. How can the decommodified security ratio assess social protection systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Menahem, Georges

    2010-01-01

    With a view to better assessment of the roles played by social security and social policy in determining well-being, this presentation introduces the 'decommodified security ratio' (DSR), an instrument for evaluating an important duty of the social State, namely to maintain and improve people's economic security. To that end we describe the conventions for its use and analyse its main components in 24 countries in 1999-2001, by using the wave V of Luxembourg Income Survey database. From an an...

  14. A new process for organizing assessments of social, economic and environmental outcomes: case study of wildland fire management in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological risk assessments typically are organized using the processes of planning (a discussion among managers, stakeholders and analysis to clarify ecosystem management goals and assessment scope) and problem formulation (evaluation of existing information to generate hypothes...

  15. Punitive Damages, Social Norms, and Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cooter, Robert D

    1999-01-01

    Law and morality forbid acts that cause uncompensable harms or create unreasonable risks. When people intentionally commit such acts, courts express anger and indignation at the wrongdoer through speech and punishment. In a system of social norms with multiple equilibria, expressions of emotion signal commitment and coordinate expectations. In a system of social norms with a unique, stable equilibrium, legal sactions deter marginally. Social norms, however, provide a better guide to the need ...

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility Through an Economic Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Robert N. Stavins; Reinhardt, Forest L.; Richard H. K. Vietor

    2008-01-01

    Business leaders, government officials, and academics are focusing considerable attention on the concept of "corporate social responsibility" (CSR), particularly in the realm of environmental protection. Beyond complete compliance with environmental regulations, do firms have additional moral or social responsibilities to commit resources to environmental protection? How should we think about the notion of firms sacrificing profits in the social interest? May they do so within the scope of th...

  17. The economics of social networks : the winner takes it all?

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Steen, Frode

    2010-01-01

    We look at the economics of social networks. Key economic features of these are positive network effects, giving rise to positive feedback effects that may lead to a winner-takes-it-all market. Social networks’ revenues are collected from online advertising; social networks thus constitute two-sided markets. Two-sided markets with ad-financing enhance the winner-takes-it-all effect. However, for many young people, social networks are parts of their image. They may want to be where the right ...

  18. Economic and social ethics in the work of John Calvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Freudenberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available John Calvin and Reformed Protestantism interlinked questions of life and death with questions of faith. Not only faith and the church, but life in general call for constant renewal through the word of God. These processes of renewal incorporate society and the economy. In contrast to the popular assertion that Calvin and Calvinism are responsible for capitalism and its aberrations, Calvin in particular shows a deep sensibility for human beings trapped in economic deprivation. In his sermons Calvin exhorts the rich to consider the poor as ‘their’ poor and to thank God by practicing generosity. This appreciation of social questions within an ecumenical context is demonstrated in the Reformed church in a whole array of charitable services. It will be crucial for the current debate on economic ethics to assess economic processes in relation to how they serve life. For it is liberty, justice and fellowship – as gifts of God – that serve as an orientation and an obligation to be aware of human beings suffering from the negative consequences of globalisation.

  19. Health in social impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    den Broeder, Lea; Vanclay, Frank; Fehr, Rainer; Viliani, Francesca; Nowacki, Julia; Martuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    SIA developed alongside EIA in the early 1970s as a mechanism to consider the social impacts of planned interventions. The early understanding tended to limit the practical application of SIA to the project level, usually within the context of regulatory frameworks, and primarily considered only the direct negative impacts. However, like other types of impact assessment, SIA has evolved over time and has diverged considerably from EIA. Nowadays, SIA has widened its scope to become a “philosop...

  20. Solar Heating and Cooling: An Economic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Arthur E.

    This study serves as an introduction to the important economic considerations that are necessary for an assessment of the potential for solar heating and cooling in the United States. The first chapter introduces the technology that is used to tap solar energy for residential and commercial applications and illustrates the potential significance…

  1. Social Psychology, Social Science, and Economics: Twentieth Century Progress and Problems, Twenty-First Century Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated by social scientists' and especially social psychologists' contributions during World War II, as well as by America's post-war economic and population growth, the period from 1945 to 1970 was widely viewed as a "Golden Age" for American social science. Interdisciplinary social psychology arguably was in the vanguard of these…

  2. Demographic Change, Economic Growth and Social Welfare in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ermisch, John F; Joshi, Heather

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the economic rationale for concern about the falling rate of growth of Europe's population. It also assembles demographic and economic time-series data for the countries of Eastern and Western Europe during the postwar period. The consequences of demographic developments for social welfare, broadly defined, are felt over a very long term. Issues discussed include the contribution of increases in life expectancy to social welfare; the potential effects of population growth ...

  3. Economic and social leader-member exchange relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaas, Bård; Buch, Robert; Dysvik, Anders; Hærem, Thorvald

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the link between economic and social leader-member exchange relationships and follower work performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Instead of viewing exchange relationships between leaders and subordinates on a continuum from low to high quality, we conceptualize social and economic exchange relationships as relationships with different qualities, rather than different levels of quality. Data from 552 followers and 78 leaders supported our two...

  4. Areva 2006 figures - Economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the 2006 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation, stakeholder relations, local economic development, Financial performance; 2 - Commitment to employees: Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, employees and training; 3 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 4 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  5. Economic-Social Aspects of the Lisbon Treaty”

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Gorgi

    2012-01-01

    This master degree final study on the subject: ECONOMIC-SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE LISBON TREATY is an attempt on presentation of the most important and relevant economic and social aspects with the implementation of the Lisbon treaty, through presenting the characteristics and most important and relevant provisions of this Treaty. At the beginning there is a brief presentation on the history of the European Union, and further on, follows a description of the main goal, basic characteristics an...

  6. The Economic and Social Effects Analysis of MICE Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunchao Lu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the MICE tourism fully swings, with its enormous economic and social effects. It causes the attention of the community, and was called “the pearl of tourism crown.” The development of convention tourism has effects of society and economy, advantage and disadvantage as well. Beginning with tourism theoretical connotation, the paper reveals MICE tourism with its economical and social effect and then point out the enlightenment of the MICE.

  7. Social, sexual and economic networks of prostitution

    OpenAIRE

    Holme, Petter

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the networks of prostitution, in particular those that can be extracted from online data, and what they can teach us about prostitution itself, disease spreading, cultural differences and a broader spectrum of socio-economical phenomena.

  8. Social and economic cohesion in Romania: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Nuta; Doinita Ariton

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, this article examines the main theoretical framework of social and economic cohesion. Secondly, our study present the real cohesion aspects, involving Romania as a member state of the European Union regional development policy as a whole, highlighting aspects of economy, population, market, workforce, education, including the context of economic crisis.

  9. CRISIS: EFFECTS IN THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmin Tileaga

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine how issues relating to the economic crisis on society nationally and internationally. It reflects its own analysis based on own research aspect based on several macroeconomic indicators. To this end I studied the relationship between financial crisis – the economic crisis – social crisis – political crisis.

  10. Many-agent models in economic and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Patriarca, M; Heinsalu, E; Germano, G; Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban; Heinsalu, Els; Germano, Guido

    2006-01-01

    We review some statistical many-agent models of economic and social systems inspired by microscopic molecular models and discuss their stochastic interpretation. We apply these models to wealth exchange in economics and study the relaxation process and how it depends on the parameters of the system, in particular on the saving propensity parameters that define and diversify the agent profiles.

  11. Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A

    2014-01-15

    Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions. PMID:24374467

  12. Economic theory and social change: problems and revisions

    OpenAIRE

    Fusari, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Although many economists do a serious and respectable work, main stream economic theory contains an almost complete disregard for the importance of social, cultural and political structures which are the very foundation of the society. Worse than that, such disregard is developed into arrogance when representatives and textbook maintain the illusions of economic main stream science as value free, and sometimes it is even asserted that only if the economic system could be free from disturbing ...

  13. Science and Ideology in Economic, Political and Social Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Hillinger, Claude

    2008-01-01

    This paper has two sources: One is my own research in three broad areas: business cycles, economic measurement and social choice. In all of these fields I attempted to apply the basic precepts of the scientific method as it is understood in the natural sciences. I found that my effort at using natural science methods in economics was met with little understanding and often considerable hostility. I found economics to be driven less by common sense and empirical evidence, then by various ideol...

  14. Minimum water requirement for social and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Chenoweth, JL

    2008-01-01

    There is no common understanding of the minimum per capita fresh water requirement for human health and economic and social development. Existing estimates vary between 20 litres and 4,654 litres per capita per day, however, these estimates are methodologically problematic as they consider only human consumptive and hygiene needs, or they consider economic needs but not the effects of trade. Reconsidering the components of a minimum water requirement estimate for human health and for economic...

  15. Las redes sociales de la economía social

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, Paula; Lobato, Marta; Molina, José Luis; Lubbers, Miranda Jessica; Valenzuela García, Hugo; Pampalona Tarrés, Judith; Revilla Gútiez, Sara; Santana, Mª Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    A partir del trabajo de campo en curso llevado a cabo en Cataluña (proyecto de investigación ENCLAVE - CSO2012-32635), se sugiere la existencia de al menos tres tipos de los llamados "empresarios sociales": los profesionales desplazados por los recortes en el gasto público en los sectores de la salud, los servicios sociales y la cooperación; las cooperativas y las asociaciones tradicionales, re-etiquetados como "empresarios sociales" o "empresas sociales" (conversos) y, por último, los que go...

  16. Social aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans for technological development have often been met by demands for a closer examination of the associated benefits and risks and the consideration of social values in public planning and decision processes. A theoretical framework for inter-disciplinary risk assessment studies is presented to aid the balancing of technical data with social values in decision making. Methods for obtaining value measures are reviewed and an attitude-based method is developed in detail; this model allows identification of the relative importance of the technical, psychological and social factors which underlie attitudes and indicates which factors differentiate between social groups. Results of a pilot application to nuclear power are summarized. For these subjects, different attitudes between pro and con were primarily due to strongly differing beliefs about the benefits of nuclear power. Preliminary results are reported of an application of this model with a heterogeneous sample drawn from the general public. The cognitive limitations which affect rationality in intuitive decision making are summarized as background to introduce formal decision methodologies for the use of attitude data in public decision making

  17. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana CHINDRIS-VASIOIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The confrontation between third millennium will not be between civilizations but between forces of globalization and global agents. Already live in a global economy, context in which it is necessary to understand by globalization the modernization process of life world by spreading economic means of production and communication at world level. Globalization produces a capitalism healthy whereas stimulates competition beneficial between an ever-increasing number of companies. Economic and political unification under the global financial corporate banner is accompanied by mixing spiritual values and return unique realm. After internationalism political correctness (multiculturalism, feminism, ecological radically administered Western individualism typical bruising, it seems that the ground is ready for the big toe-in. Globalization can be seen as a crucial stage of expansion and economic interdependence. This stage is completing a process of aggregation of relatively autonomous local economies whose element mainly in the past has been constant widening of the space for the exchange of each economic savings. Economic renewal based on knowledge of known but a contrary geospatial evolution. Advances in knowledge are favored and intimately linked to the possibility of communication. So, they are favored by communication infrastructure and communication technologies.

  18. Twenty years of struggle against global warming in France: assessment and perspectives for public policies. Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This huge report proposes a rather detailed overview of the evolution of the French policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to struggle against climate change and global warming. The introduction proposes a large synthesis by addressing the challenges of this struggle, the French attenuation trajectory within the European framework, the relationship between energy and climate policies, the progressive development of a method, the increasing number of involved actors, the commitment of the various economic sectors and local communities. Some recommendations are made within the perspective of the next Conference on Climate (COP21) and beyond. Then, the report first part addresses the 1992-2014 period, describes the international context (evolutions of greenhouse gas emissions in the world and per sector), presents the different international agreements (Kyoto protocol, Doha amendment, European commitments, the role of France in the world and European dynamics), gives an overview of the progressive emergence of a climate policy in France and of its results (global decrease of emissions, but with variations among sectors), proposes a comparison of climate policies debated and implemented in different countries (China, USA, Swede, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany). An analysis discusses the obtained results, the difficult implementation of Climate plans in France, the coherence of public policies, the territorialisation of the climate challenge, and the influence of the economic context on the evolution of emissions. The next part outlines and comments how the French population becomes always more aware of the climate challenge, how intermediate bodies tend to take charge of this issue, how economic activities progressively integrate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and how local policies can also tackle the problem. Perspectives are then discussed: on the long term (factor 4 objective for the various sectors), on the medium term (by 2020-2030), and

  19. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

  20. Impact assessment of economic and monetary innovations for their financing and improvement: why is it necessary for social transformation projects management ?

    OpenAIRE

    Place, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    After a deep literature review of 151 sources on impact assessment in the sector of development projects, sustainable finance and monetary innovation, only 31%, 17% and 14% were respectively reference materials of this research topic. The two first sectors are advanced on this topic and already have some principles, standards and guidelines for impact assessment methodology and even handbooks. Furthermore, in the impact finance sector, 24% of a database of 169 sources or 54% of a research of ...

  1. Social relations and economic welfare at an individual level

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Degli Antoni

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years, many studies have shown that social networks are important to the economic progress and the development of societies. In order to explain the determinants of social network formation, it is important to understand the motivations characterising the decisions of single agents with respect to their social behaviour. This paper presents evidence, through Italian microdata representative of the entire Italian population, that the quality and quantity of interpersonal rela...

  2. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  3. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    -trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....

  4. Superdiversity, social cohesion, and economic benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Spoonley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies have found that achieving superdiversity—a substantial increase in the scale and scope of minority ethnic and immigrant groups in a region—can provide certain economic benefits, such as higher levels of worker productivity and innovation. Other studies have found that these benefits can be compromised by political and populist anxieties about ethnic, religious, and linguistic diversity.

  5. Fairness requires deliberation: The primacy of economic over social considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eHochman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of the ultimatum game to examine this question. Experiment 1 shows that acceptance rate of unfair offers increases when participants are asked to base their choice on their gut-feelings, as compared to when they thoroughly consider the available information. In line with these results, Experiments 2 and 3 provide process evidence that individuals prefer to first examine economic information about their own utility rather than social information about equity and fairness, even at the price of foregoing such social information. Our results suggest that people are more economically rational at the core, but social considerations (e.g., inequality aversion require deliberation, which under certain conditions override their self-interested impulses.

  6. Social Business: Maximizing Economic Value to Create Social Value

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Melody Alene

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, there are problems threatening the lives and livelihood of humanity. Where there are problems, there are people who want to fix them. But charity has shown to be unsustainable and ineffective in creating positive change in the long run. Some companies have chosen to go beyond corporate philanthropy or "corporate social responsibility" by incorporating a social mission into the core of their businesses. The ideals and mission permeate through company goals and strategies....

  7. SOCIAL EXCHANGE RATES, MERCOSUR AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Leo da Rocha

    2003-01-01

    The path towards a common market requires an alignment of macroeconomic policies. In the case of the MERCOSUL member countries, the observed disparities in the exchange, tax and monetary policies constitute major imbalances and impede future international economic integration. Apart from residual differences on trade policies among the member countries, macroeconomic policy disparities also reflect populism and the resulting lack of political will and mutual commitment with the regional goals...

  8. Social Norms, Social Meaning, and Economic Analysis of Law: A Comment.

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Richard A

    1998-01-01

    This commentary on the papers given at the Conference on Social Norms, Social Meaning, and the Economic Analysis of Law at the University of Chicago Law School summarizes and criticizes the papers briefly; emphasizes the promise of signaling theory, as illustrated by several of the papers, to cast new light on social interactions, norms, and law; invites attention to the importance of selection phenomena in the operation of norms; underscores the compatibility of economic analysis of law with...

  9. Employer of Last Resort Policy and Feminist Economics: Social Provisioning and Socialization of Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravka, Todorova

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the Employment of Last Resort (ELR) policy proposal that has emerged from Post Keynesian theory as an embodiment of what Keynes called “socialization of investment,” as well as an avenue for a social provisioning approach towards socialization of unpaid care labor. Intersections between Post Keynesian and feminist economics are delineated. The paper proposes avenues for input from feminist economics into formulation of an ELR policy, and raises questions about transformati...

  10. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and cultural right (“social right” have historically been viewed as distinct in natyre and scope from civil and political right. Rather than being viewed as judicially enforceable rights of immeadiate application, such rights have widely been considered non-justiciable programmatic goals to be archieved progressively within available resources, through political processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the legal and analytical tools to understand why this dichotomy is false. The paper will consider the international normative framework for the legal protection of social rights, the specific content of state obligations under treaties dealing with such rights, how the international social rights monitoring system functions, and the various obstacles and opportunities currently facing the judicial enforceability of social rights. In every society there is violation which implies its citizen not get proper social right, economical right and cultural right. Proper implementation and adoption of judicial enforcement can reduce this violation rate and established social peace. Step mentioned in the above might not perfect but it might be small starting and ensure social, culture & economical right for the people living in the society.

  11. The Social Costs of Gambling: An Economic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas M.; Barnett, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Much of the opposition to legalized gambling is based on analyses of the social costs that occur as a result of pathological gambling. It is our contention that many, if not most, authors who have contributed to this literature are either unclear or misguided in what they define as social costs. Instead of starting with a clear definition of what constitutes a social cost, these authors have adopted an ad hoc approach-using "common sense" to determine what constitutes losses to society and then attempting to quantify the impact of those activities. We believe this is not, as some suggest, simply a matter of semantics. Rather, it is a serious problem in the gambling literature. How do we differentiate between a consequence of pathological gambling that is a "social cost" and one that is not? Which of the consequences of addictive behaviors that are associated with gambling arise when gambling is legal, and which will be manifest in some form whether or not gambling is legal? In this article we explain the economic perspective on social costs. An understanding of this paradigm removes the subjectivity in the classification of pathological gambling's social costs. The paper has three major components. First, we introduce the economic notion of social costs. Using this paradigm, we differentiate between the "true" social costs related to pathological gambling, and other negative consequences that cannot legitimately be classified as social costs. Second, we evaluate a recent social cost study using the economics social cost paradigm. Third, we discuss two types of social costs that have been largely overlooked in the gambling literature. One is caused by gambling prohibition. The other occurs as a result of "rent seeking" that is related to the political process surrounding the legalization of gambling. PMID:12766457

  12. Economic assessment of managing processionary moth in pine forests: a case study in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Paola; Zocca, Alessia; Battisti, Andrea; Barrento, Maria João; Branco, Manuela; Paiva, Maria Rosa

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the private and social profitability of current strategies for managing processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in Portuguese pine forests, looking at economic and environmental costs and benefits. Costs include the expenses for forest treatment and the social costs of threats to human health (dermatitis amongst others); benefits are assessed in terms of both revenue and social benefits such as carbon fixation and recreation. The evaluation was done using Cos...

  13. Education, Social Cohesion and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Gradstein; Moshe Justman

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the contribution of education to growth through its role in promoting a common culture indicates that when different cultural groups separately determine the social content of their school curricula excessive polarization can result, with less than optimal growth. The optimal trajectory involves a gradual, reciprocal convergence of school curricula towards the middle ground. This may be difficult to implement in a political context in which all agents are identified with one group...

  14. Social and economic perspectives of student unrest

    OpenAIRE

    Channaveer R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Student unrest has been a grave phenomenon and syndrome to educational system in India and world as such. Time and again student organizations give call for agitations to protest their dissent which is either just or unjust, causing violence and civic disturbance. Social anomaly of Indian society and politicization of student folk has further made the educational institutions more vibrant and dynamic organizations. The recent outburst of upper strata to dissent the OBC reservation in the elit...

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine J. Morrison-Paul; Siegel, Donald S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe some perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), in order to provide a context for considering the strategic motivations and implications of CSR. Based on this framework, which is based on characterizing optimal firm decision making and underlies most existing work on CSR, we propose an agenda for further theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then summarize and relate the articles in this special issue to the proposed agenda.

  16. Social Life Cycle Assessment Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqun Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To promote the development of Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA, we conducted a comprehensive review of recently developed frameworks, methods, and characterization models for impact assessment for future method developers and SLCA practitioners. Two previous reviews served as our foundations for this review. We updated the review by including a comprehensive list of recently-developed SLCA frameworks, methods and characterization models. While a brief discussion from goal, data, and indicator perspectives is provided in Sections 2 to 4 for different frameworks/methods, the focus of this review is Section 5 where discussion on characterization models for impact assessment of different methods is provided. The characterization models are categorized into two types following the UNEP/SETAC guidelines: type I models without impact pathways and type II models with impact pathways. Different from methods incorporating type I/II characterization models, another LCA modeling approach, Life Cycle Attribute Assessment (LCAA, is also discussed in this review. We concluded that methods incorporating either type I or type II models have limitations. For type I models, the challenge lies in the systematic identification of relevant stakeholders and materiality issues; while for type II models, identification of impact pathways that most closely and accurately represent the real-world causal relationships is the key. LCAA may avoid these problems, but the ultimate questions differ from those asked by the methods using type I and II models.

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility and the Economics of Consumer Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Etilé, Fabrice; Teyssier, SABRINA

    2012-01-01

    La diffusion de la Responsabilité sociale des entreprises (CSR) est conditionnée par les comportements d’achat des consommateurs. Nombre d’entre eux déclarent être favorables à la CSR et pourtant, la consommation responsable reste à un niveau faible. Cette revue de la littérature analyse deux barrières principales à la consommation responsable : la disponibilité-à-payer des consommateurs, qui dépend de leurs préférences sociales ; et l’asymétrie d’information entre les entreprises et les cons...

  18. Social and economical aspects of radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of increasing nuclear power economic efficiency as compared with nonnuclear power sources, as well as those of improving NPP safety and public positive opinion are considered. It is shown that NPP economic efficiency increase is possible by using the tank boiling water cooled reactors with natural coolant circulation. It is stressed that the main specific feature of the new version of the Radiation Safety Standards NRB-99 is the establishment of more severe limiting values for permissible dose loads. At the same time the new Standards are based on the concept of linear thresholdless radiation effects on biological objects. Basing on the analysis of radiation effects on living tissue cells realized by modelling the complex of radiation flux effects on tissue cells and their living functions reproduction processes due to reparation system activity in the form of some Markov random process with continuous time and final number of states it is proved that small radiation loads are of infinitesimal danger for a person against the background of other harmful factors of modern life

  19. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper connects two strands of the literature on social trust by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data...... set is available. The results indicate that trust affects schooling and the rule of law directly. These variables in turn affect the investment rate (schooling) and provide a direct effect (rule of law) on the growth rate. The paper closes with a short discussion of the relevance of the findings....

  20. Economic independence, labour law and social security

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmaat, H.M.T.; Kravaritou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This work is based on papers presented at a conference entitled "The Sex of Labour Law in Europe/Le Sexe du droit du travail en Europe", which was held at the European University Institute in Florence. The contributors argue that law in general, and especially social and labour law, is not asexual, and that law has been written from a male point of view. As a consequence, many rules and regulations do not take into account a typical female point of view and therefore appear to disregard the p...

  1. Developing a Social, Cultural and Economic Report Card for a Regional Industrial Harbour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pascoe

    Full Text Available Report cards are increasingly used to provide ongoing snap-shots of progress towards specific ecosystem health goals, particularly in coastal regions where planners need to balance competing demands for coastal resources from a range of industries. While most previous report cards focus on the biophysical components of the system, there is a growing interest in including the social and economic implications of ecosystem management to provide a greater social-ecological system understanding. Such a report card was requested on the Gladstone Harbour area in central Queensland, Australia. Gladstone Harbour adjoins the southern Great Barrier Reef, and is also a major industrial and shipping port. Balancing social, economic and environmental interests is therefore of great concern to the regional managers. While environmental benchmarking procedures are well established within Australia (and elsewhere, a method for assessing social and economic performance of coastal management is generally lacking. The key aim of this study was to develop and pilot a system for the development of a report card relating to appropriate cultural, social and economic objectives. The approach developed uses a range of multicriteria decision analysis methods to assess and combine different qualitative and quantitative measures, including the use of Bayesian Belief Networks to combine the different measures and provide an overall quantitative score for each of the key management objectives. The approach developed is readily transferable for purposes of similar assessments in other regions.

  2. Developing a Social, Cultural and Economic Report Card for a Regional Industrial Harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Sean; Tobin, Renae; Windle, Jill; Cannard, Toni; Marshall, Nadine; Kabir, Zobaidul; Flint, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Report cards are increasingly used to provide ongoing snap-shots of progress towards specific ecosystem health goals, particularly in coastal regions where planners need to balance competing demands for coastal resources from a range of industries. While most previous report cards focus on the biophysical components of the system, there is a growing interest in including the social and economic implications of ecosystem management to provide a greater social-ecological system understanding. Such a report card was requested on the Gladstone Harbour area in central Queensland, Australia. Gladstone Harbour adjoins the southern Great Barrier Reef, and is also a major industrial and shipping port. Balancing social, economic and environmental interests is therefore of great concern to the regional managers. While environmental benchmarking procedures are well established within Australia (and elsewhere), a method for assessing social and economic performance of coastal management is generally lacking. The key aim of this study was to develop and pilot a system for the development of a report card relating to appropriate cultural, social and economic objectives. The approach developed uses a range of multicriteria decision analysis methods to assess and combine different qualitative and quantitative measures, including the use of Bayesian Belief Networks to combine the different measures and provide an overall quantitative score for each of the key management objectives. The approach developed is readily transferable for purposes of similar assessments in other regions. PMID:26839949

  3. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects of...... corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect is...... more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  4. Social-Economic Foundation for Smooth Changes in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2012-01-01

    Chairman Kim Jong-il's death has sparked worldwide interest in the 'future direction of the D.P.R.K. political, economic, social and diplomatic policies. After all, as the youngest national leader in the world, Kim Jong-un has little experience, especially as he has been involved in national governance for such a very short time. Whether he earl unite all the high-level leaders of the ruling party, government and military and achieve a smooth transition in national political, economic and social life will affect the well-being of all Korean people, and the security and stability in the whole of Northeast Asia. However, a dispassionate analysis of North Korea's recent economic and social development may show that North Korea's future prospects may not be as gloomy as some people predict.

  5. Fiscal Discipline and Social Capital: Evidence from Europe during the Last Economic Crisis and Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Eve Parts

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to investigate the possible relationship between fiscal discipline and social capital in EU member states during the last economic crisis and recovery, along with the assessment of the initial welfare effects of fiscal stimulus measures. Preliminary results show that institutional trust and general trust as social capital indicators associate positively with the extent of fiscal stimulus, while governance indicators show negative correlations. However, the ...

  6. Аccounting and analytical support of social capital in modern economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.O. Osadcha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social capital plays an important role in the profit formation of business entity in the context of the implementation of integrated reporting. The purpose of the research is to examine the problematic aspects of accounting and analytical support of social capital in the context of sustainable development which involves the study of «social capital» and «social networks» concepts, the definition of the functions of social capital in the structure of company’s capital, the disclosure of social capital assessment peculiarities. To achieve the goal of article the author uses the methods of induction, deduction, analogy, comparison, the systematic approach to the assessment of economic phenomena, the historical method, the data grouping method, and the process approach. The accounting tasks in the context of sustainable socio-economic and environmental development are identified. The essence of «social capital» concept, its importance in the formation of an integrated enterprise reporting, and its elements are characterized. The problematic issues of social capital assessment are analyzed and the possible solutions are discussed. The necessity of introduction of new facilities and new accounting approaches to the organization of accounting are proved.

  7. Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs KT; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct

  8. Managing high level nuclear waste: Social, economic, and perceived risk issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary describes a research paper concerned with social, political, and economic consequences of leaving waste at power plants. Assessments were made by surveying residents in counties where nuclear waste is stored. The intent of the research is to compare attitudes in the surveyed counties with those of Nevada residents

  9. Social Safety Nets, Economic Freedom and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Simrit

    2009-01-01

    What is the relationship between social welfare, safety nets and economic freedom? Arguably, if economic freedom (EF) promotes growth and if it trickles down EF promotes larger freedoms (e.g. a healthy and productive life, free from want and deprivation). However, higher EF by definition entails lower government interventions in sectors such as provision of safety nets, health and education, thereby curtailing some aspects of larger freedoms. Thus ambiguity exists with respect to the effect o...

  10. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J.; Mosso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This article distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy impor...

  11. Measuring the economic performance of socially responsible companies

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina Fernández-Guadaño

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to use different economic variables to establish whether there are differences in economic performance between companies as a result of their inclusion in the sustainability index. This paper presents a one-dimensional exploratory study which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the rest of the indices in the IBEX family. Parametric testing was used to study whether there are d...

  12. Disconnected Youth? Social Exclusion, the ‘Underclass’ & Economic Marginality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most young people in the UK make relatively ‘successful’, unproblematic transitions from school to work and adulthood. What do we call those that do not? Labels imply explanation, not just description. Terms with academic and policy currency tend to define such young people by something they are not or by their presumed social and economic distance and dislocation from ‘the rest’. How we might best describe, explain and label the experience and problem of so-called ‘socially excluded’, ‘disconnected youth’ is the focus of the paper. It draws upon extensive qualitative research with young adults growing up in some of Britain’s poorest neighbourhoods, looking particularly at their labour market transitions. Some of the problems and inaccuracies of underclass theory and orthodox conceptualisations of social exclusion are discussed in the light of empirical findings. Following CW Mills, the youthful biographies described are set in a wider panorama of social structure and economic opportunity, particularly the rapid de-industrialisation of the locality studied. Understanding these historical processes of socio-economic change leads to the conclusion that, in short hand, ‘the economically marginal’ is the best descriptive label of the research participants and ‘economic marginalisation’ is the best explanation of their condition.

  13. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim A C Everett

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  14. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY IN THE CURRENT GLOBAL ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Emanoil MUSCALU; FRATICIU Lucia; Andrada GHITULETE

    2012-01-01

    In the current economic context, the social issue has become a major preoccupation for the current activity of the organizations that aim to create performance. This is because the modern organization is evaluated also from the point of view of its contribution to the social life of the community it belongs to. As Sophocles said “all benefactors think a little bit also about themselves”. Nowadays, managers not only do they have to lead the activities of the economic organizations in a profita...

  15. Social preferences and public economics: Mechanism design when social preferences depend on incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Samuel; Hwang, Sung-Ha

    2007-01-01

    Social preferences such as altruism, reciprocity, intrinsic motivation and a desire to uphold ethical norms are essential to good government, often facilitating socially desirable allocations that would be unattainable by incentives that appeal solely to self-interest. But experimental and other evidence indicates that conventional economic incentives and social preferences may be either complements or substitutes, explicit incentives crowding in or crowding out social preferences. We investi...

  16. [Incontinence in old age: a social and economic problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz-Barth, A

    2007-04-01

    Being afflicted with urinary incontinence in old age represents manifold medical, social, and economic problems and restrictions. The objective loss of control and decreased self-confidence result in reduced social interactions and lead to isolation and ostracism accompanied by withdrawal and depression. Giving up leisure time activities, losing social contacts, and the increasing need for long-term care often lead inevitably to a higher degree of dependency and institutionalization. In addition, the taboo still placed on this problem by those affected as well as by the attending physicians has resulted in too few patients receiving adequate diagnosis and being offered sensible treatment options. These problems can only be solved by an interdisciplinary approach. Further information, continuing education, and sensitivity toward these aspects are needed. Only then can incontinence in old age as a social and economic problem exacerbated by the demographic changes be improved. PMID:17310392

  17. Health, Social and Economic Consequences of Polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob

    diagnosis of polyneuropathy and their partners were identified and compared with randomly chosen controls matched for age, gender, geographic area and civil status. Direct costs included frequencies of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, and medication. Indirect costs included the effect...... on labor supply. Social-transfer payments were included to illustrate the effect on national accounts. All cost data were extracted from national databases. RESULTS: 13,758 unspecified polyneuropathy patients were registered. They were compared with 54,900 matched controls identified from the...... National Danish Patient Registry. In addition, partners of patients in the case group were matched with partners in the corresponding control group. Almost half of the patients in the patient group had a partner. Patients had significantly higher rates of health-related contacts, medication use and greater...

  18. Low-temperature behaviour of social and economic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Caldarelli; Diego Garlaschelli; Fink, Thomas M A; Ahnert, Sebastian E.

    2013-01-01

    Real-world social and economic networks typically display a number of particular topological properties, such as a giant connected component, a broad degree distribution, the small-world property and the presence of communities of densely interconnected nodes. Several models, including ensembles of networks, also known in social science as Exponential Random Graphs, have been proposed with the aim of reproducing each of these properties in isolation. Here, we define a generalized ensemble of ...

  19. Learning communities and sustainable social-economic city development

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The basis of this publication is the symposium "Learning communities and sustainable social- economic city quarter development", held at the 5th European Conference for Community Psychology (Berlin, September 2004). It describes research projects in different European countries involving experiences, communities and experts, in order to identify guidelines for the use of psychological science in a broad social context. Community psychologists and other experts of the field are studied putting...

  20. Areva. 2007 figures economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the 2007 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation; 2 - Financial performance: 2007 results; 3 - Commitment to employees: Stakeholder relations, Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, Workforce, Workforce and training; 4 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 5 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  1. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

    OpenAIRE

    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Economic, social and cultural right (“social right”) have historically been viewed as distinct in natyre and scope from civil and political right. Rather than being viewed as judicially enforceable rights of immeadiate application, such rights have widely been considered non-justiciable programmatic goals to be archieved progressively within available resources, through political processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the legal and analytical tools to understand why this dichotomy...

  2. Analysis and improvement of the process of economic, social, and environmental impact assessment of technologies from Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste Análise e melhoria do processo de avaliação dos impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais de tecnologias da Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi; Armando de Andrade Rodrigues; Fernando Campos Mendonça; Oscar Tupy; Wladomiro Barioni Junior; Odo Primavesi

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the business process management methodology to strengthen the process of "Economic, social, and environmental impact assessment of technologies from Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste". A methodology based on the PDCA cycle was used, which allowed the indication of the key point (inventory of technology), the critical success factor (selection of the adopted technologies), the main problem (non-assessment of technology), and major causes of the problem. The a...

  3. Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Lipina, Tatiana; Vukobradovic, Igor; Roder, John; Woodgett, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions are a fundamental and adaptive component of the biology of numerous species. Social recognition is critical for the structure and stability of the networks and relationships that define societies. For animals, such as mice, recognition of conspecifics may be important for maintaining social hierarchy and for mate choice 1. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social recognition, including depression, autism spectru...

  4. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  5. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  6. Economía social: el caso Mar del Plata

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, María Andrea; Patuto, Alejandra

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un análisis de las respuestas brindadas por el Estado ante la precarización laboral producto de las políticas neoliberales de la década del noventa. En ese contexto, surge la Economía Popular basada en el capital social y la asociatividad como el evento pivote del desarrollo social, cuyos fines últimos son la integración de la Economía Popular a la Economía de Mercado. En General Pueyrredon, el estímulo oficial vino dado por la Nación y la Provincia, a través del foment...

  7. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  8. Transformation of agricultural sector of Ukrainian economics: some social and economic results

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina, Elena; Borodina, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural sector of Ukrainian economics is in the period of transformations, which are accompanied by increase of negative tendencies in the social sphere: depopulation of significant territories, worsening of living conditions for rural population, increasing of mass poverty, growing unemployment, sharp income differentiation. High social losses against a background of development of large-scale commercial production, land concentration and capitalization of production are leading to incr...

  9. Social impact assessment and management methodology using social indicators and planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M. E.; Curry, M. G.; Greene, M. R.; Melber, B. D.; Merwin, D. J.

    1978-08-01

    The scope of environmental impact statements prepared during the past few years has steadily expanded to incorporate all aspects of the social as well as the natural environment, including demographic, economic, social, political, and cultural conditions. Broadly conceived, social impacts are alterations in people's living conditions that occur in conjunction with a new policy, program, or project, and that (1) are in addition to all other concurrent changes produced by other factors, and (2) are seen by those affected as significant social events. Since any social environment is constantly changing, the crucial problems in analyzing social impacts are to identify those social alterations that are a direct or indirect result of the specific action under examination, apart from all other events and changes, and to determine which of these alterations are having significant social effects on the people involved. Three features of this conception of social impacts are especially noteworthy. First, although impacts are often thought of as undesirable or detrimental in nature, they may also be desirable or beneficial. Second, although impacts are often described as caused by prior intervening innovations, in reality they always interact with their original causes in a reciprocal process, either immediately or after some time lag. Third, the purpose of social impact assessment is to enable policy makers to anticipate and plan for potential impacts before they occur, and then act to prevent or mitigate undesired impacts. A new methodology for performing social impact assessment and management studies that meet current needs by emphasizing standardized social indicators and social planning techniques is proposed. We refer to our approach as the Social Impact and Planning (SIP) method of social impact assessment. (ERB)

  10. Social impact assessment and management methodology using social indicators and planning strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of environmental impact statements prepared during the past few years has steadily expanded to incorporate all aspects of the social as well as the natural environment, including demographic, economic, social, political, and cultural conditions. Broadly conceived, social impacts are alterations in people's living conditions that occur in conjunction with a new policy, program, or project, and that (1) are in addition to all other concurrent changes produced by other factors, and (2) are seen by those affected as significant social events. Since any social environment is constantly changing, the crucial problems in analyzing social impacts are to identify those social alterations that are a direct or indirect result of the specific action under examination, apart from all other events and changes, and to determine which of these alterations are having significant social effects on the people involved. Three features of this conception of social impacts are especially noteworthy. First, although impacts are often thought of as undesirable or detrimental in nature, they may also be desirable or beneficial. Second, although impacts are often described as caused by prior intervening innovations, in reality they always interact with their original causes in a reciprocal process, either immediately or after some time lag. Third, the purpose of social impact assessment is to enable policy makers to anticipate and plan for potential impacts before they occur, and then act to prevent or mitigate undesired impacts. A new methodology for performing social impact assessment and management studies that meet current needs by emphasizing standardized social indicators and social planning techniques is proposed. We refer to our approach as the Social Impact and Planning (SIP) method of social impact assessment

  11. Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnieks Dāvis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and

  12. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify t

  13. Economic and environmental efficiency using a social accounting matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morilla, Carmen Rodriguez [Departamento de Economia Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Diaz-Salazar, Gaspar Llanes [Secretaria General de Economia, Junta de Andalucia, Departamento de Economia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide (Spain); Cardenete, M. Alejandro [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km. 1-41013 Seville (Spain)

    2007-02-01

    This paper aims to show the utility of the so-called Social Accounting Matrix and Environmental Accounts (SAMEA) for economic and environmental efficiency analysis. The article uses the SAMEA for Spain in 2000, applied to water resources and greenhouse gas emissions. This matrix is used as a central core of a multisectorial model of economic and environmental performance, and it calculates the denominated 'domestics SAMEA multipliers' and their decomposition into characteristic, direct, indirect and induced effects. These multipliers show some evaluation of economic and environmental efficiency. Also, we present an application of these multipliers that demonstrates that there is no causal interrelation between those sectors with higher economic backward linkages and those with higher environmental deterioration backward linkages. (author)

  14. Economic and environmental efficiency using a social accounting matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to show the utility of the so-called Social Accounting Matrix and Environmental Accounts (SAMEA) for economic and environmental efficiency analysis. The article uses the SAMEA for Spain in 2000, applied to water resources and greenhouse gas emissions. This matrix is used as a central core of a multisectorial model of economic and environmental performance, and it calculates the denominated 'domestics SAMEA multipliers' and their decomposition into characteristic, direct, indirect and induced effects. These multipliers show some evaluation of economic and environmental efficiency. Also, we present an application of these multipliers that demonstrates that there is no causal interrelation between those sectors with higher economic backward linkages and those with higher environmental deterioration backward linkages. (author)

  15. 中国城乡社会保障经济公平的非均衡发展评估%Assessment of Unbalanced Economic Equity of Urban-rural Social Security in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江华; 王延中

    2012-01-01

    本文运用过程系统概念构建起点、过程、结果、动态公平、适应性、非均衡及均衡标准等7个维度的29项指标体系,评估分析1989~2010年我国城乡社会保障经济公平的非均衡发展进程。研究发现,除医疗保险制度覆盖面、实际覆盖面和社会适应性等3项指标外,其他各维度指标均呈现出对农村不公平的失衡发展状态。现实的城乡社会保障财政性投入和资源总量配置偏离均衡点较大,农村存在改进的“有效空间”,需要注重城乡社会保障的起点公平,不断改善制度的流动性和统一性,重视社会保障与经济增长的匹配性,加大财政对农村投入等方面实现城乡社会保障的公平均衡发展。%In this paper, we have conducted empirical research on unbalanced development of social security of economic justice in urban and rural area from 1989 to 2010. With the concept of system, we consider "social secu- rity" as an open complex system; urban and rural areas are relatively independent but interrelated subsystems. The goal of systems is to achieve a stable, balanced, equitable development in the subsystem. As for the management and control of security objects and funds in social security systme, we followed the definition of process and divided them into three phases, namely, input (starting point), process activity and output (guaranteed treatment). The element of time has been introduced to analyze the dynamic equilibrium of the system, its suitability to the external environmental factors (economy, finance, income, consumption, society), and explore the balanced range of ur- ban-rural subsystem in the dualistic economic structure of Chinese urban and rural areas. Therefore, what has been formed is a non-balanced development of economic justice of social security between urban and rural areas in Chi- na, involving 29 indicators and 7 dimensions, including equity of starting point, equity of. process

  16. Economic Status and Social Attitudes of Migrant Workers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peilin Li; Wei Li

    2007-01-01

    Migrant workers, meaning those who used to be farmers but have left rural areas and found jobs in cities as a result of economic reform and rapid development in China, have made a significant contribution to the burgeoning labor market and played an important role in speeding up the transition from a planned to a market economy. This present paper considers the economic status and social attitudes of migrant workers. It is based on the analysis of a large-scale survey in 2006, which was conducted using questionnaires and covered 28 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions throughout the country. It was found that the income status of migrant workers depends heavily on the education and technical skills that they have developed, rather than on identity-based discrimination. Surprisingly,it was also found that those on less income and of lower economic and social status show more positive attitudes to society than those who are affluent and considered of higher social status. It is concluded that the decisive factor in attitude and behavior of migrant workers is historic rather than economic.

  17. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  18. Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key

  19. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available

  20. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF FINANCIAL AUDIT - IN NEW DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szigeti Cecília

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We think that financial institutions have a greater social responsibility to develop theircustomers’ financial culture than to support a football team. We assert that nowadaysfinancial institutions have a responsibility to be able to continue to operate banks withoutauxiliary state support. We believe that auditors, who for decades certified the financialreports of banks whose balance sheets were fictitious and whose depositors’ andshareholders' money was not safe, played no small role in the development of the recentfinancial crisis. Consequently we hold that the auditors’ greater social responsibility isunavoidable. On the other hand, after the crisis, due to the fact that social responsibility hascome to the fore, auditors also have to prepare for the challenge that corporate reports areincreasingly integrated reports which, in addition to mandatory economic information, alsovoluntarily impart data on social and environmental impact and activities.

  1. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  2. Economic and Social Models in Europe and the Importance of Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heipertz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on European economic and social models. It provides a comparative assessment of fiscal and regulatory policies in 17 industrialised countries (the EU15, US and Japan and presents the records of these countries in attaining key economic and social objectives. Social and economic systems that feature efficient public sectors and flexible market structures tend to experience reasonably sustainable public finances, high economic growth, education standards and employment, and well-functioning markets. Anglo-Saxon countries broadly fit this mould, albeit, seemingly, at some cost of income equality. A more pronounced emphasis on welfare state policies and the corresponding relatively high levels of public spending bring benefit to income distribution in the Nordic countries while the resulting inefficiencies in their economies are counterbalanced by flexibility in labour and particularly product markets. Also, a number of reform-minded European countries have improved their fiscal and regulatory policies while significantly enhancing the functioning of markets, fiscal sustainability and economic performance. This was generally attained without jeopardising social objectives. On the other hand, those continental and Mediterranean countries that maintain market inefficiencies and at the same time sustain expensive and inefficient welfare states generally suffer from low growth and employment and less well-functioning markets and face serious risks to their economies’ fiscal sustainability. The findings of this note support calls for the comprehensive reform of fiscal policies, as well as of product and labour markets.

  3. Methodologies for Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Le Bocq, Agathe; Nazakina, Liudmila;

    2008-01-01

    product chain has to be assessed, whereas others claim that generic data can give a sufficiently accurate picture of the associated social impacts. Discussion. The SLCA approaches show that the perception of social impacts is very variable. An assessment focussing on social impacts created in the close...... in some cases give a reasonable impression of the social impacts that can be expected from the company performing the assessed process. Conclusions. This review gives an overview of the present development of SLCA by presenting the existing approaches to SLCA and discussing how they address the......Goal, Scope and Background. In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA has several...

  4. Economic Assessment of the Atlantic Coast Horseshoe Crab Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (lEc) provides an assessment of the economic value of the Atlantic Coast horseshoe crab fishery. We accomplish...

  5. Advanced Dynamic Modeling of Economic and Social Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Squillante, Massimo; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    In this volume recent advances in the use of modern quantitative models for the analysis of various problems related to the dynamics of social and economic systems are presented. The majority of the chapters describe tools and techniques of broadly perceived computational intelligence, notably fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, neural networks and some non-standard probabilistic and statistical analyses. Due to the high complexity of the systems and problems considered, in many situations it is necessary to consider at the same time analytic, topological and statistical aspects and apply appropriate procedures and algorithms. This volume is a direct result of vivid discussions held during the Fifth International Workshop on Dynamics of Social and Economical Systems (DYSES) which was held at Benevento, Italy September 20-25, 2010, as well as a couple of post-workshop meetings and consultations.

  6. Globalization and social inequalities in Europe: assessment and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Brady

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to consider the social cohesion of the European Union which is today subjected to significant constraints by globalization and by the growing economic divergence between member States, especially in the Euro zone. The statistical assessment of this situation allows us to clearly establish the ascent of poverty and exclusion in Europe. The European Commission as well as the civil society is trying to remedy this crisis notably by means of European syndicalism whose propositions are closely analyzed in the following article. That being said, the macro-economic context is very damaged today and it unequally affects the member States of the Euro zone. A strength or even a mutation in European regulation seems necessary to promote a new economic and social regime in the Union.

  7. Corporate social responsibility: A perspective from Weberian economic sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Boeddeling, Jann

    2012-01-01

    Answering the call for a new theoretical approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), this paper makes a suggestion from a Weberian perspective. It briefly appraises the existing research on CSR and develops key points of a new approach based on their criticism. Suggesting that CSR is a discourse about the role of the economy in society, it discusses whether a suitable new approach for the analysis of CSR can be found outside of economics and business ethics. It is argued that Max Weber...

  8. The Economics of "Private Politics": Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Brøns-Petersen

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, private corporations engage in “private politics”, or “corporate social responsibility” (CSR). In some cases, such as the infamous Enron affair, huge discrepancies between stated and actual policies have been revealed, while in others corporations seem to have been taken hostage by interest groups, even if stated and actual polices matched. The paper attempts to model the “private politics” of CSR in economic terms. On the one hand, it is assumed that corporati...

  9. Ethics and Economics, Family & Firm Social philosophy and practical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalia Azzaro Pulvirenti

    2013-01-01

    “Corporate Family Responsibility” means that Households and Stakeholders can help each other, supported by institutions, to increase their growth. Our aim is to explain the main result of it: a higher level of social benefits can be effective for achieving economic goals. The first part of the paper illustrates the status of the art and some theories on business ethics; the final part some practical perspectives about it in Italy.

  10. Economic Consequences of the Peace, Social Consequences of the War

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a debate on John Maynard Keynes' "The Economic Consequences of the Peace" and the social consequences of war. The article presents biographical information pertaining to the economist as published in "John Maynard Keynes, vol. 1, Speranze tradite 1883-1920," written by R. Skidelsky. It then outlines Keynes' beliefs on the viability of the Versailles Treaty and the negative influence that United States president Woodrow Wilson played during the peace conference and discuss...

  11. The Economic and Social Benefits of Air Transport

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE Camelia; SEBEA Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Air transport is an innovative industry that drives economic and social progress. It connects people, countries and cultures; provides access to global markets and generates trade and tourism. It also forges links between developed and developing nations. Like most human activities, air transport has an impact on the environment, mainly through noise and emissions that affect local air quality and the climate. The industry fully recognises its responsibility in this regard and is determined t...

  12. Random Graphs and Social Networks: An Economics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yannis M. Ioannides

    2005-01-01

    This review of current research on networks emphasizes three strands of the literature on social networks. The first strand is composed of models of endogenous network formation from both the economics and the computer science literature. The review highlights the sen- sitive dependence of the topology of endogenous networks on parameters of the behavioral models employed. The second strand draws from the recent econophysics literature in order to review the recent revival of interest in the ...

  13. About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshyn, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

  14. Economic and social factors effects to stress level

    OpenAIRE

    PUPELYTĖ AGNĖ; BARKAUSKAITĖ AIDA; RAKICKAS JULIUS

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the incidence of stress among Lithuanian citizens, and to find out the influence of salary and education on stress level. Stress is the one of most common totalities of organism reactions that influences personal life and career. It is very important to understand stressors, its origins and influence, to avoid unwanted reactions in social and economic being.

  15. Sanitation dynamics: toilet acquisition and its economic and social implications

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburg, Britta; Rodríguez-Lesmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation is an important policy issue facing India, which accounts for over half of the 1.1 billion people worldwide that defecate in the open [JMP, 2012]. Achieving global sanitation targets, and reducing the social and economic costs of open defecation, therefore requires effectively extending sanitation services to India's citizens. The Indian Government has shown strong commitment to improving sanitation. However, uptake and usage of safe sanitation remains low: almost 50% of India...

  16. Economics of Corruption. The Equilibrium, Political and Social Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Ani Matei; Lucica Matei

    2006-01-01

    The paper starts, on one hand, from the statement unanimously accepted that corruption exists in all societies, and on the other hand, from the preoccupations existent in the international literature about proving scientifically the models of analysis of corruption and determining on this basis some relevant corruption indicators. In essence, the paper focuses on the sphere of the theoretical preoccupations, trying to offer an interpretation based on extended economic and social a...

  17. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  18. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary

  19. Measuring the economic performance of socially responsible companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Fernández-Guadaño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use different economic variables to establish whether there are differences in economic performance between companies as a result of their inclusion in the sustainability index. This paper presents a one-dimensional exploratory study which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the rest of the indices in the IBEX family. Parametric testing was used to study whether there are differences between the two types of companies. The results demonstrate that there are no statistically significant differences in economic performance between the two groups. Morover, it is confirmed that companies with good practices are as profitable as the rest, but it also demonstrates that the economic-financial behaviour is not better as a result of being in the sustainability index. The basic conclusion is that adhering to social and environmental standards does not harm a firm’s competitive position and, therefore, provide support for the development policy of responsible practices so that they become a tool to help improve the resilience of the economy and investor trust.

  20. HUMAN FACTOR DURING THE DEVELOPMENT AND HARMONIZATION OF TERRITORIAL SOCIAL, ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lukianykhin, Vadym; Baistriuchenko, Nataliia; Myroshnychenko, Iuliia

    2014-01-01

    The article is dealing with the research of harmonization problem of social, ecological and economic system. The social, ecological and economic contradictions and the role of human factor have been analyzed.

  1. Predicting Student Achievement In Intermediate University Economics From Principles Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Hickson

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how first year Principles of Economics courses assessment items predict achievement in post principles economics courses. Of particular interest is how achievement in different assessment forms (assignments, multiple choice questions, and constructed response questions) predicts future performance. I use assessment data compiled from principles and post principles economics classes at the University of Canterbury from 2002-2008. I also control for performance in first ...

  2. The Impact of Social Factors on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for Romania and European Union Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Popa

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between the social factors and the economic growth. A summary of social and economic environment is presented for Romania. As such, the paper analyzes the global evolution of social and economic environment over time and establishes a direct correlation between human development and economic welfare. An econometric model and a clustering model are tested for European Union countries. The results of the paper reveal the social factors that are positively c...

  3. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility Assessment of Chinese Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfu Guo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the definitions of corporate social responsibility (CSR in different contexts, combining current applications, we design a concise and effective set of assessment index system which can be used in assessing company social responsibility. The index system includes 6 first-level indexes and 32 second-level indexes and those Indexes reflect broad social concerns. We have collected data from 200 corporations in Dalian City area of China and applied the data to assess the companies’ CSR. Our survey demonstrates that the CSR of the state owned enterprises is obviously better than that of foreign and private enterprises, the assessment is more superior in profitable enterprises than it in not profitable enterprises. With regarding to the question of employee interest, employees are not paid for the hours that they work overtime in many enterprises. The means to strengthen corporations’ social responsibilities are discussed in details.

  5. Breaking out of the economic box: energy efficiency, social rationality and non-economic drivers of behavioral change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen; Laitner, John A. ' Skip' (ACEEE, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States))

    2009-07-01

    Energy concerns are increasingly on people's minds. According to a recent Gallup poll, nearly 30 percent of American's reported that energy prices were the most important financial problem facing their families today. But are these new concerns likely to translate into long-term behavioral changes and more energy-efficient behavior? Research suggests that it will take more than high prices to achieve maximum energy savings. People may like to think of themselves as rational economic actors, but a variety of studies by social-psychologists and behavioral economists reveal that people often act in ways that may be better described as 'socially-rational' and 'predictably irrational'. Despite these findings, many residential energy programs and most policy assessments continue to model potential energy savings as a function of existing technologies and the cost of those energy resources. This paper explores the ways in which individual behavior is shaped by the social context within which people operate and presents an alternative framework for modeling efficiency behavior. The alternative model recognizes that while individuals may not always behave in economically-rational ways, their behavior may be entirely rational from other vantage points. In fact, individuals often behave as rational social actors, determining what is and isn't 'appropriate' behavior by gleaning information from their own observations, from their peers, and from interactions within their sphere of social influence. As such, this paper explores the ways in which social rules, resources and context shape individual patterns of energy consumption. This alternative approach has important implications for program designs and policy recommendations.

  6. Social Transition Lags behind Economic Transition in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓鹏

    2008-01-01

    Government,market and society are called the three key factors of social science in the Western academic community. An in-depth study of the theoretical and empirical relationship between government,market and society is of great importance to examining China’s economic reform and gauging China’s future development dynamics. Based on an analysis of China’s economic reform progress from the perspective of government,market and society,the author finds that the absence of civil society is a salient feature of economic reform. China’s economic reform in the absence of civil society has given rise to ve major paradoxes,which,in reality,are manifested in the excess concentration of wealth. The focus of study is therefore to address two overriding issues:what role does the development of civil society play in China’s ongoing economic reform,and how can we further re ne the basic thought of building a harmonious socialist society in China?

  7. Social protection and economic growth in the Sudan: Trends, perspectives, cointegration and causality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan, Hisham

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes into account the recent role of social protection on economic growth as a socio-economic-political stabilizer. Social protection outcome in Sudan is influenced by limited targeting actions with very low interventions between results in economic growth and accesses to basic social services. These may affects the social protection contributes to the process of development in the Sudan during the period under consideration. The results show that more social spending increas...

  8. Linking Economic and Social-Exchange Games: From the Community Norm to CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Aoki

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to the roles of social norm dealing with economic externalities. Traditionally social norms are treated by economists as external constraints or endogenous outcomes of repeated economic transactions. In contrast, this paper formulates a game of social exchanges and characterizes the role of social norm in regulating a game of economic transactions as equilibrium of linked games. Advantage of this approach is manifold: it can clarify conditions for social norm t...

  9. South African horticulture: opportunities and challenges for economic and social upgrading in value chains

    OpenAIRE

    John Pickles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Capturing the Gains research network assesses the relationship between economic and social upgrading in global production networksin four sectors; apparel, agro-foods, mobile phones, and tourism. This paper details the findings of the apparel sector research team, with a focus on public governance, specifically trade policy. The research network was funded by the Trade Department of the UK Department for International Development and is coordinated by the University of Manchester.

  10. The Role of the Approval Procedure of Economic and Social Activities with Environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Brasoveanu Florica

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the idea that it is better to prevent environmental damage than to repair the damage already caused, the state introduced the environmental impact assessment procedure of economic and social activities as the basis for their authorization and operation. Evaluation of potential environmental consequences and, on this basis, the development of measures aimed at eliminating or reducing their allowable limits, have become compulsory for socialeconomic activities so that future gener...

  11. Reconceptualising Well-being: Social Work, Economics and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Simpson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the intersection of well-being, agency and the current political and economic structures which impact on social work with adults and in doing so contribute to ‘interpreting and mapping out the force fields of meaning production' (Fornäs, Fredriksson & Johannisson 2011: 7. In it we draw upon Sointu's (2005 work which identified the shift from conceptualising well-being in terms of ‘the body politic' to conceptualising it in terms of ‘the body personal' and identified parallels with understanding well-being in English social work. There has been a shift in the nature of social work in the United Kingdom in how the question of agency has been addressed. For many years this was through the traditional notion of autonomy and self-determination (Biestek 1961 and later collective approaches to welfare and services (Bailey and Brake 1975. The development of paradigms of mainly personal empowerment in the 1980s and 1990s (Braye & Preston-Shoot 1995 saw social work become less associated with collective engagement in welfare and more concerned with the enhancement of individual well-being (Jordan 2007. Whilst the rhetoric of well-being, in contemporary English social work, continues to include autonomy and self-determination, this is focused primarily upon the narrower concepts of independence and choice (Simpson 2012. The UK Department of Health's A Vision for Adult Social Care: Capable Communities and Active Citizens (DoH 2010 is the template for national social care policy to which all Local Authorities in England had to respond with an implementation plan. This paper draws on a documentary analysis of two such plans drafted in 2012 in the wake of an ‘austerity budget' and consequent public ex-penditure reductions. The analysis considers the effect of economic imperatives on the conceptualisation of individual choices and needs in the context of Local Au-thorities' responsibilities to people collectively. A concept of

  12. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AGRO INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX IN CONDITIONS OF RUSSIA MEMBERSHIP IN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Ushachev, I.

    2014-01-01

    Modern development of Russia requires the formation of conditions whereby the food safety on the background of integration processes in the foreign economy will be formed. The detailed assessment of social and economic development of Agro Industrial Complex in conditions of Russia membership in the WTO and Eurasian Economic Union is given in the article. Both post evaluation analysis of the agrarian sector development and analysis of projected values with account of program-oriented and goal-...

  13. Health in social impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Broeder, Lea; Vanclay, Frank; Fehr, Rainer; Viliani, Francesca; Nowacki, Julia; Martuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    SIA developed alongside EIA in the early 1970s as a mechanism to consider the social impacts of planned interventions. The early understanding tended to limit the practical application of SIA to the project level, usually within the context of regulatory frameworks, and primarily considered only the

  14. Methods of assessing the environmental quality of socio-economic development of regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ilinbaeva EkaterinaAleksandrovna; Shelomencev Andrej Gennad'evich; Doroshenko Svetlana Victorovna

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the methods of an ecological quality assessment of the regional social and economic development strategies, which is based on system of the criteria considering an inclusiveness of an ecological factor in the analysis of the problems of regional development, the development to scenario conditions, the definition of the priority ecological purposes and the directions of regional development, level of state regulation, productivity assessment. Results of an assessment are a...

  15. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    OpenAIRE

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, th...

  16. Basic Grounds of Formation of the Concept of Social Security of Economically Active Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliak Natalia O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is justification of a necessity of development of the national concept of social security in Ukraine and revelation of basic grounds of formation of such a concept for economically active population on the basis of specification of its goals, tasks and identification of main directions and measures of realisation. The author offers the following main directions of realisation of the concept of social security of economically active population: expansion of the sphere of coverage of social security of economically active population, creation of a efficient system of state social standards and guarantees, introduction of financial and economic justification of social laws into practice, realisation of social responsibility and use of modern social technologies. Development of the concept of social security of economically active population in Ukraine would facilitate, in general, improvement of the existing system of social security, improvement of the living standards and socio-economic development of the state.

  17. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  18. ECONOMIC DESIGN IN SOCIALISM: MODERN UNDERSTANDING OF DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of improvement of the system pertaining to distribution of limited resources obligatory leads to reduction of state interference in these processes. While discussing the economic design in socialism in the period of 1920–1930 the Austrian school presented significant arguments against any interference in resource distribution. Socialists’ objections (initial idea of socialism as money-free economy; possibility to determine price structure that excludes deficit and glut in the market fail to pass theoretical and time testing. The existing opinion that the Austrians are losers in this discussion is related to their permanent additional arguments without acknowledging their own mistakes that had been made in their previous discussions and declaring that their opponents occupy positions at the second line of the defense. Last works of Austrian representatives re-consider final results of the discussion about the possibility of economic design in socialism taking into account changes in general approach to evaluation of the results of scientific discussion. 

  19. Economics of Corruption. The Equilibrium, Political and Social Determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available he paper starts, on one hand, from the statement unanimously accepted that corruption exists in all societies, and on the other hand, from the preoccupations existent in the international literature about proving scientifically the models of analysis of corruption and determining on this basis some relevant corruption indicators. In essence, the paper focuses on the sphere of the theoretical preoccupations, trying to offer an interpretation based on extended economic and social analysis, mechanisms that structure and describe a genuine system of the corruption actions. Most frequently, corruption occurs in the common public-private activities and it has determinations in the central or local governmental structures. The binom corruption - anticorruption has its origin in distinct social actions, with different actors and different logic constructions, aiming to destroy or strengthen the systems of public integrity. In the context of the theoretical approaches, this paper presents for exemplification relevant aspects concerning social perception on corruption and comparisons of the situations in Romania with those in Central and Eastern Europe or the states newly admitted into the European Union. The paper aims a new way for approaching the nonlinear relationship between political stability/instability and corruption, as well as its economic effects. An extended space is granted to the model of corruption market and conditions of balance within its framework. As it is conceived, the paper enables the enlargement of the theoretical and empirical researches concerning the corruption phenomena.

  20. The Macro/Social Economics of Corporate Social Responsibility: Informational Abundance and Collective Action

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Starr

    2007-01-01

    In the past 15 years, the idea of “corporate social responsibility” (CSR) has become an important part of contemporary business life. This paper looks at CSR through a social-economics lens, examining the role of broadly-held social values in shaping its objectives, identifying the sources of market pressures on firms to bring their operations into better conformity with these values, and examining how these pressures work in practice through a case study of the “No Dirty Gold” campaign. It i...

  1. The life cycle of social and economic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Sardak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify the components of social and economic systems life cycle. To achieve this aim, the article describes the traits and characteristics of the system, determines the features of social and economic systems functioning and is applied a systematic approach in the study of their life cycle. The results of the analysis. It is determined that the development of social and economic systems has signs of cyclicity and is explained methodologically by the axiomatics, rules and laws. Understanding of circular patterns has been formed long ago and now is recorded by scientists monitoring the properties of natural and artificial environment of human activity. During the study, it was found out that in scientific literature there is no unified description of the life cycle elements of social and economic systems at personal, micro, meso, macro and global levels. The paper investigates the cyclical patterns in multilevel social and economic systems for a human, employee, family, product, company, city, industry, elite, macroeconomic indicators, humanity, global processes, global economic system and the Universe. It is noted that at grass-roots administrative levels of the global environment of a human life activity system, a thesis about the cyclicity of development and the stages of the life cycle is considered by a wide circle of scientists and is doubtless. On hierarchically higher management levels of the global environment of human activity system, the scientists noticed the similar patterns of the cyclical nature. Problematic and discussion questions about cyclic development of social and economic systems are identified: the uncertainty of the driving force source of repeated changes; the vague distinction between systemic (internal and off-system (external influence on development; the lack of a unified description of development nature at different managerial levels; the use of different

  2. Economic assessment of managing processionary moth in pine forests: a case-study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Paola; Zocca, Alessia; Battisti, Andrea; Barrento, Maria João; Branco, Manuela; Paiva, Maria Rosa

    2009-02-01

    This paper assesses the private and social profitability of current strategies for managing processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in Portuguese pine forests, looking at economic and environmental costs and benefits. Costs include the expenses for forest treatment and the social costs of threats to human health (dermatitis amongst others); benefits are assessed in terms of both revenue and social benefits such as carbon fixation and recreation. The evaluation was done using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) as an analytical framework. While this tool is currently applied to forest and environmental assessment and specific applications to pest management strategies are to be found in agricultural economics, rather few attempts have been made in the field of forest pest management. In order to assess and compare with--without options, a case-study was analysed for the Setúbal Peninsula, south of Lisbon, an area where extensive stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) grow. The exercise has shown that CBA can be a valuable tool for assessing the economic and social profitability of pest management. The results demonstrate that the loss of revenues in the no-management option is not sufficient to make pest management profitable for private forest owners in the short-term. Conversely, a social profit is gained as pest management minimizes health risks for humans and avoids possible recreational losses. PMID:18336989

  3. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  4. Methodology of Economic Assessment of Corporate Finance Management Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Juscu Nicolae Cristian

    2011-01-01

    “The methodology of economic assessment of corporate finance management effectiveness” deals with the analysis of the basic issues of economic aspects of corporate finance management effectiveness; the paper presents the essential issues of the existing methods for establishing the economic effectiveness of corporate finance management and control; it also proposes the improvement of the approach regarding the assessment of finance management effectiveness of a company.

  5. Precautionary principle, economic and energy systems and social equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the precautionary principle is reviewed alongside the process of international implementation. Adoption of the precautionary principle is advocated to deal with energy choices as a mechanism to account for potential climate change impacts, notwithstanding the debate on scientific uncertainty on the links between solar activity, greenhouse gas concentration and climate. However, it is also recognized that the widespread application of the precautionary principle to energy choices does not seem to be taking place in the real world. Relevant concrete barriers are identified stemming from the intrinsic logic governing the hegemonic economic system, driving the energy choices by economic surplus and rent generation potential, the existence of social asymmetries inside and among societies as well as by the absence of democratic global governance mechanisms, capable of dealing with climate change issues. Such perception seems to have been reinforced by the outcome of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  6. Precautionary principle, economic and energy systems and social equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the precautionary principle is reviewed alongside the process of international implementation. Adoption of the precautionary principle is advocated to deal with energy choices as a mechanism to account for potential climate change impacts, notwithstanding the debate on scientific uncertainty on the links between solar activity, greenhouse gas concentration and climate. However, it is also recognized that the widespread application of the precautionary principle to energy choices does not seem to be taking place in the real world. Relevant concrete barriers are identified stemming from the intrinsic logic governing the hegemonic economic system, driving the energy choices by economic surplus and rent generation potential, the existence of social asymmetries inside and among societies as well as by the absence of democratic global governance mechanisms, capable of dealing with climate change issues. Such perception seems to have been reinforced by the outcome of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Copenhagen in December 2009. (author)

  7. Economic networks and social communities in online-auction sites

    CERN Document Server

    Reichardt, J; Reichardt, Joerg; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Markets of individual traders exchanging goods can be seen as social and economic networks. Given the abundance of these networks and their economic importance, it is surprising how little detail is known about the structure and the evolution of such networks. We here study the transactions of almost 1.9 million users of an online auction site during the Pre-Christmas season of 2004. We analyze the topology of the resulting network and find fat tailed distributions for a number of fundamental network parameters. The network shows a high modularity and we are able to group traders according to their primary buying interest during the time observed, solely based on the network structure. The results help our understanding of the self-organization of markets and society.

  8. Social-Economic Criteria about the Application of Shell Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoermes González Haramboure

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available TaThis paper provide arguments about the relevance of research and application of shell foundations,from a literature review that sets the theoretical and practical development attained by Cuban civilengineering in this field. It identifies several Cuban buildings with great social and economic importance,where the use of shell foundations helped to reduce the construction cost, and construction difficultiesattributed to its execution were refuted. Are mentioned the main theoretical contributions and studiesthat established equations and calculation methods applied to shells for «tower» structures foundations.By comparison in terms of volumes of materials, costs, volumes of fuel consumed and CO2 emittedinto the atmosphere in cement production, this article concludes on economic and environmentaladvantages of implementing shell foundations with respect to traditional flat base foundations in elevatedtanks type «Güira» and chimneys for sugar industries.

  9. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Mosso, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

  10. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Mosso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

  11. Assessing the economic impacts of ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Keith

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a wide-ranging overview of issues related to the economic impacts of ICT. It discusses the broad issues of theory and method involved in thinking about a new radical technology, such as ICT, in economic change. However this discussion is extended in several directions – into a discussion of statistical and measurement issues, into an overview of the empirical dimensions of ICT in economic growth both at OECD and European levels, and into a discussion of the nature of ICT as a te...

  12. Economic Insecurity and the Spread of Obesity in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Michael G.; Trenton Smith; Yoder, Jonathan K.

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent studies have provided evidence suggesting that increases in body weight may spread via social networks. The mechanism(s) by which this might occur have become the subject of much speculation, but to date little direct evidence has been available. We provide evidence for one such mechanism: economic insecurity. Using a sample of working-age men from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we show that cohabitation with working (but not non-working) adults appears to be pr...

  13. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE STRATEGIES IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana, TALMACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main strategies for implementing organizational changes in the current social and economic context, characterized by an unprecedented dynamism. As a result, the paper presents the results of the research that have led to the identification of the factors determining the application of a particular strategy or even the usage of their mix. To achieve the established objectives set we have used as a research method the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' work.

  14. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The text of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - a high-class international document on the assurance and legal protection of the human rights - outlined a sum of principles regarding these rights, which fall within the broad range of legal doctrine on fundamental human rights. These principles are not contrary to the principles set out in the Charter of the United Nations and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, on the contrary, it were given an evident expression in its text content. That the authors of this Covenant wanted the assertion of these principle provisions, it is actually confirmed by the text of Article 24.

  15. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  16. Developing the Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas

    This thesis seeks to add to the development of the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA), which can be defined as an assessment method for assessing the social impacts connected to the life cycle of a product, service or system. In such development it is important to realise that the SLCA is only...... appealing to the extent that it does what it is supposed to do. In this thesis, this goal of SLCA is defined as to support improvements of the social conditions for the stakeholders throughout the life cycle of the assessed product, system or service. This effect should arise through decision makers...... was also shown that the companies’ ability to obtain data throughout their products’ life cycles was very limited, for example because suppliers were unwilling to hand over this information to the companies or because the goods were bought on open markets furnished by a large number of unidentified...

  17. Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL; Brecke, Peter K [ORNL; Carmichael, Theodore D [ORNL; Eichelberger, Christopher N [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Hadzikadic, Mirsad [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL; Khouja, Moutaz J [ORNL; McLean, Angus L [ORNL; Middleton, Erin J [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Saric, Amar [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Sun, Min [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Whitmeyer, Joseph M [ORNL; Gilman, Paul [ORNL; O' Maonaigh, Heather C [ORNL

    2008-05-01

    The foundation of the Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES) project is a useful regional-scale social-simulation system. This report is organized into five chapters that describe insights that were gained concerning the five key feasibility questions pertaining to such a system: (1) Should such a simulation system exist, would the current state of data sets or collectible data sets be adequate to support such a system? (2) By comparing different agent-based simulation systems, is it feasible to compare simulation systems and select one appropriate for a given application with agents behaving according to modern social theory rather than ad hoc rule sets? (3) Provided that a selected simulation system for a region of interest could be constructed, can the simulation system be updated with new and changing conditions so that the universe of potential outcomes are constrained by events on the ground as they evolve? (4) As these results are constrained by evolving events on the ground, is it feasible to still generate surprise and emerging behavior to suggest outcomes from novel courses of action? (5) As these systems may for the first time require large numbers (hundreds of millions) of agents operating with complexities demanded of modern social theories, can results still be generated within actionable decision cycles?

  18. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... an issue paper entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science...' knowledge about drugs' risks; (2) share current FDA experience regarding social science assessments...

  19. On the economics of interpersonal relationships: three essays on social capital, social norms and social identity

    OpenAIRE

    Herbaux, Denis

    2009-01-01

    For decades, economic theories have been mostly based on rational choices made by selfish individuals to maximize their utility, while sociology spent a lot of efforts describing the environment of individuals and explaining how this environment shapes theirs decisions. However, the last thirty years have seen many sociological concepts appear in the economic literature. For example, behavioral economics introduces things such as envy or altruism in economic theories. Other notions such as so...

  20. Effects of Age-related Differences in Empathy on Social Economic Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-mak...

  1. When is social protection productivity-enhancing? Costs and benefits on economic performances

    OpenAIRE

    Tomassi, Federico

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to contribute to the contingency view of the relationships between social protection and economic performances, by exploring under what conditions social expenditure is productivity-enhancing or not. Well-designed welfare states and fit socio-economic contexts can yield direct and positive relationships between equality and efficiency. Social expenditure plays a twofold role: short-term financial cost notably in traditional economic sectors, and long-term social investment espe...

  2. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster. PMID:27034978

  3. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  4. Social and environmental impact assessment - theoretical contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Moutinho, Nuno; Mouta, Helena

    2011-01-01

    When we have to make an investment decision, we have to consider social and environmental factors that can bring some doubts about the project. We analyse not only which social and environmental characteristics to assess, but also identify main risks and show how to mitigate them. In addition, we support the idea that both areas have to be analysed at the beginning of the project and that it has to be done at the time investors analyse other factors, in particular technical issues.

  5. Social impact assessment in energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research report is based on literature and interviews on the social impact assessment (SIA) in energy projects in Finland, both before and after the EIA Act has been in force in Finland. The concept and content of SIA, the requirements set by the legislation, its relation with other environmental impacts, the assessment process and the used methods have been studied on the basis of the literature analysis. A total of 26 persons representing the coordination authorities, persons issuing statements, researchers, civil servants, consultants and project developers were interviewed for the research. The interviews were made by the University of Turku in the form of theme interviews, investigating the present status, practices and expectations of the SIA. The unestablished status was seen to be the problem in the SIA, which was reflected in the interviewers' varying views about the content of the SIA. Among the operators, the general character of the SIA criticism in the statements concerning the assessment programmes or reports was seen as a problem as well; the assessment of social impact has been considered to be insufficient, however, without any identification of the effects or how the effects should have been assessed. For the time preceding the EIA Act, the assessment of the social impact of hydraulic work, power plant and transmission line projects and the project of the fifth nuclear power plant have been studied. As to the power plant and transmission line projects after the validity of the EIA Act, all the 20 projects were gone through which had progressed during the spring 1998 at least to the assessment report stage. Of these projects, the assessment of the social impact of one transmission line and one power plant project was studied in detail. The report also studies the assessment of the social impact of the repository for nuclear waste on the basis of the experience gained in Finland and in other countries. On the basis of the literature study

  6. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity. PMID:27117445

  7. Economic assessment of plutonium recycle to LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an economic evaluation of plutonium recycle in LWR's using published estimates of the cost of the various fuel cycle operations. Total, discounted and levelized fuel cycle costs are computed for four national nuclear power growth pattern scenarios; ''super large'' (>100GW(e) by 2000), ''large'' (60-70GW(e) by 2000) ''medium'' (20-25 GW(e) by 2000) and ''small'' (5-10GW(e) by 2000). It is concluded that in the ''super-large'' and ''large'' cases recycle of uranium and plutonium would have a slight economic advantage over the once-through cycle. In the ''medium'' and ''small'' cases there would be no economic advantage up to the year 2000. The uncertainty in unit fuel cycle costs is large compared with the differences between the two fuel cycles and different conclusions can easily be drawn based on different unit cost assumptions

  8. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Cecilia H.M., E-mail: ceciliawonghm@gmail.com; Ho, Wing-chung, E-mail: wingcho@cityu.edu.hk

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  9. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment

  10. Social economic and environmental challenges of global energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvishiani, J.M.; Livchits, V.N.; Orlova, E.R.; Smetanina, M.I.; Zimin, I.N. [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Report to the Moscow International Energy Club `Energy and Society: New Challenges for Mankind`, and this presentation aim to invite the world community to debate the current social development problems through a system investigation of the processes going on in one of the crucial areas, supporting humanity`s existence - i.e. the energy sector of economy - with regard to the intimate inter-relationship and interdependence between energy and society. Special emphasis is placed on the inter-related development of society and energy systems with a specific focus on global and universal socio-economic problems such as: uneven socio-economic growth in different countries; substantial differences in availability of natural resources; growing population and changes in demographic structure; considerable differentiation in food supply in different countries and regions; increasing environmental degradation; aggravating ethnic conflicts; stockpiling of weaponry (including nuclear weapons), their proliferation across the world and a market contribution to the ever greater tensions in a number of regions; alterations in morality, ethics and value systems. The aggravation of these problems, the frequently menacing metamorphoses thereof can, in effect, be viewed as challenges to humanity requiring swift and non-trivial decisions, adequate responses and immediate coordinated actions on the part of the world community as a whole. Whilst being commonplace, the problems listed must be treated somewhat differently at present due to the essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The essential uniqueness of the modern global situation and the current social processes. The principal parts of this paper describes the concept of energy-society relationship analysis and its applications in investigating the cross-impact loops: society-energy and energy-society. (author) 15 refs.

  11. CSR of top portuguese companies: relation between social performance and economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Sandra; Fernandes, Paula O.; Monte, Ana Paula

    2012-01-01

    Modern times call organizations to have an active role in the social arena, through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that there is a positive relation between social performance and economic performance, and if there is a positive correlation between social performance and financial-economic performance. To test these theories a measure of social performance, based on the Green Book of Commission of the European Community, ...

  12. La responsabilidad social corporativa: economía social y ISO 26000

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Ollé, Carles; Rodríguez Luna, Javier; Saro Ots, Héctor

    2010-01-01

    Las empresas de economía social se caracterizan por disponer de estructuras democráticas, priorizar el reparto de beneficios y el servicio a la colectividad antes que el lucro, disponer de autonomía de gestión, ser solidarias con el entorno y provocadoras de cohesión social. Esta acepción, toma fuerza a finales de los años setenta en los principales países europeos. La RSC, a pesar de tener mayor antigüedad, ha evolucionado constantemente desde los años noventa, tras el adve...

  13. Environmental assessment and social justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hardee, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  14. Basic Social-Economic Factors Modelling Customer’s Psychological Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Krastev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some social and economic factors influencing on customer’s behaviour – such as social class, social-economic status,occupation, education, income, referent groups, family, gender roles and marketing. Some comparisons are made between some factorsinfluencing on customer’s behaviour in the U.S. and in Bulgaria.

  15. Basic Social-Economic Factors Modelling Customer’s Psychological Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Krastev

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with some social and economic factors influencing on customer’s behaviour – such as social class, social-economic status,occupation, education, income, referent groups, family, gender roles and marketing. Some comparisons are made between some factorsinfluencing on customer’s behaviour in the U.S. and in Bulgaria.

  16. JURIDICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE BANKING MANAGEMENT FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Muresan Laura; Potincu Cristian Romeo

    2015-01-01

    At present, the corporate social responsibility must be regarded from a complex perspective. We consider that the social responsibility of the banks is what the community expects from a bank ecologically, economically, juridically, ethically, and philanthropically. Thus, the banking corporate social responsibility includes all these types of responsibilities: the ecological responsibility, the economic responsibility, the juridical responsibility, the ethical responsibility, and the philanthr...

  17. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  18. Trade sustainability impact assessment (SIA) on the comprehensive economic and trade agreement (CETA) between the EU and Canada: Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Colin; Raihan, Selim; Bleser, Adam; Prud'homme, Dan; Mayrand, Karel; Morin, Jean Frederic; Pollitt, Hector; Hinojosa, Leonith; Williams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Commissioned by the European Commission, the Final Report for the EU-Canada Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) on the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) provides a comprehensive assessment of the potential impacts of trade liberalisation under CETA. The analysis assesses the economic, social and environmental impacts in Canada and the European Union in three main sectors, sixteen sub-sectors and across seven cross-cutting issues. It predicts a number of macro-...

  19. A THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN SUPPORTING ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldea Monica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Any activity requires the presence of labor resources. If centuries ago the concept was that their presence was enough, now it takes a lot more. Moreover, since Aristotle the issue was taking into consideration all aspects of the community life that can lead to a "better life". In the current conditions we may consider resources in the broader context of the human factor and of the relations established within a society. Thus social capital was conceptualized. As opportunities of economic growth - based purely on the quantitative aspects of the determinants – were limited, the need occurred to reconsider the qualitative and structural components. Social capital considers a number of the integrative components of social life. These refer to the relations established at family level up to the level of societal institutions. It is necessary that these relationships be well established, and for the proper performance it is necessary that aspects of education and health should be properly valued and assessed. This helps setting up strong institutions. Developed countries have the ability to create a proper environment for the manifestations of social capital; in these countries one can observe the growing importance of formal and more impersonal relations. But this just reinforces the occurrence and development of economic activities based on efficiency criteria leading to the countries’ economic development. The interpretations of economic development issues have undergone changes in recent decades. If previously it was considered that the essential difference between rich and poor countries is reflected in the amount of physical capital per person, later on the concept of capital has been expanded to include as well human capital, the lack of which was considered a serious obstacle to development, particularly in the case of poor countries. And given the fact that the transactions within an economic system take place in an

  20. "Neighborhood matters": assessment of neighborhood social processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael; Tolan, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Neighborhoods are important contexts for understanding development and behavior, but cost and difficulty have challenged attempts to develop measures of neighborhood social processes at the neighborhood level. This article reports the development, reliability, and validity of Neighborhood Matters, a collection of instruments assessing three aspects of neighborhood social processes, namely, norms (five subscales), informal social control (six subscales and total scale), social connection (two subscales), as well as individual scales for assessing neighborhood change, neighborhood resources, and neighborhood problems. Six hundred six residents of Chicago, chosen at random from 30 neighborhoods (defined by US Census tracts), completed the measures. Neighborhoods were selected randomly from pools that balanced poverty and predominant (African-American vs. Latino Hispanic) ethnicity. Within each neighborhood 20 individuals were selected at random, balanced by age (18-24 vs. 30+) and gender. Scaling and item analysis permitted reduction of the number of items in each scale. All subscales had individual-level internal consistency in excess of .7. Generalizability theory analysis using random effects regression models found significant shared variance at the neighborhood level for three norms subscales, four informal social control subscales, both social connection subscales, and the neighborhood change, resources and problems scales. Validity analyses found significant associations between neighborhood-level scores on multiple Neighborhood Matters scales and neighborhood levels of violent, property, and drug-related crime. Discussion focuses on potential applications of the Neighborhood Matters scales in community research. PMID:25287739

  1. Socio-economic differences in self-esteem of adolescents influenced by personality, mental health and social support

    OpenAIRE

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that self-esteem is lower among adolescents of low socio-economic status and is associated with a number of intrapersonal, interpersonal and socio-cultural factors. Evidence on the mechanisms by which these factors contribute to the connection between socio-economic status and developing self-esteem is incomplete, however. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess whether personality, mental health and social support contribute to the relatio...

  2. ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    2003-01-01

    For almost half a century World War II and the Cold War provided the political and fiscal context for public investment in science and technology. The report prepared by Vannevar Bush, Science: the Endless Frontier (1945), advanced an investment rationale for federal support of scientific research. In spite of pressure from Congress and the Office of the President the scientific community has resisted the development and application of operational economic criteria for the allocation of resea...

  3. Social and Economic Implications of Noncommunicable diseases in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs have become a major public health problem in India accounting for 62% of the total burden of foregone DALYs and 53% of total deaths. In this paper, we review the social and economic impact of NCDs in India. We outline this impact at household, health system and the macroeconomic level. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs figure at the top among the leading ten causes of adult (25-69 years deaths in India. The effects of NCDs are inequitable with evidence of reversal in social gradient of risk factors and greater financial implications for the poorer households in India. Out-of-pocket expenditure associated with the acute and long-term effects of NCDs is high resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for the households. Study in India showed that about 25% of families with a member with CVD and 50% with cancer experience catastrophic expenditure and 10% and 25%, respectively, are driven to poverty. The odds of incurring catastrophic hospitalization expenditure were nearly 160% higher with cancer than the odds of incurring catastrophic spending when hospitalization was due to a communicable disease. These high numbers also pose significant challenge for the health system for providing treatment, care and support. The proportion of hospitalizations and outpatient consultations as a result of NCDs rose from 32% to 40% and 22% to 35%, respectively, within a decade from 1995 to 2004. In macroeconomic term, most of the estimates suggest that the NCDs in India account for an economic burden in the range of 5-10% of GDP, which is significant and slowing down GDP thus hampering development. While India is simultaneously experiencing several disease burdens due to old and new infections, nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases, and injuries, individual interventions for clinical care are unlikely to be affordable on a large scale. While it is clear that "treating our way out" of the NCDs may not be the efficient way, it has

  4. Toward a methodology for conducting social impact assessments using quality of social life indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M.E.; Merwin, D.J.

    1976-07-01

    The methodology proposed essentially argues that mankind is inexorably dependent on the natural environment, and that collective social life is always constrained and shaped by the basic ecological factors of natural resources, population characteristics, material and social technology, and the economic order which satisfies peoples' sustenance needs. To this ecological perspective two further assumptions are added: (1) collective social activities are generally aimed at the attainment of goals that reflect the values and interests of the participants, so that social impact assessment must reflect both the ecological conditions prevailing in a community and the values, interests, and goals of the community members; and (2) a community can be viewed as a problem-solving social system, in which (a) challenges such as new environmental or technological conditions initially disrupt existing social processes and patterns of social ordering, which (b) creates temporary problem conditions and activities, which in turn (c) generate collective responses to cope with these problems, which finally (d) act back (as either positive or negative feedback) on the initial disruptive conditions. The inputs to a general social impact model are (a) such disruptive innovations or alterations as growing resource scarcities (e.g., oil or water depletion), governmental policy decisions (e.g., emphasis on solar energy, limiting economic growth), or technological development projects (e.g., nuclear energy centers, water reservoirs); and (b) values and interests of the people in the affected area. Whatever the precise nature of the outside disruption, it can be expected to have direct and relatively immediate impacts on the basic ecological factors of the local population and economy. (MCW)

  5. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

  6. THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON ROMANIA'S ECONOMICAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA-MIHAELA POCIOVĂLIȘTEANU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Free movement for people is one of the most fundamental freedoms guaranteed by European Union law and it is a necessary precondition for building a single market. Greater adaptability on the part of workers through migration process is also a key element in making Europe Union more competitive at a global level, and at an individual level enabling employees to raise their skills levels and their employability, income and career prospects. In this paper I’m trying to review several aspects regarding the Romanian labour market, the causes that determined the labour force to emigrate in European Union’s member states, as well as migrations’ effects on the supply and demand on the labour market. Migration can have both positive and negative effects on economical and social life from the origin country.

  7. ECONOMICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola BAREJA-WAWRYSZUK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that quality of mass produced and highly processed food forces consumers to change their consumption habits and become more interested in locally available food products. Consumers are becoming aware of negative consequences of global food systems. As an alternative, Local Food Systems are gaining on popularity because short food supply chains offer fresh, healthy and not modified products. The popularity of Local Food Systems is reflected in the need for analysing impact and significance of those systems. Thus, this paper presents main benefits of acting locally. Local Food Systems has been reviewed in case of positive economic, environmental and social influence on the region. What is more, the paper presents consumers’ attitude to Local Food Systems. As a conclusion authors justify significance of development and investment in Local Food Systems as an alternative to agriculture networks.

  8. An Integrated Social, Economic, and Ecologic Conceptual (ISEEC) framework for considering rangeland sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.E.; McCollum, D.W.; Mitchell, J.E.; Swanson, L.E.; Kreuter, U.P.; Tanaka, J.A.; Evans, G.R.; Theodore, Heintz H.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Geissler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss rangeland sustainability and assessment. The SRR has worked to integrate social, economic, and ecological disciplines related to rangelands and has identified a standard set of indicators that can be used to assess rangeland sustainability. As part of this process, SRR has developed a two-tiered conceptual framework from a systems perspective to study the validity of indicators and the relationships among them. The first tier categorizes rangeland characteristics into four states. The second tier defines processes affecting these states through time and space. The framework clearly shows that the processes affect and are affected by each other. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  9. Economic value of geothermal resource assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, M.B.; Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of decision analysis for the evaluation of resource assessment expenditures is discussed. Calculations are shown for the expected value of information - both perfect and imperfect information. (MHR)

  10. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, E A M; de Boer, I J M

    2009-09-01

    1. In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based on a quantification of economic, ecological and social indicators. Indicators were quantified using scientific literature and national data sets. 2. The organic system performed better for the economic indicator net farm income per FTE than the conventional system. 3. Regarding ecological indicators, calculations showed a higher on-farm emission of ammonia per kg live weight for the organic system. Moreover, an organic system includes a higher risk for eutrophication per ha due to outdoor access. Emission of green house gasses, use of fossil fuels and use of land required for the production of one kg of live weight is higher for an organic than for a conventional system. This is mainly due to a lower feed conversion in organic production and use of organic feed. 4. The organic system performed better than the conventional system for the social indicators related to animal welfare time spent on walking, footpad lesions, mortality, and sound legs. Regarding the social indicator food safety was found that meat from an organic system contained less antibiotic residues and Salmonella contaminations but more Campylobacter contaminations than meat from a conventional system. 5. Changing from a conventional to an organic broiler production system, therefore, not only affects animal welfare, but also affects economic, ecological and other social issues. In this study, we ran into the situation that some information needed was lacking in literature and quantifications had to be based upon several sources. Therefore, an integrated on-farm assessment is needed, which can be used to develop a broiler production system that is economically profitable, ecologically sound, and

  11. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  12. Economic and Social Cohesion of EU – from Acquis to Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel Ailenei

    2007-01-01

    The success of EU project depends of its economic and social cohesion. Unfortunately there are an important delay and much hesitation in official approaching of the concept of economic and social cohesion. A system theory approach is very useful to clarify the core problem of economic and social cohesion. Relating this approaching with Krugman-Venables model of spatial agglomeration, we could introduce centripetal and centrifugal forces to define a complete concept of cohesion.

  13. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSING SOCIAL CAPITAL IN BIOSECURITY ECOLITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Putu Kaler Surata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Social Network Analysis for Assessing Social Capital in Biosecurity Ecoliteracy. Biosecurity ecoliteracy (BEL is a view of literacy that applies ecological concepts to promote in-depth understanding, critical reflection, creative thinking, self consciousness, communication and social skills, in analyzing and managing issues around plant health/living, animal health/living and the risks that are associated with the environment. We used social network analysis (SNA to evaluate two distinct forms of social capital of BEL: social cohesion and network structure. This study was executed by employing cooperative learning in BEL toward 30 undergraduate teacher training students. Data then was analyzed using UCINET software. We found the tendency of so­cial cohesion to increase after students participated in BEL. This was supported by several SNA measures (density, closeness and degree and these values at the end were statistically different than at the beginning of BEL. The social structure map (sociogram after BEL visualized that students were much more likely to cluster in groups compared with the sociogram before BEL. Thus BEL, through cooperative learning, was able to promote social capital. In addition SNA proved a useful tool for evaluating the achievement levels of social capital of BEL in the form of network cohesion and network structure. Abstrak: Analisis Jaringan Sosial untuk Menilai Ekoliterasi Ketahanan Hayati. Ekoliterasi ketahanan hayati (EKH adalah literasi yang mengaplikasikan berbagai konsep ekologi untuk mempromosikan pe­mahaman yang mendalam, refleksi kritis, kesadaran diri, keterampilan sosial dan berkomunikasi, dalam menganalisis, dan mengelola isu yang terkait dengan kesehatan/kehidupan tanaman, kesehatan/kehidupan binatang, dan risiko yang terkait dengan lingkungan. Analisis jaringan kerja sosial (AJS telah digunakan untuk mengevaluasi dua bentuk model sosial EKH: kohesi sosial dan struktur jaringan kerja. Untuk itu

  14. Foregrounding socio-economic rights in transitional justice:realising justice for violations of economic and social rights

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill-Ripley, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Transitional justice has traditionally ignored or sidelined violations of economic and social rights, focussing on violations of civil and political rights as the primary grave human rights violations to be addressed when seeking justice for past atrocities. This paper explores the omission of these rights from the field and uncovers the shortcomings of such an approach. It will argue that there is a need for transitional justice to address both deliberate violations of economic and social ri...

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC INDICATORS ON THE ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Lepikhina, Т.; Alikina, E.; Lepikhin, V.

    2014-01-01

    In modern conditions, sustainable development is the object of study in economic science. The study of this important issue is actual both at macro-, mesolevels, and at the enterprise level. Major problem is to achieve the balance between economic, social and environmental aspects of economic systems. Therefore, there is need for investigate the relationship and mutual indices characterizing the economic, social and environmental sustainability. The authors propose to use the method of correl...

  16. Stages of grief: Economic devastation and social oblivion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Erdei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2008, after Heineken bought the major stake in “Pančevačka pivara” (Pančevo brewery from Efes, and thus became its owner, the corporation shut down production in the Pančevo factory, fired all remaining workers save for a few managers, and soon after halted production of the only remaining brand of “Pančevačka pivara” which was named after the brewery’s mid-nineteenth century founder – Weifert. Thus, after more than 150 years of beer production in Weifert’s brewery, and more than 280 years after beer first started to be produced in Pančevo, the town is left without a significant industrial capacity and one of its key cultural and identity symbols. What should be cause for concern for researchers is the huge discrepancy between the decades-long endeavor to traditionalize the brewery and the culture of beer consumption and utilize them in the representation of the town as an industry center as well as a multicultural environment with an urban sensibility and significant Habsburg heritage, and the complete silence which followed the closing of the brewery and is still there, four years after the factory shut down. The paper examines how the deep, uncomfortable silence which has enveloped these events, the absence of any kind of public debate on the issue as well as the lack of any kind of articulated unofficial discourse about this loss can be interpreted. Starting from the assumption that any way of speaking is simultaneously a way of not speaking, I will examine the social dynamics of the reverse process in a specific social, economic, political and cultural context. In other words, what is the role of social non-remembrance and what can be gleaned from this non-speaking, repressing, intentional oblivion?

  17. 77 FR 62538 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science... recommendations to the National Science Foundation on major goals and policies pertaining to Social, Behavioral... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE...

  18. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, the article identifies that insufficient attention is paid to socio-economic indicators. That is why a scorecard is developed in the context of the said groups of factors, which gives a possibility to identify weaknesses in enterprise development and to direct measures on their elimination or minimisation on the basis of it. The proposed scorecard of assessment of socio-economic factors of enterprise development gives a possibility to, objectively and timely, monitor the socio-economic state of an enterprise, which allows maintaining the development trajectory.

  19. Social-economic role of small business in services sphere in the progressive development of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila G. Rudenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to assess the socioeconomic significance of small business in the services sector of national economy and to develop effective tools of its infrastructural support basing on the characteristics of the services sector. Methods systematic approach was applied to identify the characteristics of small businesses in the services sector methods of comparative and statistical analysis were used to assess the contribution of small business in service sector to the economic development of the country methods of analysis and synthesis revealed problems of development of small business in service sector program and target method was used to develop infrastructural tools to support small businesses. Results social and economic characteristics of small business in services were determined the contribution of small business in service sector into the economic progress of the country was assessed the problems and peculiarities of development of small entrepreneurship in services were identified and examined. Basing on the analysis of problems of small business growth and its role in the progressive development of the economy the necessity of state support is proved and the effective tools of infrastructure support for small businesses are determined basing on the characteristics of the service sector. Scientific novelty the characteristics of small business in services are identified and grouped by economic and social principle the growing contribution of the small business in service sector to the Russian economy is proved and its backlog from the developed economies is confirmed problems hindering the development of small business are identified. Basing on the problems effective tools for small business support are developed and offered. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the research can be used in scientific activity to study the development and infrastructural support of small business in services sectors they can be

  20. Socially poorer than peers? : Economic resources and school class friendship relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalmarsson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    That a lack of economic resources negatively affects the social relations of children is often assumed, sometimes described, but rarely tested using methods allowing generalization. When addressing this issue, previous research has largely been limited to self-reported data on social relations. This thesis uses peer reported measures of social relations in combination with survey and register data to examine the effect of economic resources on the probability of social isolation and on the nu...

  1. Integrating Moral in a Dynamic Model of Corporate Social Responsibility in Islamic Economics and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Nor, Shifa

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Islamic Economics and finance. The escalating social and economic problems in particular during the current financial crisis have raised new questions as well as expectations about corporate governance, ethical and social responsibilities. Commentators have raised "ethical" as the missing link in financing and also in running financial institutions. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has emerged and developed with the aim of co...

  2. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY AND PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF ACTIVIZATION OF SOCIAL INVESTMENTS OF THE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grishnova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the features of social investment and estimated impact of social investment on key financial and economic indicators of the breweries. Is proved priority areas in social investment and offered to recommendation to improve social investment in the enterprises of the brewing industry in Ukraine.

  3. Social Obstacles to Technology, Technological Change, and the Economic Growth of African Countries: Some Anecdotal Evidence from Economic History

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This paper comments on a number of social obstacles to the economic growth and technological change of African economies from the perspective of economic history. Economic history is full of evidence about what held African economies back for years. Some obstacles are of domestic origin such as excessive consumption and luxury masqueraded as public investment. Other obstacles were imposed from outside such as the destruction and weakening of traditional African religions and religio...

  4. Sites and social assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sites of nuclear power plants in Japan has the features, first the extreme expectation for regional development because of the selection of depopulated districts for most locations, and the second, apprehensions of local people for two reasons of nuclear power generating techniques which do not plant the roots in society and handling of radioactive materials. In order to cope with these problems, it is necessary to consider that the development plan of the regions around reactor sites must be compiled systematically. Its premise is the ''social assessment'' which estimates the economical and social influences and evaluates the merit and demerit of nuclear power plants prior to the construction. This is of course inevitable. The objects of the assessment may be divided as follows: the human effect to individuals, the institutional effect to local community, the economical effect to region, and the national influence to the whole country. While the developmental action of locations includes the stages of examination, planning, construction and operation, and three location patterns are recognized according to the emphasized function, the improvement of national economy, upgrading of environmental quality, and the most priority in local welfare. In the process of the assessment, the following items may be taken notice that each item requires sometimes the weighting; the pattern to abandon location may exist; positive and negative effects are required to be distributed evenly in a triangle having the apexes each representing one of the above three patterns. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. The decommodified security ratio:A tool for assessing European social protection systems

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Menahem

    2007-01-01

    With a view to better assessment of the roles played by social security and social policy in determining well-being, this article introduces the ”decommodified security ratio“ (DSR), an instrument for evaluating an important duty of the social State, namely to maintain and improve people's economic security. To that end we describe the conventions for its use, analyse its maincomponents in 20 European countries in 2002 and simulate the changes in it produced by ten variations in those compone...

  6. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  7. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  8. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included. PMID:16320895

  9. Assessing the effects of global warming and local social and economic conditions on the malaria transmission Quantificando os efeitos do aquecimento global e das condições socioeconômicas locais na transmissão de malária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun M Yang

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show how a mathematical model can be used to describe and to understand the malaria transmission. METHODS: The effects on malaria transmission due to the impact of the global temperature changes and prevailing social and economic conditions in a community were assessed based on a previously presented compartmental model, which describes the overall transmission of malaria. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The assessments were made from the scenarios produced by the model both in steady state and dynamic analyses. Depending on the risk level of malaria, the effects on malaria transmission can be predicted by the temperature ambient or local social and-economic conditions.OBJETIVO: Apresenta-se um modelo matemático mostrando como esse instrumento pode ser importante para descrever a transmissão de malária. MÉTODOS: Baseado no modelo proposto previamente, foram quantificados os efeitos de dois fatores que podem afetar a transmissão da malaria: a temperatura ambiente e as condições socioeconômicas locais. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: A quantificação foi feita estudando o modelo proposto no estado estacionário e na sua dinâmica. Dependendo do nível de risco de malária, os principais efeitos na transmissão de malária são devidos à temperatura ambiente ou às condições socioeconômicas.

  10. The importance of socio-economic context for social marketing models for improving reproductive health: Evidence from 555 years of program experience

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaim Stephen; Meekers Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past two decades, social marketing programs have become an important element of the national family planning and HIV prevention strategy in several developing countries. As yet, there has not been any comprehensive empirical assessment to determine which of several social marketing models is most effective for a given socio-economic context. Such an assessment is urgently needed to inform the design of future social marketing programs, and to avoid that programs a...

  11. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ASSESSMENT LEVEL OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Vorona, E.

    2010-01-01

    A study of current approaches to assessing the level of social responsibility. Proposed methodological approach to evaluating the performance of the social responsibility of railway transport. Conceptual Basis of social reporting in rail transport.

  12. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Krogman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  13. Social and economic aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are facing the task of decommissioning and dismantling their commercial nuclear power plants. The three major components of a decommissioning project are the: regulatory framework, including safety regulations; technological developments and the environmental implications; and socioeconomic aspects.The first two have global, national, regional and local dimensions, but the socioeconomic impact is restricted to local environment, affecting mainly the local communities living around a nuclear power plant.These plants contribute, during their construction and operation, to the social and economic development of the region around the sites; the shut down of the reactor and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant facilities will have negative consequences on the life and economy of the local communities. The type of socioeconomic impact varies according to the phase of the dismantling project: (a) the transition period; (b) preparation for safe enclosure; (c) safe enclosure; and (d) final dismantling. Among the issues of concern are: (1) the negative impact on the local demography, resulting in a decrease in the population; (2) decrease of economic activity in the area; (3) loss of jobs (unemployment, anticipated retirement); and (4) reduction in local incomes. Additionally, success in decommissioning nuclear facilities is linked to the ability to demonstrate that the actions taken, both by the licensee and the nuclear regulatory authority, are protective of public health and the environment. Therefore, it is important to stress the need to build public confidence as a key component of the decommissioning effort. The paper analyses the socioeconomic impacts on the local communities around the site and proposes some practical recommendations to mitigate the negative socioeconomic consequences of a decommissioning project from a generic perspective. It also offers conclusions and recommendations based on the experience and information gathered on the

  14. Ocenka vlijanija otraslej toplivno-jenergeticheskogo kompleksa Kaliningradskoj oblasti RF na social'nuju sferu i perspektivy jekonomicheskogo razvitija regiona [The assessment of the influence of energy industries on the economic development prospects and the social environment of the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latnak Diana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers the results of research conducted in the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the "Development of Russian Energy Sector: Social and Environmental Consequences and Prospects" network project by the Centre for Advanced Studies and Education. The authors assess the structure of regional energy sector and its influence on the economy according to key parameters. The article analyses the social effect of energy sector on the basis of a survey conducted for Kaliningrad.

  15. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  16. Assessment of environmental and economic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Потапова, Е. В.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological and economic risk - is a probability measure of negative changes (damage) in the ecosystem caused by human activities or the development of dangerous natural processes and causing loss of time Эколого-экономический риск представлен как вероятностная мера негативных изменений (ущербов) в экосистеме, обусловленных хозяйственной деятельностью человека или развитием опасных природных процессов и вызывающих возможные потери за определенное время....

  17. The behavioural economist and the social planner: To whom should behavioural welfare economics be addressed?

    OpenAIRE

    SUGDEN, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares two alternative answers to the question, 'Who is the addressee of welfare economics?' These answers correspond with different understandings of the status of the normative conclusions of welfare economics, and have different implications for how welfare economics should be adapted in the light of the findings of behavioural economics. The conventional welfarist answer is that welfare economics is addressed to a 'social planner' whose objective is to maximise the overall we...

  18. Techno-economic environmental assessment of advanced intercooled propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi Saatlou, Esmail

    2012-01-01

    A tool based on a Techno-economic and Environmental Risk Assessment (TERA) framework is useful at the preliminary stage of an aero engine design process, to conceive and assess engines with minimum environmental impact and lowest cost of ownership, in a variety of emission legislation and taxation policy scenarios. This research was performed as part of the EU FP6 New Aero engine Core concepts (NEWAC) programme which was established to assess the potential of innovative gas ...

  19. Elements for a comprehensive assessment of natural resources: bridging environmental economics with ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominance of economic assessments regarding the value of natural resources has caused a sub-valuing of the real benefits which societies can obtain from nature. This is due to a lack of knowledge about the complexity of ecological functions, as well as a dismissal of the integrated relations of the sub-systems which make up the environment. It is therefore necessary to establish conceptual bridges between environmental sciences to fill in the gaps in economic valuation methods by recurring to diverse measuring scales, participation from the different actors involved, and a principle of precaution regarding the limits of nature. This paper explores the concepts of value and economic valuation methods from the perspectives of Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics. It then proposes an integration of valuing methodologies which take into account how complementary and complex natures value relations are. This proposal of valuing integrally ecosystem goods and services contributes to adjusting political decisions more accordingly to real environmental conditions.

  20. 77 FR 24228 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    .... Frederick Kronz, Program Director; Science, Technology, and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the...

  1. 77 FR 24227 - Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ...; Science, Technology and Society Program; Division of Social and Economic Sciences, Room 990, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Social and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the...

  2. An Empirical Analysis of Social Capital and Economic Growth in Europe (1980-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Isabel; Vazquez, Emilia; Portela, Marta

    2009-01-01

    It is of paramount concern for economists to uncover the factors that determine economic growth and social development. In recent years a new field of investigation has come to the fore in which social capital is analysed in order to determine its effect on economic growth. Along these lines the work presented here examines the relationships that…

  3. Community Economic Development Strategies in Rural Washington: Toward a Synthesis of Natural and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jessica A.

    2006-01-01

    Routes to economic development attract considerable attention in community and rural sociology. Social scientists draw increasingly on studies of social capital and environmental surroundings as they examine the factors that facilitate and inhibit economic development. However, few empirical analyses exist that analyze the impact of the…

  4. A Model for Assessing the Gender Aspect in Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ona Rakauskienė; Eglė Krinickienė

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to develop a conceptual model for assessing the impact of the gender aspect on economic policy at macro– and microeconomic levels. The research methodology is based on analysing scientific approaches to the gender aspect in economics and gender–responsive budgeting as well as determining the impact of the gender aspect on GDP, foreign trade, the state budget and the labour market. First, the major findings encompass the main idea of a conceptual model proposing that...

  5. Assessment of environmental and economic feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case ...

  6. Re-examining the economic options for import risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, David; Cook, David C.

    2007-01-01

    The economic impacts of altering quarantine policies are divided into two main areas: trade evaluations, utilising a partial equilibrium approach to determine the benefits of market liberalisation; or pest management economics, used to determine the on-ground impacts of introduced species. This paper rationalises why these approaches need to be brought together within the policy framework of import risk assessments to provide a greater understanding of the benefits and risks from market liber...

  7. Re-examining economic options for import risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    David Adamson; David Cook

    2007-01-01

    The economic impacts of altering quarantine policies are divided into two main areas: trade evaluations, utilising a partial equilibrium approach to determine the benefits of market liberalisation; or pest management economics, used to determine the on-ground impacts of introduced species. This paper rationalises why these approaches need to be brought together within the policy framework of import risk assessments to provide a greater understanding of the benefits and risks from market liber...

  8. Specific Contributions of Politics, Economics, and Toxicology in Setting Socially Consensual Limit Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter; Grohmann; Thompson

    1997-07-01

    / Limit values are legal limits for the concentrations of substances in the environment. They must be agreed upon in a consensual procedure between science, economics/technology, and political forces. This is a crucial political precondition for their social acceptance. The arguments put forward to justify their expediency and numerical level are based not only on risk-benefit considerations but also on the aspect of the technical avoidability of direct and indirect exposure. The critical assessment of the direct benefit of specified exposures falls within the responsibility of economics/technology, whereas criteria for their potential adverse effects (direct and indirect) are provided by medicine/biochemistry and/or ecology. Within this concept, the avoidance of nonbeneficial-even if not openly adverse-exposure is the essential aim of environmental hygiene and should be promoted by politics/science. In general, society or segments thereof reject adverse, accept beneficial, and tolerate unavoidable exposure. Conflicts of interest arise when different groups of society simultaneously define a given exposure as being adverse, beneficial, and unavoidable. Therefore, from the viewpoint of society as a whole, an optimal exposure lies as far as reasonably achievable at a level lower than known or plausible adverse effect thresholds (as defined by toxicology or ecology). This optimal level of exposure must be determined using a transparent and, hence, public procedure.KEY WORDS: Legal limit values; Benefit threshold; Social acceptance; Social tolerability; Adverse effect threshold; Avoidable exposure; Tolerance threshold; Environmental hygiene PMID:9175540

  9. Social and economic factors of the natural risk increasing: estimation of the Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to assess quantitatively social and economic factors that determine vulnerability of Russian regions to natural risk, to trace the space differences of the considered factors, and to group the regions by their similarity. In order to indicate the regional differences in social and economic development, equipment condition, dangerous substances accumulation, and social trouble four the most suitable parameters were estimated, including the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP, capital consumption, volume of total toxic waste, and crime rate. Increase of the first parameter causes vulnerability reducing, the increase of the last three causes its increasing. Using multidimensional cluster analysis five types of regions were found for Russia according to similarity of the considered parameters. These types are characterized with higher value of a single (rarely two chosen parameter, which seems to be sufficient enough to affect natural risks increasing in these regions in near future. Only few regions belonging to the fifth type proved to have rather high value of GRP and relatively low values of the other parameters. The negative correlation was found between a number of natural disasters (ND and the per capita GRP in case when some parameters reached anomalously high value. The distinctions between regions by prevailing different parameters, which result in natural risk increasing, help risk management to find directions where to focus on.

  10. Measuring economic performance, social progress and sustainability using an index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco [Graduate Program on Energy, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The energy crisis and a greater awareness among the general public regarding the issue of climate change have, between them, led to a notable increase in the interest shown by governments in relation to the problem of environmental sustainability. An example has been the initiative taken by the President of France to set up a commission, known as the Sarkozy Commission, named after the President, bringing together renowned economists to study and propose forms of economic performance measurement related to social progress. This article aims to propose a methodology to establish a quantitative definition of sustainability structured on the principles of minimum and maximum entropy production, and, based on this, outline a way of organizing the many sources of, and kinds of energy, we have available to us in order of the intensity of their respective environmental impacts. Based on this, we could produce an Environmental Sustainability Index, linked to existing statistical indicators of human development, and thereby arrive at a Sustainable Human Development Index, which would be positively or negatively influenced by parameters linked to environmental sustainability and quality of life. In order to ensure that this index can produce practical results, the WTO (World Trade Organization) would have to establish a scale of increments, to be applied to export tariffs on products originating in countries with different indexes. (author)

  11. Measuring economic performance, social progress and sustainability using an index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy crisis and a greater awareness among the general public regarding the issue of climate change have, between them, led to a notable increase in the interest shown by governments in relation to the problem of environmental sustainability. An example has been the initiative taken by the President of France to set up a commission, known as the Sarkozy Commission, named after the President, bringing together renowned economists to study and propose forms of economic performance measurement related to social progress. This article aims to propose a methodology to establish a quantitative definition of sustainability structured on the principles of minimum and maximum entropy production, and, based on this, outline a way of organizing the many sources of, and kinds of energy, we have available to us in order of the intensity of their respective environmental impacts. Based on this, we could produce an Environmental Sustainability Index, linked to existing statistical indicators of human development, and thereby arrive at a Sustainable Human Development Index, which would be positively or negatively influenced by parameters linked to environmental sustainability and quality of life. In order to ensure that this index can produce practical results, the WTO (World Trade Organization) would have to establish a scale of increments, to be applied to export tariffs on products originating in countries with different indexes. (author)

  12. Brazilian waste potential: energy, environmental, social and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential energy that could be produced from solid wastes in Brazil tops 50 TWh. Equivalent to some 17% of the nation's total power consumption at costs that are competitive with more traditional options, this would also reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, managing wastes for energy generation purposes could well open up thousands of jobs for unskilled workers. Related to power generation and conservation, energy use requires discussions on the feasibility of each energy supply option, and comparison between alternatives available on the market. Power conservation is compared to projects implemented by the Federal Government, while power generation is rated against thermo-power plants fired by natural gas running on a combined cycle system. Although the operating costs of selective garbage collection for energy generation are higher than current levels, the net operating revenues of this scheme reach some US$ 4 billion/year. This underpins the feasibility of garbage management being underwritten by energy uses and avoided environmental costs. The suggested optimization of the technical, economic, social and environmental sustainability of the expansion of Brazil's power sector consists of compatibilizing the use of fossil and renewable fuels, which is particularly relevant for hybrid thermo-power plants with null account on greenhouse gases emissions

  13. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFECTING POPULATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader Valentin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the fact that at the end of 2011, in Romania, was conducted the Population and Houses Census, many studies were focused on the demographic evolution from our country. Our paper is focused on the factors that are influencing the evolution of population in Romania, in order to explain the evolution of demographics. The study was conducted on a 20 years timespan, using statistical data that are characterizing the macroeconomic and demographic environment between 1990 and 2010. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released (time series and cross section data by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the evolution of population and social (natural increase of population, net migration and economic factors (employment, average net wage, GDP. We conclude sustaining that the increase of emigrants and the ageing phenomenon in last 20 years decreased the number of population, while the increase of employment and GDP are two factors that have a positive influence on the population evolution. The average net wage may have two types of effects: an increase of the wage may represent an opportunity for some families to cover easily the cost of having a child, while for others, the opportunity of gaining higher wages may change their working behavior determining them to focus on career and postponing the birth of a child.

  14. Economic assessment model architecture for AGC/AVLIS selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic assessment model architecture described provides the flexibility and completeness in economic analysis that the selection between AGC and AVLIS demands. Process models which are technology-specific will provide the first-order responses of process performance and cost to variations in process parameters. The economics models can be used to test the impacts of alternative deployment scenarios for a technology. Enterprise models provide global figures of merit for evaluating the DOE perspective on the uranium enrichment enterprise, and business analysis models compute the financial parameters from the private investor's viewpoint

  15. Social psychology and environmental economics: a new look at ex ante corrections of biased preference evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Jacquemet; Alexander James; Stephane Luchini; Jason Shogren

    2011-01-01

    The field of social psychology explores how a person behaves within the context of other people. The social context can play a substantive role in non-market allocation decisions given peoples choices and values extend beyond the classic market-based exchange institution. Herein we explore how social psychology has affected one aspect of environmental economics: preference elicitation through survey work. We discuss social representation, social isolation, framing through cheap talk, and comm...

  16. Social capital and economic development: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework

    OpenAIRE

    Woolcock, M.

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record This article explores the need to "encourage" the development of social capital in addition to financial and human capital in development work. Woolcock offers a theoretical discussion of the definition and problems of social capital, the history and origin of the term, and a critique of how social capital has been used in development work from the perspectives of social networks and economic development. Notably, the article also addresses how social capital may even ...

  17. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification’s impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Paulo A.L.D. Nunes; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from es...

  18. Reforms in the Slovakia 2005. Evaluation of economical and social measures (The HESO Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slovak Republic faces the task to secure conditions for a long-term economic growth. A crucial precondition for an efficient implementation of economic and social measures is the knowledge of the status quo and of the impacts on the economy and the society as a whole, to be expected from the relevant measures and it is important to focus on short-term as well as on long-term goals. For a successful implementation of many economic and social measures citizens' acceptance is needed. Therefore, the non-governmental, non-profit organisation Institute for Economic and Social Reforms INEKO aims to make the public more familiar with the nature of economic and social processes in the country and abroad, and to eliminate, through economic research and educational activities, hindrances to a long-term positive development of the Slovak economy and society. (authors)

  19. Reforms in the Slovakia 2004-2005. Evaluation of economical and social measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slovak Republic faces the task to secure conditions for a long-term economic growth. A crucial precondition for an efficient implementation of economic and social measures is the knowledge of the status quo and of the impacts on the economy and the society as a whole, to be expected from the relevant measures and it is important to focus on short-term as well as on long-term goals. For a successful implementation of many economic and social measures citizens' acceptance is needed. Therefore, the non-governmental, non-profit organisation Institute for Economic and Social Reforms INEKO aims to make the public more familiar with the nature of economic and social processes in the country and abroad, and to eliminate, through economic research and educational activities, hindrances to a long-term positive development of the Slovak economy and society. (authors)

  20. Hydrologic, Social, and Economic Efficacy of Green Infrastructure Credit Programs: Toward Citizen Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, O. O.; Kertesz, R.; Rossman, L.; Shuster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Fostering 'citizen stormwater management', whereby citizens make stormwater management a part of their everyday lives, aims to improve the resilience of the urban water social-ecological system by reducing the load on the stormwater collection system through investment in natural and social capitals. A popular method of incentivizing citizen stormwater management is offering stormwater fee discounts as credits for the installation of green infrastructure onsite. Such installations, in effect, reduce the amount of impervious area by disconnecting them from the sewer system. We analyze 4 such programs (Portland OR, Cleveland OH, Fort Myers FL, and Lynchburg VA) which offer discounts to single family residences for installing rain gardens or bioinfiltration features. Findings indicate large variability in the hydrological, social, and economic efficacy of these programs. We assessed hydrologic efficacy using the Environmental Protection Agency's recently released Stormwater Calculator, a user-friendly model based on SWMM. Hydrologic efficacy was most sensitive to level of detail in administrative rules (i.e., specifics pertaining to soil drainage, slope), regional conditions (e.g., precipitation) and local conditions (e.g., soil, percent of impervious area treated). Social efficacy was measured by the accessibility of the programs to average citizens and varied from highly accessible programs, whereby municipalities had sufficient outreach efforts such that average residents could install their own green infrastructure, to programs with no outreach and contradictory rules which would require a professional engineer to navigate the process and install an eligible rain garden. Economic efficiency was largely dependent on the base stormwater fee (i.e., higher baseline bill results in higher discount and thus higher incentive to participate). From the perspective of a homeowner, they may receive a windfall (i.e., % runoff reduced urban water social-ecological system.

  1. QUANTIFYING SOCIAL OBJECTIVES AIMING POLLUTION CONTROL – AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE UPON STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oana - Catalina Tapurica; Florin TACHE

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims to emphasize certain methods and modern instruments used for quantifying the economic impact of setting-up either pollution control or environment protection related social objectives, in the context of strategic management and project management processes carried out within economic organizations. The paper also underlines that setting-up social objectives in the field of pollution control and environment protection may lead to short-run tangible economic benefits for organiza...

  2. Time Spent for Education – A Key Resource in the Social and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Istrate, Georgeta-Marinela; Nicoleta CARAGEA

    2011-01-01

    Education - in every sense - is one of the fundamental factors of development. It provides a foundation for the economic and social wellbeing. Time spent in education is the key to increasing economic efficiency and social consistency. Of all the resources, time is the most valued and it can be used most effectively. No country can achieve sustainable economic development without substantial investment in human capital. Education improves the quality of people’s lives and leads to broad socia...

  3. Social, Economic, and Resource Predictors of Variability in Household Air Pollution from Cookstove Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam N Yadama; Peipert, John; Sahu, Manoranjan; Biswas, Pratim; Dyda, Venkat

    2012-01-01

    We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM2.5 and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n = 100). This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle ...

  4. The Development of Forms of Corporate Social Responsibility in Russia in the Current Economic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Arzumanova; Venera Ayrapetyan

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals the characteristic features of modern trends in the formation and implementation of corporate social responsibility in Russia in the current economic conditions, which is based on the fact that reasonable economic interests oriented business not only on maximizing profits, but also to improve their own macro - socio-economic, natural, political, through voluntary investment profits in the respective areas.

  5. Socio-Economic Assessment of Broadband Development in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Egypt has recognized broadband as being of strategic importance to the country´s economic and social development and it is developing a new strategy to develop access and use of broadband networks and services. As a specific target of this strategy, the government seeks to increase broadband penetration to 20 connections per 100 inhabitants by 2013. This report is the res...

  6. THE NECESSITY, NATURE AND DIRECTION OF SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kyrylenko

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to understanding the nature of the process of socialization of the economic system, appearing to be an effective catalyst in the transformation of an active subject, who gets the power to regulate social and economic processes in accordance for their own purposes, conditions and development needs; approaches to the analysis of problems of adaptation the national economy to the requirements of the postindustrial society, the basic idea of national socialization policy is to be aware...

  7. Social exclusion and the role of transport intervention in accessing economic opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    Social Exclusion and the Role of Transport Intervention in Accessing Economic Opportunity This dissertation is concerned with social exclusion, transport and access to economic opportunities. Its main focus is on transport 'intervention' and whether this provision is able to enhance social inclusion, particularly in terms of tackling worklessness. The leading principle of this research is to capture the "authentic voices" of those people who are the intended beneficiaries of...

  8. The Rotating Savings and Credit Association - An Economic, Social and Cultural Institution

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the rotating savings and credit association (rosca) as an economic, social and cultural institution. Roscas are one of the most common informal financial systems found in the developing world and provide goods or benefits that are missing or under-provided in the community. As an economic institution, the rosca is able to provide saving, credit and insurance opportunities. As a social institution, the rosca is able to serve as a social meeting place, a provider of soc...

  9. Social Impact Assessment. Synthesis Report Slovak Republic. Peer Review in Social Protection and Social Inclusion 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Nicaise, Ides

    2008-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of EU policy objectives is that they place as much emphasis on the achievement of social goals as on economic or political aims. While social policies have a prominent role in all Member States in attaining such goals – of, for example, ensuring equality of opportunity for all sections of the population – it is also the case that policies in other areas can assist in this respect. At the very least, it is important to ensure that such policies do not have adverse effe...

  10. AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE AND POLICY IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Doo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study looked at the current status of Korean social enterprises and their problems and suggested governmental policy implications for enhancing the competitiveness of social enterprises. As the study methods, the current status of social enterprises was analyzed and performance of social enterprise support was examined and then policy implications for promoting the social enterprises were analyzed. First, the direction of governmental policy regarding the promotion of social enterprise should be converted into the ecosystem oriented or each business oriented getting out of the labor cost oriented and should emphasize on the follow up management and evaluation. Second, the certification program that bothers the expansion of social enterprises should be changed. That is, the government should change a policy into the direction that leaves the activities of social enterprise to the market function while easing the criteria of certification. Only by this, can more activities and job creation effects of social enterprise be expected. Third, the directions of governmental policies related to social entrepreneur fostering should be corrected and complemented. To resolve this so called problem, a standard model including the policy of standardized programs and contents for each business, type and local autonomous entity needs to be suggested. The educational programs and contents composed of such a standard model can enhance the professionalism and efficiency in social entrepreneur fostering. Finally the concept of social economy is needed to be more wide spread. That is, as a base of social enterprise activity, systematic and professional educational programs through university or graduate school are required. In Korea, for social enterprise to develop, excessive governmental involvement in the market should decrease. That is, the certification requirement for social enterprise should be eased much and a direct support for social enterprise should

  11. A World of Systems in Christopher Freeman's Research Programme : Tracing the System Approach to Capitalist Evolution and Social Economics in the Spirit of Joseph Schumpeter

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The system approach developed by Christopher Freeman can arguably be fruitfully applied to explain and understand the systemic interdependencies of technology, economics, and social change, a framework deduced from Joseph Schumpeter. This thesis is therefore concerned with investigating Christopher Freeman’s research programme and assesses it in detail and in relation to Schumpeter’s notion of a “broad kind of economics”, namely Social Economics. It presents central books and journal articles...

  12. Assessing the economic wind power potential in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the European Union, electricity production from wind energy is projected to increase by approximately 16% until 2020. The Austrian energy plan aims at increasing the currently installed wind power capacity from approximately 1 GW to 3 GW until 2020 including an additional capacity of 700 MW until 2015. The aim of this analysis is to assess economically viable wind turbine sites under current feed-in tariffs considering constraints imposed by infrastructure, the natural environment and ecological preservation zones in Austria. We analyze whether the policy target of installing an additional wind power capacity of 700 MW until 2015 is attainable under current legislation and developed a GIS based decision system for wind turbine site selection.Results show that the current feed-in tariff of 9.7 ct kW h−1 may trigger an additional installation of 3544 MW. The current feed-in tariff can therefore be considered too high as wind power deployment would exceed the target by far. Our results indicate that the targets may be attained more cost-effectively by applying a lower feed-in tariff of 9.1 ct kW h−1. Thus, windfall profits at favorable sites and deadweight losses of policy intervention can be minimized while still guaranteeing the deployment of additional wind power capacities. - Highlight: ► Wind supply curves with high spatial resolution for whole Austria are derived. ► Current feed-in tariff higher than necessary to attain targets. Previous feed-in tariffs were too low to achieve targets. ► Current support scheme leads to high social welfare losses. ► Policy makers face high information asymmetry when setting feed-in tariffs.

  13. Human resources of social sphere in the context of sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Мосійчук, Ірина Вікторівна

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies the nature and peculiarities of human resources of social sphere under conditions of sustainable development; role of human resources in the economic system has been disclosed. In the context of sustainable development the problems of human resource in social sector have been disclosed; indicators of the present-day provision of personnel in social sphere have been analyzed.

  14. Economic Benefits: Metrics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expanding research frontier in the landscape architecture discipline, landscape performance research, which embraces the scientific dimension of landscape architecture through evidence-based designs that are anchored in quantitative performance assessment. Specifically, this paper summarizes metrics and methods for determining landscape-derived economic benefits that have been utilized in the Landscape Performance Series (LPS initiated by the Landscape Architecture Foundation. This paper identifies 24 metrics and 32 associated methods for the assessment of economic benefits found in 82 published case studies. Common issues arising through research in quantifying economic benefits for the LPS are discussed and the various approaches taken by researchers are clarified. The paper also provides an analysis of three case studies from the LPS that are representative of common research methods used to quantify economic benefits. The paper suggests that high(er levels of sustainability in the built environment require the integration of economic benefits into landscape performance assessment portfolios in order to forecast project success and reduce uncertainties. Therefore, evidence-based design approaches increase the scientific rigor of landscape architecture education and research, and elevate the status of the profession.

  15. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary mate...

  16. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  17. Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights – ethically evaluated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herm J.G. Zandman

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the ethical difficulties presented by the United Nations “Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights”. Initially, the Biblical principles regarding entering into covenant are elucidated. Next, the United Nations’ role in initiating global covenants is investigated in terms of what this body premises its mandate on. To follow is this particular covenant, presented as a case study. The weakness in the United Nations’ approach to treaties and covenants is that the bedrock on which such covenants is being established is notably and necessarily absent. This means that terminology, phrases and application ipso facto are determined on the basis of human presuppositions, rather than on the metaphysically implanted principles of God. Herein lies the basic flaw to what appears on the surface to be a noble approach. In a global setting, with many different worldviews elbowing for room, harmonised application of generically applauded concepts is difficult. The moment a generic concept such as “freedom” needs to be handled, it becomes value-laden. The question is then by whose values this concept is going to be handled. Usually, when consensus cannot be reached, majority will rule. This means that the very sovereignty of member states, supposedly safeguarded in the covenant, is being eroded. For Christians, majority rule is not an acceptable modus operandi. The Christian would support the principled approach to ethical issues. However, where the ethical basis is not articulated, the plethora of opinions (collective or individual is left to act by. This creates a difficult political environment, for which a solution is hard to find. Yet, the Christian must continue to strive to honour his Lord by striving to be “light and salt” in this political scene.

  18. "Economics with Training Wheels": Using Blogs in Teaching and Assessing Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. The author of this article describes and evaluates a blog assignment used in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics course. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four…

  19. The convergent and divergent evolution of social-behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-01-01

    Human hunter-gatherers share a suite of traits with social insects, which demonstrates convergent social evolution of these taxa prior to agriculture. Humans differ from social insects in that their divisions of labor are more competitive than cooperative. Resulting higher within-group competition in humans has been alleviated by religion and culturally imposed monogamy, both of which also find parallels among social insects. PMID:27562318

  20. Economic assessment of Q fever in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Prins, J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the economic impact of controlling the Q fever epidemic in 2007-2011 in the Netherlands is assessed. Whereas most of the long-term benefits of the implemented control programme stem from reduced disease burden and human health costs, the majority of short-term intervention costs were i

  1. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  2. Methodology for reliability, economic and environmental assessment of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Preliminary Actions in Wave Energy R and D for DG XII's Joule programme, methodologies were developed to facilitate assessment of the reliability, economics and environmental impact of wave energy. This paper outlines these methodologies, their limitations and areas requiring further R and D. (author)

  3. The DCFR and consumer protection: an economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Luth; K. Cseres

    2010-01-01

    This paper will discuss consumer protection in the DCFR. It will screen the DCFR and its model of consumer protection through the lens of economic analysis. The assessment will examine the general role of mandatory rules, which justification grounds they are based on and how this general model is re

  4. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A FACTOR INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL ACCOUNTING AND ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Krasodomska

    2013-01-01

    The idea of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is based on voluntary responsibility of companies for their operations in economic, social and environmental spheres as well as for ethical behavior. In accounting, it is reflected in the form of social accounting which deals with disclosing information on the organization’s achievements in respect of the CSR concept implementation. During the current economic crisis, company relationships with employees have become the most important of all t...

  5. Consumer Behavior – A Consequence of Economic and Social Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Moise Elena; Dârzan Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behavior is part of the economic behavior, being observed from a multidimensional and interdisciplinary perspective. Being a consumer is a quality given, in the first place, by the parties involved in the economic activity; the behavior is analyzed from a micro and macroeconomic perspective – behavior oriented towards satisfying individual needs. According to the current economic trends and also as a consequence of the globalization of the markets, the following question arises: a pe...

  6. Essays on the economics of networks and social relations

    OpenAIRE

    Sääskilahti, Pekka

    2005-01-01

    Economic networks are ubiquitous and their in‡uence on economic behaviour is far from trivial. This dissertation contributes to the economic theory of networks in three aspects. 1) Network models are persistently hampered by the problem of multiplicity of equi- libria. Existing literature has dealt with the problem in an ad hoc manner. I carry out a comprehensive analysis on the conditions for uniqueness in a monopoly pricing model with network externalities. The conditions di¤er under p...

  7. On the psychological basis of economics and social psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E. Chamberlain

    1998-01-01

    Neoclassical economic theory, with its roots (partly) in the marginal revolution of the Nineteenth Century, has been the dominant paradigm for economic thought throughout most of the Twentieth Century?up to the present day. However, for the past several decades economists have been deeply divided on the validity of neoclassical theory, thereby rendering the discipline less effective than it could be in helping to understand socio-economic change. A mathematical synthesis of prominent contribu...

  8. Theoretical background of healthcare management in the conditions of social and economic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuldyakov V.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop fundamental basis of science based healthcare management in social and economic instability. Public health state (1998-2008, selected region was characterized by cardiovascular health parameters (Code IX, ICD-10. Systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Dynamic characteristics of major cardiovascular diseases in social and economic instability considered as a cause of a population system destabilization were reconstructed. Conclusion. Fundamentals of science based healthcare management in social and economic instability include long- and short-term prognosis of public health characteristics as the result of multifactor external influences on cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

  9. Assessing the potential of economic instruments for managing drought risk at river basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Economic instruments work as incentives to adapt individual decisions to collectively agreed goals. Different types of economic instruments have been applied to manage water resources, such as water-related taxes and charges (water pricing, environmental taxes, etc.), subsidies, markets or voluntary agreements. Hydroeconomic models (HEM) provide useful insight on optimal strategies for coping with droughts by simultaneously analysing engineering, hydrology and economics of water resources management. We use HEMs for evaluating the potential of economic instruments on managing drought risk at river basin scale, considering three criteria for assessing drought risk: reliability, resilience and vulnerability. HEMs allow to calculate water scarcity costs as the economic losses due to water deliveries below the target demands, which can be used as a vulnerability descriptor of drought risk. Two generic hydroeconomic DSS tools, SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS ( both programmed in GAMS) have been developed to evaluate water scarcity cost at river basin scale based on simulation and optimization approaches. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water according to the system priorities and operating rules, and evaluate the scarcity costs using economic demand functions. The optimization tool allocates water resources for maximizing net benefits (minimizing total water scarcity plus operating cost of water use). SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), while OPTIGAMS is used to simulate the effect of ideal water markets by economic optimization. These tools have been applied to the Jucar river system (Spain), highly regulated and with high share of water use for crop irrigation (greater than 80%), where water scarcity, irregular hydrology and groundwater overdraft cause droughts to have significant economic, social and environmental consequences. An econometric model was first used to explain the variation

  10. Social Capital in the creation of Human Capital and Economic Growth: A Productive Consumption Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...

  11. Assessment and insurance risk of foreign economic activity: accounting aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Susyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on research approaches to risk positioning grounded classification of risks arising in foreign trade activity. Deals with issues of assessment and insurance risks expediency display your losses from them. To reduce the negative impact of risks the theoretical foundations of security and practical advice with his reflection in the system of accounts. Grounded algorithm to select the most suitable method of risk assessment and constructed flowchart automation choice method for assessing the risk of foreign trade. The expediency of development of self-insurance risks of foreign economic activity.

  12. Attacker economics for Internet-scale vulnerability risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Allodi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerability risk assessment is a crucial process in security management, and the CVSS score is the standard-de-facto risk metric for software vulnerabilities. In this manuscript I show that current risk assessment methodologies do not fit real “in the wild” attack data. I also present my three-steps plan to identify an Internet-scale risk assessment methodology that accounts for attacker economics and opportunities. Eventually, I want to provide answers like the following: “If we depl...

  13. Social assessment of transsexuals who apply for sex reassignment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, J M

    1990-01-01

    A social worker member of the gender identity team of a Psychiatry Department is responsible for the social assessment of the transsexual who applies for sex reassignment surgery. This paper synthesizes the dynamics and processes in conducting the social assessment for eight male-to-female transsexuals from 1986 to April 1988. Role theory was used as the underlying theoretical framework for the assessment. Social criteria for the eligibility of the surgery are delineated. Three cases demonstrate how the social worker used these criteria for the assessment, the difficulties in the process and ways of resolving them. PMID:2367927

  14. A Model for Assessing the Gender Aspect in Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Rakauskienė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to develop a conceptual model for assessing the impact of the gender aspect on economic policy at macro– and microeconomic levels. The research methodology is based on analysing scientific approaches to the gender aspect in economics and gender–responsive budgeting as well as determining the impact of the gender aspect on GDP, foreign trade, the state budget and the labour market. First, the major findings encompass the main idea of a conceptual model proposing that a socio–economic picture of society can be accepted as completed only when, alongside public and private sectors, includes the care/reproductive sector that is dominated by women and creating added value in the form of educated human resources; second, macroeconomics is not neutral in terms of gender equality. Gender asymmetry is manifested not only at the level of microeconomics (labour market and business but also at the level of macroeconomics (GDP, the state budget and foreign trade, which has a negative impact on economic growth and state budget revenues. In this regard, economic decisions, according to the principles of gender equality and in order to achieve gender equality in economics, must be made, as the gender aspect has to be also implemented at the macroeconomic level.

  15. Pro-sociality and Strategic Reasoning in Economic Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Benito eArrunada; Marco eCasari; Francesca ePancotto

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality - inequality aversion and efficiency - as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which support...

  16. The Impact of Three Types of Economic, Cultural and Social Capitals on Youth’s Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Akbarzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Other researches like Richard Rose (2000 concluded that social capital has greater effect on happiness than other variables. He believed that social capital includes social relational networks, friendships and social trust. Social networks provide a great amount of social and mental support. In our research, economic capital has the least effect on happiness among independent variables. Various studies show that money is necessary to happiness but only a certain amount of money. Some researchers believe that by increasing their wealth, people become happier. However, after getting to a certain point, we no longer observe more happiness.

  17. Linkages of periodic climatic and social-economic changes in China during the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiuqi; Su, Yu; Yin, Jun; Wei, Zhudeng

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of climate change on rise and fall of human civilization in the history could provide lessons for understanding how impacts of climatic change and human response interacted. However, such a study is highly restricted by lacking in high-resolution series concerning long-term social-economic processes. China is a country that has great potential for providing long-term socio-economic series in high-resolution because it has abundant related historical records as long as thousands of years in the Chinese historical literatures. In this paper, A methodology named Semantic Differential for quantifying historical literal descriptions to grade numbers is developed. Using the methodology, 10-year resolution graded series of social-economic system change of China, including harvest of agriculture, economy, social rise and fall, are reconstructed during the past 2000 years. To compare the periodic changes of climate, harvest, economy, social rise and fall in China during the past 2000 years, it is found that : (1) There are similar periods on multiple time scales among all the series. (2) On the centurial scale, the better economic and social phases generally occurred in the better harvest phases when generally had a warm climate. (3) In the warm phases, both economic and social status were recovered faster and flourished longer than that in the cold phases. (4) The direct impact of climatic change on food security could be enlarged or diminished when it transmitted from harvest I to other social-economic subsystems because of feedbacks of the system.

  18. Pro-sociality and Strategic Reasoning in Economic Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito eArrunada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality - inequality aversion and efficiency - as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently.

  19. The Assessment of Socio-Economic inequalities in Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients undergoing DOTS Therapy in Chitradurga Region

    OpenAIRE

    SHASHANK S HOSUR; ABUBAKER SIDDIQ; MOULYA M V; NATARAJ G R; BHARATHI D R

    2014-01-01

    India is highest tuberculosis (TB) burden country globally, accounting for more than one-fifth of the global incidence. The impact of TB on individuals is often all encompassing, affecting not only physical health, but also social, economic, and psychological well-being. The aim of our study was to assess the socio-economic inequalities of the patients having Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) in Chitradurga region. The ambispective analysis was carried out, by collecting the data of one yea...

  20. Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland's social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, J.; Storey, K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland`s social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Automatic personality assessment through social media language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden. PMID:25365036

  3. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

  4. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

  5. Economic, Social and Political Aspect of Globalization on Health in Developing Countries (with Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Rafat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, scholars and human rights activists for more national and international responsibilities in a "right to health for everyone" exchange ideas and also propose some strategies. One of the major international problems of health hazards result from globalization. The Relationship between globalization and health aspects of economic, technological, political, social, scientific and cultural should be studied. This study intends to review the aspects of economic, social and political globalization on the health. In this case ,Kof index is which includes all three aspects of economic, social and political globalization agenda. The results show that economic globalization has a negative effect on health in developing countries and globalization, social and political effects are positive and statistically significant. The result is the same for both women and men, and there are only minor differences in the coefficients.

  6. Multicriteria and multiagent decision making with applications to economics and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Maturo, Antonio; Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and timely report on the topic of decision making and decision analysis in economics and the social sciences. The various contributions included in the book, selected using a peer review process, present important studies and research conducted in various countries around the globe. The majority of these studies are concerned with the analysis, modeling and formalization of the behavior of groups or committees that are in charge of making decisions of social and economic importance. Decisions in these contexts have to meet precise coherence standards and achieve a significant degree of sharing, consensus and acceptance, even in uncertain and fuzzy environments. This necessitates the confluence of several research fields, such as foundations of social choice and decision making, mathematics, complexity, psychology, sociology and economics. A large spectrum of problems that may be encountered during decision making and decision analysis in the areas of economics and the social ...

  7. Social and Economic Benefits of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiangyang

    2002-01-01

    @@ On July 4 2002, a project attracting world attention, i.e., the West-East Gas Pipeline Project was declared in full-scale commencement. The project will write history with its enormous social and economic benefits.

  8. System approach to the study of social and economic effects of information and communication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasyev V.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects the theoretical positions of infotech management by system analyzing social and economic impact of information and communication technologies that contributes to the development of ICT management.

  9. Integrated Economic and Environmental Assessment of Waste Policy Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ljunggren Söderman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for new policy instruments supporting the on-going transition from end-of-pipe waste treatment to resource management has been recognized in European policy. Instruments need to be carefully assessed before implementation to promote the desired changes and avoid problem shifting. Mathematical models may assist policy makers in such assessments. This paper presents a set of soft-linked models for assessing the economic and environmental impacts of policy instruments for both the prevention and management of waste and discusses its strengths and limitations. Consisting of (1 a macro-economic model, (2 a systems engineering model for waste management and (3 a life cycle assessment model for waste management, the set is primarily suited to assessing market-based instruments and environmental regulations. Considerable resources were needed for developing and using the set, and there are clear limits as to what can be addressed. However, if only one of the models had been used, neither the range of instruments nor the scope of impacts would have been possible to cover. Furthermore, soft-linked models allow many disciplines to contribute within one harmonized framework. Such integrated assessments may become increasingly useful for continuing the implementation of policy for sustainable governance of society’s material resources.

  10. Good Global Economic and Social Practices to Promote Gender Equality in the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    Increasing job opportunities and decent work for women are essential for advancing economic and social development in countries, because many women continue to experience gender inequalities at work. An analysis of strategies to counter gender discrimination and promote equality between men and women shows how a combination of good practices in law and in social and economic policy can improve equitable employment opportunities, remuneration, and treatment for women and men at work. This repo...

  11. Awareness on Economic, Social, and Environmental Effects of the Global Warming: Experimental Findings From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yayar, Rüştü; Kaplan, Çetin; Şimşek, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to reveal the awareness upon the various effects of global warming. In this sense, we tried to reveal social, economic, and environmental effects of the global warming and the awareness related to these effects. In this study, the effects of global warming and awareness issues are discussed in the concept of global warming. Economic, social, and environmental effects of global warming are established, a questionnaire was applied to investigate global warming awareness within th...

  12. Methodological Aspects in Using Pearson Coefficient in Analyzing Social & Economical Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Danacica; Ana-Gabriela Babucea

    2007-01-01

    The authors illustrate in this paper a series of methodological aspects generated by the use of Pearson correlation coefficient in analyzing social and economical phenomena. Pearson correlation coefficient is largely used in economics and social sciences; however, the diversified nature and subtle nuances of this concept raises significant methodological issues. This article deals with aspects concerning the factors that impact on the size and interpretation of Pearson correlation coefficient...

  13. Economic and Social Involvments of Labor Market in Romania and European Union in the Crisis Context

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Marin Boaja; Minicã Boaja

    2012-01-01

    Romanian, European and world economy were affected by a devastating economic crisis which turned into a financial, social and moral crisis. This phenomenon started in 2007 in America as a mortgage crisis changing in a real economy crisis affecting the financial system and evolving in a social crisis – on labor market – characterized by low employment rates and high unemployment. Global economic crisis effects began to become visible in Romania only in 2009 through a large current account defi...

  14. Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits Associated With U.S. Organic Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lohr, Luanne

    2005-01-01

    This case study reviews the economic, social, and environmental benefits associated with organic agriculture in the United States. Measurable impacts are quantified by comparing indicators of benefits in counties with organic farms and counties without. Statistical differences across counties with and without organic farms provide preliminary evidence that organic farms may generate a variety of direct and indirect benefits. Of 36 indicators tested across a range of economic, social, and envi...

  15. Socio-Economic Impact of Social Forestry on Farmers in District Faisalabad

    OpenAIRE

    Ume-Laila; Farkhanda Anjum

    2001-01-01

    Present study deals with the survey which was conducted to study the Socio-economic impact of social forestry on farmers in District Faisalabad. Forest community of plants and animals dominated by woody vegetation. In Pakistan there is not appropriate forestry system and farmers are not aware of social forestry. The main purpose of the study were to measure : to examine Socio-economic characteristics of farmers affecting planting : to examine the motivating factors behind the adoption of soci...

  16. A sustainable architecture approach to the economic and social aspects of the bazaar of Tabriz

    OpenAIRE

    Kalan, Arezou; Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable architecture aims to design buildings and infra-structures, such as squares and bazaars, adapted to the social, economic, cultural and environmental contexts of certain place. The practice of sustainable architecture contributes to sustainable development, therefore for the development of future generations. The concept must integrate not only bioclimatic strategies, but also economic, social and cultural facets. Sustainable architecture research is either carried while the design...

  17. The local economic and social effects of power station siting: anticipated, demonstrated and perceived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the economic and social effects of power station siting at a local level using material based on the interim research findings from a project commissioned by the Central Electricity Generating Board. The cases for and against power station development are outlined and a review of the actual economic and social effects is presented, drawn from a study of a conventional power station at Drax and a nuclear power station at Sizewell. (U.K.)

  18. Economic and Social Impacts of a Large Agricultural Processing Plant in a Rural County

    OpenAIRE

    Doeksen, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a large pork processing plant located in Texas County, Oklahoma. In addition, many ranchers built large pork confinement facilities. The county was sparsely populated with 16,320 residents. The largest community, Guymon, had a population of 8,350 residents. These activities have changed the community and the objective of this paper will be to (1) review the social and economic changes that have occurred since 1994, and (2) to project social and economic changes from 1998 to 2003. Man...

  19. Basic Grounds of Formation of the Concept of Social Security of Economically Active Population

    OpenAIRE

    Poliak Natalia O.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article is justification of a necessity of development of the national concept of social security in Ukraine and revelation of basic grounds of formation of such a concept for economically active population on the basis of specification of its goals, tasks and identification of main directions and measures of realisation. The author offers the following main directions of realisation of the concept of social security of economically active population: expansion of the sphere o...

  20. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted by DOE/MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the paper is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs

  1. Economic assessment of the construction industry: A construction-economics nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Herbert Marion, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an economic assessment of the construction industry. More specifically, this study addresses ambiguities within the literature that are associated with the construction-economics nexus. The researcher 1) investigated the relationships between economic indicators and stock prices of U.S. construction equipment manufacturers, 2) investigated the relationships between energy production, consumption, and corruption, and 3) determined the economic effect electricity generation and electricity consumption has on economies of scale. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics in this study and determined that economists, researchers, policy-makers, and others should have predicted the 2007-08 world economic collapse 5-6 years prior to realization of the event given that construction indices and GDP grossly regressed from statistically acceptable trends as early as 2002 and perhaps 2000. Substantiating this claim, the effect of the cost of construction materials and labor, i.e. construction index, on GDP was significant for years leading up to the collapse (1970-2007). Additionally, it was determined that energy production and consumption are predictors of governmental corruption in some countries. In the Republic of Botswana, for example, the researcher determined that energy production and consumption statistically jointly effected governmental corruption. In addition to determining statistical effect, a model for predicting governmental corruption was developed based on energy production and consumption volumes. Also, the researcher found that electricity generation in the 25 largest world economies had a statistically significant effect on GDP. Electricity consumption also had an effect on GDP, as well, but not on other economic indicators. More importantly than the quantitative findings, the researcher concluded that the construction-economics nexus is far more complex than most policy-makers realize. As such

  2. Assessment of environmental and economic feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case study landfill as greater environmental benefits are foreseen in several impact categories compared to the landfill's current situation (the 'Do-nothing' scenario). Among the considered processes, the thermal treatment process dominates both the environmental and economic performances of ELFM. Improvements in the electrical efficiency of thermal treatment process, the calorific value of refuse derived fuel and recovery efficiencies of different waste fractions lead the performance of ELFM towards an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible direction. Although the environmental and economic profiles of ELFM will differ from case to case, the results of this analysis can be used as a benchmark for future ELFM projects. PMID:25708403

  3. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  4. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  5. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  6. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Pho...

  7. Economía social, economía solidaria y economía laboral: un abordaje comparativo desde sus perspectivas conceptuales

    OpenAIRE

    Borge, Dalia; Li, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Si bien los conceptos de economía social, economía solidaria, y economía laboral suelen ser empleados en Costa Rica como sinónimos, es importante establecer las fronteras y las coincidencias que existen entre las diferentes aproximaciones teóricas, con el fin de implementar los análisis y acciones necesarios para promover el desarrollo de cada una de estas posturas en su debida dimensión. Igualmente, existen otros conceptos que se han ido sumando en la práctica en un intento de dar explicació...

  8. Economic evaluation of urban track systems: integration of Life Cycle Costs and Socio-Economic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    DE JONG, Marjolein; Declercq, Katrien

    2012-01-01

    Urban Track is an EU funded research project (2006-2010) aiming at the development and construction of modular track systems for tram, metro and light rail with a low life cycle cost and a high performance. Systems should be safe, and produce a minimum of noise and vibrations. In total, 28 different partners have worked on the development, implementation and assessment of the innovative rail technologies. To assess the Life Cycle Costs (LCC) and Socio-Economic Costs (SEC) of the newly develop...

  9. The Impact of Inclusion Criteria in Health Economic Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Anke Richter; Patricia Thieda; Kylie Thaler; Gerald Gartlehner

    2011-01-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore t...

  10. Economía institucional y economía de la elección social: afinidades y conflictos (traducción Institucional economics and social choice economics: commonalities and conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams John

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina las semejanzas y diferencias economía institucional y economía de la elección pública; el interes común por el papel del gobierno en la sociedad y en la economía, el reconocimiento de poder y los grupos de interés son esenciales en la conformación de la economía y sus resultados, y la ídea de que los actores económicos no se confabulan para obtener el bien común; y su visión diferente de los seres humanos, la naturaleza del gobierno, la evolución de las instituciones, la valoración y el bienestar. El profesor Adams sostiene que la teoría de la elección social es una amenaza para los institucionalistas y que ha planteado preguntas válidas y fascinantes a que estos deben responder con argumentos no doctrinariosque superen su visión laxa e ingenua del gobierno. Para ello deben retomar y superar la obra de John R. Commons, a quien considera superior a Veblen y Ayres en su comprensión del papel de las instituciones en la conformación de la cultura, la política y los interes económicos, y precursor de gran parte de las discusiones contemporáneas, aunque los teóricos de la elección social y los neoinstitucionalistas no reconozcan ese antecedente.This article examines the similarities and differences between institucional economics and public choice economics; the common interest in a role for the government in society and in the economy, the recognition that power and interest groups are essential in the formation of the economy and its results, and the idea that economic actors don't conspire to obtain the common good; and their different visions of human beings, the nature of government, teh evolution of institutions, value, and welfare. Professor Adams sustains that social choice theory is a threat to the institutionalists and that it has raised valid andfascina ting questions to which they should respond with non-doctrinaire arguments which transcend their lax and ingenuous vision of government. To

  11. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  12. On the Role of Personality Traits and Social Skills in Adult Economic Attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mueller

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe research reported on these pages analyzes the influence of personality traits and interpersonal skills in adult economic attainment, with particular focus on earnings. The purpose is to bring together ideas from economics, social-psychology, and related disciplines in order to contri

  13. Economic and Social Satisfaction : Measurement and Relevance to Marketing Channel Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyskens, I.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate the critical need to recognize the presence of two different types of satisfaction for effective channel governance—economic satisfaction, that is, a channel member’s evaluation of the economic outcomes that flow from the relationship with its partner, and social satisfaction, a chann

  14. Peculiarities of social-economical adaptation of people, suffered from a crash on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of economical behavior of people in the conditions of restrictions connected with radioactive pollution are analyzed. On the basis of data of sociological research specificity of social-economical adaptation of the different age groups is considered, the basic problems and perspectives of the development of these regions are revealed. (authors)

  15. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are

  16. The Development of Concepts of Economic and Social Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Examined children's conceptions of the causes of wealth and poverty. As their ages increase, children explain wealth and poverty by referring to individual differences in work, effort, and intelligence rather than social, structural, or political factors. (PCB)

  17. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality—inequality aversion and efficiency—as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports th...

  18. Ontological foundations for evolutionary economics: A Darwinian social ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further the project of generalized Darwinism by developing a social ontology on the basis of a combined commitment to ontological continuity and ontological commonality. Three issues that are central to the development of a social ontology are addressed: (1) the specification of units of analysis above the level of the individual, (2) the specification of the relationship between self-organization, developmental processes, and environmental selection as drivers...

  19. SATIETY DISEASES"(REDRESSING THE BALANCE BETWEEN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN AZERBAIJAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffarli, Nazim

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, sustainable economic development has been an increasingly higher priority for all, both well and less developed, states. The global economic crisis that broke out in 2008 showed that the steadily high growth rates demonstrated by many countries throughout the pre-crisis years, even giving some of them the honorary titles like, for instance, "Celtic tiger," in actual fact do not always testify to sustainable development. There are economic and social "diseases" that can disrup...

  20. Andalusian Economic Structure over Social Accounting Matrices from FES analysis perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Jorge Manuel; Cardenete, Manuel Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, regional economic analysis has been interested in identifying common patterns and regularities of regional economic structure. The identification of such patterns suggests that there predictable relationships between different levels of structural regional development. Since Social Accounting Matrices (SAM) are database containing the total transactions in an economy, it is possible to use them to comparise the economic structure embedded in them. As regional SAM provi...

  1. The Development of Forms of Corporate Social Responsibility in Russia in the Current Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Arzumanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the characteristic features of modern trends in the formation and implementation of corporate social responsibility in Russia in the current economic conditions, which is based on the fact that reasonable economic interests oriented business not only on maximizing profits, but also to improve their own macro - socio-economic, natural, political, through voluntary investment profits in the respective areas.

  2. Awareness of the Social Implications of Clothing in Relation to Fashion Awareness and Clothing Economic Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…

  3. Fostering the Common Good: The Portrayal of the Social Economy in Secondary Business and Economics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John P.; Stocks, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    In this research study, we undertook a content analysis of thirteen economics and business textbooks, which were examined for their coverage of the social economy, which encompasses a range of nonprofit and social enterprise organizations that put "people before profits." The goal was to understand the ways that these textbooks represent official…

  4. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  6. The Economic Impact of Social Media on Small Businesses: Evidence from Three Mississippi Extension Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, James N.; Hood, Ken; Gallardo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    With many social media companies now in the marketplace, it behooves small businesses not to use these outlets to market their products, especially rural businesses. In this paper, we discuss some of the economic impacts of using online social networks and provide case study evidence from Mississippi.

  7. Experimental Economics: Economic and Game Theoretic Principles in Experimental Research in the Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding individual and social decisions and how they are affected by the environment andinstitutional constraints is at the heart of the social sciences. With the exception ofpsychology, traditionally in the social sciences empirical evidence is gathered via happenstancedata. Such data are plagued with endogeneity problems and unobserved variables which make itdifficult to draw causal inferences and reliably test theories. In the last thirty yearslaboratory experiments are increasingly ...

  8. IS SOCIAL RESILIENCE AN ECONOMIC STRUCTURE ISSUE OR JUST THE ABILITY OF COMMUNITIES TO COPE WITH EXTERNAL STRESS ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Răzvan ȘERBAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes social resilience at county level in Romania, in the context of the recent global financial and economic crisis. Generally, social resilience is seen as the ability of communities to cope with external stress such as changes in the economic environment. This study emphasizes the vulnerabilities of economies where communities live in, namely the particularities of economic environment where human communities evolve and co-evolve by resilience emergence. Thus, the link between the social and the economic component requires a special attention, initially external shock being experienced by the economic structure, which, to respond to sudden changes, dissipates shock to the other components of the social-economic system, namely the social component. The close relationship between the economic and the social components causes economies deepening into crisis by triggering a circular causality process. The population’s decision to change residence interrupts this process, leading to social resilience.

  9. Competing conceptualizations of decent work at the intersection of health, social and economic discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), decent work is critical to economic and social progress and well-being. The ILO's Decent Work Agenda outlines four directions (creating jobs, guaranteeing rights at work, extending social protection, promoting social dialogue) (ILO, 2015). While the Agenda's existence may imply consensus about its meaning, we contend that several conceptualizations of decent work exist in the global policy arena. Different institutional perspectives must be negotiated, and political, economic, social and health considerations balanced in its pursuit. This paper reports findings from a critical discourse analysis of 10 policy texts that aimed to reveal different health, economic, and social claims about decent work and how these are shaped by the work policy agendas of the ILO, World Health Organization, and World Bank. Themes emerging from the discourse analysis include the: challenges and realities of promoting "one" agenda; complex intersection between decent work, health and health equity concepts; emphasis on economic and pro-market interests versus the social dimensions of work; and, relative emphasis on individual versus collective responsibility for decent work. To our knowledge, this is a first attempt to contrast different conceptualizations of decent work involving these institutions. Our findings suggest that decent work is a contested notion, and that more than one "agenda" is operating in the face of vested institutional interests. Broader discourses are contributing to a reframing of decent work in economic, social and/or health terms and these are impacting which dimensions of work are taken up in policy texts over others. Results show how the language of economics acts as a disciplinary and regulatory power and its role as a normalizing discourse. We call for research that deepens understanding of how a social, economic and health phenomenon like work is discursively re-interpreted through different global

  10. Análisis de la economía social asturiana (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Aydee HURTADO GARCÉS

    2013-01-01

    El término "economía social" es un concepto ampliamente discutido; en general se utiliza para describir aquella parte de la economía que no está incluida ni en el sector público ni en el sector privado. Compuesto principalmente por cooperativas, mutualidades, asociaciones y fundaciones. Después de una amplia revisión bibliográfica se encontró que el sector de la economía social (SES en adelante) juega un papel fundamental en el desarrollo socioeconómico de las regiones, en parte por la amp...

  11. Analysis of Coupling between Soil and Water Conservation and Economic-social Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xihua; Zhang Daimin; Wan Han; Chen Tingting; Yan Fujiang

    2009-01-01

    The coupling relation exists in water and soil conservation and economic-social development.The article analyses the relation of soil and water conservation and economic-social development stages as well as the coupling analytical method.Then calculates the expecting income by dispersing Markov decision and calculates the correlation coefficient and the relationship degree.The article obtains the relationship of soil and water conservation investments and all kinds of incomes.Finally,it analyzes the important meaning in socio-economic development of water and soil conservation.

  12. Social, Economic and Health Impacts of WaveLength's Work with Loneliness and Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Annie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of qualitative research into the social, economic and health impacts of WaveLength’s work on loneliness and social isolation. WaveLength is a charitable organisation which provides access to media technology for people who are lonely or socially isolated and living in poverty. This research was an exploratory qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. The overarching aim of the research was to understand the ways and means through which media technol...

  13. Making Capitalism Work: Social Capital and Economic Growth in Italy, 1970-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Using data on the 20 Italian regions for the period 1970-1995, I examine whether the presence of social capital, as reflected in a number of different measures collected by Putnam (1993), affects economic productivity. I find three types of effects. First, social capital, when treated as an input to regional production, has a positive and significant effect in the South, but a much weaker effect in the North. Second, some forms of social capital can significantly increase regions’ propensitie...

  14. The economic returns of bonding and bridging social capital for immigrant men in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lancee, Bram

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Using longitudinal data, this paper analyses the effect of different forms of social capital on the likelihood of employment and the occupational status of first generation immigrant men in Germany. This allows me to examine to what extent social capital of the bonding and the bridging type yield different returns. It is studied how contacts with natives, co-ethnic ties and family-based social capital are beneficial to the economic position of immigrant men. Random effects...

  15. Social Capital, Tourism and Socio-Economic Transformation of Rural Society: Evidence from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Tourism has a wide range of impacts on the economy, the natural environment and the people living in a destination. In the context of poor, rural societies, many scholars have emphasized the positive impacts of tourism on local economic growth. Concern has been voiced, however, about the social and cultural impacts of tourism due to observed changes in local norms, values and behaviour. This paper proposes the concept of social capital to analyze the social and cultural effects of tourism in ...

  16. Areva. 2007 figures economic, social, societal and environmental data; Areva. Chiffres 2007 donnees economiques, sociales, societales et environnementales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document presents the 2007 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation; 2 - Financial performance: 2007 results; 3 - Commitment to employees: Stakeholder relations, Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, Workforce, Workforce and training; 4 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 5 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators.

  17. Integrating social and value dimensions into sustainability assessment of lignocellulosic biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Sujatha; Mohr, Alison; Helliwell, Richard; Ribeiro, Barbara; Shortall, Orla; Smith, Robert David Jonathan; Millar, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The paper clarifies the social and value dimensions for integrated sustainability assessments of lignocellulosic biofuels. We develop a responsible innovation approach, looking at technology impacts and implementation challenges, assumptions and value conflicts influencing how impacts are identified and assessed, and different visions for future development. We identify three distinct value-based visions. From a techno-economic perspective, lignocellulosic biofuels can contribute to energy se...

  18. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  19. Cell-based representation and analysis of social-economic data in grid-city construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangnan; Huang, Fang; Wang, Ping

    2007-06-01

    Grid-city management currently attracts a wider audience globally. Socio-economic data is an essential part of grid-city management system. Social-economic data of an urban is characterized by discrete, time-varying, statistical, distributed and complicated. Most of data are with no exactly spatial location or from various statistical units. There is obvious gap while matching social-economic data with existing grid map of natural geographical elements emerges. It may cause many difficulties in data input, organization, processing and analysis while the grid system constructing and executing. The issue of how to allocate and integrate the huge social-economic data into each grid effectively is crucial for grid-city construction. In this paper, we discussed the characteristics of social-economic data in a grid-city systematically, thereafter a cell-based model for social-economic data representing and analyzing is presented in this paper. The kernel issues of the cell-based model establishment include cell size determining, cell capabilities developing for multi-dimension representation and evaluation, and cell dynamic simulation functions designing. The cell-based model supplements the methods system of spatial data mining, and is also promising in application to the spatialization of statistical data obtained from other researches including environmental monitoring, hydrological and meteorological observation.

  20. Correlations of consumption patterns in social-economic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Leo, Yannick; Sarraute, Carlos; Fleury, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a coupled dataset collecting the mobile phone communication and bank transactions history of a large number of individuals living in Mexico. After mapping the social structure and introducing indicators of socioeconomic status, demographic features, and purchasing habits of individuals we show that typical consumption patterns are strongly correlated with identified socioeconomic classes leading to patterns of stratification in the social structure. In addition we measure correlations between merchant categories and introduce a correlation network, which emerges with a meaningful community structure. We detect multivariate relations between merchant categories and show correlations in purchasing habits of individuals. Our work provides novel and detailed insight into the relations between social and consuming behaviour with potential applications in recommendation system design.

  1. Basic Variables of Economic and Social Development in Balkan Region (Regional Development -Industrialisation-Humanpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazil Yozgat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three subjects had been investigated. Firstly history of industry Balkan region, secondly basic variables economic and social development, thirdly relation to variables. Industry is basic element of development. In addition to in this paper theoretical and literal concept has been investigated. In this study is aimed at presenting the most important new trends of economic, social, political and institutional development of Balkan region with relation to four major factors shaping the regions countries. Industrial Revolution in Europe and made major investments in the first half of the 19th century particularly central Europe and Balkan region. Balkan regions represent complex and diverse reality. These regions are from Old Continent to Central Europe, South East Europe and Mediterranean. From Adriatic to Black Sea and Mediterranean also. In these regions there are some different economic, social and political events. I.e. Croatia moves to final round member of European Union some countries face to particular problems of political subjects.I offer framework analysis of the regional country by country based on the existing set of criteria, which are variables of social and economic development. Those variables are including (cluster industry, expenditure R&D od GDP, variations of capitals, population and market, some trade block which are impact of economic and social developmentProposed key pillars to support sustainable competitiveness in the Western Balkans. Sustaining competitiveness =Human capital development==Regional Cluster==SectorPolicy reforms.(OECD,2008Key words. Balkan region, Social development, Globalisation, Sustainable development

  2. Aging and Wisdom: Age-related changes in economic and social decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth eLim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a ‘phenomenon of decline’ and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: 1 prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations, 2 resolving social conflicts, 3 emotional homeostasis, 4 self-reflection, 5 dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly.

  3. Aging and wisdom: age-related changes in economic and social decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kenneth Teck Kiat; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a "phenomenon of decline" and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: (1) prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations; (2) resolving social conflicts; (3) emotional homeostasis; (4) self-reflection; (5) dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly. PMID:26150788

  4. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) has performed a Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Hybrid Repowering under funding by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Western Energy Supply and Transmission (WEST) Associates, and a number of southwestern utilities. Solar hybrid repowering involves placement of solar hardware adjacent to and connected to existing gas- and oil-fueled electric generation units to displace some of or all the fossil fuel normally used during daylight hours. The subject study assesses the technical economic viability of the solar hybrid repowering concept within the southwestern United States and the PNM system. This document is a final report on the study and its results. The study was divided into the six primary tasks to allow a systematic investigation of the concept: (1) market survey and cost/benefit analysis, (2) study unit selection, (3) conceptual design and cost estimates, (4) unit economic analysis, (5) program planning, future phases, and (6) program management. Reeves Station No. 2 at Albuquerque, New Mexico, was selected for repowering with a design goal of 50 percent (25 MWe). The solar system design is based on the 10 MW solar central receiver pilot plant preliminary design for Barstow, California. SAN--1608-4-2 contains the technical drawings. (WHK)

  5. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...

  6. Prioritizing social and economic effects of sport places on Urban Environment (A case study: Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soltanhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Abstract1- IntroductionSport facilities and sport places as one of important land uses in urban environment can have positive and negative effects on their surroundings, of which the most important can be addressed to economic and social ones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify, assess and prioritize the social and economic effects of sport places on the urban environment. Based on these objectives, five typical sport places (Shahid Sadoughi, Shahid Paak Nejad, Shahid Nassiri, 22nd Bahman, Kargaran sport complexes were selected by special circumstances in Yazd city. The research goals were to recognize and determine the socioeconomic effects (impacts of sport places on urban environment, which were obtained by searching and organizing relevant literature and valid scientific resources as well as discussing and exchanging views with outstanding professors and experts in urban planning and sport management. The research tool consisted of two questionnaires: 1 dual comparative questionnaire including 57 items in 2 sections in order to define input of AHP method, and 2 a questionnaire with Likert scale including 18 items in 2 sections in order to define inputs of SAW method and TOPSIS method. To gather data, the questionnaires were distributed among 162 individuals from the sample in Yazd city (53 persons from chairmen of sport federations, specialists from physical education office, and administrators from selected sport complexes, 14 persons from police officers, 12 persons from real estate agencies, 83 persons from residents in surroundings of selected sport complexes.2- Theoretical Bases - Sport Places: Places constructed for various sports activities, including outdoor and indoor locations.- Economic and social effects (impacts of sport places: Economic and social effects (impacts which sports places exert on their surroundings in urban environment.3- DiscussionGathering the necessary data and prioritizing the determined

  7. The Evolution of Social Learning and its Economic Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossan, Benjamin; Jann, Ole; Hammerstein, Peter

    2015-01-01

    changing environments within one generation by using their respective learning strategy. The frequency of the agent types adapts between generations according to the agents' acquired wealth. During the course of evolution, social learning becomes dominant, resulting in three major effects: First, for......We use an evolutionary model to simulate agents who choose between two options with stochastically varying payoffs. Two types of agents are considered: individual learners, who rely on trial-and-error methods, and social learners, who imitate the wealthiest sampled individual. Agents adapt to...

  8. Mortality, health, social and economic consequences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    consequences for spouses. We aimed to estimate the factual direct and indirect costs of ALS in a national sample. Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2009), 2,394 patients with ALS were identified and subsequently compared with 9,575 randomly chosen control subjects matched for age...... included labour supply and social transfer payments, and were based on income data derived from Coherent Social Statistics. Patients with a diagnosis of ALS had poor survival. The average (95 % CI) 5-year survival rate was 0.278 (0.358-0.298) compared with 0.865 (0.858-0.872) among controls. Patients with...

  9. Assessment of Cognitive Social Skills in Learning Disabled Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Joan M.; Bellack, Alan S.

    Cognitive social skills were assessed in 22 learning disabled (LD), 18 behavior problem, and 20 control boys in grades 7-9. Measures included an interview tapping social knowledge, self-reported behavior, generation of alternative solutions to social problems, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Vocabulary Scale. Sociometric…

  10. Developmentally Sensitive Assessment of Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Tracy L.; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Henin, Aude; Storch, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Social anxiety affects children across the developmental spectrum. Early-onset social phobia may be particularly impairing because of its disruptive effects on social and academic functioning during a child's formative years and because of the elevated risks of childhood adversity in anxious individuals. Unfortunately, little attention has been…

  11. Background information for the economic assessment of solvent fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    An economic assessment of solvent fermentation processes was made. The question of whether or not the increased costs for petrochemical raw materials are sufficiently high now (or their projected costs in the 1980's), such that certain chemicals could be produced commercially from a cheaper raw material, say cellulosics, via various fermentation routes is considered. Specific examples under consideratin are n-butanol, propionic acid, and acetic acid. A qualitative approach was developed, based on major cost factors of alternative routes for making such projections. The technique described can be made as quantitative as desired by applying accepted engineering design and economic analysis principles to the complex, interacting factors that are involved. Some broad qualitative conclusions are made.

  12. An economic assessment of U.S. MHTGR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GCRA's economic goal for the U.S. MHTGR design is for the equilibrium plants to have at least a 10% power cost advantage over comparably sized, state-of-the-art coal plants. In addition, the designers are challenged to limit the overall financial risk to be on par with such a coal plant. During the past year, cost estimates and economic assessments have been updated in the U.S. MHTGR Program. Further, a major study has been completed adapting the MHTGR to a water desalination/cogeneration application. These results will be presented along with a discussion of the key GCRA design requirements that limit the overall financial risk to the prospective owner/operators of future MHTGR plants. (author)

  13. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs. PMID:27174614

  14. Teaching Statistics in Labor, Social, Juridical or Economic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Alvarez, Esteban; Rosales-Moreno, Maria Jesus; Huete-Morales, Maria Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Statistics teaching should not be carried out in the same way for all kinds of university students. Instead, teaching statistics should take into account the different fields of study that students have chosen. For example, students of sciences or engineering have different interests and backgrounds compared to students of any social or juridical…

  15. Cooperative Education: A Social Contract for Economic Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ralph C.

    1982-01-01

    Increasingly, youth are unable to demonstrate minimum competencies in job skills and productive attitudes. Service and white-collar jobs are replacing manual jobs and youth lack the social skills necessary to function in these jobs. Increased attention to cooperative education, which integrates academic/career interests with productive work…

  16. Africa : Social and Economic Development Goals - A Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mattimore, Angel

    2002-01-01

    During the 1998 Second Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD II), a set of ambitious poverty reduction and human development goals were established for the Africa region, drawing on and reaffirming commitments made three years earlier at the First TICAD conference and at the United Nation (UN) Social Summit in Copenhagen. The Second TICAD Agenda for Action dealt with...

  17. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  19. Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects of energy crops deal mainly with the energy production of the crops and the possible consequences for CO2 mitigation. The Dutch Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) has developed a systematic methodology to assess the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of biomass crops. The method is best described as a multicriteria analysis of process chains and is very much related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Characteristics of our methodology are the use of: definition of functional units; analysis of the entire lifecycle; definition of yield levels and corresponding agricultural practices; analysis of both ecological and economic criteria; definition of reference systems; definition of procedures for normalisation and weighting. CLM has applied the method to assess the sustainability of ten potentially interesting energy crops in four European regions. The results are used to outline the perspectives for large scale production of biomass crops with regard to the medium and long term land availability in Europe. For the crops considered, net energy budget ranges from 85 GJ net avoided energy per ha for rape seed for fuel to 248 GJ net avoided fossil energy per ha for silage maize for electricity from gasification. The methodology of the tool and its results were discussed at the concerted action ''Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'' (AIR3-94-2455), organised by CLM in 1996. Major conclusions of the research: multicriteria analyhsis of process lifecycles is at present the best available option to assess the ecological

  20. Consumption as a Social Process within Social Provisioning and Capitalism: Implications for Heterodox Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Zdravka

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses consumption as a social process that is a part of social provisioning and is in an evolutionary interplay with other social processes. The discussion is grounded in, but is not limited to the contributions of Thorstein Veblen. The first section delineates social provisioning as a framework for consumption inquiry. This section emphasizes that social provisioning is a part of collective life process embedded in culture and nature, and that it is comprised by two general s...