U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The California Drug and Alcohol Treatment Assessment (CALDATA) was designed to study the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of the state's alcohol and drug treatment...
Ross, Dana; Schumacher, Joseph E
The purpose of this study was to objectively and quantitatively assess individual skill level of male condom use. This study developed a reliable and face valid assessment of correct male condom use based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Participants (N= 163) were recruited from persons in treatment for cocaine addiction. Condom use was assessed on the basis of correct completion of eight discrete steps. An overall score of 40% correct condom use indicated the need for training in this sample. Assessment showed training needs especially related to steps involving reduction of ejaculate leakage and steps related to potential hazards of nonoxynol-9 use. Frequency of condom use was also assessed; there was no correlation between frequency of condom use and condom use skill. Drug addiction treatment programs are encouraged to incorporate HIV risk reduction programs that teach condom use skills and use the CUDOS as an empirical measure of condom skill acquisition.
Knight, Kevin; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Chatham, Lois R.; Camacho, L. Mabel
Provides an overview of a comprehensive, prison-based treatment assessment, including a six-month follow-up study. Results show that 80% of the inmates referred to the program graduated. Graduates demonstrated marked reductions in criminal and drug-use activity and had lower relapse and recidivism rates when compared to other parolees. (RJM)
Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi
Full Text Available Research on assessing craving in laboratory settings often involves inducing and then measuring craving in subjects. Cue-induced craving is studied in laboratory settings using the cue reactivity paradigm, in which drug-related photos, videos, evocative scripts, olfactory cues, and paraphernalia may induce craving. Cue-induced craving evoked by drug-related stimuli could be associated with relapse and recurrence of drug addiction. In this article, the authors review different methods of assessing craving in laboratory settings and explain how human laboratory settings can bridge the gap between randomized clinical trials (RCTs and animal models on pharmacological treatments for drug dependence. The brief reviewed literature provides strong evidence that laboratory-based studies of craving may improve our understanding of how subjective reports of drug craving are related to objective measures of drug abuse and laboratory settings provide an opportunity to measure the degree to which they co-vary during pharmacological interventions. This issue has important implications inclinical studies.
Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi
Full Text Available Research on assessing craving in laboratory settings often involves inducing and then measuring craving in subjects. Cue-induced craving is studied in laboratory settings using the cue reactivity paradigm, in which drug-related photos, videos, evocative scripts, olfactory cues, and paraphernalia may induce craving. Cue-induced craving evoked by drug-related stimuli could be associated with relapse and recurrence of drug addiction. In this article, the authors review different methods of assessing craving in laboratory settings and explain how human laboratory settings can bridge the gap between randomized clinical trials (RCTs and animal models on pharmacological treatments for drug dependence. The brief reviewed literature provides strong evidence that laboratory-based studies of craving may improve our understanding of how subjective reports of drug craving are related to objective measures of drug abuse and laboratory settings provide an opportunity to measure the degree to which they co-vary during pharmacological interventions. This issue has important implications inclinical studies.
Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Wexler, Harry K.
Evaluations of prison-based drug treatment programs typically focus on one or two dichotomous outcome variables related to recidivism. In contrast, this paper uses multiple measures of outcomes related to crime and drug use to examine the impact of prison treatment. Crime variables included self-report data of time to first illegal activity,…
Full Text Available ABSTRACTDescribing drug treatment given by general practitioners, and quantifying changes in their prescribingbehaviour due to educational intervention, were important parts of the method developed and appliedby the European Drug Education Project. Based on the physicians’ prescription data, individual patientswere defined as having either asthma or urinary tract infections. Prescribing indicators were establishedfor assessing the quality (acceptable or unacceptable of the drug treatment. The diagnose definitionsand prescribing indicators are discussed in more detail in relation to feeding back individual prescribingdata to educational groups of physicians to improve the quality of their drug therapy.
Khan, Farrah; Krishnan, Archana; Ghani, Mansur A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Fu, Jeannia J; Lim, Sin How; Dhaliwal, Sangeeth Kaur; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
As part of an ongoing initiative by the Malaysian government to implement alternative approaches to involuntary detention of people who use drugs, the National Anti-Drug Agency has created new voluntary drug treatment programs known as Cure and Care (C&C) Centers that provide free access to addiction treatment services, including methadone maintenance therapy, integrated with social and health services. We evaluated early treatment outcomes and client satisfaction among patients accessing C&C treatment and ancillary services at Malaysia's second C&C Center located in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. In June-July 2012, a cross-sectional convenience survey of 96 C&C inpatients and outpatients who entered treatment >30 days previously was conducted to assess drug use, criminal justice experience, medical co-morbidities, motivation for seeking treatment, and attitudes towards the C&C. Drug use was compared for the 30-day-period before C&C entry and the 30-day-period before the interview. Self-reported drug use levels decreased significantly among both inpatient and outpatient clients after enrolling in C&C treatment. Higher levels of past drug use, lower levels of social support, and more severe mental health issues were reported by participants who were previously imprisoned. Self-reported satisfaction with C&C treatment services was high. Conclusions/Importance: Preliminary evidence of reduced drug use and high levels of client satisfaction among C&C clients provide support for Malaysia's ongoing transition from compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs) to these voluntary drug treatment centers. If C&C centers are successful, Malaysia plans to gradually transition away from CDDCs entirely.
Chouaid, Christos; Borget, Isabelle; Braun, Eric; Bazil, Marie-Laure; Schaetz, Dominique; Rémuzat, Cécile; Toumi, Mondher
France is one of the European countries that spend the most on oncology drugs. To keep pharmaceutical expenditure under control, Health Authorities highly scrutinize market access of costly medicines. To assess current and future trends in French health technology assessment (HTA) of antineoplastic drugs indicated in the treatment of solid tumours. A review of the SMR and ASMR drivers of the Transparency Committee (CT) opinions issued for antineoplastic drugs indicated in the treatment of solid tumours and approved between 2009 and 2014 was performed to assess current trends in French health technology assessment (HTA), complemented by an expert board consultation to capture the critical issues on the future of antineoplastic drugs HTA. Thirty-one drugs indicated for the treatment of solid tumours were identified (77 % targeted therapies). Initial CT assessments were available for 26 drugs. Four key items in the CT assessment were identified: 1) Clinical trial methodology; 2) Acceptance of progression-free survival (PFS) as a valuable endpoint; 3) Transferability of clinical trials in clinical practice; 4) Unpredictability of CT decisions. Experts raised the important development of personalised medicines in oncology and key challenges for oncology products to generate information expected from HTA perspective. The French system remains committed to its values and philosophy (access of all innovations for everybody) which are threatened by the increasing launch of innovative therapies and budget constraint. Both HTA decision framework evolution and revision of the current pricing process should be considered in France to cope with these new challenges.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...
Marcio C. Mancini
Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.
Kunkel, Frank; Fey, Elizabeth; Borg, Damon; Stripp, Richard; Getto, Christine
Drug testing is an important clinical tool that is available to physicians who are assessing the effectiveness of drug treatment as well as patient compliance to the administered program. While urine has traditionally been the matrix of choice for drug monitoring, oral fluid, a filtrate of the blood, has shown great promise as an alternative matrix for such applications. Oral fluid collection can be accomplished without the need for highly trained medical staff through the use of a simple, noninvasive oral fluid collection device, which obtains an adequate sample in only a few minutes. There has been a significant amount of research performed on the use of oral fluid for forensic toxicology application; however, more studies assessing the use of oral fluid drug testing are required to validate its ability to achieve clinical drug monitoring goals. Testing for various drugs in oral fluid may yield a different result when compared to the same drugs in urine, requiring an assessment of the utility of oral fluid for such practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the application of oral fluid drug testing in patients undergoing buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. A retrospective analysis of drug testing results obtained from 6,928 patients (4,560 unobserved urine collections and 2,368 observed oral fluid collections) monitored for heroin metabolite, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone was completed. Results of this statistical exercise indicated that patients undergoing observed oral fluid collection tested positive more frequently than those unobserved urine collections for several illicit drugs and prescription medications targeted. Oral fluid was shown to detect illicit drug use as well as noncompliance in this patient population under the studied conditions more often than the urine specimens.
Jacobson, Jerry O
Research on drug treatment facility locations has focused narrowly on the issue of geographic proximity to clients. We argue that neighborhood conditions should also enter into the facility location decision and illustrate a formal assessment of neighborhood conditions at facilities in a large, metropolitan area, taking into account conditions clients already face at home. We discuss choice and construction of small-area measures relevant to the drug treatment context, including drug activity, disadvantage, and violence as well as statistical comparisons of clients' home and treatment locations with respect to these measures. Analysis of 22,707 clients discharged from 494 community-based outpatient and residential treatment facilities that received public funds during 1998-2000 in Los Angeles County revealed no significant mean differences between home and treatment neighborhoods. However, up to 20% of clients are exposed to markedly higher levels of disadvantage, violence, or drug activity where they attend treatment than where they live, suggesting that it is not uncommon for treatment locations to increase clients' exposure to potential environmental triggers for relapse. Whereas on average both home and treatment locations exhibit higher levels of these measures than the household locations of the general population, substantial variability in public treatment clients' home neighborhoods calls into question the notion that they hail exclusively from poor, high drug activity areas. Shortcomings of measures available for neighborhood assessment of treatment locations and implications of the findings for other areas of treatment research are also discussed.
Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Edfors, Kajsa
Bridging the primary and secondary sector, health-care centres aim to reduce morbidity and prevent further hospitalization in patients with chronic heart diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the quality of drug treatment in patients with chronic heart diseases in two Copenhagen health-care...
Klungel, Olaf H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649; Martens, Edwin P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088859010; Psaty, Bruce M; Grobbee, Diederik E; Sullivan, Sean D; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Leufkens, Hubert G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075255049; de Boer, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To review methods that seek to adjust for confounding in observational studies when assessing intended drug effects. METHODS: We reviewed the statistical, economical and medical literature on the development, comparison and use of methods adjusting for confounding. RESULTS:
E V Orlova
Full Text Available Objective: to assess awareness of drug and non-drug treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA and compliance in patients before and after their participation in an education program, as well as the survival of the knowledge and the need for retraining. Subjects and methods. The study included 43 patients with RA: 23 study group patients were trained according to an education program (Rheumatoid Arthritis Health School, 20 patients formed a control group. The education program consisted of 4 daily 90-min studies. Adherence to drug and non-drug treatments was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results. In the study group, the basic therapy remained stably high (about 100% within 6 months. At 3 months after studies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be discontinued in 23.8% (p < 0.05. After 6 months, the proportion of patients using laser therapy increased by 57.1% (p < 0.01 and accounted for 47.8%; the use of electric and ultrasound treatments showed a 55.6% increase (p < 0.01 and was 60.9%. The number of patients who were compliant to the procedures for shaping a correct functional stereotype increased by 14 and 10 times following 3 and 6 months (60.9% and 43.5%, respectively; p < 0.01. After 3 months, there was a rise in the number of patients using hand ortheses by 75.0% (30.4%; p < 0.01; knee ortheses by 50.0% (39.1%; p < 0.01; individual inner soles by 71.4% (52.2%; p < 0.01; and walking sticks and crutches by 60.0% (34.8%; p < 0.01. Following 6 months, the positive changes remained only after the relative use of inner soles (60.9% and support means (34.8%; p < 0.05. The number of patients who regularly did physical activity increased by 5.3 (69.6%; р < 0.01 and 3.7 (47.8%; p < 0.01 times at 3 and 6 months, respectively. The trend in the control group was less pronounced, determining statistically significant differences between the groups in most indicators (р < 0.05. Conclusion. The education program retains high
that professionals activate to make sense of inauthenticity: (1) professionals routinely refer to what this study labels the story of institutional conformism, portraying institutionalized clients who have developed a habit of saying the “right” things rather than the “real” things, (2) in the somewhat taboo story...... of ulterior motives, clients are interpreted as making inauthentic claims because they want to obtain something externally from drug treatment (e.g., avoid prison or work training programs), and (3) the story of disorders explains inauthenticity as a result of pathology. The study illuminates how...
Kosilov, Kirill; Loparev, Sergey; Kuzina, Irina; Shakirova, Olga; Zhuravskaya, Natalya; Lobodenko, Alexandra
Our aim was to determine the efficiency of the Medication Compliance Self-Report Inventory (MASRI) in self-reporting antimuscarinic drug treatment compliance among women with urinary incontinence (UI). The study assessed 347 women aged 18-65 (averaging 49.7) years with more than one urinary incontinence (UI) episode per day. Treatment compliance was tested at the beginning and at weeks 4, 8, and 12 using the MASRI, the Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ), and visual pill counts. The MASRI's constructive, concurrent, and discriminate validity was studied in comparison with an external standard that uses the chi-square and Spearman coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to identify optimum MASRI cutoffs that would predict noncompliance. Furthermore, the functional condition of the lower urinary tract was tested using voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, and cystometry. The correlation between the percentage of noncompliant women according to the MASRI, and individuals with a belief barrier with respect to the BMQ screen was r = 0.81 (p ≤0.05), r = 0.84 (p ≤0.05), and r = 0.79 (p ≤0.05). The correlation between the percentage of noncompliant women according to the MASRI and of women who missed >20% of their doses according to the Regimen Screen of the BMQ was r = 0.79, p ≤0.05, r = 0.82, p ≤0.01, r = 0.77, and p ≤0.05 at the control points. Finally, the percentage of noncompliant patients who self-reported correctly according to the MASRI data compared with the BMQ was 95.6%, 95.7%, and 96.6% at the control points. The MASRI entails acceptable validity for accurately predicting treatment compliance with antimuscarinic drugs among women who have had UI for >3 months.
The main goal of the theoretical part of submitted theses is to describe the field of specialized treatment of imprisoned drug users. The author's emphasis is to put the specialized treatment to a broader frame of the Risk-needs theory as well as to the frame of physical diseases and mental disorders that are often associated with addiction or drug abuse. Different kinds of specialized interventions that are usually used for treatment of imprisoned drug users in different countries are descri...
Zannad, Faiez; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Lipicky, Raymond J; Tamargo, Juan; Bakris, George L; Borer, Jeffrey S; Alonso García, Maria de Los Angeles; Hadjadj, Samy; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kupfer, Stuart; McCullough, Peter A; Mosenzon, Ofri; Pocock, Stuart; Scheen, André J; Sourij, Harald; Van der Schueren, Bart; Stahre, Christina; White, William B; Calvo, Gonzalo
The Food and Drug Administration issued guidance for evaluating the cardiovascular risk of new diabetes mellitus drugs in 2008. Accumulating evidence from several completed trials conducted within this framework raises questions as to whether requiring safety outcome studies for all new diabetes mellitus therapies remains justified. Given the burden of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes, the focus should shift towards cardiovascular outcome studies designed to evaluate efficacy (i.e. to determine the efficacy of a drug over placebo or standard care) rather than demonstrating that risk is not increased by a pre-specified safety margin. All stakeholders are responsible for ensuring that new drug approvals occur under conditions of appropriate safety and effectiveness. It is also a shared responsibility to avoid unnecessary hurdles that may compromise access to useful drugs and threaten the sustainability of health systems. It is critical to renew this debate so that stakeholders can collectively determine the optimal approach for developing new drugs to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Olsen, N; Halberg, P; Halskov, O
In a double blind trial of 36 patients with rheumatoid arthritis a new scintimetric method was applied to three comparable patient groups before and after eight months' treatment with levamisole, penicillamine, or azathioprine. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy of both hands was performed...
The use of 131 I in the treatment of thyroid diseases is described. The therapeutic possibilities of application for ther radionuklide, e.g. phosphorus 32, gold 198, or yttrium 90 are discussed. (VJ) [de
Alopecia is the term used to describe hairless areas of the scalp. They can follow a specific pattern, be diffuse or circumscript. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) follows a pattern: in men thinning of temples and vertex up to total baldness; in women thinning of the midline or parietal area. Lack of iron or cytostatic drugs cause diffuse alopecia, while in autoimmune diseases such as alopecia areata or lichen planus bizarre shapes of hairless areas are observed. For therapy, the following medications are used: topical minoxidil solution for AGA of men and women; systemic finasteride 1 mg for men with AGA; topical diphencyprone immunotherapy for alopecia areata; systemic antimycotic agents for tinea capitis; antibiotics such as clindamycin and rifampicin for folliculitis decalvans; systemic corticosteroids and isotretinoin for folliculitis et perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens; topical corticosteroids for lichen planus and Kossard's frontal fibrosing alopecia.
Ghani, Mansur A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Khan, Farrah; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Lim, Sin How; Dhaliwal, Sangeeth K; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
In Malaysia, compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) hold suspected drug users for two years without adjudication. Acute detoxification without healthcare access has been documented. CDDCs are criticized globally due to ineffectiveness in treating addiction and human rights violations. In response, the Malaysian government began transitioning these facilities into voluntary drug treatment centres known as "Cure and Care" (C&C) centres that embrace a holistic treatment-based approach to drug addiction rehabilitation. An explorative qualitative study was undertaken to explore patient perspectives and satisfaction regarding treatment and services at the new Cure and Care centre in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. A convenience sample of 20 patients was recruited to participate in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Content analysis was used to identify the salient themes. Patients identified methadone treatment, psychosocial programs, religious instruction, and recreational activities as important factors contributing to treatment success for addressing both health and addiction needs. Though many had previously been in a CDDC, adherence to treatment in the C&C centre was perceived to be facilitated by the degree of social support, the voluntary nature and the array of new programs available for selection. C&Cs represents a dramatic shift in the Malaysian government's approach to drug addiction. Our findings demonstrate positive patient experiences associated with the holistic treatment-based approach of these centres. This exploratory study provides additional evidence to document this ongoing policy transition and may guide continued expansion of new holistic drug treatment programs across the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ghani, Mansur A.; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Khan, Farrah; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Lim, Sin How; Dhaliwal, Sangeeth K.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.
Background In Malaysia, compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) hold suspected drug users for two years without adjudication. Acute detoxification without healthcare access has been documented. CDDCs are criticized globally due to ineffectiveness in treating addiction and human rights violations. In response, the Malaysian government began transitioning these facilities into voluntary drug treatment centres known as “Cure and Care” (C&C) centres that embrace a holistic treatment-based approach to drug addiction rehabilitation. Methods An explorative qualitative study was undertaken to explore patient perspectives and satisfaction regarding treatment and services at the new Cure and Care centre in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. A convenience sample of 20 patients was recruited to participate in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Content analysis approach was used to identify the salient themes. Results Patients identified methadone treatment, psychosocial programs, religious instruction, and recreational activities as important factors contributing to treatment success for addressing both health and addiction needs. Though many had previously been in a CDDC, adherence to treatment in the C&C centre was perceived to be facilitated by the degree of social support, the voluntary nature and the array of new programs available for selection. Conclusion C&Cs represents a dramatic shift in the Malaysian government’s approach to drug addiction. Our findings demonstrate positive patient experiences associated with the holistic treatment-based approach of these centres. This exploratory study provides additional evidence to document this ongoing policy transition and may guide continued expansion of new holistic drug treatment programs across the country. PMID:25577322
The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including: abdominal obesity, a decreased ability to metabolize glucose (increased blood glucose levels and/or presence of insulin resistance), dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Patients who have developed this syndrome have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Genetic factors and the environment both are important in the development of the metabolic syndrome, influencing all single components of this syndrome. The goals of therapy are to treat the underlying cause of the syndrome, to reduce morbidity, and to prevent complications, including premature death. Lifestyle modification is the preferred first-step treatment of the metabolic syndrome. There is no single effective drug treatment affecting all components of the syndrome equally known yet. However, each component of metabolic syndrome has independent goals to be achieved, so miscellaneous types of drugs are used in the treatment of this syndrome, including weight losing drugs, antidiabetics, antihypertensives, antilipemic and anticlothing drugs etc. This article provides a brief insight into contemporary drug treatment of components the metabolic syndrome.
The effect of social functioning and living arrangement on treatment intent, specialist assessment and treatment uptake for hepatitis C virus infection among people with a history of injecting drug use: The ETHOS study.
Fortier, Emmanuel; Alavi, Maryam; Micallef, Michelle; Dunlop, Adrian J; Balcomb, Annie C; Day, Carolyn A; Treloar, Carla; Bath, Nicky; Haber, Paul S; Dore, Gregory J; Bruneau, Julie; Grebely, Jason
The objective was to assess social functioning and its association with treatment intent, specialist assessment and treatment uptake for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people with a history of injecting drug use. ETHOS is a prospective observational cohort evaluating the provision of HCV assessment and treatment among people with chronic HCV and a history of injecting drug use, recruited from nine community health centres and opioid substitution treatment clinics (NSW, Australia). Social functioning was assessed using a short form of the Opioid Treatment Index social functioning scale. Those classified in the highest quartile (score >6) were considered having lower social functioning. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. Among 415 participants (mean age 41 years, 71% male), 24% were considered having lower social functioning, 70% had early HCV treatment intent (intention to be treated in the next 12 months), 53% were assessed by a specialist and 27% initiated treatment. Lower social functioning was independently associated with unemployment, unstable housing, recent injecting drug use and moderate to extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Lower social functioning was independently associated with reduced early HCV treatment intent (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30-0.84) and lower specialist assessment (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.79), but not HCV treatment uptake (aOR 0.76, 95% CI 0.40-1.43). Living with someone was independently associated with HCV treatment uptake (with someone and children: aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.01-5.14; with someone and no children: aOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.30-4.31), but not early HCV treatment intent or specialist assessment. This study highlights the need for the development and implementation of strategies targeting people who inject drugs with lower social functioning to enhance HCV treatment intent and specialist assessment. Further, strategies to enhance social support may play a role in increasing HCV treatment
Kopić, A; Benamara, K; Piskernik, C; Plaimauer, B; Horling, F; Höbarth, G; Ruthsatz, T; Dietrich, B; Muchitsch, E-M; Scheiflinger, F; Turecek, M; Höllriegl, W
Essentials ADAMTS-13-deficiency is a cause of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Preclinical safety of recombinant human ADAMTS-13 (BAX930) was shown in animal models. Preclinical efficacy of BAX930 was shown in a mouse model of TTP. BAX930 showed advantageous efficacy over fresh frozen plasma, the current standard of care. Click to hear Dr Cataland and Prof. Lämmle present a seminar on Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP): new Insights in Pathogenesis and Treatment Modalities. Background Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare blood disorder characterized by microthrombosis in small blood vessels of the body, resulting in a low platelet count. Baxalta has developed a new recombinant ADAMTS-13 (rADAMTS-13) product (BAX930) for on-demand and prophylactic treatment of patients with hereditary TTP (hTTP). Objectives To evaluate the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of BAX930 in different species, by use of an extensive preclinical program. Methods The prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of BAX930 were tested in a previously established TTP mouse model. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated after single intravenous bolus injection in mice and rats, and after repeated dosing in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicity was assessed in rats and monkeys, safety pharmacology in monkeys, and local tolerance in rabbits. Results BAX930 was shown to be efficacious, as demonstrated by a stabilized platelet count in ADAMTS-13 knockout mice that were thrombocytopenic when treated. Prophylactic efficacy was dose-dependent and comparable with that achieved by treatment with fresh frozen plasma, the mainstay of hTTP treatment. Therapeutic efficacy was treatment interval-dependent. Safety pharmacology evaluation did not show any deleterious effects of BAX930 on cardiovascular and respiratory functions in monkeys. The compound's pharmacokinetics were similar and dose-proportional in mice, rats, and monkeys. BAX930 was well tolerated in rats, monkeys, and rabbits, even
Rojas Valero, Milton; Espinoza Paul, Luis
The objective of the present research is to assess perception of and levels of satisfaction with the Lugar de Escucha program, as well as its brief interventions using counseling and motivational sessions. The study is of a pre-experimental type, with a single-group pretest-posttest measurement design. The sample was made up of 128 participants (9.4% females and 90.6% males), aged 15 to 51 (mean= 23.65; standard deviation = 7.92), users of cannabis, cocaine base paste, cocaine, inhalants and alcohol who attended the program. Data collection was carried out using Attention Forms (FdA); the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale (URICA); the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (CST); and the Cases Follow-up Survey (ESC). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the Lugar de Escucha Program, we assessed participants' motivational phases during the first interview and at referral, their level of satisfaction with the service received and the percentage of entrance to different treatment programs of the referred participants. The results on perception and satisfaction confirm a predominance of the program's strengths. With regard to the motivational phases, the findings show that the motivational induction interventions help to establish and maintain the patient's motivation for attitude change and for cessation of the abuse. In this sense, according to the findings, such interventions tend to be more effective when applied to patients in the Precontemplational and Contemplational phases. This suggests the need to work with more homogeneous groups, considering type of drugs, age and gender, and to use pre and post instruments. Likewise, the results suggest the need to classify patients in phases of change; such classification could be a useful tool for the improvement of treatment programs for drug users.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic surveillance for resistant malaria shows high level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP across eastern and southern parts of Africa. This study assessed in vivo SP efficacy after two years of use as an interim first-line drug in Tanzania, and determined the rates of treatment failures obtained after 14 and 28 days of follow-up. Methods The study was conducted in the Ipinda, Mlimba and Mkuranga health facilities in Tanzania. Children aged 6–59 months presenting with raised temperature associated exclusively with P. falciparum (1,000–100,000 parasites per μl were treated with standard dose of SP. Treatment responses were classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition as Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR, Early Treatment Failure (ETF, Late Clinical Failure (LCF and Late Parasitological Failure (LPF on day 14 and day 28. Results Overall 196 (85.2% of 230 patients had ACPR on day 14 but only 116 (50.9% on day 28 (57.7% after excluding new infections by parasite genotyping. Altogether 21 (9.1% and 13 (5.7% of the 230 patients assessed up to day 14 and 39 (17.1% and 55 (24.1% of the 228 followed up to day 28 had clinical and parasitological failure, respectively. Conclusion These findings indicate that SP has low therapeutic value in Tanzania. The recommendation of changing first line treatment to artemether + lumefantrine combination therapy from early next year is, therefore, highly justified. These findings further stress that, for long half-life drugs such as SP, establishment of cut-off points for policy change in high transmission areas should consider both clinical and parasitological responses beyond day 14.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic disease predominantly involving the joints. Since the pathogenesis, etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of RA have only been partially elucidated, a definitive therapy has not been established. Precise diagnosis and follow-up therapy requires objective quantification, and radiological analyses are considered to be the most appropriate method. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the time-dependent progression of joint damage in patients with pharmacologically-treated RA, and to determine which therapeutic agents demonstrate the highest efficacy. Outpatient records, laboratory values, therapy schemes and radiographs from hands and feet of 150 RA patients were collected, analyzed and statistically evaluated. Radiographs were quantified using the Larsen score and supportively using the 'RheumaCoach-Rheumatology' computer software. Our observations reveal that radiologically-detectable damage is most pronounced during the first year of disease, while mitigated and generally progressing linearly thereafter. Overall Larsen scores linearly increased from year 0 to 10 (r=0.853), during which the mean Larsen score increased 7.93 ± 0.76 per year. During the first year, RA progression was similar regardless of the medication administered (gold-compounds, AU; chloroquine, CQ; methotrexate, MTX; sulfasalazine SSZ). While MTX and CQ treatment showed no difference when examined as mean 5-year increment of Larsen score, AU and SSZ showed up to 3 fold higher RA progression compared with MTX. The Larsen score in year 1 did not correlate with that of years 2 to 5. In contrast, Larsen scores in year 2 were linearly related to each of the subsequent 3 years. Despite similar ESR values in various medication groups, cumulative ESR correlated with RA progression, and its reduction with therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, this study found that, (i) early DMARD-treated RA progressed more rapidly during the first than
Toth, Eva Charlotte; Tegner, Jette; Lauridsen, Sigurd
Background Drug consumption rooms (DCRs) have been implemented worldwide as a harm-reducing strategy. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation allowing establishment of DCRs. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics and gain knowledge of the way service users use the DCRs including bridge...... building to specialized health care. Associations between nationality, opioid substitution treatment (OST), drug intake method, and response to staff advice on harm-reducing education was investigated, as well as service user’s reasons for using the DCRs, and their perceptions of safety and trust...... care took place in the DCR. Conclusions Staff of Danish DCRs educate service users on health related issues and harm-reducing interventions. A subgroup who smoke and a subgroup of nationality other than Danish are underserved and have less likely been in OST. More research on these groups is needed....
Stock, A.; Gebhardt, G.; Helle, N.; Schuettler, C.; Boegl, K.W.
It may be necessary to reduce microbiological contamination of crude drugs (medicinal plants or their parts like roots, leaves, flowers). This can be done by treating the drugs with ionizing radiation. Meethods for detection of such an irradiation were developed. It could be pointed out that measurements of luminescence, viscosity and electron spin resonance were suitable for specific drugs, but not for all drugs. (orig.) [de
Kosilov, Kirill V; Loparev, Sergey A; Kuzina, Irina G; Shakirova, Olga V; Zhuravskaya, Natalya S; Lobodenko, Alexandra
To investigate the heterogeneous factors affecting the stability of patients older than 60 years in the UI treatment with Antimuscarinics. The prevalence of Urge Incontinence (UI) in older persons reaches 29.3%. The symptoms of urinary incontinence in older people reduce the health related life quality. In 1257 patients over 60 years (857 (68.2%) women - average age 67.8, 400 (31.8%) men - 71.4), who received AM for one year, demographic, socio-economic and health parameters were studied. OABq-SF questionnaires, MOS SF-36, urination diaries, uroflowmetry, income information from the tax offices and outpatient records were used. The compliance to AM treatment within 6 months was retained in 44.2%, and within the year - 26.8% of older patients. At least 40% of the total number of patients refused to continue the treatment for medical reasons. The persons taking Solifenacin (p≤ 0.01), Trospium (p≤ 0.05), or Darifenacin (p≤ 0.05), suffering from severe UI symptoms (p≤ 0.01), and experiencing minor side effects (p≤ 0.01), well-informed about UI treatment methods (p≤ 0.01) prevailed among the treatment compliant patients. At least 20.4% of the patients discontinued their treatment due to economic reasons. The persons with significantly larger annual income (p≤ 0.05) and annual medical cost (p≤ 0.01) prevailed among the treatment compliant patients. About 12.2% of the patients stopped their treatment for reasons related to the social background and psychological status. In this experiment, we found that AM treatment compliance in older patients, in addition to medical parameters and health conditions, is largely affected by the economic as well as social, demographic and psychological factors. The study results can be claimed by practitioners involved in correcting UI symptoms in older people. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
... treatment within the criminal justice system. Players in that policy game focused, as we are doing today, on the need to provide criminal offenders with drug abuse treatment as an alternative to incarceration...
Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J
This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zorzoli, Ermanno; Marino, Maria Giulia; Bagnato, Barbara; Franco, Elisabetta
The treatment of drug addiction is a very wide-ranging sector within modern medicine. The use of immunotherapy in this context represents an innovative approach. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through a literature review, the main avenues of research and the results obtained with immunotherapy in the treatment of drug addiction.
’ (story content) and ‘the hows’ (storying process) the article presents four findings: (1) stories of change function locally as an institutional requirement; (2) professional drug treatment providers edit young people's storytelling through different techniques; (3) the narrative environment of the drug...... treatment. Building on the sociology of storytelling and ethnographic fieldwork conducted at two drug treatment institutions for young people in Denmark, this article argues that studying stories in the context of their telling brings forth novel insights. Through a narrative analysis of both ‘the whats...... treatment institution shapes how particular stories make sense of the past, present and future; and (4) storytelling in drug treatment is an interactive achievement. A fine-grained analysis illuminates in particular how some stories on gender and drug use are silenced, while others are encouraged...
... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...
Parikh, A O
Diabetes causes greater decline in physical and functional status in elderly diabetic than in a younger one. Also the rise of MI, stroke and hypertension is also higher. In elderly diabetics management is always on challenging task due to atypical disease presentation, classical symptoms often absent, presence of other coexisting conditions delays the diagnosis, dietary advice not followed properly and due to non-compliance of drug therapy. The antidiabetic drugs which are often used are: sulfonylureas, metformin, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, insulin. Advantages and disadvantages of these drugs are discussed in a nutshell. Moreover control of hypertension, CAD risk reduction and practice pearls eg, lifestyle changes and goals setting for HbA(1c) are important.
Turanli, Beste; Grøtli, Morten; Boren, Jan; Nielsen, Jens; Uhlen, Mathias; Arga, Kazim Y; Mardinoglu, Adil
Drug repositioning has gained attention from both academia and pharmaceutical companies as an auxiliary process to conventional drug discovery. Chemotherapeutic agents have notorious adverse effects that drastically reduce the life quality of cancer patients so drug repositioning is a promising strategy to identify non-cancer drugs which have anti-cancer activity as well as tolerable adverse effects for human health. There are various strategies for discovery and validation of repurposed drugs. In this review, 25 repurposed drug candidates are presented as result of different strategies, 15 of which are already under clinical investigation for treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). To date, zoledronic acid is the only repurposed, clinically used, and approved non-cancer drug for PCa. Anti-cancer activities of existing drugs presented in this review cover diverse and also known mechanisms such as inhibition of mTOR and VEGFR2 signaling, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling, COX and selective COX-2 inhibition, NF-κB inhibition, Wnt/β-Catenin pathway inhibition, DNMT1 inhibition, and GSK-3β inhibition. In addition to monotherapy option, combination therapy with current anti-cancer drugs may also increase drug efficacy and reduce adverse effects. Thus, drug repositioning may become a key approach for drug discovery in terms of time- and cost-efficiency comparing to conventional drug discovery and development process.
Weisberg, S C; Kaiser, H B
Therapy for bronchial asthma should be preventive when possible. Around-the-clock treatment with theophylline is a new way of using an old drug. Beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulators, cromolyn sodium, and steroids in aerosol form are new drugs that are useful in treatment of asthma. The good news with respect to drug treatment of asthma is that in addition to the old reliable medications which have provided good relief-including epinephrine, ephedrine, isoproterenol, aminophylline, and steroids given orally and parenterally-new drugs are available which have been extremely helpful in controlling symptoms in many patients. The bad news is that none of the new agents is a panacea and that many of them have significant undesirable side effects. It is the physician's responsibility to be wary of the new drugs for asthma and to use them appropriately.
Full Text Available Marco Mula2, Gail S Bell1, Josemir W Sander1,31Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neurology, Amedeo Avogadro University, University Hospital Maggiore della Carità, Novara, Italy; 3SEIN – Epilepsy Institute in the Netherlands Foundation, Heemstede, The NetherlandsAbstract: Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration issued an alert about an increased risk for suicidality during treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs for different indications, including epilepsy. We discuss the issue of suicide in epilepsy with special attention to AEDs and the assessment of suicide in people with epilepsy. It has been suggested that early medical treatment with AEDs might potentially reduce suicide risk of people with epilepsy, but it is of great importance that the choice of drug is tailored to the mental state of the patient. The issue of suicidality in epilepsy is likely to represent an example of how the underdiagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, the lack of input from professionals (eg, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatrists, and the delay in an optimized AED therapy may worsen the prognosis of the condition with the occurrence of severe complications such as suicide.Keywords: epilepsy, suicide, adverse effect, depression
Martinussen, Christoffer; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine Nyvold; Svane, Maria Saur
INTRODUCTION: The increasing prevalence of obesity represents a huge threat to public health and the current pharmacological treatment options are limited. Bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for severe obesity, highlighting the urgent need for new and improved drug therapies....... Areas covered: Based on the physiological regulation of energy homeostasis, pharmacological strategies to treat obesity are evaluated with focus on drugs in phase 2 and 3 clinical development. The potential impact of these drugs on current treatment standards and the barriers for development...... are discussed and set in a historical perspective of previous antiobesity medications. Expert opinion: The radical effects of bariatric surgery have extended our understanding of the mechanisms controlling appetite and boosted the search for new drug targets in obesity treatment. Accordingly, several compounds...
Licht, R W; Vestergaard, P; Kessing, L V
A subcommittee under the Danish Psychiatric Association and the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Association in Denmark have recently developed national guidelines for the psychopharmacological treatment with lithium and antiepileptic drugs, and the present translation aims at contributing...... to the international discussion on the development of proper guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Among the antiepileptic drugs, the report deals with valproate, carbamazepine and lamotrigine and to a lesser extent with oxcarbazepine, gabapentin and topiramate. The various drugs will be reviewed......, outlining the scientific evidence for mood-stabilizing properties and discussing major side effects, the most important interactions with other drugs and practical use. Special considerations during pregnancy and lactation, during treatment of children and adolescents and during treatment of the elderly...
Kofoed, Kristian; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus
, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. We review published clinical trials, and conference abstracts presented during the last years, concerned with new drugs under development for the treatment of psoriasis. In conclusion, our psoriasis armamentarium will be filled with several new effective therapeutic options the coming...... years. We need to be aware of the limitations of drug safety data when selecting new novel treatments. Monitoring and clinical registries are still important tools....
Full Text Available Jorge Correale,1 Erwin Chiquete,2 Snezana Milojevic,3 Nadina Frider,3 Imre Bajusz31Raúl Carrea Institute for Neurological Research, Foundation for the Fight against Infant Neurological Illnesses, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Salvador Zubirán National Institute of Medical Science and Nutrition, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: Fingolimod is a once-daily oral treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis, the proprietary production processes of which are tightly controlled, owing to its susceptibility to contamination by impurities, including genotoxic impurities. Many markets produce nonproprietary medicines; assessing their efficacy and safety is difficult as regulators may approve nonproprietary drugs without bioequivalence data, genotoxic evaluation, or risk management plans (RMPs. This assessment is especially important for fingolimod given its solubility/bioavailability profile, genotoxicity risk, and low-dose final product (0.5 mg. This paper presents an evaluation of the quality of proprietary and nonproprietary fingolimod variants.Methods: Proprietary fingolimod was used as a reference substance against which eleven nonproprietary fingolimod copies were assessed. The microparticle size distribution of each compound was assessed by laser light diffraction, and inorganic impurity content by sulfated ash testing. Heavy metals content was quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and levels of unspecified impurities by high-performance liquid chromatography. Solubility was assessed in a range of solvents at different pH values. Key information from the fingolimod RMP is also presented.Results: Nonproprietary fingolimod variants exhibited properties out of proprietary or internationally accepted specifications, including differences in particle size distribution and levels of impurities such as heavy metals. For microparticle size and
Elias, Fadia; Khuri, Fadlo R; Adib, Salim M; Karam, Rita; Harb, Hilda; Awar, May; Zalloua, Pierre; Ammar, Walid
The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Lebanon provides cancer drugs free of charge for uninsured patients who account for more than half the total caseload. Other categories of cancer care are subsidized under more stringent eligibility criteria. MOPH's large database offers an excellent opportunity to analyze the cost of cancer treatment in Lebanon. Using utilization and spending data accumulated at MOPH during 20082013, the cost to the public budget of cancer drugs was assessed per case and per drug type. The average annual cost of cancer drugs was 6,475$ per patient. Total cancer drug costs were highest for breast cancer, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and NonHodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which together represented 74% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure. The annual average cancer drug cost per case was highest for CML ($31,037), followed by NHL ($11,566). Trastuzumab represented 26% and Imatinib 15% of total MOPH cancer drug expenditure over six years. Sustained increase in cancer drug cost threatens the sustainability of MOPH coverage, so crucial for socially vulnerable citizens. To enhance the bargaining position with pharmaceutical firms for drug cost containment in a small market like Lebanon, drug price comparisons with neighboring countries which have already obtained lower prices may succeed in lowering drug costs.
Ujeyl, Mariam; Schlegel, Claudia; Gundert-Remy, Ursula
Until AMNOG came into effect Germany had free pricing of new drugs. Our exemplary work investigates the costs of new drugs that were licensed in the two years prior to AMNOG, and compares them to the costs of standard treatment that has been used in pivotal trials. Also, the important components of pharmaceutical prices will be illustrated. We retrospectively analysed the European Public Assessment Reports of proprietary medicinal products that the European Medicinal Agency initially approved in 2009 and 2010 and that were tested against an active control in at least one pivotal trial. If the standard treatment was a generic, the average pharmacy retail price of new drugs was 7.4 times (median 7.1) higher than that of standard treatment. If the standard treatment was an originator drug the average price was 1.4 times (median 1.2) higher than that of the new drug. There was no clear correlation of an increase in costs for new drugs and their "grade of innovation" as rated according to the criteria of Fricke. Our study shows that prices of new drugs must be linked to the evidence of comparative benefit; since German drug pricing is complex, cost saving effects obtained thereby will depend on a range of other rules and decisions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Cunningham, J A; Sobell, L C; Sobell, M B; Gaskin, J
Clients at two different treatment facilities were asked at assessment how influential each of 10 possible reasons were in their decision to change their alcohol or drug use. Clients at both facilities most often endorsed "weighing the pros and cons of drinking or drug use" and a "warning from spouse." Client's reasons for seeking treatment were also examined in relation to treatment compliance. Three reasons--"weighing the pros and cons," "hitting rock bottom," and experiencing a "major lifestyle change"--were predictive of treatment compliance. Clients who rated any of these reasons as influential were more likely to enter and complete treatment. Although more research is needed, knowledge of clients' reasons for seeking treatment might be useful in treatment matching.
de Roode, Jacobus C; Culleton, Richard; Bell, Andrew S; Read, Andrew F
Malaria infections are often genetically diverse, potentially leading to competition between co-infecting strains. Such competition is of key importance in the spread of drug resistance. The effects of drug treatment on within-host competition were studied using the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi. Mice were infected simultaneously with a drug-resistant and a drug-sensitive clone and were then either drug-treated or left untreated. Transmission was assessed by feeding mice to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. In the absence of drugs, the sensitive clone competitively suppressed the resistant clone; this resulted in lower asexual parasite densities and also reduced transmission to the mosquito vector. Drug treatment, however, allowed the resistant clone to fill the ecological space emptied by the removal of the sensitive clone, allowing it to transmit as well as it would have done in the absence of competition. These results show that under drug pressure, resistant strains can have two advantages: (1) they survive better than sensitive strains and (2) they can exploit the opportunities presented by the removal of their competitors. When mixed infections are common, such effects could increase the spread of drug resistance.
Full Text Available Meghna Adhvaryu1, Bhasker Vakharia21Department of Biotechnology, SRK Institute of Computer Education and Applied Sciences, 2R&D, Bhuma Research in Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine, Surat, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and
In Japan, synthetic drugs have emerged since late 2000s, and cases of emergency visits and fatal traffic accidents due to acute intoxication have rapidly increased. The synthetic drugs gained popularity mainly because they were cheap and thought to be "legal". The Japanese government restricted not only production and distribution, but also its possession and use in April 2014. As the synthetic drug dependent patients have better social profiles compared to methamphetamine abusers, this legal sanction may have triggered the decrease in the number of synthetic drug dependent patient visits observed at Kanagawa Psychiatric Center since July 2014. Treatment of the synthetic drug dependent patients should begin with empathic inquiry into the motives and positive psychological effects of the drug use. In the maintenance phase, training patients to trust others and express their hidden negative emotions through verbal communications is essential. The recovery is a process of understanding the relationship between psychological isolation and drug abuse, and gaining trust in others to cope with negative emotions that the patients inevitably would face in their subsequent lives.
Dorkenoo, A M; Sodahlon, Y K; Bronzan, R N; Yakpa, K; Sossou, E; Ouro-Medeli, A; Teko, M; Seim, A; Mathieu, E
The aim of this study is to verify the level of transmission of lymphatic filariasis three years after stopping mass drug treatment in the 7 endemic districts in Togo. The survey was conducted in 2012 in Togo's 7 endemic districts grouped into four evaluation units (EU) using the WHO-recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS) protocol. Children aged 6-7 years were screened for Wuchereria bancofti antigen using the immunochromatographic card (ICT) method. A cluster sampling method was used to select eligible children in schools as the net primary-school enrolment ratio is greater than or equal to 75% in each of the four EUs. The number of children and schools to be selected in each EU, the randomization list for the selection of these children and the critical cut-off number of positive cases not to exceed were automatically generated using the Survey Sample Builder (SSB) tool, (NTD Support Center, Atlanta, Ga, USA). For confirmation, positive cases were subsequently tested for microfilaremia using nocturnal thick blood smear and for filarial antigen using Og4C3 antigen ELISA (TropBio ELISA Kit®, Townsville, Queensland, Australia). An EU is considered to have passed the test successfully (it is assumed that transmission can no longer be sustained), when the number of positive cases is below the critical cut-off number set by the SSB, which is roughly equivalent to 2% prevalence. Of the 1 706 children surveyed in Kpendjal-Tone's EU, 1 549 in Binah-Doufelgou's EU, 1 550 in Kozah's EU and the 1 575 in Amou-Haho's EU, 8 (0.46%), 1 (0.08%), 0 (0.00%) and 4 (0.25%) ICT positive cases respectively were detected. The number of positive ICT tests was well below 18, the critical cut number for each of the 4 EUs. All 13 ICT positive cases tested negative for nocturnal microfilaremia and Og4C3 ELISA. We conclude that all four EU passed the TAS with success, and the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti is no longer likely to be sustained in the 7 endemic districts in Togo
Veninga, CCM; Denig, P; Zwaagstra, R; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM
In the international Drug Education Project, an educational program involving auditing and feedback in peer groups to improve the treatment of asthma and urinary tract infections (UTI) was developed and tested in primary care. Individualized feedback was provided and discussed in 24 Dutch peer
Greberman, S B; Jasinski, D
This study was undertaken to determine differences in previous treatment patterns in individuals currently using different numbers of substances. Medical records of 1198 inpatient detoxification (detox) admissions were analyzed. Numbers of past admissions to completed detox, methadone, or other types of drug abuse treatment were totaled and ranked to determine most frequent type. Within gender, treatment histories of single and multiple drug abusers usually do not differ. The one exception is male multiple drug abusers ages 26-30, who show increased admissions. Possible explanations are that men do not seek treatment before developing medical complications of addiction or until external factors influence admission. There were differences in treatment histories between genders in multiple drug abusers only. Before age 30, women reported increased treatment of certain types. Possible explanations are that treatment priority is given to women who are, or may be, pregnant. Also, younger men may not enter or complete treatment. Previous treatment history may influence many behaviors. The results of this study delineate several valuable indicators for assessing past history.
Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.
The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs
Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh
Thus, the present research was carried out aimed at determining the relationship between self-esteem and locus of control and quality of life during treatment stages in the patients referring to drug addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city, Iran. The current study was a sectional research of descriptive correlation type. The research sample was 150 individuals of patients referring to addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city. For data gathering, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and SF36 Quality of Life Questionnaire were used. Following collection of questionnaires, the data were analyzed using SPSS/16 software. According to the results, in the 12 th day of treatment, 96 patients exhibited moderate self-esteem, 102 patients had internal locus of control, and the score of their overall quality of life was 40.43±12.71. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated that a significant and positive relationship was observed between locus of control and quality of life during different treatment stages. It seems that quality of life improves during addiction treatment stages due to improvement of personality traits including locus of control and self-esteem. Therefore, consultation methods as a very crucial priority in addiction rehabilitation centers shall be taken into account by the health sector authorities and managers and can play an essential role in enhancing quality of life.
Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh
Objective: Thus, the present research was carried out aimed at determining the relationship between self-esteem and locus of control and quality of life during treatment stages in the patients referring to drug addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city, Iran. Methods: The current study was a sectional research of descriptive correlation type. The research sample was 150 individuals of patients referring to addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city. For data gathering, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale, and SF36 Quality of Life Questionnaire were used. Following collection of questionnaires, the data were analyzed using SPSS/16 software. Results: According to the results, in the 12th day of treatment, 96 patients exhibited moderate self-esteem, 102 patients had internal locus of control, and the score of their overall quality of life was 40.43±12.71. Furthermore, Pearson’s correlation coefficient indicated that a significant and positive relationship was observed between locus of control and quality of life during different treatment stages. Conclusion: It seems that quality of life improves during addiction treatment stages due to improvement of personality traits including locus of control and self-esteem. Therefore, consultation methods as a very crucial priority in addiction rehabilitation centers shall be taken into account by the health sector authorities and managers and can play an essential role in enhancing quality of life. PMID:27698598
... HIV/AIDS Treatment Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection All FDA-approved medicines used in the ...
... more) drugs or between a drug and a food or beverage. Taking a drug while having certain medical conditions ... interaction : A reaction between a drug and a food or beverage. Drug-condition interaction : A reaction that occurs when ...
Gadó, Klára; Kocsis, Eszter; Zelkó, Romána; Hankó, Balázs; Kovácsné Balogh, Judit; Forczig, Mónika; Domján, Gyula
Despite several therapeutic possibilities the morbidity and mortality of thromboembolic disorders remain high. Improving drug compliance - i. e. keeping up the doctor's prescriptions - may be an effective tool to reach better results. To improve patients' compliance, the risk factors of non-compliance should be recognized. Among these patients' fear of adverse effects of drugs, their lack of knowledge about their illness and medication, forgetfulness, and other social, economic factors may be the most important. Furthermore, adherence may be worsened when the patient feels that the decision has been made over his/her head. Sustained medical adherence is important because anticoagulation may be a life-long treatment. The new oral anticoagulants make the matter of compliance to be current. These new type of drugs do not need regular laboratory monitoring and, therefore, compliance cannot be strictly followed. There are several studies concerning drug compliance to anticoagulant medications. Improvement of adherence is based on regular patient education after reviewing the factors of non-compliance, which needs teamwork with important roles of doctors, pharmacists, dietetics and nurses. Careful and accurate work of the participants of primary care might be complemented by the activity of anticoagulant clinics.
Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis emergence triggered the screening of many compounds for potential anti-cryptosporidial activity in which the majority were ineffective. The outbreak of cryptosporidiosis which occurred in Milwaukee in 1993 was not only the first significant emergence of Cryptosporidium spp. as a major human pathogen but also a huge waterborne outbreak thickening thousands of people from a major city in North America. Since then, outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis are regularly occurring throughout the world. New drugs against this parasite became consequently urgently needed. Among the most commonly used treatments against cryptosporidiosis are paromomycin, and azithromycin, which are partially effective. Nitazoxanide (NTZ’s effectiveness was demonstrated in vitro, and in vivo using several animal models and finally in clinical trials. It significantly shortened the duration of diarrhea and decreased mortality in adults and in malnourished children. NTZ is not effective without an appropriate immune response. In AIDS patients, combination therapy restoring immunity along with antimicrobial treatment of Cryptosporidium infection is necessary. Recent investigations focused on the potential of molecular-based immunotherapy against this parasite. Others tested the effects of probiotic bacteria, but were unable to demonstrate eradication of C. parvum. New synthetic isoflavone derivatives demonstrated excellent activity against C. parvum in vitro and in a gerbil model of infection. Newly synthesized nitroor non nitro- thiazolide compounds, derived from NTZ, have been recently shown to be at least as effective as NTZ against C. parvum in vitro development and are promising new therapeutic agents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.
Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810) in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%), more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education), and employed (>70%). The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69%) and crystalline heroin (24%). The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%), crystalline heroin (28%), cannabis (16%), amphetamines (15%), and other drugs (33%). Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men. PMID:22676557
Murrough, James W.; Yaqubi, Sahab; Sayed, Sehrish; Charney, Dennis S.
Introduction Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent and disabling psychiatric disorders in the United States and worldwide. Basic research has provided critical insights into the mechanism regulating fear behavior in animals and a host of animal models have been developed in order to screen compounds for anxiolytic properties. Despite this progress, no mechanistically novel agents for the treatment of anxiety have come to market in more than two decades. Areas covered The current review will provide a critical summary of current pharmacological approaches to the treatment of anxiety and will examine the pharmacotherapeutic pipeline for treatments in development. Anxiety and related disorders considered herein include panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. The glutamate, neuropeptide and endocannabinoid systems show particular promise as future targets for novel drug development. Expert opinion In the face of an ever-growing understanding of fear related behavior, the field awaits the translation of this research into mechanistically novel treatments. Obstacles will be overcome through close collaboration between basic and clinical researchers with the goal of aligning valid endophenotypes of human anxiety disorders with improved animal models. Novel approaches are needed to move basic discoveries into new, more effective treatments for our patients. PMID:26012843
Full Text Available The perspectives in the pharmacological treatment of obesitycan be classified in two classes: drugs already in the market,in advanced clinical trial or in final approval, or drugs in earlydevelopment. Among the first class are antiepileptic drugslike topiramate (although it was studied for obesity treatmentit was descontinued for this indication because of the highdrop-out rate in clinical trials and zonisamide (with someshort term studies in obese adults; antidepressives likebupropion (that leads to weight reduction and also diminishesthe weight gain associated to smoking cessation andradafaxine (a bupropion metabolite, without reported trials inobese subjects; glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues like exenatide(exendin-4, pramlintide and liraglutide (with studiesin type 2 diabetic obese subjects and the selective blockerof the cannabinoid-1 receptor, rimonabant, with a large bodyof studies (Rimonabant in Obesity, RIO-Europe, RIO-NorthAmerica, RIO-Lipids and RIO-Diabetes, involving more than6.600 patients with obesity, with and without diabetes, beingan important perspective of treatment for obesity andmetabolic syndrome. In early phase of development, we canreport some energy balance modulators like neuropeptide Yantagonists, melanocortin agonists, leptine and its analoguesand ciliary neurotrophic factor (axokine; termogenic agentslike agonists of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor, uncouplingagents of the mithocondrial membrane and peripheralmodulators of the energy balance (cholecystokinine.
Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Matz, Jørgen; Volders, Paul G A
Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that can occur as an unwanted adverse effect of various pharmacological therapies. Before a drug is approved for marketing, its effects on cardiac repolarisation are examined clinically and experimentally. This paper expresses...... the opinion that effects on repolarisation duration cannot directly be translated to risk of proarrhythmia. Current safety assessments of drugs only involve repolarisation assays, however the proarrhythmic profile can only be determined in the predisposed model. The availability of these proarrhythmic animal...... surrogate parameters possessing predictive power of TdP arrhythmia are reviewed. As these parameters are not developed to finalisation, any meaningful study of the proarrhythmic potential of a new drug will include evaluation in an integrated model of TdP arrhythmia....
Full Text Available Substance-use disorders (SUD cause severe problems both globally and locally. Research suggests that multiple addictions create a more complex illness. This study investigated whether in-patients admitted for SUD at three drug treatment centres in Durban, South Africa had other, undiagnosed addictions. It utilised a three-phase concurrent mixed-methods design and initially screened for gambling and sex addiction. Results showed that, of the sample of 123 participants, 54% had either sex or gambling and 24% had both addictions which current treatment programmes neither assessed for nor treated. Recommendations include suggestions to update current assessment and treatment approaches and the need to train professional staff at drug treatment centres.
Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa. Methods. Treatment demand statistics were analysed from South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use records, and a rapid situation assessment was conducted. Twenty-one key informant interviews were conducted in all 9 provinces among provincial substance abuse co-ordinators, and one manager per treatment centre from a sample of treatment centres. Three focus groups were conducted and 46 self-administered questionnaires were distributed among inpatients at 2 selected treatment centres in Free State and North West provinces. Qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory, and quantitative data analysed using SPSS. Results. Treatment records show that the most frequent substance of abuse was alcohol (51%, followed by cannabis (21%, crack/cocaine (9.6%, heroin/opiates (7.9%, methamphetamine (Tik (4.5%, prescription/over-the-counter drugs (2.0%, and cannabis/mandrax (1.7%. More substance abusers were male, of lower education, white or black, than were female, more highly educated, coloured and Indian/Asian. Key informant interviews showed that females are the ‘hidden’ substance abusers and tend not to be identified in research statistics and at treatment centres. Poverty, unemployment, lack of recreational facilities, being surrounded by substance abusers, and long work shifts were also mentioned as factors contributing to substance abuse. The age of initiation of substance abuse using non-drugs such as glue was 9 years old, alcohol 10 - 12 years old, dagga 11 - 12 years old, poly-drug use (alcohol, tobacco and dagga 14 years old, and harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin at 16 - 17 years old, as reported by key informants. Family care and support, improved socio-economic conditions and increased law enforcement would help to discourage substance
.... In 1992, the Drug Policy Research Center conducted a drug policy seminar game involving Florida public officials that anticipated this increase in cases as well as the need to provide drug abuse...
Burt Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD.
This report assesses the experiences of clients who had contact with or received drug abuse treatment from programs of the Addiction Services Agency in New York City and the Narcotics Treatment Administration in Washington, D.C. during the early 1970's. To answer the questions of what happens to former clients once they leave drug treatment…
A systematic study of the effect of low pH acid treatment on anti-drug antibodies specific for a domain antibody therapeutic: Impact on drug tolerance, assay sensitivity and post-validation method assessment of ADA in clinical serum samples.
Kavita, Uma; Duo, Jia; Crawford, Sean M; Liu, Rong; Valcin, Joan; Gleason, Carol; Dong, Huijin; Gadkari, Snaehal; Dodge, Robert W; Pillutla, Renuka C; DeSilva, Binodh S
We developed a homogeneous bridging anti-drug antibody (ADA) assay on an electro chemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) platform to support the immunogenicity evaluation of a dimeric domain antibody (dAb) therapeutic in clinical studies. During method development we evaluated the impact of different types of acid at various pH levels on polyclonal and monoclonal ADA controls of differing affinities and on/off rates. The data shows for the first time that acids of different pH can have a differential effect on ADA of various affinities and this in turn impacts assay sensitivity and drug tolerance as defined by these surrogate controls. Acid treatment led to a reduction in signal of intermediate and low affinity ADA, but not high affinity or polyclonal ADA. We also found that acid pretreatment is a requisite for dissociation of drug bound high affinity ADA, but not for low affinity ADA-drug complexes. Although we were unable to identify an acid that would allow a 100% retrieval of ADA signal post-treatment, use of glycine pH3.0 enabled the detection of low, intermediate and high affinity antibodies (Abs) to various extents. Following optimization, the ADA assay method was validated for clinical sample analysis. Consistencies within various parameters of the clinical data such as dose dependent increases in ADA rates and titers were observed, indicating a reliable ADA method. Pre- and post-treatment ADA negative or positive clinical samples without detectable drug were reanalyzed in the absence of acid treatment or presence of added exogenous drug respectively to further assess the effectiveness of the final acid treatment procedure. The overall ADA results indicate that assay conditions developed and validated based on surrogate controls sufficed to provide a reliable clinical data set. The effect of low pH acid treatment on possible pre-existing ADA or soluble multimeric target in normal human serum was also evaluated, and preliminary data indicate that acid type and
Full Text Available Background. The standard treatment of a new case of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB according to WHO recommendations in the Republic of Moldova is performed since 2005 showing a low treatment succes. Actually the treatment success rate increased due to excluding of MDR-TB patients from the general cohort. The major rate of patients with low outcome is represented by the failed and lost to follow-up cases. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of multidrug-resiatnce and MDR-TB on the tuberculosis treatment outcome. Materials and methods. A retrospective selective, descriptive study targeting social, demographic, economic and epidemiological peculiarities, case-management, diagnostic radiological aspects and microbiological characteristics of 187 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis registered during 2013–2015 distributed in two groups: 1st group (61 patients with established multidrug-resistant strains using conventional cultural methods and the 2nd group (126 patients with MDR-TB. Results. Multidrug-resistance was established more frequently in new cases and MDR-TB in two thirds of retreated patients. No difference was identified in gender and age distribution, social, economical, educational characteristics; case-management assessment identified a similar proportion of patients revealed by general practitioners and specialists, with low rate of screened high risk groups. All patients from the multidrug-resistant group began the standard treatment for drug-responsiveness tuberculosis before drug susceptibility testing and one third of MDR-TB group was treated from the onset with the DOTS-Plus regimen. Highest success rate was identified in the new-case subgroups of both groups and higher rate of died patients was determined in the retreated subgroups. Such a low rate of patients aggrevates the resistance. Conclusions. Early diagnosis, drug responsiveness testing and raising awareness among about treatment compliance will
Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I
Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Islam, Manirul; Hashizume, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Taro; Alam, Faruq; Rabbani, Golam
Drug use is an alarming issue in Bangladesh. Most drug users return to drugs after treatment, in what becomes a vicious cycle of treatment and relapse. This study explored why they return and what pathways they follow. We carried out 5 key informant interviews, 10 in-depth interviews, 2 focus group discussions, 3 case studies, 8 observations, and…
Hofman, S.; Segers, M.M.; Ghimire, S.; Bolhuis, M.S.; Sturkenboom, M.G.; Soolingen, D. van; Alffenaar, J.W.
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Drug resistance, treatment duration, complexity, and adverse drug reactions associated with anti-TB regimens are associated with treatment failure, prolonged infectiousness and relapse. With the current set of anti-TB drugs the goal to
Hofman, S.; Segers, M. M.; Ghimire, S.; Bolhuis, M. S.; Sturkenboom, M. G. G.; Van Soolingen, D.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Drug resistance, treatment duration, complexity, and adverse drug reactions associated with anti-TB regimens are associated with treatment failure, prolonged infectiousness and relapse. With the current set of anti-TB drugs the goal to
Calzetta Larrieu, O.; Blaumann, H.; Longhino, J.
The reactor RA-6 NCT system was improved during the last year mainly in two aspects: the facility itself getting lower contamination factors and using better measurements techniques to obtain lower uncertainties in its characterization. In this job we show the different steps to get the source to be used in the treatment planning code representing the NCT facility. The first one was to compare the dosimetry in a water phantom between the calculation using the entire facility including core, filter and shields and a surface source at the end of the beam. The second one was to transform this particle by particle source in a distribution one regarding the minimum spatial, energy and angular resolution to get similar results. Finally we compare calculation and experimental values with and without the water phantom to adjust the distribution source. The results are discussed. (author)
Kantak, Kathleen M
Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for this disease because the relapse rate among drug abusers seeking treatment is quite high. During the past decade, many groups have explored the feasibility of using vaccines directed against drugs of abuse as a means of eliminating illicit drug use as well as drug overdose and neurotoxicity. Vaccines work by inducing drug-specific antibodies in the bloodstream that bind to the drug of abuse and prevent its entry into the brain. The majority of work in this area has been conducted with vaccines and antibodies directed against cocaine and nicotine. On the basis of preclinical work, vaccines for cocaine and nicotine are now in clinical trials because they can offer long-term protection with minimal treatment compliance. In addition, vaccines and antibodies for phencyclidine, methamphetamine and heroin abuse are currently under development. An underlying theme in this research is the need for high concentrations of circulating drug-specific antibodies to reduce drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour when the drug is repeatedly available, especially in high doses. Although vaccines against drugs of abuse may become a viable treatment option, there are several drawbacks that need to be considered. These include: a lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice;a lack of an effect on drug craving that predisposes an addict to relapse; and tremendous individual variability in antibody formation. Forced or coerced vaccination is not likely to work from a scientific perspective, and also carries serious legal and ethical concerns. All things considered, vaccination against a drug of abuse is likely to work best with individuals who are highly motivated to quit using drugs altogether and as part of a comprehensive treatment programme. As such, the medical treatment of drug abuse will not be radically
The Cape Town Drug Counselling Centre is an outpatient drug treatment ... Management of clients, which includes psychotherapy with an emphasis on ... medical intervention, is described, and proposed areas for further research are outlined.
Intravascular ultrasound assessed incomplete stent apposition and stent fracture in stent thrombosis after bare metal versus drug-eluting stent treatment the Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)
Kosonen, Petteri; Vikman, Saila; Jensen, Lisette Okkels
This prospective multicenter registry used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with definite stent thrombosis (ST) to compare rates of incomplete stent apposition (ISA), stent fracture and stent expansion in patients treated with drug-eluting (DES) versus bare metal (BMS) stents. ST...... is a rare, but potential life threatening event after coronary stent implantation. The etiology seems to be multifactorial....
Andersen, Lars Peter Kloster; Gögenur, Ismail; Torup, Henrik
BACKGROUND: Pain intensity ratings and opioid consumption (OC) are ubiquitous indicators of pain in postoperative trials of the efficacy of interventional procedures. Unfortunately, consensus on the appropriate statistical handling of these outcomes has not been reached. The aim of this article was......, therefore, to reexamine original data obtained from a postoperative analgesic drug trial, applying a collection of standard statistical methods in analgesic outcome assessments. Furthermore, a modified integrated assessment method of these outcomes was evaluated. METHODS: Data from a randomized, double...... also included an integrated assessment of longitudinally measured pain intensity and opioid consumption (PIOC0-6/0-24 h). Also, estimation of effect size, generalized odds ratio of the individual analgesic outcome variables was performed. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were included in the final data...
Marcelle M. Lobo Dinis Castro
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e rever os instrumentos que explorem a motivação como fator capaz de predizer o resultado de tratamento da dependência de substâncias psicoativas e que vêm sendo utilizados na última década. MÉTODO: Revisão bibliográfica abrangente de literatura científica indexada sobre escalas que aferem o grau motivação. RESULTADO: Identificaram-se quatro instrumentos e suas propriedades psicométricas, os dois primeiros com versões validadas em português: Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire (URICA, Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eargness Scale (SOCRATES, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ, Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ. CONCLUSÃO: A teoria motivacional vem sendo regularmente estudada na última década, permitindo avaliação pragmática de seus parâmetros por meio de escalas com validade e confiabilidades que variam de boa a excelente.OBJECTIVE: To identify and review tools used in specialized services to explore aspectos of motivation as a predictive factor of treatment outcome in drug-abusing patients. METHOD: Comprehensive literature review of scales used to assess the degree of motivation. RESULT: Four scales to evaluate stages of behavioural change related to motivation were identified and described, together with their associated psychometric properties - Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire (URICA, Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eargness Scale (SOCRATES, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ, Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ; The first two have Portuguese validated versions. CONCLUSION: Motivacional theory has been regularly studied in the last decade, allowing the definition of pragmatic evaluation parameters in scales with validity and reliabilities that vary from good to excellent.
Dan Carter carefully layered the sheets of tracing paper on the light box. On each sheet were renderings of the atomic components of an essential human protein, one whose structure had long been a mystery. With each layer Carter laid down, a never-before-seen image became clearer. Carter joined NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center in 1985 and began exploring processes of protein crystal growth in space. By bouncing intense X-rays off the crystals, researchers can determine the electron densities around the thousands of atoms forming the protein molecules, unveiling their atomic structures. Cultivating crystals of sufficient quality on Earth was problematic; the microgravity conditions of space were far more accommodating. At the time, only a few hundred protein structures had been mapped, and the methods were time consuming and tedious. Carter hoped his work would help reveal the structure of human serum albumin, a major protein in the human circulatory system responsible for ferrying numerous small molecules in the blood. More was at stake than scientific curiosity. Albumin has a high affinity for most of the world s pharmaceuticals, Carter explains, and its interaction with drugs can change their safety and efficacy. When a medication enters the bloodstream a cancer chemotherapy drug, for example a majority of it can bind with albumin, leaving only a small percentage active for treatment. How a drug interacts with albumin can influence considerations like the necessary effective dosage, playing a significant role in the design and application of therapeutic measures. In spite of numerous difficulties, including having no access to microgravity following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, the image Carter had hoped to see was finally clarifying. In 1988, his lab had acquired specialized X-ray and detection equipment a tipping point. Carter and his colleagues began to piece together albumin s portrait, the formation of its electron densities coalescing on
Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Andresen, Thomas Lars
drug dosing” using light-‐polymerizable polymer hydrogels as carriers for free or nanoparticle-‐encapsulated drugs. The total dose is simply controlled by the volume of drug-‐loaded cross-‐ linked hydrogel defined by patterned light from a standard projector (Fig. 1). The concept enables simple...
YU. N. Perlamutrov
Full Text Available Actuality. High incidence of atopic dermatitis and its association with systemic pathology determine the need of broad treatment options on the base of the modern data on pathophysiology of the disease. Aim of the study. Analysis of the clinical efficacy of the complex therapy with application drug Kestine® and probiotic FlorOK. Materials and Methods of the study. 55 patients with atopic dermatitis with mild and medium severity stages were examined and treated. The SCORAD Index and the Prurindex were used for assessment of AD severity; H2- test was used for evaluation of the digestive system function. Study results. It was stated high clinical efficacy of the complex therapy with application drug Kestine® and probiotic FlorOK accompanied by fast arrest of the itch.
Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, B. K.; Kortegaard, L. S.
Knowledge of patterns of treatment discontinuation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment is of importance, for both the clinical practice and the study of long-term treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe early discontinuation of ADHD drug treatme...
The thesis deals with the spirituality of a drug addiction therapy. The first chapter classifies drugs and characterizes drug addictions and their therapies. To clear up the context and point of view, the second chapter explains the meaning of spirituality in relation to its development. First, it intorduces the ancient spirituality, based on heatheninsmas, a meaning of Sanctity in relation to our ethnic origin. Further on, it pictures the Christian spirituality with its practical aspects. Ne...
Hocking, G; Kalyanaraman, R; deMello, W F
To improve drug history taking before anaesthesia, we have previously suggested a checklist with the mnemonic DRUGS (Doctor, Recreational, User, Gynaecological, Sensitivities). We have now tested this mnemonic in 1053 patients admitted for surgery, comparing the results with the information obtained in the original clerking. Use of the mnemonic yielded additional information in 621 patients (59%). Drugs which had gone unrecorded in routine clerking were detected in 24% of patients on medication. Of 199 patients with high alcohol intake, this feature had been recorded in only 38 (19%). Unprescribed medicines, being taken by 158, had been noted in only 31 (20%). Of women taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, more than two-thirds had not given this information. Sensitivities had been recorded accurately in 100 patients but the mnemonic yielded relevant information in a further 85. On this evidence, use of the simple DRUGS mnemonic improves drug history taking in anaesthetic practice.
Conclusions: Prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans was high among illicit drug users recruited from healthcare facilities. Besides psychological variables, participation in illegal market activities and crime ought to be considered in drug users’ suicidal prevention. Suicide risk needs to be evaluated in drug treatment facilities and psychological status and context contemplated.
Fijn, R; Lenderink, AW; Egberts, ACG; Brouwers, JRBJ; De Jong-Van DenBerg, LTW
Background: Translation of rational drug therapy into practice remains an international problem. Although pharmacotherapeutic treatment guidelines (PTGs) as managerial tools are favoured over hospital drug formularies (HDFs), the latter are still applied in most hospitals. HDF enforcement often
Friedmann, P D; Lemon, S C; Stein, M D
To determine whether certain types of transportation assistance improve outpatient treatment retention beyond thresholds shown to have therapeutic benefits, we analyzed data from 1,144 clients in 22 outpatient methadone maintenance (OMM) programs and 2,031 clients in 22 outpatient drug-free (ODF) programs in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS), a national, 12-month, longitudinal study of drug abuse treatment programs. Directors' surveys provided information about provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services or individual vouchers/payment for public transportation. Chart-abstracted treatment retention was dichotomized at 365 days for OMM and 90 days for ODF. Separate multivariate hierarchical linear models revealed that provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services improved treatment retention beyond these thresholds for both OMM and ODF, but individual vouchers or payment for public transportation did not. Future research should validate whether car, van, or contracted transportation services improve retention and other treatment outcomes in outpatient drug abuse treatment.
McCarty, Dennis; Roman, Paul M; Sorensen, James; Weisner, Constance
Health services research is a multidisciplinary field that examines ways to organize, manage, finance, and deliver high-quality care. This specialty within substance abuse research developed from policy analyses and needs assessments that shaped federal policy and promoted system development in the 1970s. After the authorization of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), patient information systems supported studies of treatment processes and outcomes. Health services research grew substantially in the 1990s when NIAAA and NIDA moved into the National Institutes of Health and legislation allocated 15% of their research portfolio to services research. The next decade will emphasize research on quality of care, adoption and use of evidence-based practices (including medication), financing reforms and integration of substance abuse treatment with primary care and mental health services.
Seligman, Linda; Hardenburg, Stephanie A.
Provides a description of the category of mental disorders called "paraphilias" and guidelines for assessment of people who present with paraphillic behavior. Includes a review of inventories that can facilitate diagnosis and description of paraphilias. Discusses effective approaches to treatment of these disorders as well as personal and…
Waraska, J; Nagle, J D
Analytic problems associated with monitoring antipsychotic drug levels have largely been resolved. Despite the establishment of target values for some drugs, the clinical utility of such levels remains to be determined.
Aakre, Kristin M; Thue, Geir; Subramaniam-Haavik, Sumathi
To assess general practitioners (GPs) knowledge of guideline recommendations on diagnosing microalbuminuria (MA) and to evaluate how this diagnosis influences drug treatment of diabetes patients.......To assess general practitioners (GPs) knowledge of guideline recommendations on diagnosing microalbuminuria (MA) and to evaluate how this diagnosis influences drug treatment of diabetes patients....
Uhler, Ann S.; Parker, Olga V.
The authors suggest that action therapy, a group of techniques including psychodrama, drama therapy, and role training, warrants research attention to determine whether it is well suited to the special characteristics and needs of women clients. In addition, the authors call on researchers to develop a new standardized tool for counselors to use during initial interviews to determine whether women presenting for drug abuse treatment also have significant issues related to trauma. The authors believe the use of unassisted clinical judgment for trauma assessment in first interviews may drive patients away by probing for painful information that clients are not yet ready to confront or divulge. PMID:18567963
interventions of media alone as well as through the intervention of media in conjunction with personal support within the groups. However, analyses of the inter-group comparisons offer no statistically significant difference. However, analyses of the inter-group comparisons offer no statistically significant difference. Comparative analyses confirm the effectiveness of behaviour therapy in combination with additional drug treatment when compared to behaviour therapy alone.In all the studies presented here, relevant changes in weight of -5% to -10% are only partially achieved. High weight losses of less than -10% were found among the intervention group in two of the studies. One study reported a weight loss of -11.4% with the “group therapy” intervention method, while another study reported a weight loss of -11.2% with the “behaviour therapy plus drug treatment” intervention method. Studies with a subsequent follow-up period indicate a clear weight loss at the end of the intervention followed by a renewed weight gain towards the end of the follow-up period.For the evaluation of economic, social-ethical or legal aspects we could not identify any studies. Discussion: A comparative assessment among the studies proved difficult due to their heterogeneous nature. Little conformity can be detected in either the contents of the behaviour therapy or in the treatment plans. The length of the follow-up periods also varies from study to study. Many studies only analyze weight changes within one group or for the entire study population. However, the results of these analyses all indicate a significant weight loss at the end of the intervention. Conclusion: Some effects of behaviour therapy on a reduction in weight can be shown. However, relevant weight changes of -5% to -10% are only achieved to a certain extent. The extremely heterogeneous nature of the interventions makes a comparison of the study results very difficult. A trend can be detected indicates that those treatments
McCusker, J; Willis, G; McDonald, M; Lewis, B F; Sereti, S M; Feldman, Z T
The outcomes of counseling and testing programs related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk of infection among injection drug users (IDUs) are not well known or understood. A counseling and testing outcome of potential public health importance is attaining admission to drug abuse treatment by those IDUs who are either infected or who are at high risk of becoming infected. The authors investigated factors related to admission to drug abuse treatment among 519 IDUs who received HIV counseling and testing from September 1987 through December 1990 at a men's prison and at community-based testing sites in Worcester, MA. By June 1991, 123 of the 519 IDUs (24 percent) had been admitted to treatment. Variables associated with their admission included a long history of drug injection, frequent recent drug injection, cleaning injection equipment using bleach, prior drug treatment, and a positive HIV test result. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for effects of recruitment site, year, sex, and area of residence, generally confirmed the associations. IDUs in the study population who were HIV-infected sought treatment or were admitted to treatment more frequently than those who were not infected. The results indicate that access to drug abuse treatment should be facilitated for high-risk IDUs and for those who have begun to inject drugs recently.
Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud
Migraine has a 1-year prevalence of 10% and high socioeconomic costs. Despite recent drug developments, there is a huge unmet need for better pharmacotherapy. In this review we discuss promising anti-migraine strategies such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists and 5....... Tonabersat, a cortical spreading depression inhibitor, has shown efficacy in the prophylaxis of migraine with aura. Several new drug targets such as nitric oxide synthase, the 5-HT(1D) receptor, the prostanoid receptors EP(2) and EP(4), and the pituitary adenylate cyclase receptor PAC1 await development....... The greatest need is for new prophylactic drugs, and it seems likely that such compounds will be developed in the coming decade....
Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane; Wörtwein, Gitta
's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based...... site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess...... the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS....
Medication-related illness is a great problem, particularly among the elderly. Elderly people use many different drugs, they have many diseases and symptoms, and also experience natural signs of aging. Altogether, the treatment of an elderly patient is complex and assessment of the appropriateness of a drug therapy is difficult. In order to make a treatment as effective as possible and to achieve the best possible health it is important that the care personnel can identify p...
Sep 14, 1974 ... relieve the physician, at his discretion, in the medication management of patients. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 1920 (1974). The practice of medicine has both benefited and suffered from the vast upsurge of drug discovery in the past 30 to 40 years. Thus, in accepting the benefits, there has come the realisation of ...
Washton, A M
This chapter describes the rationale, indications, design, and use of a structured outpatient treatment approach as an effective alternative to residential treatment for alcohol and drug dependencies. An increasing demand for outpatient treatment services is being created by a combination of clinical and economic factors, including the influx of employed drug abusers who do not need or desire residential care and mounting financial pressures to contain health care costs. To be effective as a primary treatment modality, outpatient programs must be highly structured and intensive and able to deal with the full spectrum of alcohol and drug addictions. Perpetuating the historical separation between alcoholism and drug abuse treatment programs is unnecessary and counterproductive, although certain modifications in treatment approaches are needed to accommodate the distinctive characteristics of particular classes of drugs and the people who use them. The "outpatient rehab," a treatment model that approximates the intensity of inpatient treatment on an outpatient basis, may help to maximize the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of outpatient treatment as a viable alternative to residential care. Initial treatment results with this model are encouraging.
Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud
Migraine has a 1-year prevalence of 10% and high socioeconomic costs. Despite recent drug developments, there is a huge unmet need for better pharmacotherapy. In this review we discuss promising anti-migraine strategies such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists and 5......-hydroxytrypamine (5-HT)(1F) receptor agonists, which are in late-stage development. Nitric oxide antagonists are also in development. New forms of administration of sumatriptan might improve efficacy and reduce side effects. Botulinum toxin A has recently been approved for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine....... Tonabersat, a cortical spreading depression inhibitor, has shown efficacy in the prophylaxis of migraine with aura. Several new drug targets such as nitric oxide synthase, the 5-HT(1D) receptor, the prostanoid receptors EP(2) and EP(4), and the pituitary adenylate cyclase receptor PAC1 await development...
Texas, USA, where alcohol was found to be the primary drug of abuse in ... distributed among inpatients at 2 selected treatment centres ... group participants attributed their reasons for drug use to family ... NW provinces, where one currently finds limited data. .... full-time, 26% were unemployed, and 25% were students.
Pottegård, Anton; Christensen, Rene dePont; Wang, Shirley V
PurposeWe present a database of prescription drugs and international normalized ratio (INR) data and the applied methodology for its use to assess drug-drug interactions with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). We use the putative interaction between VKAs and tramadol as a case study. MethodsWe used...
Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shengnian
Rhabdomyolysis syndrome refers to a variety of factors that affect the striated muscle cell membrane, the membrane channels and its energy supply. Most cases of rhabdomyolysis are due to direct trauma. However, infection, toxins, drugs, muscle ischemia, electrolyte imbalance, metabolic diseases, genetic diseases and abnormal body temperature can also lead to rhabdomyolysis. Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases. The primary long-term treatment is antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), which may cause rhabdomyolysis. This article summarizes the characteristics, treatment methods and prognosis of patients with rhabdomyolysis that is induced by antiepileptic drugs. This review is based on PubMed, EMBASE and MEDLINE searches of the literature using the keywords "epilepsy", "antiepileptic drugs","status epilepticus","rhabdomyolysis", and "antiepileptic drugs and rhabdomyolysis syndrome" as well as extensive personal clinical experience with various antiepileptic drugs. Potential relationships between antiepileptic drugs and rhabdomyolysis are discussed. Worldwide, there are approximately 50 million epilepsy patients, most of whom are treated with drugs. Reports have indicated that the majority of antiepileptic drugs on the market can cause rhabdomyolysis. Although rhabdomyolysis induced by antiepileptic drugs is a rare condition with a low incidence, this condition has serious consequences and merits attention from clinicians.
Sideroff, Stephen I.
Presents a Gestalt therapeutic approach that has shown promise within a drug treatment program. The major issues discussed include the acquisition of self-support, taking responsibility, dealing with anxiety, contact, and the expression of pent-up feelings. (Author)
van Durme, Caroline M. P. G.; Wechalekar, Mihir D.; Landewé, Robert B. M.
Are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) associated with better outcomes than cyclooxygenase inhibitors, glucocorticoids, IL-1 inhibitors or placebo in the treatment of acute gout? NSAIDs are not significantly associated with a difference in pain reduction compared with cyclooxygenase
Helfer, Ana Paula; Camargo, Aline Lins; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Kanavos, Panos; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso
To assess the affordability by workers of drugs used for treatment of chronic diseases, as well as the availability of the reference, similar, or generic forms of these drugs in the public health care system. We employed the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) for the standardized collection of information on selling prices in the private sector and availability in the public health care system of drugs in six cities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected from November 2008 to January 2009. Affordability was estimated as the number of salary days required for a worker receiving the national minimum wage to buy, in a private pharmacy, the amount of medication required for one month of treatment. Availability was assessed by the presence of these drugs in public health care system facilities. Twenty-two public facilities and 30 private pharmacies were studied. Of 21 drugs used for the treatment of seven chronic disorders, only nine were available free of charge in the six cities. Mean availability ranged from 83.3% (São Leopoldo) to 97.6% (Caxias do Sul). Affordability ranged from 0.4 to 10.5 salary days for reference drugs, 0.2 to 8.4 salary days for similar drugs, and 0.3 to 3.8 salary days for generic drugs. The overall availability of the drugs surveyed was higher than the 80% recommended by WHO. However, some treatments were not available, or had limited availability in the public system. Concerning affordability, the number of salary days required to buy these drugs may affect the continuation of drug treatments for chronic diseases.
Full Text Available In this article we describe the key role of tuberculosis (TB treatment, the challenges (mainly the emergence of drug resistance, and the opportunities represented by the correct approach to drug dosage, based on the existing control and elimination strategies. In this context, the role and contribution of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM is discussed in detail. Treatment success in multidrug-resistant (MDR TB cases is low (62%, with 7% failing or relapsing and 9% dying and in extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases is even lower (40%, with 22% failing or relapsing and 15% dying. The treatment of drug-resistant TB is also more expensive (exceeding €50 000 for MDR-TB and €160 000 for XDR-TB and more toxic if compared to that prescribed for drug-susceptible TB. Appropriate dosing of first- and second-line anti-TB drugs can improve the patient's prognosis and lower treatment costs. TDM is based on the measurement of drug concentrations in blood samples collected at appropriate times and subsequent dose adjustment according to the target concentration. The ‘dried blood spot’ technique offers additional advantages, providing the rationale for discussions regarding a possible future network of selected, quality-controlled reference laboratories for the processing of dried blood spots of difficult-to-treat patients from reference TB clinics around the world.
Kolind, Torsten; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Dahl, Helle
The availability of prison-based drug treatment has increased markedly throughout Europe over the last 15 years in terms of both volume and programme diversity. However, prison drug treatment faces problems and challenges because of the tension between ideologies of rehabilitation and punishment. This article reports on a study of four cannabis treatment programmes and four psychosocial drug treatment programmes in four Danish prisons during 2007. The data include the transcripts of 22 semi-structured qualitative interviews with counsellors and prison employees, prison statistics, and information about Danish laws and regulations. These treatment programmes reflect the 'treatment guarantee' in Danish prisons. However, they are simultaneously embedded in a new policy of zero tolerance and intensified disciplinary sanctions. This ambivalence is reflected in the experiences of treatment counsellors: reluctantly, they feel associated with the prison institution in the eyes of the prisoners; they experience severe opposition from prison officers; and the official goals of the programmes, such as making clients drug free and preparing them for a life without crime, are replaced by more pragmatic aims such as alleviating the pain of imprisonment felt by programme clients. The article concludes that at a time when prison-based drug treatment is growing, it is crucial that we thoroughly research and critically discuss its content and the restrictions facing such treatment programmes. One way of doing this is through research with counsellors involved in delivering drug treatment services. By so doing, the programmes can become more pragmatic and focused, and alternatives to prison-based drug treatment can be seriously considered.
This article is exploring different forms of constraint that are exerted in the field of drug addiction treatment. The objective of this article is to establish benchmarks and to stimulate reflection about the ethical and clinical implications of those constraints in the field of drug addiction treatment. This article is presenting a critical review of different forms of constraint that can be exerted in Canada in regard to the treatment of drug addiction. In the first section of the article, a definition of therapeutic intervention is proposed, that includes the dimension of power, which justifies the importance of considering the coercive aspects of treatment. The second section, which represents the core section of the paper, is devoted to the presentation of different levels of constraint that can be distinguished in regard to drug addicts who are under treatment. Three levels of constraint are exposed: judicial constraint, institutional constraint and relational constraint. The coercive aspect of treatment can then be recognized as a combination of all tree levels of constraint. Judicial constraint refers to any form of constraint in which the court or the judge is imposing or recommending treatment. This particular level of constraint can take different forms, such as therapeutic remands, conditions of a probation order, conditions of a conditional sentence of imprisonment, and coercive treatment such as the ones provided through drug courts. Institutional constraint refers to any form of constraint exerted within any institutional setting, such as correctional facilities and programs offered in community. Correctional facilities being limited by their own specific mission, it might have a major impact on the way the objectives of treatment are defined. Those limitations can then be considered as a form of constraint, in which drug users don't have much space to express their personal needs. Finally, relational constraint refers to any form of constraint in
Pringle, Abbie; Harmer, Catherine J
Human models of emotional processing suggest that the direct effect of successful antidepressant drug treatment may be to modify biases in the processing of emotional information. Negative biases in emotional processing are documented in depression, and single or short-term dosing with conventional antidepressant drugs reverses these biases in depressed patients prior to any subjective change in mood. Antidepressant drug treatments also modulate emotional processing in healthy volunteers, which allows the consideration of the psychological effects of these drugs without the confound of changes in mood. As such, human models of emotional processing may prove to be useful for testing the efficacy of novel treatments and for matching treatments to individual patients or subgroups of patients.
Ferris, G N
Psychotropic drug treatment of persons on methadone maintenance is discussed. Patients with clear target symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, or psychosis responded just as non-opioid addicts would to the major psychotropic agents. The minor tranquilizers are felt to be of doubtful value, and subject to abuse. Sleep disturbances cannot be treated by the usual means, as the drugs needed again are abused. However, chlorpromazine shows some promise here. Methods of drug delivery and goals of treatment must be adapted to the realities of this patient-group's characteristics, particularly anti-social traits, poor motivation and unreliability. Psychotropic drugs are unlikely to be of aid in multiple drug abusers, personality and character disorders, and opioid withdrawal. Four case histories are presented.
Velkeniers, B.; Vanhaelst, L.; Cytryn, R.; Jonckheer, M.H.
To assess the value of antithyroid drugs as an adjunct to radioactive iodine for the treatment of hyperthyroidism the incidence of relapse or hypothyroidism after a mean follow-up of 51/2 years (range 2-7 years) was reviewed retrospectively for 206 patients, some treated with and others without antithyroid drugs after radioiodine therapy. Allocation to treatment group had been random, and both groups were similar in all respects except for the adjunctive treatment with antithyroid drugs. All doses of 131 I had been calculated by one physician. Compared with those who received 131 I alone, those starting on antithyroid drugs within 8 days after 131 I had a lower incidence of hypothyroidism but a higher incidence of early post-treatment recurrence or persistence of hyperthyroidism, and considerably lower incidence of remission. (author)
Qi, Chang; Kelly, Brian C; Liao, Yanhui; He, Haoyu; Luo, Tao; Deng, Huiqiong; Liu, Tieqiao; Hao, Wei; Wang, Jichuan
Although evidence exists for distinct barriers to drug abuse treatment (BDATs), investigations of their inter-relationships and the effect of individual characteristics on the barrier factors have been sparse, especially in China. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model is applied for this target. A sample of 262 drug users were recruited from three drug rehabilitation centers in Hunan Province, China. We applied a MIMIC approach to investigate the effect of gender, age, marital status, education, primary substance use, duration of primary drug use, and drug treatment experience on the internal barrier factors: absence of problem (AP), negative social support (NSS), fear of treatment (FT), and privacy concerns (PC). Drug users of various characteristics were found to report different internal barrier factors. Younger participants were more likely to report NSS (-0.19, p=0.038) and PC (-0.31, p<0.001). Compared to other drug users, ice users were more likely to report AP (0.44, p<0.001) and NSS (0.25, p=0.010). Drug treatment experiences related to AP (0.20, p=0.012). In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) occurred in three items when participant from groups with different duration of drug use, ice use, or marital status. Individual characteristics had significant effects on internal barriers to drug treatment. On this basis, BDAT perceived by different individuals could be assessed before tactics were utilized to successfully remove perceived barriers to drug treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet-sourced drugs are often considered suspect. The World Health Organization reports that drugs from websites that conceal their physical address are counterfeit in over 50 percent of cases; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA works with the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP to regularly update a list of websites likely to sell drugs that are illegal or of questionable quality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study examines drug purchasing over the Internet, by comparing the sales of five popular drugs from a selection of websites stratified by NABP or other ratings. The drugs were assessed for price, conditions of purchase, and basic quality. Prices and conditions of purchase varied widely. Some websites advertised single pills while others only permitted the purchase of large quantities. Not all websites delivered the exact drugs ordered, some delivered no drugs at all; many websites shipped from multiple international locations, and from locations that were different from those advertised on the websites. All drug samples were tested against approved U.S. brand formulations using Raman spectrometry. Many (17 websites substituted drugs, often in different formulations from the brands requested. These drugs, some of which were probably generics or perhaps non-bioequivalent copy versions, could not be assessed accurately. Of those drugs that could be assessed, none failed from "approved", "legally compliant" or "not recommended" websites (0 out of 86, whereas 8.6% (3 out of 35 failed from "highly not recommended" and unidentifiable websites. CONCLUSIONS: Of those drugs that could be assessed, all except Viagra(R passed spectrometry testing. Of those that failed, few could be identified either by a country of manufacture listed on the packaging, or by the physical location of the website pharmacy. If confirmed by future studies on other drug samples, then U.S. consumers should be able to reduce their risk by
Full Text Available The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by inmates. There are different theoretical approaches in explaining this phenomenon. Treatment programs based on empirically validated principles that guarantee the effectiveness, may be one strategy for solving the problem of drug abuse in prisons, with multiple positive effects.
Taxman, Faye S.; Bouffard, Jeffrey A.
Drug treatment is one of the critical components of drug court programming, yet it has not been thoroughly studied in the drug court literature. Very little is understood about the nature of drug treatment services provided in the drug court setting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of selected treatment variables on drug court…
Assessment of serum lipid metabolism index and cytokine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease after telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug treatment
Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug therapy on serum lipid metabolism index and cytokine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease. Methods: A total of 106 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease who were treated in our hospital between September 2013 and October 2016 were collected and then divided into the control group (n=55 who received conventional treatment + lipid-lowering drug treatment and the observation group (n=51 who received conventional treatment + lipid-lowering drug + telmisartan treatment after the therapies were reviewed. Before and after treatment, serum levels of lipid metabolism indexes, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indexes were compared between two groups of patients. Results: Before treatment, the differences in serum levels of lipid metabolism indexes, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indexes were not statistically significant between two groups of patients. After treatment, serum TG and LDL-C levels in observation group were lower than those in control group while HDL-C level was higher than that in control group; serum inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-8, HMGB1 and TNF-α levels were lower than those in control group; serum oxidative stress indexes MDA and ROS levels were lower than those in control group while GSH-Px level was higher than that in control group. Conclusion: Telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug therapy can effectively optimize the lipid metabolism and reduce the systemic inflammatory response and oxidative stress response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services, provided...
Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda
In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…
Examined the sex-role attitude of the drug abuse treatment counselor. Found: 1) male counselors viewed clients of both sexes more negatively; 2) male clients were viewed more negatively by counselors of both sexes; 3) counselors with less education had more negative attitudes; and 4) attitudes differed with treatment program type. (Author/RC)
Wiencek, Joesph R; Colby, Jennifer M; Nichols, James H
Laboratory testing for drugs of abuse has become standard practice in many settings both forensic and clinical. Urine is the predominant specimen, but other specimens are possible including hair, nails, sweat, and oral fluid. Point-of-care test kits provide for rapid analysis at the site where specimens are collected allowing for immediate action on the results. POCT is based on immunochromatography where the drug in the patient's sample competes with drug and antibody conjugates in the test to develop or block the development of a colored line. Most POCTs are visually interpreted in a few minutes. The potential for false positives is possible due to drug cross-reactivity with the antibodies in the test. False negatives are also possible due to dilution of the sample and the potential for adulteration or sample substitution by the patient. POCT shows more variability than central laboratory testing because of the variety of operators involved in the testing process, but POCT has good agreement for most tests with mass spectrometry provided comparable cutoffs and cross-reactivity of drugs/metabolites are considered. Validation of the test performance with the intended operators will identify potential interferences and operational issues before implementing the test in routine practice. POCT offers faster turnaround of test results provided the limitations and challenges of the test are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gerard J Connors
Full Text Available Systematic outcome assessment is central to ascertaining the impact of treatment services and to informing future treatment initiatives. This project was designed to be conducted within the clinical operations of 4 private addictions treatment centers. A structured interview was used to assess patients’ alcohol and other drug use and related variables (on treatment entry and at 1, 3, and 6 months following treatment discharge. The primary outcomes were percentage of days abstinent (PDA from alcohol and drugs, PDA from alcohol, and PDA from other drugs. Collateral reports during follow-up also were gathered. A total of 280 patients (56% men across the 4 programs participated. Percentage of days abstinent for each outcome increased significantly from baseline to the 1-month follow-up assessment, and this change was maintained at the 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. Collateral reports mirrored the patient follow-up reports. Secondary outcomes of patient ratings of urges/cravings, depression, anxiety, and general life functioning all indicated significant improvement from baseline over the course of the follow-up. The results suggest the feasibility of conducting systematic outcome assessment in freestanding private addictions treatment environments.
Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers. View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT.
Pescosolido, Nicola; Stefanucci, Alessio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Fazio, Stefano
Amblyopia is a unilateral or bilateral reduction of visual acuity secondary to abnormal visual experience during early childhood. It is one of the most common causes of vision loss and monocular blindness and is commonly associated with strabismus, anisometropia, and visual deprivation (in particular congenital cataract and ptosis). It is clinically defined as a two-line difference of best-corrected visual acuity between the eyes. The purpose of this study was to understand the neural mechanisms of amblyopia and summarize the current therapeutic strategies. In particular, the authors focused on the concept of brain plasticity and its implication for new treatment strategies for children and adults with amblyopia. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy
This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.
Phillips, Rosie; Bourne, Humphrey
Little attention has been paid to understanding the impact of values, attributes and characteristics of drugs workers on therapeutic relationships and treatment outcomes. Interaction of values with other variables is considered to be of importance since values play a role in determining attitudes and behaviours. This exploratory study investigates the impact of drug workers' personal values on client outcomes within a drug treatment service. Eight drug workers and 58 clients were recruited at a UK charity working with problematic drug users who are also socially excluded. Drug workers completed a validated questionnaire to elicit their personal values. Client outcomes were assessed using the Christo Inventory for Substance Misuse Services. The relationship between client outcomes and worker values were analysed using Spearman's rank test of association. Drug workers prioritising stimulation, self-direction and hedonism value types experienced more positive client outcomes compared with those prioritising security, conformity, benevolence, tradition and universalism types. The value types associated with positive outcomes fall within Schwartz's 'openness to change' superordinate dimension, whereas those related to more negative outcomes fall within the 'conservation' dimension. The study suggests that drug workers' personal values may have a significant impact upon client outcomes in the treatment of substance misuse. Reasons for this finding are explored, as are limitations of this study and suggestions for future research.
Horvath, Keith J; Lammert, Sara; LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, José A
This review describes recent literature on novel ways technology is used for assessment of illicit drug use and HIV risk behaviours, suggestions for optimizing intervention acceptability, and recently completed and ongoing technology-based interventions for drug-using persons at risk for HIV and others with high rates of drug use and HIV risk behaviour. Among studies (n = 5) comparing technology-based to traditional assessment methods, those using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) had high rates of reported drug use and high concordance with traditional assessment methods. The two recent studies assessing the acceptability of mHealth approaches overall demonstrate high interest in these approaches. Current or in-progress technology-based interventions (n = 8) are delivered using mobile apps (n = 5), text messaging (n = 2) and computers (n = 1). Most intervention studies are in progress or do not report intervention outcomes; the results from one efficacy trial showed significantly higher HIV testing rates among persons in need of drug treatment. Studies are needed to continually assess technology adoption and intervention preferences among drug-using populations to ensure that interventions are appropriately matched to users. Large-scale technology-based intervention trials to assess the efficacy of these approaches, as well as the impact of individual intervention components, on drug use and other high-risk behaviours are recommended.
Marcio C. Mancini
Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Clinical treatment, however, currently offers disappointing results, with very high rates of weight loss failure or weight regain cycles, and only two drugs (orlistat and sibutramine approved for long-term use. Drugs combinations can be an option for its treatment but, although widely used in clinical practice, very few data are available in literature for its validation. Our review focuses on the rationale for their use, with advantages and disadvantages; on combinations often used, with or without studies; and on new perspectives of combinations being studied mainly by the pharmaceutical industry.
Bell, Andrew S.; Huijben, Silvie; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Sim, Derek G.; Chan, Brian H. K.; Nelson, William A.; Read, Andrew F.
The evolution of drug resistant Plasmodium parasites is a major challenge to effective malaria control. In theory, competitive interactions between sensitive parasites and resistant parasites within infections are a major determinant of the rate at which parasite evolution undermines drug efficacy. Competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated hosts slows the spread of resistance; competitive release following treatment enhances it. Here we report that for the murine model Plasm...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug abuse...
Duley, Lelia; Meher, Shireen; Jones, Leanne
Very high blood pressure during pregnancy poses a serious threat to women and their babies. The aim of antihypertensive therapy is to lower blood pressure quickly but safety, to avoid complications. Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure but their comparative effectiveness and safety, and impact on other substantive outcomes is uncertain. To compare different antihypertensive drugs for very high blood pressure during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (9 January 2013). Studies were randomised trials. Participants were women with severe hypertension during pregnancy. Interventions were comparisons of one antihypertensive drug with another. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Thirty-five trials (3573 women) with 15 comparisons were included. Women allocated calcium channel blockers were less likely to have persistent high blood pressure compared to those allocated hydralazine (six trials, 313 women; 8% versus 22%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.66). Ketanserin was associated with more persistent high blood pressure than hydralazine (three trials, 180 women; 27% versus 6%; RR 4.79, 95% CI 1.95 to 11.73), but fewer side-effects (three trials, 120 women; RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.53) and a lower risk of HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and lowered platelets) syndrome (one trial, 44 women; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.81).Labetalol was associated with a lower risk of hypotension compared to diazoxide (one trial 90 women; RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.99) and a lower risk of caesarean section (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.02), although both were borderline for statistical significance.Both nimodipine and magnesium sulphate were associated with a high incidence of persistent high blood pressure, but this risk was lower for nimodipine compared to magnesium sulphate (one trial
developed, tested and used. Standardised diagrams for the visualisation of results from the assessment have been established, and different diagrams have been developed for different scenarios. For the visualisation of results from single and/or multiple similar trial assessments, tornado-like diagrams were...
Full Text Available Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed.
Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Prete, Alessandro; Kaplan, Peter W; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Salvatori, Roberto
Evidence suggests that there may be drug interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormonal therapies, which can present a challenge to endocrinologists dealing with patients who have both hypopituitarism and neurological diseases. Data are scarce for this subgroup of patients; however, data for the interaction of antiepileptic drugs with the pituitary axis have shown that chronic use of many antiepileptic drugs, such as carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate, enhances hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity, and can decrease serum concentrations of sex hormones. Other antiepileptic drugs increase sex hormone-binding globulin, which reduces the bioactivity of testosterone and estradiol. Additionally, the combined oestrogen-progestagen contraceptive pill might decrease lamotrigine concentrations, which could worsen seizure control. Moreover, sex hormones and their metabolites can directly act on neuronal excitability, acting as neurosteroids. Because carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine can enhance the sensitivity of renal tubules, a reduction in desmopressin dose might be necessary in patients with central diabetes insipidus. Although the effects of antiepileptic drugs in central hypothyroidism have not yet been studied, substantial evidence indicates that several antiepileptic drugs can increase thyroid hormone metabolism. However, although it is reasonable to expect a need for a thyroxine dose increase with some antiepileptic drugs, the effect of excessive thyroxine in lowering seizure threshold should also be considered. There are no reports of significant interactions between antiepileptic drugs and the efficacy of human growth hormone therapy, and few data are available for the effects of second-generation antiepileptic drugs on hypopituitarism treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Yinan; Huang, Yingjie; Lu, Lin
This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence. Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) appear to have positive effects on methamphetamine and ketamine addiction. Both Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Pueraiae (Gegen) have beneficial inhibitory effects on alcohol intake. Sinomenine has been shown to have preventive and curative effects on opioid dependence. l-Stepholidine, an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia (Rulan), attenuated the acquisition, maintenance, and reacquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and antagonized the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines may be used to complement current treatments for drug addiction, including withdrawal and relapse. As the molecular mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese herbal medicines are elucidated, further advances in their use for the treatment of drug addiction are promising. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On the basis of the author's experience as member of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and in order to facilitate the access of new orphan drugs to the patients, some suggestions were given. Among these the following should be taken into account by the regulatory bodies: 1) conditional approval or approval under exceptional circumstances should be granted more frequently; 2) the opinion of international societies for rare diseases should be taken into greater account by the EMA Committees; 3) the guidelines requirements should be interpreted more flexibly; 4) in comparison to the fulfilment of primary and secondary endpoints, the improvement of the quality of life should justify the approval of a new orphan drug; 5) the rigidity of guideline requirements should not prevail over the unmet medical need for severe and lethal rare disorders; 6) the statistical values of clinical data to the limit of significance should not prevail over the opinion of patients' associations and international scientific societies; 7) the current legislation should be amended.
Paulus, Martin P; Stewart, Jennifer L; Haase, Lori
There is emerging evidence that individuals with drug addiction have dysfunctions in brain systems that are important for interoceptive processing, which include, among others, the insular and the anterior cingulate cortices. These individuals may not be expending sufficient neural resources to process perturbations of the interoceptive state but may exert over-activation of these systems when processing drug-related stimuli. As a consequence, insufficient detection and processing of interoceptive state changes may result in inadequate anticipation and preparation to adapt to environmental challenges, e.g., adapt to abstinence in the presence of withdrawal symptoms. Here, we integrate interoceptive dysfunction in drug-addicted individuals, with the neural basis for meditation and exercise to develop a heuristic to target the interoceptive system as potential treatments for drug addiction. First, it is suggested that mindfulness-based approaches can modulate both interoceptive function and insular activation patterns. Second, there is an emerging literature showing that the regulation of physical exercise in the brain involves the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and that intense physical exercise is associated with a insula changes that may provide a window to attenuate the increased interoceptive response to drug-related stimuli. It is concluded that the conceptual framework of interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction and the experimental findings in meditation and exercise provide a useful approach to develop new interventions for drug addiction.
Martin P Paulus
Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that individuals with drug addiction have dysfunctions in brain systems that are important for interoceptive processing, which include, among others, the insular and the anterior cingulate cortices. These individuals may not be expending sufficient neural resources to process perturbations of the interoceptive state but may exert over-activation of these systems when processing drug-related stimuli. As a consequence, insufficient detection and processing of interoceptive state changes may result in inadequate anticipation and preparation to adapt to environmental challenges, e.g. adapt to abstinence in the presence of withdrawal symptoms. Here, we integrate interoceptive dysfunction in drug-addicted individuals, with the neural basis for meditation and exercise to develop a heuristic to target the interoceptive system as potential treatments for drug addiction. First, it is suggested that mindfulness-based approaches can modulate both interoceptive function and insular activation patterns. Second, there is an emerging literature that the regulation of physical exercise in the brain involves the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and that intense physical exercise is associated with a state-dependent activation difference in the insula that may provide a window to attenuate the increased interoceptive response drug related stimuli. It is concluded that the conceptual framework of interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction and the experimental findings in meditation and exercise provide a useful approach to develop new interventions for drug addiction.
Mead, Emma; Atkinson, Greg; Richter, Bernd; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Baur, Louise; Finer, Nicholas; Corpeleijn, Eva; O'Malley, Claire; Ells, Louisa J.
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL,
... of functional independence and quality of life. Aim: The main purpose of this study was to assess the results of non-drug non-invasive treatment in the management of LBP. Subjects and Methods: This was prospective study conducted in the Department of Orthopedics in M. M. Medical College, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, ...
Abida*, Md. Tauqir Alam, Mohd. Imran, Said A.H. El-Feky, Mohamed A.M. Hagga
Fibromyalgia is a disorder, which is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, memory, mood, and sleep issues. Scientists believe that this condition may be due to injury, emotional distress, or viruses that change the way the brain perceives pain, but the exact cause is unclear. Generally, fibromyalgia is treated with antidepressants, pain relievers, and Anti-seizure drugs. There is not much specific treatment available for the treatment and management of fibro...
nucleotides with specific enzymes (67). Some commonly used purine analogs 20 6- Mercaptopurine 6-Thioguanine SH SH Ni N N N NH 2 NkN N H H Azathiopine CH3...Chemotherapeutic Drugs. 21 include: 6- Mercaptopurine , which is used for the treatment of acute leukemias (Fig 4). 6-Thioguanine, which is also used in the treatment... degradation of nucleic acids or nucleotides. In contrast, Leihmania. spp. rely primarily on the salvage pathways for their source of nucleotides. They
At the seven-year anniversary of the first catheter-based renal denervation procedure for resistant hypertension, it is timely to reflect on the past, present, and future of the development and clinical application of this treatment. Unresolved procedural and technical questions are central: How much renal denervation is optimal? How can this level of denervation be achieved? What test for denervation can be applied in renal denervation trials? Will renal denervation show a "class effect," with the different energy forms now used for renal nerve ablation producing equivalent blood pressure lowering? When I have assessed renal denervation efficacy, using measurements of the spillover of norepinephrine from the renal sympathetic nerves to plasma, the only test validated to this point, denervation was found to be incomplete and non-uniform between patients. It is probable that the degree of denervation has commonly been suboptimal in renal denervation trials; this criticism applying with special force to the Symplicity HTN-3 trial, where the proceduralists, although expert interventional cardiologists, had no prior experience with the renal denervation technique. Recently presented results from the Symplicity HTN-3 trial confirm that renal denervation was not achieved effectively or consistently. Given this, and other difficulties in the execution of the trial relating to drug adherence, an idea mooted is that the US pivotal trial of the future may be in younger, untreated patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mattson, Curtis; Powers, Bradley; Halfaker, Dale; Akeson, Steven; Ben-Porath, Yossef
We examined the ability of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) substantive scales to predict Drug Court treatment completion in a sample of individuals identified as being at risk for failure to complete the program. Higher scores on MMPI-2-RF scales…
We have published "Guideline for the Treatment of Graves' Disease with Antithyroid Drug in Japan 2006" in the middle of May from the Japan Thyroid Association. The background, working process, composition, aim and significance of this guideline are described. The most remarkable feature of this guideline is "evidence based".
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS of a putative autoimmune origin characterized by neurologic dysfunction disseminated in space and time due to demyelination and axonal loss that results in progressive disability. Recent advances in understanding the immune pathogenesis of the disease resulted in the introduction of numerous effective immunomodulatoty drugs having diverse mechanisms of action, modes of administration and risk-benefit profiles. This results in more complex albeit more promising treatment selection and choices. The epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis and diagnosis of the disease are discussed. The mode of action and main characteristics of current immunomodulatory drugs for MS and their place in the therapeutic algorithm of the disease based on evidence from clinical trials are described. Speculation on new paradigms, treatment goals and outcome measures aimed at improving the landscape of MS treatment is presented. Multiple disease, drug and patient-related factors should be taken into consideration when selecting the appropriate drug and treatment strategy to the appropriate patient, thus paving the road for personalized medicine in MS.
Compares a new approach to treatment using traditional social work. Reports on the therapeutic regimen and Results/Kinesiology (RK), which addresses body-mind control, brain hemispheric integration, energy balancing, and stress elimination. Examination of 40 women addicted to alcohol and/or drugs indicated that RK helped with anxiety,…
Den Boer, JA; Bosker, FJ; Slaap, BR
Serotonergic dysfunction has been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, including depressive and anxiety disorders. Much of the evidence for the role of serotonin (5-HT) in these disorders comes from treatment studies with serotonergic drugs, including selective serotonin
Due diligence in the process of provision of healthcare services refers, among other elements, to the application of pharmacological therapy at a time which offers the greatest chance for a successful outcome of treatment, i.e. for achieving the optimum expected effect understood as an improvement in the patient's health, reduction of health risks or elimination of the disease. However, due diligence may also refer to actions aimed at ensuring that neither the patient nor the healthcare payer is required to incur unreasonable costs in the process of treatment. The validity of that statement stems not only from normative acts but also from ethical standards laid down in the Medical Code of Ethics (Article 57 section 2). It often happens that the provision of optimal treatment calls for deviations from the formal provisions included in Summary Product Characteristics (SPCs), and the application of drugs that are bioequivalent to reference drugs, which translates into a significant reduction of costs. The present study addresses the problem of acceptability of a specific form of drug substitution consisting in the replacement of a reference drug with a generic drug. Also explored are legal aspects associated with the possibility of therapy based on “off-label use”. The study reviews normative acts existing in the Polish and EU legislation. It also provides a clear definition of orphan drug, which has made it possible to make a distinction and investigate mutual relations between the concepts of brand-name (reference) drug, orphan drug and generic drug. PMID:24592133
Zajdel, Justyna; Zajdel, Radosław
Due diligence in the process of provision of healthcare services refers, among other elements, to the application of pharmacological therapy at a time which offers the greatest chance for a successful outcome of treatment, i.e. for achieving the optimum expected effect understood as an improvement in the patient's health, reduction of health risks or elimination of the disease. However, due diligence may also refer to actions aimed at ensuring that neither the patient nor the healthcare payer is required to incur unreasonable costs in the process of treatment. The validity of that statement stems not only from normative acts but also from ethical standards laid down in the Medical Code of Ethics (Article 57 section 2). It often happens that the provision of optimal treatment calls for deviations from the formal provisions included in Summary Product Characteristics (SPCs), and the application of drugs that are bioequivalent to reference drugs, which translates into a significant reduction of costs. The present study addresses the problem of acceptability of a specific form of drug substitution consisting in the replacement of a reference drug with a generic drug. Also explored are legal aspects associated with the possibility of therapy based on "off-label use". The study reviews normative acts existing in the Polish and EU legislation. It also provides a clear definition of orphan drug, which has made it possible to make a distinction and investigate mutual relations between the concepts of brand-name (reference) drug, orphan drug and generic drug.
Immunotherapy has a great potential of becoming a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs. It may be used to treat addiction but also to prevent neurotoxic complications of drug overdose. In preclinical studies two immunological methods have been tested; active immunization, which relies on the administration of vaccines and passive immunization, which relies on the administration of monoclonal antibodies. Until now researchers have succeeded in developing vaccines and/or antibodies against addiction to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and phencyclidine. Their effectiveness has been confirmed in preclinical studies. At present, clinical studies are being conducted for vaccines against nicotine and cocaine and also anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. These preclinical and clinical studies suggest that immunotherapy may be useful in the treatment of addiction and drug overdose. However, there are a few problems to be solved. One of them is controlling the level of antibodies due to variability between subjects. But even obtaining a suitable antibody titer does not guarantee the effectiveness of the vaccine. Additionally, there is a risk of intentional or unintentional overdose. As vaccines prevent passing of drugs through the blood/brain barrier and thereby prevent their positive reinforcement, some addicted patients may erroneously seek higher doses of psychoactive substances to get "high". Consequently, vaccination should be targeted at persons who have a strong motivation to free themselves from drug dependency. It seems that immunotherapy may be an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction if directed to adequate candidates for treatment. For other addicts, immunotherapy may be a very important element supporting psycho- and pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kobes, Joseph E; Daryaei, Iman; Howison, Christine M; Bontrager, Jordan G; Sirianni, Rachael W; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J; Pagel, Mark D
This research study sought to improve the treatment of pancreatic cancer by improving the drug delivery of a promising AKT/PDK1 inhibitor, PHT-427, in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. PHT-427 was encapsulated in single-emulsion and double-emulsion PLGA nanoparticles (SE-PLGA-427 and DE-PLGA-427). The drug release rate was evaluated to assess the effect of the second PLGA layer of DE-PLGA-427. Ex vivo cryo-imaging and drug extraction from ex vivo organs was used to assess the whole-body biodistribution in an orthotopic model of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to noninvasively assess the effects of 4 weeks of nanoparticle drug treatment on tumor size, and diffusion-weighted MRI longitudinally assessed changes in tumor cellularity. DE-PLGA-427 showed delayed drug release and longer drug retention in the pancreas relative to SE-PLGA-427. Diffusion-weighted MRI indicated a consistent decrease in cellularity during drug treatment with both types of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Both SE- and DE-PLGA-427 showed a 6-fold and 4-fold reduction in tumor volume relative to untreated tumors and an elimination of primary pancreatic tumor in 68% of the mice. These results indicated that the PLGA nanoparticles improved drug delivery of PHT-427 to pancreatic tumors, which improved the treatment of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer.
Blair, Louis H.; Sessler, John
Addiction to illicit hard drugs, and particularly opiates, has increased in the past few years. Yet, there are few comprehensive evaluations of the treatment systems, and there is little systematic planning for programs to meet current and anticipated changes in the community's need for treatment. This report has been written to assist community…
Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B
Detection of drug-drug interactions is essential during the early stages of drug discovery and development, and the understanding of drug-botanical interactions is important for the safe use of botanical dietary supplements. Among the different forms of drug interactions that are known, inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is the most common cause of drug-drug or drug-botanical interactions. Therefore, a rapid and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based in vitro high-throughput P450 cocktail inhibition assay was developed that uses 10 substrates simultaneously against nine CYP isoforms. Including probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and two probes targeting different binding sites of CYP3A4/5, this cocktail simultaneously assesses at least as many P450 enzymes as previous assays while remaining among the fastest due to short incubation times and rapid analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated using known inhibitors of each P450 enzyme and then shown to be useful not only for single-compound testing but also for the evaluation of potential drug-botanical interactions using the botanical dietary supplement licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as an example. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Maze, M J; Paynter, J; Chiu, W; Hu, R; Nisbet, M; Lewis, C
There is uncertainty as to the optimal therapeutic concentrations of anti-tuberculosis drugs to achieve cure. To characterise the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), and identify risk factors and outcomes for those with concentrations below the drug interval. Patients treated for tuberculosis (TB) who had rifampicin (RMP) or isoniazid (INH) concentrations measured between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012 were studied retrospectively. Matched concentrations and drug dosing time were assessed according to contemporary regional drug intervals (RMP > 6 μmol/l, INH > 7.5 μmol/l) and current international recommendations (RMP > 10 μmol/l, INH > 22 μmol/l). Outcomes were assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Of 865 patients, 121 had concentrations of either or both medications. RMP concentrations were within the regional drug intervals in 106/114 (93%) and INH in 91/100 (91%). Concentrations were within international drug intervals for RMP in 76/114 (67%) and INH in 53/100 (53%). Low weight-based dose was the only statistically significant risk factor for concentrations below the drug interval. Of the 35 patients with low concentrations, 21 were cured, 9 completed treatment and 5 transferred out. There were no relapses during follow-up (mean 66.5 months). There were no clinically useful characteristics to guide use of TDM. Many patients had concentrations below international therapeutic intervals, but were successfully treated.
Vicente, Jose; Stockbridge, Norman; Strauss, David G
Fourteen drugs were removed from the market worldwide because their potential to cause torsade de pointes (torsade), a potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmia. The observation that most drugs that cause torsade block the potassium channel encoded by the human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) and prolong the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) on the ECG, led to a focus on screening new drugs for their potential to block the hERG potassium channel and prolong QTc. This has been a successful strategy keeping torsadogenic drugs off the market, but has resulted in drugs being dropped from development, sometimes inappropriately. This is because not all drugs that block the hERG potassium channel and prolong QTc cause torsade, sometimes because they block other channels. The regulatory paradigm is evolving to improve proarrhythmic risk prediction. ECG studies can now use exposure-response modeling for assessing the effect of a drug on the QTc in small sample size first-in-human studies. Furthermore, the Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative is developing and validating a new in vitro paradigm for cardiac safety evaluation of new drugs that provides a more accurate and comprehensive mechanistic-based assessment of proarrhythmic potential. Under CiPA, the prediction of proarrhythmic potential will come from in vitro ion channel assessments coupled with an in silico model of the human ventricular myocyte. The preclinical assessment will be checked with an assessment of human phase 1 ECG data to determine if there are unexpected ion channel effects in humans compared to preclinical ion channel data. While there is ongoing validation work, the heart rate corrected J-T peak interval is likely to be assessed under CiPA to detect inward current block in presence of hERG potassium channel block. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV remains high amongst people who inject drugs (PWID and accounts for the majority of newly acquired infections. This study aims to quantify the value of treatment amongst PWID with more efficacious treatments and at increased uptake rates, with respect to the avoidance of future infections and subsequent long-term complications of HCV.A dynamic HCV transmission and disease progression model was developed, incorporating acute and chronic infection and their long-term complications (decompensated cirrhosis, cancer, liver transplant and mortality, with the potential for HCV transmission to other PWID prior to successful treatment. The model was populated with prevalence and therapy data from a UK setting. Scenarios of current standard of care (SoC treatment efficacy and uptake were compared to anticipated sustained virologic response (SVR rates of 90-100% and increased uptake over varied horizons.SoC led to modest reductions in prevalence; >5% after 200 years. New treatments achieving 90% SVR could reduce prevalence below 5% within 60 years at current uptake rates or within 5 years if all patients are treated. Amongst 4,240 PWID, chronic HCV infections avoided as a result of increasing treatment uptake over the period 2015-2027 ranged from 20-580 and 34-912 with SoC and 90% SVR rates respectively. The reduction in downstream HCV infections due to increasing treatment uptake resulted in an approximate discounted gain of 300 life-years (from avoiding reduced life expectancy from HCV infection and a gain of 1,700 QALYs (from avoiding the disutility of HCV infection and related complications, with a projected £5.4 million cost saving.While improved SVR profiles led to reductions in modelled prevalence, increased treatment uptake was the key driver of future infections avoided. Increased treatment among PWID with new more efficacious therapies could significantly change the future dynamics, cost and health
Full Text Available Stereoselectivity in drug metabolism can not only influence the pharmacological activities, tolerability, safety, and bioavailability of drugs directly, but also cause different kinds of drug–drug interactions. Thus, assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism is of great significance for pharmaceutical research and development (R&D and rational use in clinic. Although there are various methods available for assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism, many of them have shortcomings. The indirect method of chromatographic methods can only be applicable to specific samples with functional groups to be derivatized or form complex with a chiral selector, while the direct method achieved by chiral stationary phases (CSPs is expensive. As a detector of chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry (MS is highly sensitive and specific, whereas the matrix interference is still a challenge to overcome. In addition, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and immunoassay in chiral analysis are worth noting. This review presents several typical examples of drug stereoselective metabolism and provides a literature-based evaluation on current chiral analytical techniques to show the significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism.
Nutt, David J
Anxiety disorders are common and often disabling. They fall into five main categories: panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, each of which have characteristic symptoms and cognitions. All anxiety disorders respond to drugs and psychological treatments. This review will focus on drug treatments. Recent research has emphasized the value of antidepressants especially the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and related sedative-like compounds. The common co-existence of depression with all of the anxiety disorders means that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are now generally considered to be the first-line treatments but the benzodiazepines have some utility especially in promoting sleep and working acutely to reduce extreme distress.
McClure, Erin A; Campbell, Aimee N C; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Meichen; Winhusen, Theresa; Vandrey, Ryan G; Ruglass, Lesia M; Covey, Lirio S; Stitzer, Maxine L; Kyle, Tiffany L; Nunes, Edward V
The majority of patients enrolled in treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) also use tobacco. Many will continue to use tobacco even during abstinence from other drugs and alcohol, often leading to smoking-related illnesses. Despite this, little research has been conducted to assess the influence of being a smoker on SUD treatment outcomes and changes in smoking during a treatment episode. In this secondary analysis, cigarette smoking was evaluated in participants completing outpatient SUD treatment as part of a multi-site study conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Analyses included the assessment of changes in smoking and nicotine dependence via the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence during the 12-week study among all smokers (aim #1), specifically among those in the experimental treatment group (aim #2), and the moderating effect of being a smoker on treatment outcomes (aim #3). Participants generally did not reduce or quit smoking throughout the course of the study. Among a sub-set of participants with higher baseline nicotine dependence scores randomized to the control arm, scores at the end of treatment were lower compared to the experimental arm, though measures of smoking quantity did not appear to decrease. Further, being a smoker was associated with poorer treatment outcomes compared to non-smokers enrolled in the trial. This study provides evidence that patients enrolled in community-based SUD treatment continue to smoke, even when abstaining from drugs and alcohol. These results add to the growing literature encouraging the implementation of targeted, evidence-based interventions to promote abstinence from tobacco among SUD treatment patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Evidence supporting the efficacy of beta blockers in anxiety is reviewed. Propranolol and oxprenolol are the most clearly established in efficacy. A placebo-controlled trial is described, in which propranolol and atenolol were both effective in the symptomatic treatment of generalized anxiety in patients who had been referred by their family doctors for specialist treatment. If initial psychological treatment for chronic anxiety is ineffective, and a drug is considered necessary, then a beta blocker or an antidepressant should be considered as first choice in preference to a benzodiazepine.
Andrew W. Campbell
Full Text Available Onychomycosis is a common nail disease responsible for approximately 50% of diseases of the nail. It occurs more in the elderly, though several cases have been reported among children. Several factors influence, such as climate, geography, and migration. The two dermatophytes most commonly implicated in onychomycosis are Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, accounting for more than 90% of onychomycoses. Nonetheless, several other toxigenic molds have been implicated. For convenience, onychomycosis is divided into four major clinical presentations: distal subungal, which is the most common form of the disease; proximal subungal, which is the most common form found in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; superficial; and total dystrophic onychomycosis. Epidemiology of onychomycosis in adults and children is evaluated and the most common clinical symptoms addressed. Although the risk factors are discussed, the multifactorial nature of onychomycosis makes this inexhaustible. The diagnosis and treatments are difficult and the choice of appropriate antifungal drugs complex and require the knowledge of the chemical structures of the metabolites of the molds that cause onychomycosis and their interaction with the antifungal drugs. This is true because most of the antifungal drugs are derived from mold/fungal metabolism. Treatment with griseofulvin and amphotericin is displaced by the use of newer drugs from azole compounds, pyrimidines, and allylamines derivatives. Amorolfine, itraconazole, and ciclopirox nail lacquer solution 8 have gained support globally, but the side effects, drug resistance, and persistence of the disease are still a serious concern to the patients, just as economics and quality of life. Hence, the search for safer and more efficacious drug treatments are continuing.
Laís Bastos da Fonseca
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that, according to the World Health Organization, constitutes a major public health problem associated with severe morbidity, mostly children in preschool age. The administration of drugs in children always constitutes a difficult task, especially when formulations are not developed specifically for pediatric use, when high doses of drug are required and the drug has a bitter taste, as in the case of praziquantel. Polymer nanoparticles are promising systems for development of encapsulated drugs with low water solubility and bitter taste, due to the good physical and chemical stability, adequate biocompatibility and simple manufacturing processes. Moreover, they can enhance the bioavailabili-ty and reduce variability of treatment among patients. Poly (methyl methacrylate doped with praziquantel was produced through a miniemulsion polymerization pro-cess to compose a pediatric pharmaceutical suspension. Nanoparticles were cha-racterized in terms of physico-chemical properties, toxicological properties and biological activity in mice, being concluded that obtained results were satisfactory. The results were encapsulation rate around 90%, absence of chemical interaction drug - polymer and the presence of biological activity. A collaborative approach was used for this development, involving national partnerships and independent funding mechanisms, a powerful pathway for development of drugs for neglected diseases.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common, complex chronic widespread pain condition is characterized by fatigue, sleep disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. Treatment of FM is difficult, requiring both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches, with an empiric approach to drug therapy focused toward individual symptoms, particularly pain. The effectiveness of current medications is limited with many patients discontinuing use. A systemic database search has identified 26 molecular entities as potential emerging drug therapies. Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of FM provides clues to targets for new medications. Investigation of bioamine modulation and α2δ ligands and novel targets such as dopamine receptors, NMDA receptors, cannabinoid receptors, melatonin receptors and potassium channels has identified potential drug therapies. Modest improvement of health status in patients with FM has been observed with drugs targeting a diverse range of molecular mechanisms. No single drug, however, offered substantial efficacy against all the symptoms characteristic of FM. Identification of new and improved therapies for FM needs to address the heterogeneity of the condition, which suggests existence of patient subgroups, the relationship of central and peripheral aspects of the pathophysiology and a requirement of combination therapy with drugs targeting multiple molecular mechanisms.
Full Text Available The rapid evolution of influenza virus makes antiviral drugs less effective, which is considered to be a major bottleneck in antiviral therapy. The key proteins in the host cells, which are related with the replication cycle of influenza virus, are regarded as potential drug targets due to their distinct advantage of lack of evolution and drug resistance. Cdc2-like kinase 1 (CLK1 in the host cells is responsible for alternative splicing of the M2 gene of influenza virus during influenza infection and replication. In this study, we carried out baculovirus-mediated expression and purification of CLK1 and established a reliable screening assay for CLK1 inhibitors. After a virtual screening of CLK1 inhibitors was performed, the activities of the selected compounds were evaluated. Finally, several compounds with strong inhibitory activity against CLK1 were discovered and their in vitro anti-influenza virus activities were validated using a cytopathic effect (CPE reduction assay. The assay results showed that clypearin, corilagin, and pinosylvine were the most potential anti-influenza virus compounds as CLK1 inhibitors among the compounds tested. These findings will provide important information for new drug design and development in influenza treatment, and CLK1 may be a potent drug target for anti-influenza drug screening and discovery.
Villa, Jordan C; Gianakos, Arianna; Lane, Joseph M
Bisphosphonates are the most widely used treatment for osteoporosis. They accumulate in the bone for years, and therefore, their inhibitory effects on osteoclasts may persist after drug discontinuation. The ideal duration of therapy remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to review the literature to determine the (1) indications for drug holiday, (2) the duration of drug holiday, (3) the evaluation during drug holiday, and (4) the proper treatment and maintenance after drug holiday. A review of two electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE) was conducted using the term "(Drug holiday)," in January 29, 2015. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) clinical trials and case control, (2) human studies, (3) published in a peer-review journal, and (4) written in English. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) case reports, (2) case series, and (3) in vitro studies. The literature supports a therapeutic pause after 3-5 years of bisphosphonate treatment in patients with minor bone deficiencies and no recent fragility fracture (low risk) and in patients with moderate bone deficiencies and/or recent fragility fracture (moderate risk). In these patients, a bone health reevaluation is recommended every 1-3 years. Patients with high fracture risk should be maintained on bisphosphonate therapy without drug holiday. The duration and length of drug holiday should be individualized for each patient. Evaluation should be based on serial bone mass measurements, bone turnover rates, and fracture history evaluation. If after drug therapy, assessments show an increased risk of fracture, the patient may benefit from initiating another treatment. Raloxifene, teriparatide, or denosumab are available options.
Ridder, III, William; Karsolia,Apoorva
William H Ridder III, Apoorva Karsolia Southern California College of Optometry, Marshall B Ketchum University, Fullerton, CA, USA Abstract: Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most commonly encountered conditions for eye care practitioners. The prevalence of DED can be as high as 30% of the population. In the past decade, only one drug has been approved for the treatment of DED by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA (ie, Restasis® by Allergan, Inc.). The total annua...
Oriol, Albert; Motlló, Cristina
Progress in the treatment of multiple myeloma in the last decade has been able to delay, but ultimately not to prevent, the development of resistances and most patients still die of the disease or its related complications. New drugs have been developed including new alkylating agents, proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulators but also monoclonal antibodies and drugs with new mechanisms of action. Hopefully, this new generation of targeted agents will improve the results of the initial therapy, avoid relapses and development of resistances and provide better and less toxic options for the relapsed and refractory patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Poghosyan, Yuri M; Hakobyan, Koryun A; Poghosyan, Anna Yu; Avetisyan, Eduard K
Retrospective study of jaw osteonecrosis treatment in patients using the "Krokodil" drug from 2009 to 2013. On the territory of the former USSR countries there is widespread use of a self-produced drug called "Krokodil". Codeine containing analgesics ("Sedalgin", "Pentalgin" etc), red phosphorus (from match boxes) and other easily acquired chemical components are used for synthesis of this drug, which used intravenously. Jaw osteonecrosis develops as a complication in patients who use "Krokodil". The main feature of this disease is jawbone exposure in the oral cavity. Surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". 40 "Krokodil" drug addict patients with jaw osteonecrosis were treated. Involvement of maxilla was found in 11 patients (27.5%), mandible in 21 (52.5%), both jaws in 8 (20%) patients. 35 Lesions were found in 29 mandibles and 21 lesions in 19 maxillas. Main factors of treatment success are: cessation of "Krokodil" use in the pre- (minimum 1 month) and postoperative period and osteonecrosis area resection of a minimum of 0.5 cm beyond the visible borders of osteonecrosis towards the healthy tissues. Surgery was not delayed until sequestrum formation. In the mandible marginal or segmental resection (with or without TMJ exarticulation) was performed. After surgery recurrence of disease was seen in 8 (23%) cases in the mandible, with no cases of recurrence in the maxilla. According to our experience in this case series, surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". Cessation of drug use and jaw resection minimize the rate of recurrences in such patients. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Collins, Cyleste C; Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing
Most studies of parents in drug treatment have focused exclusively on mothers, and few studies have examined the effects of parents' level of involvement with their children on the parents' drug use and psychological functioning, either before or after treatment. This study examined mothers and fathers (n = 331) who were parents of children under the age of 18; participants were sampled from 19 drug treatment programs across four types of treatment modalities in Los Angeles County. A majority of each group (57% of 214 mothers and 51% of 117 fathers) were classified as being highly involved with their children. At the baseline assessment, higher parental involvement was related to lower levels of addiction severity, psychological severity, and symptoms of psychological distress, and to higher levels of self-esteem and perception of parenting skills. In general, fathers had higher levels of alcohol and drug-use severity than did mothers, but fathers who were more involved with their children showed lower levels of addiction severity than fathers who were less involved. Parental involvement at baseline was unrelated to drug use at the 12-month follow-up, although parents who were less involved with their children reported experiencing more stressors. Given the association of parental involvement with lower levels of addiction severity and psychological distress at baseline, treatment protocols should build upon the positive relationships of parents with their children, and seek to improve those of less-involved parents.
Lloyd, Belinda; Zahnow, Renee; Barratt, Monica J; Best, David; Lubman, Dan I; Ferris, Jason
Studies consistently identify substance treatment populations as more likely to die prematurely compared with age-matched general population, with mortality risk higher out-of-treatment than in-treatment. While opioid-using pharmacotherapy cohorts have been studied extensively, less evidence exists regarding effects of other treatment types, and clients in treatment for other drugs. This paper examines mortality during and following treatment across treatment modalities. A retrospective seven-year cohort was utilised to examine mortality during and in the two years following treatment among clients from Victoria, Australia, recorded on the Alcohol and Drug Information Service database by linking with National Death Index. 18,686 clients over a 12-month period were included. Crude (CMRs) and standardised mortality rates (SMRs) were analysed in terms of treatment modality, and time in or out of treatment. Higher risk of premature death was associated with residential withdrawal as the last type of treatment engagement, while mortality following counselling was significantly lower than all other treatment types in the year post-treatment. Both CMRs and SMRs were significantly higher in-treatment than post-treatment. Better understanding of factors contributing to elevated mortality risk for clients engaged in, and following treatment, is needed to ensure that treatment systems provide optimal outcomes during and after treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrew S Bell
Full Text Available The evolution of drug resistant Plasmodium parasites is a major challenge to effective malaria control. In theory, competitive interactions between sensitive parasites and resistant parasites within infections are a major determinant of the rate at which parasite evolution undermines drug efficacy. Competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated hosts slows the spread of resistance; competitive release following treatment enhances it. Here we report that for the murine model Plasmodium chabaudi, co-infection with drug-sensitive parasites can prevent the transmission of initially rare resistant parasites to mosquitoes. Removal of drug-sensitive parasites following chemotherapy enabled resistant parasites to transmit to mosquitoes as successfully as sensitive parasites in the absence of treatment. We also show that the genetic composition of gametocyte populations in host venous blood accurately reflects the genetic composition of gametocytes taken up by mosquitoes. Our data demonstrate that, at least for this mouse model, aggressive chemotherapy leads to very effective transmission of highly resistant parasites that are present in an infection, the very parasites which undermine the long term efficacy of front-line drugs.
Gupta, Aditya K; Versteeg, Sarah G; Shear, Neil H
Antifungal agents can be co-administered alongside several other medications for a variety of reasons such as the presence of comorbidities. Pharmacodynamic interactions such as synergistic and antagonistic interactions could be the result of co-administered medications. Pharmacokinetic interactions could also transpire through the inhibition of metabolizing enzymes and drug transport systems, altering the absorption, metabolism and excretion of co-administered medications. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions can result in hospitalization due to serious adverse effects associated with antifungal agents, lower therapeutic doses required to achieve desired antifungal activity, and prevent antifungal resistance. Areas covered: The objective of this review is to summarize pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions associated with common antifungal agents used to treat superficial fungal infections. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions that impact the therapeutic effects of antifungal agents and drugs that are influenced by the presence of antifungal agents was the context to which these antifungal agents were addressed. Expert opinion: The potential for drug-drug interactions is minimal for topical antifungals as opposed to oral antifungals as they have minimal exposure to other co-administered medications. Developing non-lipophilic antifungals that have unique metabolizing pathways and are topical applied are suggested properties that could help limit drug-drug interactions associated with future treatments.
Park, John W
Drug delivery systems can in principle provide enhanced efficacy and/or reduced toxicity for anticancer agents. Long circulating macromolecular carriers such as liposomes can exploit the 'enhanced permeability and retention' effect for preferential extravasation from tumor vessels. Liposomal anthracyclines have achieved highly efficient drug encapsulation, resulting in significant anticancer activity with reduced cardiotoxicity, and include versions with greatly prolonged circulation such as liposomal daunorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. Pegylated liposomal doxorubucin has shown substantial efficacy in breast cancer treatment both as monotherapy and in combination with other chemotherapeutics. Additional liposome constructs are being developed for the delivery of other drugs. The next generation of delivery systems will include true molecular targeting; immunoliposomes and other ligand-directed constructs represent an integration of biological components capable of tumor recognition with delivery technologies
... poisoning and unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium thiosulfate labeled for the treatment of... for the treatment of cyanide poisoning are new drugs that require approved new drug applications (NDAs... Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection drug product, labeled for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning...
Schiffer, Wynne K. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences.
Schiffer, Wynne K.; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L.
Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences
Han, Yun; Lin, Veronique; Wu, Fei; Hser, Yih-Ing
Few studies have focused on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), despite indications of increasing substance abuse among AAPIs in recent years. This prospective longitudinal study examined gender differences among AAPIs in treatment. The study included 567 (177 women, 390 men) AAPI patients drawn from two prior studies, one with 32 community treatment programs in 13 California counties (CalTOP, 3, 9 months), and another project including 36 treatment sites in 5 California counties (TSI, 3, 12 months). Baseline and follow-up assessments utilized the Addiction Severity Index(ASI). A subset of patients was assessed at 3 and 9/12 months (n = 106). Significant gender-related differences were observed at baseline: fewer women than men were employed or never married. More women were living with someone having alcohol and drug problems. Methamphetamine was the primary drug for women and men, followed by alcohol and heroin. Compared to AAPI men, AAPI women reported greater problem severity in family/social relationships (0.18 vs. 0.11, p drug, and legal domains for both genders, and in mental health for men only. Compared to AAPI men, AAPI women demonstrated significantly greater improvements in drug problems (ΔASI = 0.07, p drug use problems for AAPI men.
Tomek, Seven E; Lacrosse, Amber L; Nemirovsky, Natali E; Olive, M Foster
Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function.
M. Foster Olive
Full Text Available Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function.
Veninga, C.C.M.; Denig, P.; Pont, L.G.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.
Objective. To compare different indicators for assessing the quality of drug prescribing and establish their agreement in identifying doctors who may not adhere to treatment guidelines. Data Sources/Study Setting. Data from 181 general practitioners (GPs) from The Netherlands. The case of asthma is
Irrational drug use in neuropathic pain treatment: a twoyear data analysis. E Tan, A Akıncı, G Ayvaz, T Erbaş, M Ertaş, O Güç, S Hepgüler, S Kiraz, SZ Oşar, S Öztürk, NS Özyalçın, S Palaoğlu, M Uyar, S Ünal, S Yalçın ...
Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh
Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376
Gee, Gilbert C; Delva, Jorge; Takeuchi, David T
We examined associations between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence. We used data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey, a cross-sectional investigation involving 2217 Filipino Americans interviewed in 1998-1999. Multinomial logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used in assessing associations between unfair treatment and the substance use categories. Reports of unfair treatment were associated with prescription drug use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence after control for age, gender, location of residence, employment status, educational level, ethnic identity level, nativity, language spoken, marital status, and several health conditions. Unfair treatment may contribute to illness and subsequent use of prescription medications. Furthermore, some individuals may use illicit drugs and alcohol to cope with the stress associated with such treatment. Addressing the antecedents of unfair treatment may be a potential intervention route.
van Wormer, Katherine; Persson, Lance Edwards
A large percentage of inmates in the U.S. federal prison system have serious drug problems and are in need of treatment before they return to society. Accordingly, the Federal Bureau of Prisons has revamped substance abuse programming consistent with the latest research and expanded treatment services throughout its institutions. This article…
von Ferber, L; Luciano, A; Köster, I; Krappweis, J
Drugs in primary health care are often prescribed for nonrational reasons. Drug utilization research investigates the prescription of drugs with an eye to medical, social and economic causes and consequences of the prescribed drug's utilization. The results of this research show distinct differences in drug utilization in different age groups and between men and women. Indication and dosage appear irrational from a textbook point of view. This indicates nonpharmacological causes of drug utilization. To advice successfully changes for the better quality assessment groups of primary health care physicians get information about their established behavior by analysis of their prescriptions. The discussion and the comparisons in the group allow them to recognize their irrational prescribing and the social, psychological and economic reasons behind it. Guidelines for treatment are worked out which take into account the primary health care physician's situation. After a year with 6 meetings of the quality assessment groups the education process is evaluated by another drug utilization analysis on the basis of the physicians prescription. The evaluation shows a remarkable improvement of quality and cost effectiveness of the drug therapy of the participating physicians.
Debnath, Anjan; Calvet, Claudia M; Jennings, Gareth; Zhou, Wenxu; Aksenov, Alexander; Luth, Madeline R; Abagyan, Ruben; Nes, W David; McKerrow, James H; Podust, Larissa M
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i) systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii) identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii) analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.
Full Text Available Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Similar to fungi, N. fowleri has an essential requirement for ergosterol, a building block of plasma and cell membranes. Disruption of sterol biosynthesis by small-molecule inhibitors is a validated interventional strategy against fungal pathogens of medical and agricultural importance. The N. fowleri genome encodes the sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51 target sharing ~35% sequence identity to fungal orthologues. The similarity of targets raises the possibility of repurposing anti-mycotic drugs and optimization of their usage for the treatment of PAM. In this work, we (i systematically assessed the impact of anti-fungal azole drugs, known as conazoles, on sterol biosynthesis and viability of cultured N. fowleri trophozotes, (ii identified the endogenous CYP51 substrate by mass spectrometry analysis of N. fowleri lipids, and (iii analyzed the interactions between the recombinant CYP51 target and conazoles by UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography. Collectively, the target-based and parasite-based data obtained in these studies validated CYP51 as a potentially 'druggable' target in N. fowleri, and conazole drugs as the candidates for assessment in the animal model of PAM.
Elisaldo A. Carlini
Full Text Available The topic "Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Addictions" in a country must be preceded by answers to four questions: 1. Does the country in question possess a biodiversity rich enough to allow the discovery of useful medicines? 2. Do local people have tradition and culture to look for and use resources from Nature to alleviate and cure diseases, including drug dependence? 3. Is drug dependence (or addiction present in the country in question? 4. Do people of that country recognize and diagnose such problem as a serious one? Alcohol is, by far, the most serious health problem when drug abuse is considered, reaching all of Brazilian society, including the Indians. On the contrary, other drugs may be considered as minor problems and they are not the main focus of this manuscript. The people living in Brazilian hinterland don’t have access to public health systems. Consequently, these people seek assistance from "curandeiros" and "raizeiros"; the Indians are assisted by the shaman. These "folk doctors" do not know the academic medicine and therapeutics, and resort to the local plants to treat different ailments of their patients. Furthermore, alcohol abuse and dependence are not recognized by them, according to the rules and criteria of academic medicine. We have conducted a survey in many Brazilian books, Thesis concerning phytotherapy, and several databank. The results of such searches were very disappointing. No published papers from Brazilian authors concerning the use of plants for the treatment of addictions were found in the databases and there were only three very short notes in the masterly book written by Shultes and Raffauf (1990. From the Brazilian books on folk medicine employing medicinal plants, ten mentions were disclosed: most of them dealing with treatment of alcohol problems and two to counteract "Ayahuasca" dependence.
Barra, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ditto, Antonino; Bogani, Giorgio; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Ferrero, Simone
Cervical cancer (CC) is currently the fourth most common malignant disease of women worldwide. Although the incidence and the mortality rates have been decreasing with screening detection and new treatment strategies, a significant number of metastatic or recurrent disease is still diagnosed. For those patients not amenable to curative treatments, such as surgery and radiation, palliative chemotherapy remains the standard of care. As chemotherapy regimens have limited activity, research is focalized on investigating novel pharmacologic strategies. Areas covered: This paper aims to give a complete and updated overview on investigated therapies for the treatment of CC. The authors review the results of clinical studies and highlight the ongoing trials. Expert opinion: Agents targeting various molecular pathways including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), epigenetics and other biological mechanisms represent interesting investigational opportunities. Amongst such drugs, bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, was the first targeted drug recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of patients with metastatic, recurrent, or persistent CC. Another interesting experimental approach is represented by immunotherapy, which is leading to promising results with to the development of therapeutic vaccines and immune checkpoints inhibitors.
Lee, Seung Hun; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Si Young; Shin, Jung-Ho; Cho, Sun Wook
Bisphosphonates have been widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis with robust data from many placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy in fracture risk reduction over 3 to 5 years of treatment. Although bisphosphonates are generally safe and well tolerated, concerns have emerged about the adverse effects related to its long-term use, including osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures. Because bisphosphonates are incorporated into the skeleton and continue to exert an anti-resorptive effect for a period of time after the discontinuation of drugs, the concept of a "drug holiday" has emerged, whereby the risk of adverse effects might be decreased while the patient still benefits from anti-fracture efficacy. As randomized clinical trial evidence is not yet available on who may qualify for a drug holiday, there is considerable controversy regarding the selection of candidates for the drug holiday and monitoring during a drug holiday, both of which should be based on individual assessments of risk and benefit. This statement will provide suggestions for clinicians in South Korea on the identification of possible candidates and monitoring during a bisphosphonate drug holiday. PMID:26713307
Hamers, Raph L.; Schuurman, Rob; Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Wallis, Carole L.; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Wit, Ferdinand W.; van Vugt, Michèle; Stevens, Wendy S.; de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke
Background The effect of pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance on the response to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has not been assessed. We studied pretreatment drug resistance and virological, immunological, and drug-resistance treatment outcomes in a large
Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik
, which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...
Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik
, which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination......As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...
Chole, Revant H; Gondivkar, Shailesh M; Gadbail, Amol R; Balsaraf, Swati; Chaudhary, Sudesh; Dhore, Snehal V; Ghonmode, Sumeet; Balwani, Satish; Mankar, Mugdha; Tiwari, Manish; Parikh, Rima V
This study undertook a review of the literature on drug treatment of oral submucous fibrosis. An electronic search was carried out for articles published between January 1960 to November 2011. Studies with high level of evidence were included. The levels of evidence of the articles were classified after the guidelines of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The main outcome measures used were improvement in oral ulceration, burning sensation, blanching and trismus. Only 13 publications showed a high level of evidence (3 randomized controlled trials and 10 clinical trials/controlled clinical trials), with a total of 1157 patients. Drugs like steroids, hyaluronidase, human placenta extracts, chymotrypsin and collagenase, pentoxifylline, nylidrin hydrochloride, iron and multivitamin supplements including lycopene, have been used. Only systemic agents were associated with few adverse effects like gastritis, gastric irritation and peripheral flushing with pentoxifylline, and flushingly warm skin with nylidrin hydrochloride; all other side-effects were mild and mainly local. Few studies with high levels of evidence were found. The drug treatment that is currently available for oral submucous fibrosis is clearly inadequate. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials with carefully selected and standardized outcome measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCarthy, Matthew W; Walsh, Thomas J
The widespread implementation of immunosuppressants, immunomodulators, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and solid organ transplantation in clinical practice has led to an expanding population of patients who are at risk for invasive candidiasis, which is the most common form of fungal disease among hospitalized patients in the developed world. The emergence of drug-resistant Candida spp. has added to the morbidity associated with invasive candidiasis and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Areas covered: In this paper, we explore investigational agents for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, with particular attention paid to compounds that have recently entered phase I or phase II clinical trials. Expert opinion: The antifungal drug development pipeline has been severely limited due to regulatory hurdles and a systemic lack of investment in novel compounds. However, several promising drug development strategies have recently emerged, including chemical screens involving Pathogen Box compounds, combination antifungal therapy, and repurposing of existing agents that were initially developed to treat other conditions, all of which have the potential to redefine the treatment of invasive candidiasis.
Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Dang, Jeff; Warda, Umma S; Prendergast, Michael L
To assess the impact of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention on psychosocial functioning of inmates over the course of treatment and on post-treatment self-reported measures of treatment participation, progress, and satisfaction. Male ( n = 187) and female ( n = 143) inmates participating in 12-week prison-based Intensive Outpatient (IOP) drug treatment were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment (ST) or standard treatment plus positive behavioral reinforcement (BR) for engaging in targeted activities and behaviors. Participants were assessed for psychosocial functioning at baseline and at the conclusion of treatment (post-treatment). Self-reported measures of treatment participation, treatment progress, and treatment satisfaction were also captured at post-treatment. The intervention affected female and male subjects differently and not always in a way that favored BR subjects, as compared to the ST subjects, most notably on measures of depression and criminal thinking. Possible explanations for the results include differences in the male and female custody environments combined with the procedures that study participants had to follow to earn and/or receive positive reinforcement at the two study sites, as well as baseline differences between the genders and a possible floor effect among females on measures of criminality. Limitations of the study included the inability to make study participants blind to the study conditions and the possible over-branding of the study, which may have influenced the results.
LIU, LIN; LU, HONGWEN; LIU, YANG; LIU, CHANGSHAN; XUN, CHU
The aim of the present study was to monitor long term antithyroid drug treatments and to identify prognostic factors for Graves' disease (GD). A total of 306 patients with GD who were referred to the Endocrinology Clinic at Weifang People's Hospital (Weifang, China) between August 2005 and June 2009 and treated with methimazole were included in the present study. Following treatment, patients were divided into non-remission, including recurrence and constant treatment subgroups, and remission groups. Various prognosis factors were analyzed and compared, including: Patient age, gender, size of thyroid prior to and following treatment, thyroid hormone levels, disease relapse, hypothyroidism and drug side-effects, and states of thyrotropin suppression were observed at 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Sixty-five patients (21.2%) were male, and 241 patients (78.8%) were female. The mean age was 42±11 years, and the follow-up was 31.5±6.8 months. Following long-term treatment, 141 patients (46%) demonstrated remission of hyperthyroidism with a mean duration of 18.7±1.9 months. The average age at diagnosis was 45.6±10.3 years in the remission group, as compared with 36.4±8.8 years in the non-remission group (t=3.152; P=0.002). Free thyroxine (FT)3 levels were demonstrated to be 25.2±8.9 and 18.7±9.4 pmol/l in the non-remission and remission groups, respectively (t=3.326, P=0.001). The FT3/FT4 ratio and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) levels were both significantly higher in the non-remission group (t=3.331, 3.389, P=0.001), as compared with the remission group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that elevated thyroid size, FT3/FT4 ratio and TRAb at diagnosis were associated with poor outcomes. The ratio of continued thyrotropin suppression in the recurrent subgroup was significantly increased, as compared with the remission group (P=0.001), as thyroid function reached euthyroid state at 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Patients with GD exhibiting
A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2010 to assess veterinary drug usage by broiler chicken farmers and to determine antimicrobial residues in broiler meat in Urban district, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fifty five smallholder farmers were interviewed on types of antimicrobials, reasons for use, ...
Patients' knowledge of their medications is an important factor in ensuring adherence. Medication adherence is essential for rational drug use and derivation of optimal therapy. This study was conducted to assess knowledge of outpatients regarding their medications. A well structured questionnaire was administered to 200 ...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). (a) For inmates to successfully complete all components of...
Makemba Ahmed M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Africa, the private retail sector has been recognised as an important source of antimalarial treatment, complementing formal health services. However, the quality of advice and treatment at private outlets is a widespread concern, especially with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs. As a result, ACTs are often deployed exclusively through public health facilities, potentially leading to poorer access among parts of the population. This research aimed at assessing the performance of the retail sector in rural Tanzania. Such information is urgently required to improve and broaden delivery channels for life-saving drugs. Methods During a comprehensive shop census in the districts of Kilombero and Ulanga, Tanzania, we interviewed 489 shopkeepers about their knowledge of malaria and malaria treatment. A complementary mystery shoppers study was conducted in 118 retail outlets in order to assess the vendors' drug selling practices. Both studies included drug stores as well as general shops. Results Shopkeepers in drug stores were able to name more malaria symptoms and were more knowledgeable about malaria treatment than their peers in general shops. In drug stores, 52% mentioned the correct child-dosage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP compared to only 3% in general shops. In drug stores, mystery shoppers were more likely to receive an appropriate treatment (OR = 9.6, but at an approximately seven times higher price. Overall, adults were more often sold an antimalarial than children (OR = 11.3. On the other hand, general shopkeepers were often ready to refer especially children to a higher level if they felt unable to manage the case. Conclusion The quality of malaria case-management in the retail sector is not satisfactory. Drug stores should be supported and empowered to provide correct malaria-treatment with drugs they are allowed to dispense. At the same time, the role of general shops
Drugs which inhibit the repair of radiation damage could potentially be useful for enhancing the effects of radiotherapy. In pre-clinical combined modality studies, however, it is often difficult to state with certainty whether or not a drug has inhibited radiation damage repair. This paper shows that several commonly used parameters for assessing repair can give the wrong answer regarding the presence of drug-induced repair inhibition. These parameters are; the difference in radiation dose between 1 and n fractions to give the same effect, the fractional recovered dose per fraction interval, FR, and the related parameter FREC. A further parameter used for treatment comparisons is the enhancement ratio for the drug (D.E.R.; ratio of radiation doses, with and without drug, to cause a given effect). An increasing D.E.R. with increasing number of radiation fractions has been taken as an indication that the drug inhibited repair. The present report demonstrates that this, too, can be misleading. From an analysis based on a linear-quadratic survival curve for X rays, it is suggested that deriving and comparing alpha/beta ratios (ratio of the linea to quadratic coefficients) gives the best indication of drug-induced changes in survival curve shape which may reflect underlying changes in repair capacity
...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability...) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Pulmonary Tuberculosis... of antimycobacterial drugs for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. This guidance applies to the...
Full Text Available Glaucoma is a group of heterogeneous disorders involving progressive optic neuropathy that can culminate into visual impairment and irreversible blindness. Effective therapeutic interventions must address underlying vulnerability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs to degeneration in conjunction with correcting other associated risk factors (such as elevated intraocular pressure. However, realization of therapeutic outcomes is heavily dependent on suitable delivery system that can overcome myriads of anatomical and physiological barriers to intraocular drug delivery. Development of clinically viable sustained release systems in glaucoma is a widely recognized unmet need. In this regard, implantable delivery systems may relieve the burden of chronic drug administration while potentially ensuring high intraocular drug bioavailability. Presently there are no FDA-approved implantable drug delivery devices for glaucoma even though there are several ongoing clinical studies. The paper critically assessed the prospects of polymeric implantable delivery systems in glaucoma while identifying factors that can dictate (a patient tolerability and acceptance, (b drug stability and drug release profiles, (c therapeutic efficacy, and (d toxicity and biocompatibility. The information gathered could be useful in future research and development efforts on implantable delivery systems in glaucoma.
Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m 3 of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers
Brandt-Christensen, M; Lopez, A G; Nilsson, F M
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of treatment with anti-parkinson drugs (APD) among patients with depression. METHOD: In a nationwide case register linkage study, all persons with a main diagnosis of depression during 5 years were identified. A control group of persons with diagnoses of osteoarthr...... that prescription of APD reflects the presence of Parkinson's disease, results support a positive statistical association between depressive disorders and Parkinson's disease.......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of treatment with anti-parkinson drugs (APD) among patients with depression. METHOD: In a nationwide case register linkage study, all persons with a main diagnosis of depression during 5 years were identified. A control group of persons with diagnoses...... of osteoarthritis was included. The subsequent risk of getting treatment with APD was estimated for the two groups. Statistical analyses involved Poisson's regression and competing risk models. RESULTS: A total of 14 991 persons were included. The rate of getting APD was 2.57 (95% CI: 1.46-4.52) times higher...
Full Text Available Novel drugs, drug sequences and combinations have improved the outcome of prostate cancer in recent years. The latest approvals include abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide and apalutamide which target androgen receptor (AR signaling, radium-223 dichloride for reduction of bone metastases, sipuleucel-T immunotherapy and taxane-based chemotherapy. Adding abiraterone acetate to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT in order to achieve complete androgen blockade has proven highly beneficial for treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer and metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC. Also, ADT together with docetaxel treatment showed significant benefit in mHSPC. Ongoing clinical trials for different subgroups of prostate cancer patients include the evaluation of the second-generation AR antagonists enzalutamide, apalutamide and darolutamide, of inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K pathway, of inhibitors of DNA damage response, of targeted alpha therapy and of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA targeting approaches. Advanced clinical studies with immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown limited benefits in prostate cancer and more trials are needed to demonstrate efficacy. The identification of improved, personalized treatments will be much supported by the major progress recently made in the molecular characterization of early- and late-stage prostate cancer using “omics” technologies. This has already led to novel classifications of prostate tumors based on gene expression profiles and mutation status, and should greatly help in the choice of novel targeted therapies best tailored to the needs of patients.
Uchiyama, Makoto; Konno, Michiko
Pharmacological treatments of insomnia have become safer since the first benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BzRA) hypnotic was introduced in the 1960's. Though BzRAs could hardly cause a fatal condition even in cases of overdosing, they had inherited the arguments on addiction and withdrawal from the prior studies of barbiturate hypnotics that indicated they are strongly addictive. In the 2000s, it was repeatedly demonstrated that insomnia as well as sleep deprivation underlie the development and deterioration of comorbid diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and depression, and that the proper use of hypnotic drugs is unlikely to cause tolerance, addiction nor rebound phenomena, but likely to be associated with improvement of QOL. Thus, the 2005's consensus report on chronic insomnia by NIH has recommended general physicians to facilitate insomnia treatment to prevent the development of physical and/or mental disorders. The author reviewed in this article the efficacy and side effects of BzRA hypnotics, a hypnotic drug therapy combined with cognitive and behavioral interventions, uses of melatonin receptor agonist in general and sleep medicine practices, and future utilization of newly-developed orexin antagonists for insomnia treatment.
O'Brien, Eoin; Dolan, Eamon
This purpose of this article is to review the current recommendations for ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) and the use of ABPM in assessing treatment. We review current international guidelines and undertake a critical review of evidence supporting the clinical use of ABPM in effectively managing antihypertensive drug treatment. Current guidelines emphasize the diagnostic superiority of ABPM, mainly from the ability of the technique to identify sustained hypertension by allowing for the exclusion of white-coat hypertension and by demonstrating the presence of masked hypertension. ABPM also offers diagnostic insights into nocturnal patterns of blood pressure, such as dipping and nondipping, reverse dipping, and excessive dipping, and the presence of nocturnal hypertension; although less attention is given to the nocturnal behavior of blood pressure in clinical practice, the nocturnal patterns of blood pressure have particular relevance in assessing the response to blood pressure-lowering medication. Surprisingly, although the current guidelines give detailed recommendations on the diagnostic potential and use of ABPM, there are scant recommendations on the benefits and application of the technique for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering therapy in clinical practice and virtually no recommendations on how it might be used to assess the efficacy of drug treatment. In view of a deficiency in the literature on the role of ABPM in assess the efficacy of drug treatment, we put forward proposals to correct this deficiency and guide the prescribing physician on the most appropriate drug administration and dosage over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rajić, Milena; Vlajković, Marina; Ilić, Slobodan; Stević, Miloš; Sekulić, Vladan; Zečević, Mila
Radioiodine therapy (RIT) of Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) is usually recommended after failure of primary therapy with antithyroid drugs (ATDs), which are commonly prescribed for up to 18-24 months. However, in our region, the prolonged ATDs treatment of the disease is very common. Thus, we assessed the efficacy of RIT after prolonged continual pretreatment with ATDs in Graves' hyperthyroidism. Therapy outcome using a single dose of radioiodine was evaluated after one year in 91 patients (f/m...
Kastelic, Andrej; Mlakar, Janez; Pregelj, Peter
This study describes the validation process for the Slovenian version of the Drug Addiction Treatment Efficacy Questionnaire (DATEQ). DATEQ was constructed from the questionnaires used at the Centre for the Treatment of Drug Addiction, Ljubljana University Psychiatric Hospital, and within the network of Centres for the Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction in Slovenia during the past 14 years. The Slovenian version of the DATEQ was translated to English using the 'forward-backward' procedure by its authors and their co-workers. The validation process included 100 male and female patients with established addiction to illicit drugs who had been prescribed opioid substitution therapy. The DATEQ questionnaire was used in the study, together with clinical evaluation to measure psychological state and to evaluate the efficacy of treatment in the last year. To determinate the validity of DATEQ the correlation with the clinical assessments of the outcome was calculated using one-way ANOVA. The F value was 44.4, p<0.001 (sum of squares: between groups 210.4, df=2, within groups 229.7, df=97, total 440.1, df=99). At the cut-off 4 the sensitivity is 81% and specificity 83%. The validation process for the Slovenian DATEQ version shows metric properties similar to those found in international studies of similar questionnaires, suggesting that it measures the same constructs, in the same way and as similar questionnaires. However, the relatively low sensitivity and specificity suggests caution when using DATEQ as the only measure of outcome.
Steenholdt, Casper; Bendtzen, Klaus; Brynskov, Jørn
costs. The objective is to review optimization of anti-TNF therapy by use of personalized treatment strategies based on circulating drug levels and antidrug antibodies (Abs), i.e. therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Furthermore, to outline TDM-related pitfalls and their prevention. METHODS: Literature...... inflammatory phenotype influencing the pharmacodynamic (PD) responses to TNF inhibitors also affect treatment outcomes. As an alternative to handling anti-TNF-treated patients by empiric strategies, TDM identifies underlying PK and PD-related reasons for treatment failure and aids decision making to secure...... of chronology between changes in PK versus symptomatic and objective disease activity manifestations. Biases can be accommodated by knowledgeable interpretation of results obtained by validated assays with clinically established thresholds, and by repeated assessments over time using complimentary techniques...
Beitel, Mark; Oberleitner, Lindsay; Muthulingam, Dharushana; Oberleitner, David; Madden, Lynn M; Marcus, Ruthanne; Eller, Anthony; Bono, Madeline H; Barry, Declan T
Little is known about possible experiences of burnout among drug counselors in opioid treatment programs that are scaling up capacity to address the current opioid treatment gap. Participants in this quality improvement study were 31 drug counselors employed by large opioid treatment programs whose treatment capacities were expanding. Experiences of burnout and approaches for managing and/or preventing burnout were examined using individual semi-structured interviews, which were audiotaped, transcribed, and systematically coded by a multidisciplinary team using grounded theory. Rates of reported burnout (in response to an open-ended question) were lower than expected, with approximately 26% of participants reporting burnout. Counselor descriptions of burnout included cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological symptoms; and job-related demands were identified as a frequent cause. Participants described both self-initiated (e.g., engaging in pleasurable activities, exercising, taking breaks during workday) and system-supported strategies for managing or preventing burnout (e.g., availing of supervision and paid time off). Counselors provided recommendations for system-level changes to attenuate counselor risk of burnout (e.g., increased staff-wide encounters, improved communication, accessible paid time off, and increased clinical supervision). Findings suggest that drug counselor burnout is not inevitable, even in opioid treatment program settings whose treatment capacities are expanding. Organizations might benefit from routinely assessing counselor feedback about burnout and implementing feasible recommendations to attenuate burnout and promote work engagement.
Bonfà, F; Cabrini, S; Avanzi, M; Bettinardi, O; Spotti, R; Uber, E
A high prevalence of eating disorders among drug-addicted female patients has been noted, and it could be associated to psychopathological underlying factors. Our aim was to assess eating disorder traits in women approaching a residential program for drug addiction. We hypothesized that these traits would correlate to more general psychopathological factors, and would influence treatment relapse. A sample of 204 substance dependent women attending a residential treatment was screened for psychopathological indices, and follow-up data were obtained at the end of the treatment. Clients had a high risk for eating disorders (15%), and lifetime prevalence was even higher (20%). Disordered eating was associated to psychopathological distress, in particular harm avoidance resulted significantly lower (p=0.005), evoking higher unresponsiveness to danger. Drug addiction treatment outcome is associated to completion of defined programs, and eating disorder was a key covariable in determining treatment relapse or success (p=0.03). Clinicians should be aware of this potential co-morbidity, and concurrent treatments should be attempted, in order to prevent symptomatic shifting.
Marina Ferraz Neves Oliveira
Full Text Available Dependence on drugs is a complex disease, incurable and that its use persists in the face of extremely negative consequences. Objective: was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of caries in users of legal drugs. Methods:It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional, descriptive study, held with adults, users of legal and illegal drugs, institutionalized in rehabilitation centers of municipalities in the southwestern region of the state of Bahia. We used a form with sociodemographic questions about the use of licit and illicit drugs. To assess tooth decay, we used the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT, and the dental units were assessed with a World Health Organization (WHO Model probe and a dental mirror. Data were tabulated and analyzed in Excel. Results: 73 individuals were evaluated, aged between 18 and 64, mean age 35.5 (SD ± 10.7. It was found that 71.4% are single, 73,7% with low level of education, 74.6% do not use dental floss. Caries prevalence was 98.6%, DMF-T average 15.6. In 18-34 years old individuals, the DMF-T average was 12.1 and from 35 to 64 years old it was 19.8. Regarding dentition, 52.6% of the teeth were affected by the disease. Among the affected teeth, 39.9% were decayed, 44.1% lost and 16% filled. Conclusion: We conclude that there is a high prevalence of caries in this population. Among the dental needs, the restoration of the dental element has to be highlighted.
Kaplan, A. H.; Becker, R. H.
The statutory standards underlying the activities of the FDA, and the problems the Agency faces in decision making are discussed from a legal point of view. The premarketing clearance of new drugs and of food additives, the two most publicized and criticized areas of FDA activity, are used as illustrations. The importance of statutory standards in technology assessment in a regulatory setting is developed. The difficulties inherent in the formulation of meaningful standards are recognized. For foods, the words of the statute are inadequate, and for drugs, a statutory recognition of the various other objectives would be useful to the regulator and the regulated.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa. This study aimed to explore the emerging problem of drug-related HIV transmission and to stimulate the development of adequate health services for the drug users, by linking international expertise and local research. Methods A Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR methodology was adopted for the study. For individual and focus group interviews a semi-structured questionnaire was utilised that addressed key issues. Interviews were conducted with a total of 84 key informant (KI participants, 63 drug user KI participants (49 males, 14 females and 21 KI service providers (8 male, 13 female. Results and Discussion Adverse living conditions and poor education levels were cited as making access to treatment harder, especially for those living in disadvantaged areas. Heroin was found to be the substance most available and used in a problematic way within the Pretoria area. Participants were not fully aware of the concrete health risks involved in drug use, and the vague ideas held appear not to allow for concrete measures to protect themselves. Knowledge with regards to substance related HIV/AIDS transmission is not yet widespread, with some information sources disseminating incorrect or unspecific information. Conclusions The implementation of pragmatic harm-reduction and other evidence-based public health care policies that are designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with substance use and HIV/AIDS should be considered. HIV testing and treatment services also need to
Prueksaritanont, T; Tatosian, D A; Chu, X; Railkar, R; Evers, R; Chavez-Eng, C; Lutz, R; Zeng, W; Yabut, J; Chan, G H; Cai, X; Latham, A H; Hehman, J; Stypinski, D; Brejda, J; Zhou, C; Thornton, B; Bateman, K P; Fraser, I; Stoch, S A
A microdose cocktail containing midazolam, dabigatran etexilate, pitavastatin, rosuvastatin, and atorvastatin has been established to allow simultaneous assessment of a perpetrator impact on the most common drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A, and the major transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP)1B, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and MDR1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The clinical utility of these microdose cocktail probe substrates was qualified by conducting clinical drug interaction studies with three inhibitors with different in vitro inhibitory profiles (rifampin, itraconazole, and clarithromycin). Generally, the pharmacokinetic profiles of the probe substrates, in the absence and presence of the inhibitors, were comparable to their reported corresponding pharmacological doses, and/or in agreement with theoretical expectations. The exception was dabigatran, which resulted in an approximately twofold higher magnitude for microdose compared to conventional dosing, and, thus, can be used to flag a worst-case scenario for P-gp. Broader application of the microdose cocktail will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of drug transporters in drug disposition and drug interactions. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Full Text Available Anticholinergic drugs block muscarinic effect of acetylcholine on the receptors of postjunctional membranes and so inhibit the answer of the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve. The loss of M2 muscarinic receptors function occurs in asthmatics and it contributes to bronchial hyperresponsiveness and it is not a chronic feature of asthma, instead it characterizes asthma exacerbation. The loss of M2 muscarinic receptor function in children and adults happens during antigen bronchoprovocation or during exposition of asthmatics to ozone. After inhalation, ipratropium bromide (IB can be found in a small quantity in circulation and it links less readily to muscarinic receptors on airway smooth muscles as related to its absorption after intravenous application. In the stepwise approach of asthma inhaled anticholinergics is recommended if the symptoms of the disease cannot be adequately controlled by a regular inhalation of antiinflammatory drugs with β2-agonist and oral steroids. The improvement of the airway inspiratory capacity is more elevated than the improvement of FEV1 after inhalation of IB. IB has similar effect as salbutamol and it is recommended to control a stable chronic obstructive disease. During our numerous investigations and up-to-date experience in the usage of 5-7 μg/kg/body mass of IB repeated every 4-6 hours in combination with salbutamol, we did not notice adverse effects of the drug in infants. IB is recommended for hospital treatment of children. .
unnecessary bureaucracy and regulation. As a student of Tom's in the 1970s in London, working on hepatoma-specific alkylating agents at Charing Cross Hospital in collaboration with his lab on the other side of town, I can attest to the fact that the regulatory hurdles to cancer drug development just twenty years later have added immeasurably to the effort and cost of cancer drug development. However, I look with optimism to the future of cancer diagnosis, prevention and treatment. It is a future where what we are learning now about the molecular and genetic basis of cancer will find their clinical outlet just as surely as the anatomic, microbial, metabolic and endocrine basis for disease has in the past. This new knowledge will provide new techniques in molecular diagnosis, which will allow us to predict which in situ cancers are destined for malignant behavior, and which can be safely watched without the need for intervention. Individual patient risk for particular cancers will be accurately predictable, so that patients can alter lifestyle habits or begin other prevention strategies. Oncogenes and growth suppressor genes give us new targets to inhibit or replace. Tumor-specific kinases will meet their inhibitors. The oncologist will play a leading role in understanding, applying and interpreting this new information in the clinic-an exciting and challenging future!
de Vries, Ronald; Diels, Luc; Dillen, Lieve; Sips, Luc; Van Roosbroek, Dirk; Verhaeghe, Tom; Timmerman, Philip
A procedure was developed for the assessment of photochemical stability of drugs in blood and plasma under standardized conditions. The procedure avoids a variable outcome of photochemical stability experiments and tests relevant worst case conditions so that unnecessary light protection is avoided. Results/methodology: Blood and plasma were spiked with a mixture of drugs and incubated in a Suntest CPS(+), in the laboratory on the bench and near the window on a sunny summer day. The results were compared. No protection from light, limited protection from light and full protection from light are advised for drugs that are stable in plasma in the Suntest CPS(+) at 250 W/m(2) for at least 30 min, for 5-30 min and for <5 min, respectively.
Full Text Available Considering the high pollution potential that the synthetic Bulk Drug industry Wastewater (BDW possesses due to the presence of variety of refractory organics, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance in assessing the efficiency of the applied wastewater treatment system and in establishing the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter were studied under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that wastewater being very strong in terms of color, COD and BOD is found to be very toxic to the studied fish. The LC50 values for raw wastewater and after electrochemical treatment with carbon and aluminium electrodes for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between, 2.5-3.6%, 6.8-8.0%, 5.0-5.8% respectively. Carbon electrode showed marginally better removals for toxicity than aluminium electrode. It was evident from the studies that electrochemical treatment reduces toxicity in proportion to the removal efficiency shown by both the electrodes. The reduction in toxicity after treatment indicates the intermediates generated are not toxic than the parent compounds. Furthermore, as the electrochemical treatment did not result in achieving disposal standards it could be used only as a pre-treatment and the wastewater needs further secondary treatment before final disposal.
Fang Yi; Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Xiuli; Xiao Shuping; Zhang Youren
Objective: To investigate the influence of taking antithyroid drugs (ATD) or stopping therapy with ATD for a variable periods of time before 131 I treatment on efficacy of 131 I treatment. Methods: A total of 99 patients with Graves' disease were divided into two groups on the basis of taking antithyroid drugs (ATD) or not (the patients who had undergone operation for Graves' disease or had received 131 I therapy were excluded). The patients who had taken ATD were separated into four groups, 2 W, ∼4 W, ∼8 W, >8 W before 131 I treatment, to assess the influence on the cure rate after the 131 I treatment. Results: The cure rate of hyperthyroidism after 131 I treatment in patients not taking and taking ATD before 131 I treatment was 89.5% and 57.5%, respectively. The difference between two groups was significant. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the variable parameters (P=0.00863). The patients who had taken ATD and discontinued had no difference in the cure rate, although the duration of discontinuance of ATD was different (P=0.627). Conclusions: The cure rate will be reduced when ATD is used as initial therapy for Graves' disease even if ATD is discontinued for some period of time before the treatment. With regard to those patients having used ATD before the treatment, the cure rate of 131 I is not raised with prolonging ATD withdrawal
López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl
This study explored the prevalence of violent and/or criminal behaviors in drug-addicted patients. A sample of 252 drug-addicted patients who sought treatment was assessed. Information was collected on violent behaviors, criminal acts, socio-demographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. The sample was divided into 4 groups according to the presence of violence and/or criminal behaviors. There were significant differences between the groups on some variables. In general, patients associated with both violence and criminal behaviors showed a greater severity in drug consumption and maladjustment variables, as well as a higher rate of treatment dropout and re-entry.
Mapara, Sanyat S; Patravale, Vandana B
The advancements in electronics and the progress in nanotechnology have resulted in path breaking development that will transform the way diagnosis and treatment are carried out currently. This development is Medical Capsule Robots, which has emerged from the science fiction idea of robots travelling inside the body to diagnose and cure disorders. The first marketed capsule robot was a capsule endoscope developed to capture images of the gastrointestinal tract. Today, varieties of capsule endoscopes are available in the market. They are slightly larger than regular oral capsules, made up of a biocompatible case and have electronic circuitry and mechanisms to capture and transmit images. In addition, robots with diagnostic features such as in vivo body temperature detection and pH monitoring have also been launched in the market. However, a multi-functional unit that will diagnose and cure diseases inside the body has not yet been realized. A remote controlled capsule that will undertake drug delivery and surgical treatment has not been successfully launched in the market. High cost, inadequate power supply, lack of control over drug release, limited space for drug storage on the capsule, inadequate safety and no mechanisms for active locomotion and anchoring have prevented their entry in the market. The capsule robots can revolutionize the current way of diagnosis and treatment. This paper discusses in detail the applications of medical capsule robots in diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment. In diagnostics, detailed analysis has been presented on wireless capsule endoscopes, issues associated with the marketed versions and their corresponding solutions in literature. Moreover, an assessment has been made of the existing state of remote controlled capsules for targeted drug delivery and surgical treatment and their future impact is predicted. Besides the need for multi-functional capsule robots and the areas for further research have also been
Gupta, Himanshu R; Patil, Yogesh; Singh, Dipty
Objectives: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP) use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Methods: Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. Results: The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH) during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Conclusion: Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and exposure times used
Abstract Antibody‐drug conjugates (ADCs) are a rapidly growing therapeutic platform for the treatment of cancer. ADCs consist of a cytotoxic small molecule drug linked to an antibody to provide targeted delivery of the cytotoxic agent to the tumor. Understanding the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of ADCs is crucial in their design to optimize dose and regimen, to maximize efficacy and to minimize toxicity in patients. Significant progress has been made in recent years in this area, however, many fundamental questions still remain. This review discusses factors to consider while assessing the disposition of ADCs, and the unique challenges associated with these therapeutics. Current tools that are available and strategies to enable appropriate assessment are also discussed. © 2015 Genentech Inc. Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25904406
Kamp, Jasper; Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; Tiberi, Simon; Akkerman, Onno W.; Centis, Rosella; de lange, Wiel C.; Kosterink, Jos G.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Migliori, Giovanni B.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.
Linezolid is used increasingly for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). However, linezolid can cause severe adverse events, such as peripheral and optical neuropathy or thrombocytopenia related to higher drug exposure. This study aimed
Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni
Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power.
Michael A Fischer
Full Text Available Pain complaints are common, but clinicians are increasingly concerned about overuse of opioid pain medications. This may lead patients with actual pain to be stigmatized as "drug-seeking," or attempting to obtain medications they do not require medically. We assessed whether patient requests for specific opioid pain medication would lead physicians to classify them as drug-seeking and change management decisions.Mixed-methods analysis of interviews with 192 office-based primary care physicians after viewing video vignettes depicting patients presenting with back pain. For each presentation physicians were randomly assigned to see either an active request for a specific medication or a more general request for help with pain. The main outcome was assignment by the physician of "drug-seeking" as a potential diagnosis among patients presenting with back pain. Additional outcomes included other actions the physician would take and whether the physician would prescribe the medication requested. A potential diagnosis of drug-seeking behavior was included by 21% of physicians seeing a specific request for oxycodone vs. 3% for a general request for help with back pain(p<0.001. In multivariable models an active request was most strongly associated with a physician-assigned diagnosis of drug-seeking behavior(OR 8.10; 95% CI 2.11-31.15;p = 0.002; other major patient and physician characteristics, including gender and race, did not have strong associations with drug-seeking diagnosis. Physicians described short courses of opioid medications as a strategy for managing patients with pain while avoiding opioid overuse.When patients make a specific request for opioid pain medication, physicians are far more likely to suspect that they are drug-seeking. Physician suspicion of drug-seeking behavior did not vary by patient characteristics, including gender and race. The strategies used to assess patients further varied widely. These findings indicate a need for
Hwang, Myungsil; Lee, Eun Ji; Kweon, Se Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ji Yoon; Um, Jun Ho; Kim, Sun Ah; Han, Bum Suk; Lee, Kwang Ho; Yoon, Hae Jung
While the ability to develop nanomaterials and incorporate them into products is advancing rapidly worldwide, understanding of the potential health safety effects of nanomaterials has proceeded at a much slower pace. Since 2008, Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) started an investigation to prepare "Strategic Action Plan" to evaluate safety and nano risk management associated with foods, drugs, medical devices and cosmetics using nano-scale materials. Although there are some studies related to potential risk of nanomaterials, physical-chemical characterization of nanomaterials is not clear yet and these do not offer enough information due to their limitations. Their uncertainties make it impossible to determine whether nanomaterials are actually hazardous to human. According to the above mention, we have some problems to conduct the human exposure risk assessment currently. On the other hand, uncertainty about safety may lead to polarized public debate and to businesses unwillingness for further nanotechnology investigation. Therefore, the criteria and methods to assess possible adverse effects of nanomaterials have been vigorously taken into consideration by many international organizations: the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic and Commercial Development and the European Commission. The object of this study was to develop risk assessment principles for safety management of future nanoproducts and also to identify areas of research to strengthen risk assessment for nanomaterials. The research roadmaps which were proposed in this study will be helpful to fill up the current gaps in knowledge relevant nano risk assessment.
Shoenfeld, Netta; Bodnik, Dana; Rosenberg, Oded; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas
Marijuana addiction is one of the most common forms of addiction worldwide. A variety of reasons for use exist, however, there are only a few tested treatments with frequent relapses. In this study, we examined the efficacy of four pharmacotherapy agents for the treatment of marijuana addiction: naltrexone, bupropion, escitalopram and bromazepam. A total of 59 patients were randomly assigned into four groups. Each group received one of the pharmacological agents for 120 days. Four types of questionnaires were employed: The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression--21 items, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Global Assessment of Functioning and a Visual Analogue Scale for perceived need of the drug. In addition, random urine tests were performed to detect tetrahydrocannabinol [THC). Naltrexone proved to be the most efficacious of the four agents, with only four dropouts. Other agents proved less efficacious with six, seven and eights dropouts for bupropion, bromazepam and escitalopram, respectively. In addition, naltrexone was most efficacious in reducing anxiety and depression rates, and increasing functioning and perceived need for drug use. Out of four pharmacological agents, naltrexone proved to be most efficacious in treating marijuana addiction and related disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.
Gazdag, Gábor; Ungvari, Gabor S; Rozália, Takács; Rácz, József
Organizations engaged in drug addiction treatment started their activities only recently in Hungary. This paper examines the organisational environment in drug outpatient treatment using the example of Blue Point Foundation (BPF), a non-governmental organization (NGO). The authors describe BPF's organizational structure and functioning related to its effectiveness. BPF staff members anonymously completed a 59-item questionnaire about its organizational characteristics and functioning. The questionnaire covered demographic data, 50 items of the Quality Control questionnaire and a SWOT (Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats) analysis. Policy and strategy were considered BPF's best feature, while the management of funds received the lowest rating. The assessment of the staff and that of the organization as a whole was closer to the midpoint of the scale. High risk of staff burnout and unstable organizational environment are the most important threats on the NGOs working in addictology in Hungary.
Kosa, Rachel E; Lazzaro, Sarah; Bi, Yi-An; Tierney, Brendan; Gates, Dana; Modi, Sweta; Costales, Chester; Rodrigues, A David; Tremaine, Larry M; Varma, Manthena V
We aim to establish an in vivo preclinical model to enable simultaneous assessment of inhibition potential of an investigational drug on clinically relevant drug transporters, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and organic anion transporter (OAT)3. Pharmacokinetics of substrate cocktail consisting of pitavastatin (OATP1B substrate), rosuvastatin (OATP1B/BCRP/OAT3), sulfasalazine (BCRP) and talinolol (P-gp) were obtained in cynomolgus monkey - alone or in combination with transporter inhibitors. Single dose rifampicin (30 mg/kg) significantly (pdrugs, with a marked effect on pitavastatin and rosuvastatin (AUC ratio ~21-39). Elacridar, BCRP/P-gp inhibitor, increased the AUC of sulfasalazine, talinolol, as well as rosuvastatin and pitavastatin. An OAT1/3 inhibitor (probenecid) significantly (pdrug-drug interaction risk assessment, before advancing a new molecular entity into clinical development, as well as providing mechanistic insights on transporter-mediated interactions. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Full Text Available The comprehensive treatment of pain is multidimodal, with pharmacotherapy playing a key role. An effective therapy for pain depends on the intensity and type of pain, the patients’ age, comorbidities, and appropriate choice of analgesic, its dose and route of administration. This review is aimed at presenting current knowledge on analgesics administered by transdermal and topical routes for physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other health care professionals dealing with patients suffering from pain. Analgesics administered transdermally or topically act through different mechanisms. Opioids administered transdermally are absorbed into vessels located in subcutaneous tissue and, subsequently, are conveyed in the blood to opioid receptors localized in the central and peripheral nervous system. Non–steroidal anti–inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs applied topically render analgesia mainly through a high concentration in the structures of the joint and a provision of local anti–inflammatory effects. Topically administered drugs such as lidocaine and capsaicin in patches, capsaicin in cream, EMLA cream, and creams containing antidepressants (i.e., doxepin, amitriptyline act mainly locally in tissues through receptors and/or ion channels. Transdermal and topical routes offer some advantages over systemic analgesic administration. Analgesics administered topically have a much better profile for adverse effects as they relieve local pain with minimal systemic effects. The transdermal route apart from the above-mentioned advantages and provision of long period of analgesia may be more convenient, especially for patients who are unable to take drugs orally. Topically and transdermally administered opioids are characterised by a lower risk of addiction compared to oral and parenteral routes.
Belenko, Steven; Foltz, Carol; Lang, Michelle A.; Sung, Hung-En
Recent interest in increasing access to substance abuse treatment for drug-involved offenders has been spurred by concerns over expanding prison and jail populations, high recidivism rates for drug-involved offenders, and the close link between illegal drug use and criminal activity. Chronic untreated drug and alcohol abuse is likely to result in…
Sorensen, Andrew A.; Leske, M. Cristina
This paper, presented at the American Public Health Association meeting; Chicago, November 1975, discusses a staff training program at a drug addiction treatment facility established for Spanish-speaking (and other) drug addicts. Staff improved counseling skills and knowledge of drug addiction, but changed little in attitudes toward drug use and…
Issa, Maria Claudia Almeida; Pires, Marianna; Silveira, Priscilla; Xavier de Brito, Esther; Sasajima, Cristiane
Transepidermal drug delivery (TED) is a new potential method in dermatology. Permeability alterations induced by ablative fractional resurfacing have been described with the aim to increasing the delivery of different substances into the skin. To evaluate clinical response and side effects of TED in areata alopecia (AA) treatment using ablative fractional methods associated with acoustic pressure ultrasound (US) to deliver triamcinolone solution into the skin. Five cases of AA underwent treatment which comprised of 3 steps: 1) Ablative fractioned RF or CO2 laser 2) topical application of triamcinolone 3) acoustic pressure wave US. The number of sessions varied according to the clinical response, ranging from one to six sessions. All patients had complete recovery of the area treated. Two of them treated with ablative fractional RF + triamcinolone + US had complete response after three and six sessions. The other two treated with ablative fractional CO2 + triamcinolone + US had complete response after one session. Fractioned ablative resurfacing associated with acoustic pressure wave US is a new option to areata alopecia treatment with good clinical result and low incidence of side effects.
Kerscher, B; Nzukou, E; Kaiser, A
Antimalarial drug resistance has nowadays reached each drug class on the market for longer than 10 years. The focus on validated, classical targets has severe drawbacks. If resistance is arising or already present in the field, a target-based High-Throughput-Screening (HTS) with the respective target involves the risk of identifying compounds to which field populations are also resistant. Thus, it appears that a rewarding albeit demanding challenge for target-based drug discovery is to identify novel drug targets. In the search for new targets for antimalarials, we have investigated the biosynthesis of hypusine, present in eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), which has recently been cloned and expressed from P. falciparum, completes the modification of eIF5A through hydroxylation. Here, we assess the present druggable data on Plasmodium DOHH and its human counterpart. Plasmodium DOHH arose from a cyanobacterial phycobilin lyase by loss of function. It has a low FASTA score of 27 to its human counterpart. The HEAT-like repeats present in the parasite DOHH differ in number and amino acid identity from its human ortholog and might be of considerable interest for inhibitor design.
Korhonen, Eveliina; Rönkkö, Seppo; Hillebrand, Satu; Riikonen, Joakim; Xu, Wujun; Järvinen, Kristiina; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Kauppinen, Anu
Porous silicon (PSi) is a promising material for the delivery and sustained release of therapeutic molecules in various tissues. Due to the constant rinsing of cornea by tear solution as well as the short half-life of intravitreal drugs, the eye is an attractive target for controlled drug delivery systems, such as PSi microparticles. Inherent barriers ensure that PSi particles are retained in the eye, releasing drugs at the desired speed until they slowly break down into harmless silicic acid. Here, we have examined the in vitro cytotoxicity of positively and negatively charged thermally oxidized (TOPSi) and thermally carbonized (TCPSi) porous silicon microparticles on human corneal epithelial (HCE) and retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. In addition to ocular assessment under an inverted microscope, cellular viability was evaluated using the CellTiter Blue™, CellTiter Fluor™, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. CellTiter Fluor proved to be a suitable assay but due to non-specific and interfering responses, neither CellTiter Blue nor LDH assays should be used when evaluating PSi particles. Our results suggest that the toxicity of PSi particles is concentration-dependent, but at least at concentrations less than 200μg/ml, both positively and negatively charged PSi particles are well tolerated by human corneal and retinal epithelial cells and therefore applicable for delivering drug molecules into ocular tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maranghi, Francesca; Tassinari, Roberta; Mantovani, Alberto
Toxicologists must ensure that clinical risk-to-benefit analysis should be made both for genders and age groups, with any treatment. Puberty concerns physiological changes leading to organism's maturation. Pubertal growth disorders are increasing in last decades: besides causing physical and psychological distress, they may signal underlying endocrine-metabolic abnormalities with serious health consequences later on. Therapeutic approaches for some health conditions in childhood and adolescence are considered. The authors discuss how some diseases and treatments can impact pubertal growth. The authors look at particular immunological disorders such as asthma and how both the disease and treatment affects pubertal growth. They also discuss how the provision of available data can help to assess the dose-response of the drug, in these cases, and minimize the chance of side effects. The authors also discuss pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and how both the disease and treatment can mitigate the growth delay. Last, but not least, the authors discuss how the effects of the drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders may accentuate endocrine issues in juvenile patients. Hyperprolactinemia induction by some antipsychotics is highlighted as an example. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of drugs prescribed during childhood and adolescence and intended to be used in the long term is required. Furthermore, future treatment strategies and safer compounds development should be supported by the knowledge of mechanisms underlying adverse side effects in pubertal growth and development.
Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady
This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Penna, F; Pin, F; Ballarò, R; Baccino, F M; Costelli, P
Cachexia is a syndrome characterized by body weight loss, muscle wasting and metabolic abnormalities, that frequently complicates the management of people affected by chronic diseases. No effective therapy is actually available, although several drugs are under clinical evaluation. Altered energy metabolism markedly contributes to the pathogenesis of cachexia; it can be improved by exercise, which is able to both induce anabolism and inhibit catabolism. This review focuses on exercise mimetics and their potential inclusion in combined protocols to treat cachexia. The authors pay with particular reference to the cancer-associated cachexia. Even though exercise improves muscle phenotype, most patients retain sedentary habits which are quite difficult to disrupt. Moreover, they frequently present with chronic fatigue and comorbidities that reduce exercise tolerance. For these reasons, drugs mimicking exercise could be beneficial to those who are unable to comply with the practice of physical activity. Since some exercise mimetics may exert serious side effects, further investigations should focus on treatments which maintain their effectiveness on muscle phenotype while remaining tolerable at the same time.
Damianopoulos, E N; Carey, R J
Experimental studies of psychoactive drugs by pavlovian drug-conditioning methods, which originally began with investigations of drug-induced responses mediated by the autonomic nervous system, have now been expanded to include drug-induced response effects expressed as modulations of spontaneous motoric behaviors. In the latter application, however, equivalent behavioral response outcomes in post-treatment tests for conditioning can occur following a psychostimulant drug treatment either through drug interference effects on habituation processes, drug-induced stress effects and/or by pavlovian conditioning of the drug-induced motoric activation effect. Current methodologies for the study of pavlovian conditioned drug effects and/or drug sensitization cannot distinguish among these possibilities. This methodological inadequacy was addressed by a modification of the conventional paired-unpaired treatment protocol. In the new protocol, the animal is sequentially placed into two test compartments with the drug treatment administered in conjunction with placement into the second test compartment. This design permits a differentiation of a pavlovian conditioned drug responses from non-conditioned drug effects through continuous measurement of the non-drug behavioral baseline in both the drug and non-drug control treatment groups combined with multiple response measurements and post-treatment tests for conditioning at variable post-conditioning intervals. The present study details the use of the new modified pavlovian protocol with repeated cocaine (10 mg/kg) treatment. A cocaine conditioned response at 1, 7, and 21 days post-conditioning was identified and distinguished from habituation and stress effects.
Tran, Bach Xuan
Willingness to pay for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in three Vietnamese epicentres of injection-drug-driven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was assessed. A convenience sample of 1016 patients receiving HIV treatment in seven clinics was enrolled during 2012. Contingent valuation was used to assess willingness to pay. Interviewers reviewed adverse consequences of injection drug use and the benefits of MMT. Interviewers then described the government's plan to scale up MMT and the financial barriers to scale-up. Willingness to pay was assessed using double-bounded binary questions and a follow-up open-ended question. Point and interval data models were used to estimate maximum willingness to pay. A total of 548 non-drug-users and 468 injection drug users were enrolled; 988 were willing to pay for MMT. Monthly mean willingness to pay among non-drug-users, 347 drug users not receiving MMT and 121 drug users receiving MMT was 10.7 United States dollars [US$] (35.7% of treatment costs), US$ 21.1 (70.3%) and US$ 26.2 (87.3%), respectively (mean: US$ 15.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 13.6-18.1). Fifty per cent of drug users were willing to pay 50% of MMT costs. Residence in households with low monthly per capita income and poor health status predicted willingness to pay less among drug users; educational level, employment status, health status and current antiretroviral therapy receipt predicted willingness to pay less among non-drug-users. Willingness to pay for MMT was very high, supporting implementation of a co-payment programme.
The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by i...
I. A. Vasilyeva
Full Text Available Objective of the study: to study the effect of specific TB drugs and antimicrobial agents constituting chemotherapy regimens on the efficiency of treatment of tuberculosis patients with various patterns of multiple drug resistance.Subjects and Methods. 412 pulmonary tuberculosis patients with bacillary excretion and various patterns of multiple drug resistance were enrolled into the study (117 patients with MDR TB (non pre-XDR and non-XDR; 120 patients with pre-XDR TB and 175 with XDR TB. Patients in the subgroups were compatible regarding sex and age. The patients were prescribed regimens including 5-6 drugs in accordance with their drug resistance pattern. The time of sputum conversion (by culture versus the year of treatment was selected as a surrogate endpoint. The effect of specific TB drugs and antimicrobial agents on treatment efficiency was assessed through calculation of odds ratio (OR of achieving a surrogate endpoint in the patients receiving and not receiving a certain drug.Results. In the subgroup of pre-XDR TB, the following drugs demonstrated the valid increase of odds of sputum conversion: ethambutol (OR 11.8, pyrazinamide (OR 10.2, moxifloxacin (OR 7.8, capreomicin (OR 4.41. Sputum conversion was achieved in all 11 patients treated with bedaquiline.In the subgroup of XDR TB, the following drugs provided a positive effect on the achievement of sputum conversion: bedaquiline (OR 9.62, linezolid (OR 8.15, cycloserine (OR 7.88, pyrazinamide (OR 7.29, moxifloxacin (OR 7.08, and ethambutol (OR 6.69. Ofloxacin demonstrated a confident negative effect on achieving sputum conversion (95% CI 0.06-0.32.
Janine de Zeeuw
Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is described as a relatively painless condition; however clinical observations reveal that patients do experience pain during their treatment. Knowledge on current pain assessment and treatment in BU is necessary to develop and implement a future guideline on pain management in BU.A mixed methods approach was used, consisting of information retrieved from medical records on prescribed pain medication from Ghana and Benin, and semi-structured interviews with health care personnel (HCP from Ghana on pain perceptions, assessment and treatment. Medical records (n = 149 of patients treated between 2008 and 2012 were collected between November 2012 and August 2013. Interviews (n = 11 were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analyzed.In 113 (84% of the 135 included records, pain medication, mostly simple analgesics, was prescribed. In 48% of the prescriptions, an indication was not documented. HCP reported that advanced BU could be painful, especially after wound care and after a skin graft. They reported not be trained in the assessment of mild pain. Pain recognition was perceived as difficult, as patients were said to suppress or to exaggerate pain, and to have different expectations regarding acceptable pain levels. HCP reported a fear of side effects of pain medication, shortage and irregularities in the supply of pain medication, and time constraints among medical doctors for pain management.Professionals perceived BU disease as potentially painful, and predominantly focused on severe pain. Our study suggests that pain in BU deserves attention and should be integrated in current treatment.
Piralishvili, G; Gamkrelidze, I; Nikolaishvili, N; Chavchanidze, M
conduct needs assessments and treatment compliance evaluations in MMT and Suboxone Substitution State Programs in Georgia (Republic of). 506 patients (2 females) were surveyed (92% on Methadone, 8% on Suboxone) from 6 Tbilisi and 4 regional State Programs in 2011 November. Mean age - 40±8,56 (22-65) year; 254 (51.4%) were in treatment for 1-3 year. Evaluation was carried out on the base of structured self-questionnaire that covers demographics, drug use history, general drug use trends, psychotherapeutic sessions' acceptance and open label question regarding treatment challenges and satisfaction. 305 (60.3%) attended individual and 57 (11.3%) group psychotherapy sessions with 50.79% attending once/month or rare. The main reason given for therapy non-attendance - no needs for it (29.48%); the main drugs before admission - heroin (80.04%), buprenorphine (53.49%); Main drugs used in Georgia nowadays - desomorphine ("crocodile"), alcohol and marihuana. Commonly used drugs by program patients (136 positive answers) - alcohol-13.62%, marihuana-10.39%, pregabalin - 8.17%, opioids- 6.62% (mostly-"crocodile"), home-made stimulants-6.23%, sedatives -5.45%. 55.4% are extremely satisfied with treatment, 82.4% - with program staff. Patients' main wishes- free of charge programs (46.4%) and provide take-home doses (22.07%). Methadone and Suboxone ST are being well accepted in Georgia and appear to be reducing illegal opioid use. However, the psychotherapeutic sessions' attendance is very low.
Maria Adriana Rangel
Full Text Available The authors present a case report of antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury that offered diagnostic challenges (namely, the possibility of drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis and treatment difficulties.
Mitrzyk, Beatriz Manzor
Abstract Outbreaks of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in developing countries and recent headlines of an American traveling with a resistant variant of tuberculosis have brought XDR-TB into the spotlight. The World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified XDR-TB as a serious public health threat and are mandating increased efforts at control of tuberculosis. Although XDR-TB is believed to be no more infectious than other variants of tuberculosis, infection with and spread of XDR-TB are concerning because of the ineffectiveness, toxicity, and cost of the available tuberculosis treatment options. Pharmacists may not be aware of the recent trends in tuberculosis resistance or of the impact that they can have on educating the public about this disease. To gain a better understanding of this disease and the potential roles for pharmacists in public health awareness of tuberculosis and in the care of patients with and at risk for this disease, we undertook an extensive search of the Internet, including Web sites of tuberculosis advocacy groups, and of MEDLINE from January 1968-March 2008. Currently, XDR-TB infection is uncommon in the United States, but if history is any indication, there is a high potential for an outbreak or epidemic. The XDR-TB variant has emerged from mismanaging multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, treating tuberculosis with too few drugs, using less effective second-line drugs, and not educating patients about the dangers of nonadherence. With only limited hopes of a novel effective drug combination regimen, use of available antimycobacterial drugs needs to be optimized. Pharmacists can be key players in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis by promoting adherence, assessing patients for risk factors for resistant disease, providing information about disease control and prevention, and monitoring for effectiveness, adverse effects, and drug interactions.
Sasha E. Larsen
Full Text Available It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. This astounding statistic, in combination with costly and lengthy treatment regimens make the development of therapeutic vaccines paramount for controlling the global burden of tuberculosis. Unlike prophylactic vaccination, therapeutic immunization relies on the natural pulmonary infection with Mtb as the mucosal prime that directs boost responses back to the lung. The purpose of this work was to determine the protection and safety profile over time following therapeutic administration of our lead Mtb vaccine candidate, ID93 with a synthetic TLR4 agonist (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE, in combination with rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (RHZ drug treatment. We assessed the host inflammatory immune responses and lung pathology 7–22 weeks post infection, and determined the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment by enumeration of the bacterial load and survival in the SWR/J mouse model. We show that drug treatment alone, or with immunotherapy, tempered the inflammatory responses measured in brochoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma compared to untreated cohorts. RHZ combined with therapeutic immunizations significantly enhanced TH1-type cytokine responses in the lung over time, corresponding to decreased pulmonary pathology evidenced by a significant decrease in the percentage of lung lesions and destructive lung inflammation. These data suggest that bacterial burden assessment alone may miss important correlates of lung architecture that directly contribute to therapeutic vaccine efficacy in the preclinical mouse model. We also confirmed our previous finding that in combination with antibiotics therapeutic immunizations provide an additive survival advantage. Moreover, therapeutic immunizations with ID93/GLA-SE induced differential T cell immune responses over the course of infection that correlated
Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H
A stathmokinetic technique was used to study cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomata of rat colon following treatment with cytotoxic drugs. The rate of cell division was significantly increased three days after treatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine and seven days after treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Acceleration of tumour cell proliferation following 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine treatment was inhibited by treating animals with the antiseritoninergic drug Xylamidine Tosylate. Acceleration of tumour cell proliferation following 5-fluorouracil treatment was inhibited by treating animals either with the antiseritoninergic drug BW501 or with the histamine H2-receptor blocking drug Cimetidine.
Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
The main aim of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of FFT on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use.......The main aim of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of FFT on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use....
Martínez-González, José Miguel; Vilar López, Raquel; Lozano-Rojas, Oscar; Verdejo-García, Antonio
This study was aimed at designing a questionnaire for the assessment of addiction-related core beliefs and craving. The sample comprised 215 patients (85.8% males and 14.2% females) in treatment for dependence to alcohol (40%), cocaine (36.3%) and cannabis (23.7%). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Variance, regression and factorial analyses were conducted to study the questionnaire structure and its relation with variables such as abstinence and craving. Items about drug-related beliefs yielded a four-factor structure: what patient think that they could not do without drug use, lack of withdrawal, conditions required to use drugs again, and use of drugs as the only way to feel good. Items related to craving yielded three factors: negative emotions as precipitants of drug use, positive emotions, and difficulties attributed to coping with craving. Furthermore, beliefs were more important to predict craving than abstinence time. The present questionnaire allows to assess a set of significant factors to design prevention relapse programs.
Krebs, Christopher P.; Strom, Kevin J.; Koetse, Willem H.; Lattimore, Pamela K.
A variety of approaches for addressing drug use and drug-related crime among the nearly 5 million offenders on community supervision in the United States has been tried and evaluated, but questions remain about which policies or programs are most effective. The authors use a large data set to assess the impact of residential and nonresidential…
Costello, James C; Heiser, Laura M; Georgii, Elisabeth; Gönen, Mehmet; Menden, Michael P; Wang, Nicholas J; Bansal, Mukesh; Ammad-ud-din, Muhammad; Hintsanen, Petteri; Khan, Suleiman A; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Kallioniemi, Olli; Honkela, Antti; Aittokallio, Tero; Wennerberg, Krister; Collins, James J; Gallahan, Dan; Singer, Dinah; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Kaski, Samuel; Gray, Joe W; Stolovitzky, Gustavo
Predicting the best treatment strategy from genomic information is a core goal of precision medicine. Here we focus on predicting drug response based on a cohort of genomic, epigenomic and proteomic profiling data sets measured in human breast cancer cell lines. Through a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) project, we analyzed a total of 44 drug sensitivity prediction algorithms. The top-performing approaches modeled nonlinear relationships and incorporated biological pathway information. We found that gene expression microarrays consistently provided the best predictive power of the individual profiling data sets; however, performance was increased by including multiple, independent data sets. We discuss the innovations underlying the top-performing methodology, Bayesian multitask MKL, and we provide detailed descriptions of all methods. This study establishes benchmarks for drug sensitivity prediction and identifies approaches that can be leveraged for the development of new methods.
Reynoso-Vallejo, Humberto; Chassler, Deborah; Witas, Julie; Lundgren, Lena M
This study examined patterns of treatment entry by Puerto Rican, Central American, Dominican, and other Latino male injection drug users (IDUs) in the state of Massachusetts over the time period 1996-2002. Specifically, it explored whether these populations had different patterns relative to three paths: entry into detoxification only, entry into residential treatment, or entry into methadone maintenance. Using a state-level MIS dataset on all substance abuse treatment entries to all licensed treatment programs, bi-variate and logistic regression methods were employed to examine patterns of drug treatment utilization among Latino men residing in Massachusetts. Three logistic regression models, which controlled for age, education, homelessness, employment, history of mental health treatment, health insurance, criminal justice involvement, having injected drugs in the past month, and number of treatment entries, indicated that Puerto Rican men were significantly less likely to only use detoxification services and residential treatment services, and significantly more likely to enter methadone maintenance compared to Latino men from Central American, Dominican, or other Latino backgrounds. For example, Central American men were 2.4 times more likely to enter only detoxification programs and 54% less likely to enter methadone maintenance programs than Puerto Rican male IDUs. For program planning, include the need to (a) develop varied drug treatment services to meet the needs of non-homogenous Latino groups within the population, (b) tailor outreach efforts to effectively reach all Latino groups, and (c) increase awareness among practitioners of differential patterns of treatment utilization.
Abadi, Melissa Harris; Shamblen, Stephen R; Johnson, Knowlton; Thompson, Kirsten; Young, Linda; Courser, Matthew; Vanderhoff, Jude; Browne, Thom
Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one's own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.
Ogilvie, Brian W; Torres, Rosarelis; Dressman, Marlene A; Kramer, William G; Baroldi, Paolo
Tasimelteon ([1R-trans]-N-[(2-[2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl] cyclopropyl) methyl] propanamide), a novel dual melatonin receptor agonist that demonstrates specificity and high affinity for melatonin receptor types 1 and 2 (MT1 and MT2 receptors), is the first treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder. Tasimelteon is rapidly absorbed, with a mean absolute bioavailability of approximately 38%, and is extensively metabolized primarily by oxidation at multiple sites, mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and CYP3A4/5, as initially demonstrated by in vitro studies and confirmed by the results of clinical drug-drug interactions presented here. The effects of strong inhibitors and moderate or strong inducers of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4/5 on the pharmacokinetics of tasimelteon were evaluated in humans. Coadministration with fluvoxamine resulted in an approximately 6.5-fold increase in tasimelteon's area under the curve (AUC), whereas cigarette smoking decreased tasimelteon's exposure by approximately 40%. Coadministration with ketoconazole resulted in an approximately 54% increase in tasimelteon's AUC, whereas rifampin pretreatment resulted in a decrease in tasimelteon's exposure of approximately 89%. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Prendergast, Michael; Cartier, Jerome J
In an effort to increase participation in community aftercare treatment for substance-abusing parolees, an intervention based on a transitional case management (TCM) model that focuses mainly on offenders' strengths has been developed and is under testing. This model consists of completion, by the inmate, of a self-assessment of strengths that informs the development of the continuing care plan, a case conference call shortly before release, and strengths case management for three months post-release to promote retention in substance abuse treatment and support the participant's access to designated services in the community. The post-release component consists of a minimum of one weekly client/case manager meeting (in person or by telephone) for 12 weeks. The intervention is intended to improve the transition process from prison to community at both the individual and systems level. Specifically, the intervention is designed to improve outcomes in parolee admission to, and retention in, community-based substance-abuse treatment, parolee access to other needed services, and recidivism rates during the first year of parole. On the systems level, the intervention is intended to improve the communication and collaboration between criminal justice agencies, community-based treatment organizations, and other social and governmental service providers. The TCM model is being tested in a multisite study through the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) research cooperative funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse.
Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Pavbro, Agniezka
In this review, we evaluate the variability in the pharmacokinetics of 11 drugs with established prophylactic effects in migraine to facilitate 'personalized medicine' with these drugs. PubMed was searched for 'single-dose' and 'steady-state' pharmacokinetic studies of these 11 drugs. The maximum...
Full Text Available Melissa Harris Abadi1, Stephen R Shamblen1, Knowlton Johnson1, Kirsten Thompson1, Linda Young1, Matthew Courser1, Jude Vanderhoff1, Thom Browne21Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation – Louisville Center, Louisville, KY, USA; 2United States Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT centers assesses (a the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91% reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50% experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one’s own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.Keywords: Afghanistan, women, human rights, mental health, drug abuse treatment
Nielsen, René Ernst; Nielsen, Jimmi
The cornerstone in treatment of psychosis is antipsychotic drugs. Treatment options have increased over the years; newer antipsychotic drugs with a proposed efficacy regarding negative and cognitive symptoms, but also a shift in side-effects from neurological side-effects to metabolic side......-effects have arisen as the new challenge. The basis of successful pharmacological treatment is a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of action, the desired effects and side-effects of antipsychotic drugs, a good relationship with the patient and a thorough monitoring of the patient before and during...... treatment. The clinically relevant aspects of antipsychotic drug treatment are reviewed; mechanism of antipsychotic drug action, clinical considerations in treatment, switching antipsychotic drugs, polypharmacy, safety and patient preference. ...
Manuel Sanabria Carretero
Full Text Available The study focuses on the assessment of the implications that criminal behavior has, not only at the start of treatment for drug taking but also during its development and results. With this aim in mind a sample of 209 patients who had applied for treatment were selected and assessed inthe principal object areas of analysis over a period of ayear anda half at six monthly intervals.The results indicate that time spent in a therapeutic centre significantly reduces criminal behaviour. However, those patients with a greater past history present more difficulties and give a poorer initial response, although during the period of follow-up these differences tend to disappear.
Aly, Lilian; Hemmer, Bernhard; Korn, Thomas
Immunosuppressive drugs have been used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) for a long time. Today, orally available second generation immunosuppressive agents have been approved or are filed for licensing as MS therapeutics. Due to semi-selective targeting of cellular processes, these second-generation immunosuppressive compounds might rather be immunomodulatory. For example, Teriflunomide inhibits the de novo pyrimidine synthesis and thus only targets rapidly proliferating cells, including lymphocytes. It is used as first line disease modifying therapy (DMT) in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Review of online content related to oral immunosuppressants in MS with an emphasis on Teriflunomide. Teriflunomide and Cladribine are second-generation immunosuppressants that are efficient in the treatment of MS patients. For Teriflunomide, a daily dose of 14 mg reduces the annualized relapse rate (ARR) by more than 30% and disability progression by 30% compared to placebo. Cladribine reduces the ARR by about 50% compared to placebo but has not yet been licensed due to unresolved safety concerns. We also discuss the significance of older immunosuppressive compounds including Azathioprine, Mycophenolate mofetile, and Cyclophosphamide in current MS therapy. Teriflunomide has shown a favorable safety and efficacy profile in RRMS and is a therapeutic option for a distinct group of adult patients with RRMS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yu. G. Alyaev
Full Text Available Most patients lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS caused both mechanical and functional factors. Timely identification of the nature of urodynamics, primarily of bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity, in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia is of practical importance, since without this factor significantly worse functional outcome of surgical treatment. α1-adrenoblockers are the first line therapy for men with bothersome LUTS. They should be offered to patients with moderate to severe LUTS. Choosing α1-adrenoblocker should lean toward more selective class representatives. Selectivity α1-adrenoblocker provides high efficiency along with a low percentage of adverse effects, especially for cardiovascular system.As well as α-adrenoblockers, M-cholinobloсkers varying degrees of selectivity of the impact is on the bladder. Solifenacin is more selective for the bladder than tolterodine and oxybutynin. The selectivity of the drug with respect to the bladder is reflected in the relatively low frequency of adverse effects, especially occurrence of dry mouth in its application, as well as the possibility of long term therapy. Combined treatment with α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist with M-cholinergic antagonists may be considered in patients with moderate to severe LUTS with a predominance of filling symptoms, especially if monotherapy led to relief of symptoms.
Elgart, Jorge Federico; Prestes, Mariana; Gonzalez, Lorena; Rucci, Enzo; Gagliardino, Juan Jose
Despite the frequent association of obesity with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the effect of the former on the cost of drug treatment of the latest has not been specifically addressed. We studied the association of overweight/obesity on the cost of drug treatment of hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia in a population with T2D. This observational study utilized data from the QUALIDIAB database on 3,099 T2D patients seen in Diabetes Centers in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela. Data were grouped according to body mass index (BMI) as Normal (18.5≤BMI<25), Overweight (25≤BMI<30), and Obese (BMI≥30). Thereafter, we assessed clinical and metabolic data and cost of drug treatment in each category. Statistical analyses included group comparisons for continuous variables (parametric or non-parametric tests), Chi-square tests for differences between proportions, and multivariable regression analysis to assess the association between BMI and monthly cost of drug treatment. Although all groups showed comparable degree of glycometabolic control (FBG, HbA1c), we found significant differences in other metabolic control indicators. Total cost of drug treatment of hyperglycemia and associated cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) increased significantly (p<0.001) with increment of BMI. Hyperglycemia treatment cost showed a significant increase concordant with BMI whereas hypertension and dyslipidemia did not. Despite different values and percentages of increase, this growing cost profile was reproduced in every participating country. BMI significantly and independently affected hyperglycemia treatment cost. Our study shows for the first time that BMI significantly increases total expenditure on drugs for T2D and its associated CVRF treatment in Latin America.
Hoseinie, Leila; Gholami, Zhaleh; Shadloo, Behrang; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin
The aim of this study was to assess drop-out rates and associated reasons among patients at the Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) clinic. In a one-year period (April 2014 to March 2015), all patients with drug dependence who had been referred for treatment and attended for a first assessment were included in this study (N=242). Those who received treatment were followed until March 2016. Survival analysis showed that 70.2% had dropped out from treatment. Log rank test showed that treatment drop-out rates differed between the different approaches used (P < 0.001), with the lowest slope inbuprenorphine maintenance treatment and the highest in the detoxification programme. Drop-out rates within the first three months was 62% (SE= 0.05) and 82.4% (SE=0.03) for opioids and stimulants dependence, respectively. Analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 21.0) and STATA software, (version 13.0). From the patients' perspective, motivational inconsistencies were considered as the main reason for not starting or leaving treatment. The findings of this study could give service providers a better grasp of drop-out rates and the associated reasons.
Full Text Available Genetic and genome-wide RNAi approaches available in C. elegans, combined with tools for visualizing subcellular events with high-resolution, have led to increasing adoption of the early C. elegans embryo as a model for mechanistic and functional genomic analysis of cellular processes. However, a limitation of this system has been the impermeability of the embryo eggshell, which has prevented the routine use of small molecule inhibitors. Here, we present a method to permeabilize and immobilize embryos for acute inhibitor treatment in conjunction with live imaging. To identify a means to permeabilize the eggshell, we used a dye uptake assay to screen a set of 310 candidate genes defined by a combination of bioinformatic criteria. This screen identified 20 genes whose inhibition resulted in >75% eggshell permeability, and 3 that permeabilized embryos with minimal deleterious effects on embryo production and early embryonic development. To mount permeabilized embryos for acute drug addition in conjunction with live imaging, we combined optimized inhibition of one of these genes with the use of a microfabricated chamber that we designed. We demonstrate that these two developments enable the temporally controlled introduction of inhibitors for mechanistic studies. This method should also open new avenues of investigation by allowing profiling and specificity-testing of inhibitors through comparison with genome-wide phenotypic datasets.
Yandrapalli, Srikanth; Pal, Suman; Nabors, Christopher; Aronow, Wilbert S
Hypertension is more prevalent in the elderly (age>65 years) diabetic population than in the general population and shows an increasing prevalence with advancing age. Both diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are independent risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) related morbidity and mortality. Optimal BP targets were not identified in elderly patients with DM and hypertension. Areas covered: In this review article, the authors briefly discuss the pathophysiology of hypertension in elderly diabetics, present evidence with various antihypertensive drug classes supporting the treatment of hypertension to reduce CV events in older diabetics, and then discuss the optimal target BP goals in these patients. Expert opinion: Clinicians should have a BP goal of less than 130/80 mm in all elderly patients with hypertension and DM, especially in those with high CV-risk. When medications are required for optimal BP control in addition to lifestyle measures, either thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or calcium channel blockers should be considered as initial therapy. Combinations of medications are usually required in these patients because BP control is more difficult to achieve in diabetics than those without DM.
Chappel, E.; Dumont-Fillon, D.; Mefti, S.
Passive flow regulators are usually intended to deliver or drain a fluid at a constant rate independently from pressure variations. New designs of passive flow regulators made of a stack of a silicon membrane anodically bonded to a Pyrex substrate are proposed. A first design has been built for the derivation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) towards peritoneum for hydrocephalus treatment. The device allows draining CSF at the patient production rate independently from postural changes. The flow rate is regulated at 20 ml/h in the range 10 to 40 mbar. Specific features to adjust in vivo the nominal flow rate are shown. A second design including high pressure shut-off feature has been made. The intended use is drug delivery with pressurized reservoir of typically 100 to 300 mbar. In both cases, the membrane comprises several holes facing pillars in the Pyrex substrate. These pillars are machined in a cavity which ensures a gap between the membrane and the pillars at rest. The fluid in the pressurized reservoir is directly in contact with the top surface of the membrane, inducing its deflection towards Pyrex substrate and closing progressively the fluidic pathway through each hole of the membrane. Since the membrane deflection is highly non-linear, FEM simulations have been performed to determine both radial position and diameter of the membrane holes that ensure a constant flow rate for a given range of pressure.
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Objective: Investigations of injecting drug users (IDUs have suggested that the social context may influence high-risk behaviours in this population. The aim of this study was to describe knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of IDUs attending public drug-treatment centres in our area.
Study design and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between July 2002 and February 2004, enrolling 607 drug users attending four public drug-treatment centres in the Palermo area. Two of them were located inside the urban area, whereas the other two were in rural districts near the city. All participants answered an anonymous questionnaire concerning social and demographic characteristic and potential high-risk behaviours.
Results: IDUs living in urban context have a higher educational level, higher number of sexual partners, as well as a lower prevalence of exchanging sex for drugs. Conversely, IDUs living in suburban/rural context are less likely to share syringes and more likely to have used light drugs in the past. Suburban/rural IDUs drink more alcohol but smoke less cigarettes/day, although both groups are strong smokers.
Conclusions: The results suggest that public drug-treatment centres should take in consideration the adoption of specific programs targeting specific groups, in line with the profile and needs of the subjects in each context in order to promote approaches leading to risk reduction.
Zhang, Lei; Reynolds, Kellie S.; Zhao, Ping; Huang, Shiew-Mei
Pharmacokinetic drug interactions can lead to serious adverse events or decreased drug efficacy. The evaluation of a new molecular entity's (NME's) drug-drug interaction potential is an integral part of risk assessment during drug development and regulatory review. Alteration of activities of enzymes or transporters involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of a new molecular entity by concomitant drugs may alter drug exposure, which can impact response (safety or efficacy). The recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft drug interaction guidance ( (http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm072101.pdf)) highlights the methodologies and criteria that may be used to guide drug interaction evaluation by industry and regulatory agencies and to construct informative labeling for health practitioner and patients. In addition, the Food and Drug Administration established a 'Drug Development and Drug Interactions' website to provide up-to-date information regarding evaluation of drug interactions ( (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/DrugInteractionsLabeling/ucm080499.htm)). This review summarizes key elements in the FDA drug interaction guidance and new scientific developments that can guide the evaluation of drug-drug interactions during the drug development process.
Vijay, Aishwarya; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.
Background Little is known about attitudes toward and experiences with opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) among people who inject drugs in Malaysia, a country where people who inject drugs comprise 1.3% of the adult population. Methods In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were surveyed to evaluate attitudes toward and experience with OMT and treatment readiness. Attitudes towards OMT with both methadone and buprenorphine were assessed using an opinions scale. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess correlates of treatment readiness, measured with the 19-item Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Few had had previous experience with methadone (9.3%) or buprenorphine (12.6%) maintenance therapy, yet many had used methadone (55.2%) or buprenorphine (51.7%) outside of treatment settings. Fifteen percent had injected buprenorphine in the past month, and of the few that were currently receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy, almost all were injecting it. The majority of subjects exhibited a moderate level of treatment readiness and a preference for methadone over buprenorphine. Those with low treatment readiness scores were more likely to have previous experience with compulsory drug detention centers (p<0.01), needle/syringe exchange programs (p<0.005), or be of Indian ethnicity (p<0.001). Past use of methadone (p<0.01), older age (p<0.001), stress symptom severity (p<0.001), and sharing of needles or syringes (p<0.05) were associated with higher treatment readiness scores. Conclusion There are suboptimal levels of OMT experience among people who inject drugs that may be improved by addressing factors that influence patient attitudes. Those individuals with moderate treatment readiness may be targeted by brief motivational and cognitive interventions in primary care, prisons or OMT clinics
Matusow, Harlan; Dickman, Samuel L; Rich, Josiah D; Fong, Chunki; Dumont, Dora M; Hardin, Carolyn; Marlowe, Douglas; Rosenblum, Andrew
Drug treatment courts are an increasingly important tool in reducing the census of those incarcerated for non-violent drug offenses; medication assisted treatment (MAT) is proven to be an effective treatment for opioid addiction. However, little is known about the availability of and barriers to MAT provision for opioid-addicted people under drug court jurisdiction. Using an online survey, we assessed availability, barriers, and need for MAT (especially agonist medication) for opioid addiction in drug courts. Ninety-eight percent reported opioid-addicted participants, and 47% offered agonist medication (56% for all MAT including naltrexone). Barriers included cost and court policy. Responses revealed significant uncertainty, especially among non-MAT providing courts. Political, judicial and administrative opposition appear to affect MAT's inconsistent use and availability in drug court settings. These data suggest that a substantial, targeted educational initiative is needed to increase awareness of the treatment and criminal justice benefits of MAT in the drug courts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mula, Marco; von Oertzen, Tim J; Cock, Hannah R; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Lozsadi, Dora A; Agrawal, Niruj
To examine the prevalence and clinical correlates of fatigue as an adverse event (AE) of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in patients with epilepsy. Data from 443 adult outpatients with epilepsy assessed with the Adverse Event Profile (AEP) and the Neurological Disorder Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDIE) were analysed. Fatigue is reported by 36.6% of patients as always a problem during AED treatment. Fatigue is more likely to be reported by females (64.8% vs. 35.2%; Chi-Square=16.762; df=3; p=0.001) and during treatment with levetiracetam (42.3% vs. 33.2%; Chi-Square=11.462; df=3; p=0.009). The associations with the female gender and levetiracetam treatment were not mediated by depression, as identified with the NDDIE, and could not be simply explained by the large number of subjects on levetiracetam treatment, as analogous figures resulted from the analysis of a monotherapy subsample (41.7% vs. 30.3%; Chi-Square=11.547; df=3; p=0.009). One third of patients with epilepsy reports fatigue as a significant problem during AED treatment. Fatigue is more likely to be reported by females and seems to be specifically associated with LEV treatment. However, fatigue is not mediated by a negative effect of LEV on mood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Filges, Trine; Rasmussen, Pernille; Andersen, Ditte
The main objectives of this review are to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of MDFT on drug abuse reduction for young people (aged 11-21 years) in treatment for non-opioid drug abuse, and if possible to examine moderators of drug abuse reduction effects, specifically analysing whether...
Naidoo, Anushka; Naidoo, Kogieleum; McIlleron, Helen; Essack, Sabiha; Padayatchi, Nesri
Moxifloxacin, an 8-methoxy quinolone, is an important drug in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and is being investigated in novel drug regimens with pretomanid, bedaquiline, and pyrazinamide, or rifapentine, for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Early results of these studies are promising. Although current evidence does not support the use of moxifloxacin in treatment-shortening regimens for drug-susceptible tuberculosis, it may be recommended in patients unable to tolerate standard first-line drug regimens or for isoniazid monoresistance. Evidence suggests that the standard 400-mg dose of moxifloxacin used in the treatment of tuberculosis may be suboptimal in some patients, leading to worse tuberculosis treatment outcomes and emergence of drug resistance. Furthermore, a drug interaction with the rifamycins results in up to 31% reduced plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin when these are combined for treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, although the clinical relevance of this interaction is unclear. Moxifloxacin exhibits extensive interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. Higher doses of moxifloxacin may be needed to achieve drug exposures required for improved clinical outcomes. Further study is, however, needed to determine the safety of proposed higher doses and clinically validated targets for drug exposure to moxifloxacin associated with improved tuberculosis treatment outcomes. We discuss in this review the evidence for the use of moxifloxacin in drug-susceptible tuberculosis and explore the role of moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug interactions with rifamycins, on tuberculosis treatment outcomes when used in first-line tuberculosis drug regimens. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Neralla, Sridhar; Meyer, Keith C
risk factors for DRSP. A chest x-ray is recommended for all patients, but other testing such as obtaining a sputum Gram's smear is not necessary and should not prolong the time gap between clinical suspicion of pneumonia and antibacterial administration. The selection of antibacterials should be based upon local resistance patterns of suspected organisms and the bactericidal efficacy of the chosen drugs. If time-dependent agents are chosen and DRSP are possible pathogens, dosing should keep drug concentrations above the minimal inhibitory concentration that is effective for DRSP. Treatment guidelines and recent studies suggest that combination therapy with a beta-lactam and macrolide may be associated with a better outcome in hospitalised patients, and overuse of fluoroquinolones as a single agent may promote quinolone resistance. The ketolides represent a new class of macrolide-like antibacterials that are highly effective in vitro against macrolide- and azalide-resistant pneumococci. Pneumococcal vaccination with the currently available polysaccharide vaccine is thought to confer some preventive benefit (preventing invasive pneumococcal disease), but more effective vaccines, such as nonconjugate protein vaccines, need to be developed that provide broad protection against pneumococcal infection.
By identifying some of the social correlates linked with completing day-care drug abuse treatment, the present study has sought to broaden understanding of how drug rehabilitations are effected. As the findings have demonstrated, completing care is a result of a complex array of causes and their interaction. The disposition of the entering patient (i.e., their determination and other strengths) has a great bearing on treatment outcome. It is also a result of the patient's family, their motivations, resources and perseverance in enduring a long course of demanding therapeutic interventions. In addition, it is the product of meanings shared and transmitted between the patient's family and the treatment staff. Patients and their families project positive attitudes about the value of the therapeutic enterprise as well as a compliant demeanor. As staff recognize that patients and parents are acting cooperatively, then such perceptions tend to create self-fulfilling prophecies. The data has established that older adolescent patients are more likely to possess the motivational resources needed for program completion than younger patients. Apparently, self-referred patients are also more inclined to meet the demands of program requirements than those referred by the courts or other outside social agencies, although the differences fell short of the .05 level of statistical significance. Those completing the program are less likely to be diagnosed as depressed at intake. Parental characteristics comprise another group of variables that are related to treatment completion. Parents of higher occupational rank, who have had mental health care for themselves, and who are of Jewish ethnicity appear to possess useful strengths for meeting program challenges. The pattern of spouse mutuality in dealing with a child's needs as it exists preceding and during treatment seems to be another useful asset for successfully getting through this form of treatment. While parents with the
Spiliotopoulou, Eirini; Boni, Maciej F; Yadav, Prashant
The efficacy of scarce drugs for many infectious diseases is threatened by the emergence and spread of resistance. Multiple studies show that available drugs should be used in a socially optimal way to contain drug resistance. This paper studies the tradeoff between risk of drug resistance and operational costs when using multiple drugs for a specific disease. Using a model for disease transmission and resistance spread, we show that treatment with multiple drugs, on a population level, results in better resistance-related health outcomes, but more interestingly, the marginal benefit decreases as the number of drugs used increases. We compare this benefit with the corresponding change in procurement and safety stock holding costs that result from higher drug variety in the supply chain. Using a large-scale simulation based on malaria transmission dynamics, we show that disease prevalence seems to be a less important factor when deciding the optimal width of drug assortment, compared to the duration of one episode of the disease and the price of the drug(s) used. Our analysis shows that under a wide variety of scenarios for disease prevalence and drug cost, it is optimal to simultaneously deploy multiple drugs in the population. If the drug price is high, large volume purchasing discounts are available, and disease prevalence is high, it may be optimal to use only one drug. Our model lends insights to policy makers into the socially optimal size of drug assortment for a given context.
Himanshu R Gupta
Full Text Available Objectives: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio. Methods: Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED. For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. Results: The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Conclusion: Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and
Gupta, Himanshu R; Patil, Yogesh; Singh, Dipty; Thakur, Mansee
Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP) use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos ( Danio rerio ). Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH) during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and exposure times used in this study. The embryonic zebrafish
Moggs, Jonathan G.; Goodman, Jay I.; Trosko, James E.; Roberts, Ruth A.
It is necessary to determine whether chemicals or drugs have the potential to pose a threat to human health. Research conducted over the last two decades has led to the paradigm that chemicals can cause cancer either by damaging DNA or by altering cellular growth, probably via receptor-mediated changes in gene expression. However, recent evidence suggests that gene expression can be altered markedly via several diverse epigenetic mechanisms that can lead to permanent or reversible changes in cellular behavior. Key molecular events underlying these mechanisms include the alteration of DNA methylation and chromatin, and changes in the function of cell surface molecules. Thus, for example, DNA methyltransferase enzymes together with chromatin-associated proteins such as histone modifying enzymes and remodelling factors can modify the genetic code and contribute to the establishment and maintenance of altered epigenetic states. This is relevant to many types of toxicity including but not limited to cancer. In this paper, we describe the potential for interplay between genetic alteration and epigenetic changes in cell growth regulation and discuss the implications for drug discovery and safety assessment
Adamson, T A; Onifade, P O; Ogunwale, A
Globally, patterns of the use of psychoactive substances have been changing. To evaluate the trend in two five year periods, 1992 to 1997 versus 2002 to 2007, of alcohol and substance use disorders and associated variables in patients admitted to a drug abuse treatment facility. This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving all patients admitted into Drug Abuse Treatment, Education, and Research (DATER), Unit of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Nigeria within the study period. All subjects had a structured psychiatric interview, a physical examination, laboratory investigations and DATER Questionnaire protocols that elicited socio-demographic, drug and family variables. The patients in 2002 to 2007 versus those of 1992 to 1997 were younger (chi squared 13.29; p,0.01). More last borns were using drugs by 2002 to 2007 (chi squared, 11.37; p,0.01). Cannabis was the most abused drug in 2002 to 2007 (53.5%) as compared to cocaine (44%) in 1992 to 1997 (chi squared 35.5; p,0.001). Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002 to 2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992 to 1997 chi squared 45.3, p 0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000 to 2007 (67.6% as against 38.5% in 1992 to 1999 chi squared 28.32, p,0.001). In both periods, co-morbidity associated with cannabis use rather than any other drug of abuse as the odds ratio was greater than one. The findings in the trend in the two five year periods underscore the imperatives of continuous evaluation of the drug abuse patient population in treatment which may help drive changes in treatment inputs.
transport vehicles for effective delivery of two different cancer drugs. In particular, we aim to use two breast cancer drugs, which enhance each...shell structures,26, 27 and dendrimers .28, 29 To date, very few of these strategies have led to particles with distinct release profiles of multiple
Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.
Vijay, Aishwarya; Bazazi, Alexander R; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
Little is known about attitudes toward and experiences with opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) among people who inject drugs in Malaysia, a country where people who inject drugs comprise 1.3% of the adult population. In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were surveyed to evaluate attitudes toward and experiences with OMT and treatment readiness. Attitudes towards OMT with both methadone and buprenorphine were assessed using an opinions scale. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess correlates of treatment readiness, measured with the 19-item Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Few had had previous experience with methadone (9.3%) or buprenorphine (12.6%) maintenance therapy, yet many had used methadone (55.2%) or buprenorphine (51.7%) outside of treatment settings. Fifteen percent had injected buprenorphine in the past month, and of the few that were currently receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy, almost all were injecting it. The majority of subjects exhibited a moderate level of treatment readiness and a preference for methadone over buprenorphine. Those with low treatment readiness scores were more likely to have previous experience with compulsory drug detention centers (polder age (ppeople who inject drugs that may be improved by addressing factors that influence patient attitudes. Those individuals with moderate treatment readiness may be targeted by brief motivational and cognitive interventions in primary care, prisons or OMT clinics aimed at improving entry into and retention in treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jean Lud eCadet
Full Text Available Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users.
Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu
Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses...
Zhiling Zou; Hongwen Song; Hongwen Song; Yuting Zhang; Xiaochu Zhang; Xiaochu Zhang; Xiaochu Zhang; Xiaochu Zhang
Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses...
Full Text Available The emergence and spread of drug resistant malaria represents a considerable challenge to controlling malaria. To date, malaria control has relied heavily on a comparatively small number of chemically related drugs, belonging to either the quinoline or the antifolate groups. Only recently have the artemisinin derivatives been used but mostly in south east Asia. Experience has shown that resistance eventually curtails the life-span of antimalarial drugs. Controlling resistance is key to ensuring that the investment put into developing new antimalarial drugs is not wasted. Current efforts focus on research into new compounds with novel mechanisms of action, and on measures to prevent or delay resistance when drugs are introduced. Drug discovery and development are long, risky and costly ventures. Antimalarial drug development has traditionally been slow but now various private and public institutions are at work to discover and develop new compounds. Today, the antimalarial development pipeline is looking reasonably healthy. Most development relies on the quinoline, antifolate and artemisinin compounds. There is a pressing need to have effective, easy to use, affordable drugs that will last a long time. Drug combinations that have independent modes of action are seen as a way of enhancing efficacy while ensuring mutual protection against resistance. Most research work has focused on the use of artesunate combined with currently used standard drugs, namely, mefloquine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and chloroquine. There is clear evidence that combinations improve efficacy without increasing toxicity. However, the absolute cure rates that are achieved by combinations vary widely and depend on the level of resistance of the standard drug. From these studies, further work is underway to produce fixed dose combinations that will be packaged in blister packs. This review will summarise current antimalarial drug developments and outline recent
L I Alexeeva
Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy, safety and aftereffect duration of continuous and intermittent treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis with “Teraflex”. Material and methods. 100 outpatients (2 groups 50 pts in each mainly women (99 pts with knee osteoarthritis 0I-III stage according to Kellgren-Lawrence fulfilling ACR criteria aged 45 to 73 years (mean age 57,8+7,39 years with pain at walking 40 mm and more on visual analog scale (VAS, regularly receiving NSAIDs for 30 days during previous 3 months were included. Follow up duration was 12 months (9 months — treatment and 3 months follow up to assess drug effect in both groups. Group 1 pts received continuous treatment with “Teraflex” during 9 months. Group 2 pts received the drug during 3 months, then treatment was interrupted for 3 months and after that 3-months course was repeated. Ibuprofen was given as a rescue medication 400 mg trice a day with possibility of subsequent decrease of dose. WOMAC index (assessment of pain, stiffness and functional disability, walking speed (15 m, efficacy assessment by doctor ant pt (improvement, absence of response, deterioration, status assessment by doctop and pt (very good, good, moderate, bad, veiy bad, daily requirement in NSAIDs, knee joint sonographic examination data were used as outcome measures. Results. Analgesic effect was achieved in both groups already after 1 month of therapy. At three months not only pain but also stiffness, joint function, WOMAC summated index and walking speed significantly improved in both groups. This improvement was maintained till the end of treatment in both groups. But group 2 pts at 6 months (before the beginning of the second course of treatment showed small increase of pain in damaged joint and summated WOMAC index which significantly differed from group 1 pts. At the end of treatment and in 3 months after the end of treatment these measures did not significantly differed in both groups. At the end
Nall, Rusty W; Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Shahan, Timothy A
Provision of alternative non-drug reinforcement is among the most effective methods for treating substance use disorders. However, when alternative reinforcers become unavailable during treatment interruptions or upon cessation of treatment, relapse often occurs. Relapse following the loss of alternative reinforcement is known as resurgence. One factor that could reduce resurgence is longer duration of treatment with alternative reinforcement, but the available data are mixed. Further, the effects of length of treatment have previously only been examined with food seeking. The present experiments directly examined if duration of treatment impacted the magnitude of resurgence of cocaine or alcohol seeking in rats. First, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) by performing a target behavior. Second, target behavior was extinguished and performing an alternative behavior produced an alternative non-drug (i.e., food) reinforcer. Finally, resurgence was assessed following removal of alternative reinforcement after either 5 or 20 sessions of treatment. Treatment duration did not differentially affect resurgence of cocaine seeking in Experiment 1 or Alcohol seeking in Experiment 2. These results suggest that extended treatment with alternative non-drug reinforcement may not decrease propensity to relapse. Further, these results may have implications for treatment of substance use disorders and for theories of resurgence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Everitt, Barry J
This review discusses the evidence for the hypothesis that the development of drug addiction can be understood in terms of interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental learning and memory mechanisms in the brain that underlie the seeking and taking of drugs. It is argued that these behaviours initially are goal-directed, but increasingly become elicited as stimulus-response habits by drug-associated conditioned stimuli that are established by Pavlovian conditioning. It is further argued that compulsive drug use emerges as the result of a loss of prefrontal cortical inhibitory control over drug seeking habits. Data are reviewed that indicate these transitions from use to abuse to addiction depend upon shifts from ventral to dorsal striatal control over behaviour, mediated in part by serial connectivity between the striatum and midbrain dopamine systems. Only some individuals lose control over their drug use, and the importance of behavioural impulsivity as a vulnerability trait predicting stimulant abuse and addiction in animals and humans, together with consideration of an emerging neuroendophenotype for addiction are discussed. Finally, the potential for developing treatments for addiction is considered in light of the neuropsychological advances that are reviewed, including the possibility of targeting drug memory reconsolidation and extinction to reduce Pavlovian influences on drug seeking as a means of promoting abstinence and preventing relapse. © 2014 The Author. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi
Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holmqvist, Lina; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson; Kahan, Thomas; Schiöler, Linus; Qvarnström, Miriam; Wettermark, Björn; Hjerpe, Per; Hasselström, Jan; Manhem, Karin
To assess drug adherence in patients treated with ≥3 antihypertensive drug classes, with both controlled and uncontrolled blood pressure and describe associated factors for nonadherence. Patients with hypertension, without cardiovascular comorbidity, aged >30 years treated with ≥3 antihypertensive drug classes were followed for 2 years. Both patients with treatment resistant hypertension (TRH) and patients with controlled hypertension were included. Clinical data were derived from a primary care database. Pharmacy refill data from the Swedish Prescribed drug registry was used to calculate proportion of days covered (PDC). Patients with a PDC level ≥ 80% were included. We found 5846 patients treated ≥3 antihypertensive drug classes, 3508 with TRH (blood pressure ≥ 140/90), and 2338 with controlled blood pressure (drug therapy had similar decline in adherence over time regardless of initial blood pressure control. Diabetes was associated with better adherence, which may imply that the structured caregiving of these patients enhances antihypertensive drug treatment. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Musin, Ernest; Gonopolsky, Yehudit; Kotler, Moshe
Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and highly disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychotherapeutic agents including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antiepileptic drugs, and opioid antagonists are shown to be effective in the short-term treatment of PG. The use of a wide range of pharmacological treatments for PG is consistent with the observation that PG shares features of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, impulse control disorders, and addictive disorders. The aim of the study is to assess the rate of relapse in treatment-responder pathological gamblers after discontinuation of the active treatment. Our study sample was composed of 43 male pathological gamblers who had been full responders to 1 of 4 drug treatment regimens (fluvoxamine, topiramate, bupropion SR, or naltrexone) from several previous acute open-label (12-week) comparison studies. Full response was defined as the absence of gambling for a 1-month duration together with improvement on the Clinical Global Improvement scale. The 43 full responders were then followed prospectively for an additional 9 months, which included a 3-month open-label continuation phase and a 6-month medication-free follow-up phase. Follow-up visits were performed on a monthly basis throughout the duration of study. At every follow-up visit, a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation was performed on all patients, and patients were assessed for symptoms of gambling using a self-report instrument and collateral family reports. The Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale was also administered at every follow-up visit. Raters were blind to the previous drug treatment. Most patients did not relapse during the 6-month medication-free follow-up phase. Three of 6 patients with fluvoxamine, 3 of 9 with topiramate, 7 of 18 with bupropion SR, and 4 of 10 with naltrexone relapsed. Relapse was strictly defined as gambling behavior at any time during the 6-month medication-free follow
Günthard, Huldrych F.; Saag, Michael S.; Benson, Constance A.; del Rio, Carlos; Eron, Joseph J.; Gallant, Joel E.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Sax, Paul E.; Thompson, Melanie A.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Smith, Davey M.; Jacobsen, Donna M.; Volberding, Paul A.
IMPORTANCE New data and therapeutic options warrant updated recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to treat or to prevent HIV infection in adults. OBJECTIVE To provide updated recommendations for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults (aged ≥18 years) with established HIV infection, including when to start treatment, initial regimens, and changing regimens, along with recommendations for using ARVs for preventing HIV among those at risk, including preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis. EVIDENCE REVIEW A panel of experts in HIV research and patient care convened by the International Antiviral Society-USA reviewed data published in peer-reviewed journals, presented by regulatory agencies, or presented as conference abstracts at peer-reviewed scientific conferences since the 2014 report, for new data or evidence that would change previous recommendations or their ratings. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in the PubMed and EMBASE databases through April 2016. Recommendations were by consensus, and each recommendation was rated by strength and quality of the evidence. FINDINGS Newer data support the widely accepted recommendation that antiretroviral therapy should be started in all individuals with HIV infection with detectable viremia regardless of CD4 cell count. Recommended optimal initial regimens for most patients are 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI). Other effective regimens include nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or boosted protease inhibitors with 2 NRTIs. Recommendations for special populations and in the settings of opportunistic infections and concomitant conditions are provided. Reasons for switching therapy include convenience, tolerability, simplification, anticipation of potential new drug interactions, pregnancy or plans for pregnancy, elimination of food restrictions, virologic failure, or drug toxicities. Laboratory
Michael P Ryan
Full Text Available We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness. The Drug Facts Label was no better than the Cohesive-Prose Label or the Scrambled-Prose Label in promoting attentiveness, recall and organization of drug facts, or misconception refutation. Discussion focuses on the need for refutational labels based on a sequence-of-events text schema.
, it is also important to take into account the effect of dose modifications in order to assess the actual treatment cost for biological drugs.
Yonucu, Sirin; Yιlmaz, Defne; Phipps, Colin; Unlu, Mehmet Burcin; Kohandel, Mohammad
Tumor-induced angiogenesis leads to the development of leaky tumor vessels devoid of structural and morphological integrity. Due to angiogenesis, elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and low blood perfusion emerge as common properties of the tumor microenvironment that act as barriers for drug delivery. In order to overcome these barriers, normalization of vasculature is considered to be a viable option. However, insight is needed into the phenomenon of normalization and in which conditions it can realize its promise. In order to explore the effect of microenvironmental conditions and drug scheduling on normalization benefit, we build a mathematical model that incorporates tumor growth, angiogenesis and IFP. We administer various theoretical combinations of antiangiogenic agents and cytotoxic nanoparticles through heterogeneous vasculature that displays a similar morphology to tumor vasculature. We observe differences in drug extravasation that depend on the scheduling of combined therapy; for concurrent therapy, total drug extravasation is increased but in adjuvant therapy, drugs can penetrate into deeper regions of tumor.
Calsyn, Donald A.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Song, Yong S.; Coyer, Susan; Pelta, Sara
Aims In a previous report, the effectiveness of the Real Men Are Safe (REMAS) intervention in reducing the number of unprotected sexual occasions among male drug abuse treatment patients was demonstrated. A secondary aim of REMAS was to reduce the frequency with which men engage in sex under the influence (SUI) of drugs or alcohol. Design Men in methadone maintenance (n=173) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (n=104) completed assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-months post intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either REMAS (five sessions containing information, motivational exercises and skills training, including one session specifically targeting reducing SUI), or HIV education (HIV-Ed; one session containing HIV prevention information). SUI during the most recent sexual event served as the primary outcome in a repeated measures logistic regression model. Findings Men assigned to the REMAS condition reporting SUI at the most recent sexual event decreased from 36.8% at baseline to 25.7% at 3 months compared to a increase from 36.9% to 38.3% in the HIV-Ed condition (tintervention=−2.16, p=.032). No difference between the treatment groups was evident at 6-month follow-up. At each assessment time point, sex with a casual partner versus a regular partner, and being in methadone maintenance versus psychosocial outpatient treatment, were associated with engaging in SUI. Conclusions Overall a motivational and skills training HIV prevention intervention designed for men was associated with greater reduction in SUI than standard HIV education at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:20078464
risk of transmission is highest during labour and delivery, ... will have a major impact on controlling perinatally acquired HIV infection. ... could result in the development of drug resistance with potential .... dosing, pharmacokinetics and safety.
... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...
G V Lukina
Full Text Available Summary Aljlutup is an effective and well tolerable drug which not only decreases pains and other clinical manifestations of secondary synovitis but also has positive effect on the structure of articular cartilage.
Ulfvarson, Johanna; Bardage, Carola; Wredling, Regina A-M; von Bahr, Christer; Adami, Johanna
This study was to explore concordance with drugs prescribed and the patient's self-reported drug consumption, in relation to the older patient's perceived care and information given. Lack of adherence to prescriptions may lead to therapeutic failure with risks for relapse, unnecessary suffering and increased costs. A cross-sectional study with structured interviews of 200 patients who had recently been treated in a medical ward. Patients' medical records were studied to obtain information on their current use of drugs. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, adherence being the dependent response variable. The mean age of the study group was 79 years. The number of drugs reported in the medical chart ranged from one to 17 with a mean of 6.9. The patients reported a drug consumption ranging from 0 to 24 with a mean of 7.3. When comparing the interview results with the information in the medical charts, 30% of the patients showed adherence. An association was found between adherence and self-reported health status. Patients in the non-adherent group reported a higher consumption of drugs. Patients felt that the opportunity to ask questions of either the responsible physicians or of the nurses was influential in decreasing risk. In this study, the patient's total drug consumption was considered. The study showed a large discrepancy between the drugs stated in the medical chart and patient's self-reported drug consumption. The study failed to show that perceived information or educational level had an impact on the results but implicate that the quality of information influences adherence. It is of importance to recognize patients at risk for non-adherence. Decreased health status and many drugs are the main risk factors for patients being non-adherent, and should be recognized as such.
Zhang, Z J; Reynolds, G P; Ramchand, C; Peet, M; Shah, S
To study the role of dopamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia and its drug treatment by assessing the relationship of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), a major central dopamine metabolite to various clinical parameters in schizophrenic patients. pHVA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in a large cohort of both medicated and unmedicated DSM-IV schizophrenic patients. Prior to the measurement of pHVA, the patients were rated on the schedule for the assessment of positive and negative symptoms (PANSS). (1) pHVA in 46 patients receiving antipsychotic drugs was decreased, and in 58 drug-free patients increased, (7.4+/-2.7) microg/L and (10+/-4) microg/L compared with a matched control group (9 microg/L+/-3 microg/L, n=62) (ANOVA F=8.57, df=2, P pHVA was higher in the patients with a more negative symptom profile. (2) No significant correlation of pHVA with overall SAPS or SANS scores was apparent in the drug-free patients, although within the SANS subscales, a significant relationships to anhedonia-asociality (r=0.32, P pHVA with negative symptoms (r=0.42, P < 0.05) while females showed no significant relationship with any PANSS subscales. The results suggest that an increased dopaminergic metabolism is apparent in (male) schizophrenic patients with predominantly negative symptoms, supporting reports that this change in neuronal activity may be related to the neuropathological abnormalities seen in the disease, which may differ between males and females. Such neuronal deficits of developmental origin may thus result in an elevation/disinhibition of central dopamine metabolism in schizophrenia.
Danenberg, E; Sorge, L A; Wieniawski, W; Elliott, S; Amato, L; Scholten, W K
The WHO Executive Board revised the guidance that governs the procedures for the WHO review of psychoactive substances for international drug control in 2010. To meet the standards defined in these guidelines, the current evaluation methodology at WHO must be an evidence-based assessment. We describe the history of substance evaluation from 1912 to the present and the development of the evaluation methods over time including a description of the current assessment system, using reports from WHO and its predecessor, the League of Nations. Furthermore, we describe the current review system. We found that some substances under international control were never reviewed; other substances were reviewed decades ago. We argue that assessments do not have unlimited validity, and therefore, substances need to be re-assessed periodically, as already recommended by the Expert Committee on Drug Dependence in 1982. We propose that the evaluation time be shortened; that the influence of the route of administration and/or dosage form of the preparation is considered in the evaluation; and we recommend studying national and regional assessment systems and adopting their best practices. With this article, we make a case for the inclusion of systematic review and other methods of comprehensive analysis of substance evaluation to arrive at a process of equal rigour and quality as already applied by WHO for the development of treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lindstrøm, Maia; Filges, Trine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review and ultimately located three studies for final analysis...... and interpretation. Results: The results are mixed: BSFT does not seem to have better or worse effects on drug use frequency and family functioning than other treatments but has positive effects on treatment retention compared to control conditions. Longer retention in treatment has been identified as a consistent...
Pattern of intensive phase treatment outcomes of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in University of Port Harcourt Treatment Centre: a review of records from ... Data on patients' age, sex, HIV status, treatment outcomes were extracted from the hospital book records into a computer data sheet at the UPTH treatment centre.
Excessive prolongation of cardiac repolarization, manifested as QT prolongation on ECG, is common unwanted side effect of many drugs and drug candidates. Prolongation of QT interval may lead to life threatening cardiac arrhythmia – Torsade de Point (TdP). Number of drugs was withdrawn from the
Fijen, Valerie A.; Westerweel, Peter E.; van Ooij, Pieter Jan A. M.; van Hulst, Rob A.
Middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) is a frequently occurring complication of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). High-grade MEBt may involve tympanic membrane (TM) haemorrhaging. Although many patients undergoing HBOT use antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, it is unknown whether these drugs increase the
Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma E; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Goldman, Howard H
Public attitudes about drug addiction and mental illness were compared. A Web-based national survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support in regard to drug addiction and mental illness. Respondents held significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices against persons with drug addiction, more skeptical about the effectiveness of treatments, and more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping them. Drug addiction is often treated as a subcategory of mental illness, and insurance plans group them together under the rubric of "behavioral health." Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches to reducing stigma and advancing public policy.
Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.
Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885
Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi
Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)
Hong, Jinglan, E-mail: email@example.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Public Health School, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Shi, Wenxiao [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Yutao [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Shanda South Road 27, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Xiangzhi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)
Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)
Holtyn, August F; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Strain, Eric C; Schwartz, Robert P; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth
Determine if employment-based reinforcement can increase methadone treatment engagement and drug abstinence in out-of-treatment injection drug users. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2012 in a therapeutic workplace in Baltimore, MD. After a 4-week induction, participants (N=98) could work and earn pay for 26 weeks and were randomly assigned to Work Reinforcement, Methadone & Work Reinforcement, and Abstinence, Methadone & Work Reinforcement conditions. Work Reinforcement participants had to work to earn pay. Methadone & Work Reinforcement and Abstinence, Methadone, & Work Reinforcement participants had to enroll in methadone treatment to work and maximize pay. Abstinence, Methadone, & Work Reinforcement participants had to provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maximize pay. Most participants (92%) enrolled in methadone treatment during induction. Drug abstinence increased as a graded function of the addition of the methadone and abstinence contingencies. Abstinence, Methadone & Work Reinforcement participants provided significantly more urine samples negative for opiates (75% versus 54%) and cocaine (57% versus 32%) than Work Reinforcement participants. Methadone & Work Reinforcement participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative samples than Work Reinforcement participants (55% versus 32%). The therapeutic workplace can promote drug abstinence in out-of-treatment injection drug users. Clinical trial registration number: NCT01416584. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Albizu-García, Carmen E.; Caraballo, José Noel; Caraballo-Correa, Glorimar; Hernández-Viver, Adriana; Román-Badenas, Luis
Individuals with a history of heroin dependence are overrepresented in American correctional facilities and 75% of inmates with a drug use disorder do not receive treatment during incarceration or after release. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with opiate agonists, such as methadone or buprenorphine, constitute standard of care; to guide planning for an expansion of drug treatment services in correctional facilities, a needs assessment was conducted at the Department of Correction and Rehabilitation (DCR) of Puerto Rico (PR). We report on the research process, the findings that informed our recommendations for the PCR to expand MAT for eligible inmates, and lessons learned. PMID:22263714
Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães
Full Text Available Person who inject illicit substances have an important role in HIV-1 blood and sexual transmission and together with person who uses heavy non-injecting drugs may have less than optimal adherence to anti-retroviral treatment and eventually could transmit resistant HIV variants. Unfortunately, molecular biology data on such key population remain fragmentary in most low and middle-income countries. The aim of the present study was to assess HIV infection rates, evaluate HIV-1 genetic diversity, drug resistance, and to identify HIV transmission clusters in heavy drug users (DUs. For this purpose, DUs were recruited in the context of a Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS study in different Brazilian cities during 2009. Overall, 2,812 individuals were tested for HIV, and 168 (6% of them were positive, of which 19 (11.3% were classified as recent seroconverters, corresponding to an estimated incidence rate of 1.58%/year (95% CI 0.92-2.43%. Neighbor joining phylogenetic trees from env and pol regions and bootscan analyses were employed to subtype the virus from132 HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 subtype B was prevalent in most of the cities under analysis, followed by BF recombinants (9%-35%. HIV-1 subtype C was the most prevalent in Curitiba (46% and Itajaí (86% and was also detected in Brasília (9% and Campo Grande (20%. Pure HIV-1F infections were detected in Rio de Janeiro (9%, Recife (6%, Salvador (6% and Brasília (9%. Clusters of HIV transmission were assessed by Maximum likelihood analyses and were cross-compared with the RDS network structure. Drug resistance mutations were verified in 12.2% of DUs. Our findings reinforce the importance of the permanent HIV-1 surveillance in distinct Brazilian cities due to viral resistance and increasing subtype heterogeneity all over Brazil, with relevant implications in terms of treatment monitoring, prophylaxis and vaccine development.
Jansen, Kristian; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase; Ruths, Sabine
To examine drug treatment in nursing home patients at the end of life, and identify predictors of palliative drug therapy. A historical cohort study. Three urban nursing homes in Norway. All patients admitted from January 2008 and deceased before February 2013. Drug prescriptions, diagnoses, and demographic data were collected from electronic patient records. Palliative end-of-life drug treatment was defined on the basis of indication, drug, and formulation. 524 patients were included, median (range) age at death 86 (19-104) years, 59% women. On the day of death, 99.4% of the study population had active prescriptions; 74.2% had palliative drugs either alone (26.9%) or concomitantly with curative/preventive drugs (47.3%). Palliative drugs were associated with nursing home, length of stay > 16 months (AOR 2.10, 95% CI 1.12-3.94), age (1.03, 1.005-1.05), and a diagnosis of cancer (2.12, 1.19-3.76). Most initiations of palliative drugs and withdrawals of curative/preventive drugs took place on the day of death. Palliative drug therapy and drug therapy changes are common for nursing home patients on the last day of life. Improvements in end-of-life care in nursing homes imply addressing prognostication and earlier response to palliative needs.
Gerber, Jonathan K; Yacoubian, George S
Drug testing in the workplace has gone from virtual nonexistence to widespread employer acceptance during the past two decades. This growth is particularly significant for the construction industry. High rates of alcohol and other drug use, coupled with the high-risk, safety-sensitive nature of the industry, have prompted the development of a variety of drug surveillance and prevention strategies. Despite this growing vigilance, no scholarly works have examined the impact of drug-related policies in the construction industry. To address this limitation, we investigate the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors (MODs) within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation. Moreover, companies that drug test their employees experienced a significant reduction in their MODs. Policy implications are discussed in light of the current findings.
Ferreira, Margarida; Marques, Elisa E; Duarte, José A; Santos, Paula C
The physical therapy (PT) associated with standard drug treatment (SDT) in Bell palsy has never been investigated. Randomized controlled trials or quasirandomized controlled trials have compared facial PT (except treatments such as acupuncture and osteopathic) combined with SDT against a control group with SDT alone. Participants included those older than 15 yrs with a clinical diagnosis of Bell palsy, and the primary outcome measure was motor function recovery by the House-Brackmann scale. The methodologic quality of each study was also independently assessed by two reviewers using the PEDro scale. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three trials indicate that PT in association with SDT supports higher motor function recovery than SDT alone between 15 days and 1 yr of follow-up. On the other hand, one trial showed that electrical stimulation added to conventional PT with SDT did not influence treatment outcomes. The present review suggests that the current practice of Bell palsy treatment by PT associated with SDT seems to have a positive effect on grade and time recovery compared with SDT alone. However, there is very little quality evidence from randomized controlled trials, and such evidence is insufficient to decide whether combined treatment is beneficial in the management of Bell palsy.
The sensitizer adduct technique [(3H]misonidazole binding) was used to assess the extent of murine bone marrow hypoxia following treatment with a variety of radioprotectors. The binding rates previously determined in vivo were compared to those obtained by incubating marrow cells in atmospheres of varying oxygen content. Parallel experiments demonstrated that the oxygen dependence of [3H]misonidazole binding (Km approximately 0.15% oxygen) was similar to the oxygen dependence of marrow radiosensitivity (Km approximately 0.2% oxygen). Maximally radioprotective doses of several drugs have been shown to increase the binding of [3H]misonidazole significantly in vivo. A comparison to the in vitro binding rates suggests that the average oxygen concentration in the marrow at times associated with radioprotection was on the order of 0.5 to 0.8% oxygen. The relative importance of marrow hypoxia to the overall radioprotective effects of different drugs may vary considerably. However, these results have demonstrated that certain radioprotective drugs can induce marrow hypoxia and this reduced pO2 may contribute to the efficacy of these agents
This paper uses rational choice theory to analyse a new - and controversial - treatment approach to drug problems: services aimed at making clients capable of controlled use of illegal drugs. The paper highlights three mechanisms used in control-focused treatment: attempts to move drug use from the sphere of "wanting" to the sphere of "willing"; temporal framing of illegal drug use; and a therapeutic focus on clients' resources rather than their problems. Furthermore, the paper identifies some of the main challenges associated with this kind of treatment. The paper is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people (aged 18-25) enrolled in drug treatment in Copenhagen, Denmark. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this article, I examine children's reported experiences with stimulant drug treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in light of bioethical arguments about the potential threats of psychotropic drugs to authenticity and moral agency. Drawing on a study that involved over 150 families in the USA and the UK, I show that children are able to report threats to authenticity, but that the majority of children are not concerned with such threats. On balance, children report that stimulants improve their capacity for moral agency, and they associate this capacity with an ability to meet normative expectations. I argue that although under certain conditions stimulant drug treatment may increase the risk of a threat to authenticity, there are ways to minimise this risk and to maximise the benefits of stimulant drug treatment. Medical professionals in particular should help children to flourish with stimulant drug treatments, in good and in bad conditions.
Winters, K C; Stinchfield, R D; Opland, E; Weller, C; Latimer, W W
The treatment outcome of drug-abusing adolescents treated with a 12-Step approach. The study compares drug use outcome data at 6 and 12 months post-treatment among three groups of adolescents: those who completed treatment, those who did not and those on a waiting list. Also, among treatment completers, residential and outpatient samples were compared on outcome. The treatment site is located in the Minneapolis/St Paul area of Minnesota. Two hundred and forty-five drug clinic-referred adolescents (12-18 years old), all of whom met at least one DSM-III-R substance dependence disorder. One hundred and seventy-nine subjects received either complete or incomplete 12-Step, Minnesota Model treatment and 66 were waiting list subjects. In addition to demographics and clinical background variables, measures included treatment involvement, treatment setting and drug use frequency at intake and follow-up. Absolute and relative outcome analyses indicated that completing treatment was associated with far superior outcome compared to those who did not complete treatment or receive any at all. The percentage of treatment completers who reported either abstinence or a minor lapse for the 12 months following treatment was 53%, compared to 15 and 28% for the incompleter and waiting list groups, respectively. Favorable treatment outcome for drug abuse was about two to three times more likely if treatment was completed. Also, there were no outcome differences between residential and outpatient groups. Alcohol was the most common drug used during the follow-up period, despite cannabis being the preferred drug at intake.
Oxford Economic Papers 61, no. 1 (2009): 12. 16 community referral system for social services would increase the actors involved, introduce new...rationalized the use of prescription drugs as an emotional and physical crutch . Many chose opium, because it is less costly, being unaware that the...208. 41 continue to use legal and illegal drugs as an emotional crutch . In fact, pharmaceutical use is heavily linked to poverty. Health costs
Inessa Aleksandrovna Gurban
Full Text Available The paper considers issues of the assessment of the socioeconomic consequences of drug abuse in today’s conditions, which have the following features — the approaching of drug-dealers to legalize the drug market, develop the illegal drug market and their analogs and derivatives by the introduction of modern production technologies and distribution of psychoactive agents. Key tendencies observed in the contemporary world in the field of dynamics of the drug market development, which are reflected in the regions of Russia including the Ural Federal District are revealed. The procedure of assessment of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse including assessment of drug consumers’ expenses and their surrounding people; and also; maintenance costs of the state bodies supervising drug trafficking; expenses for health care and other social expenses connected to drug use; damage to individuals of drug abuse distribution; expenses of private institutions and establishments; socioeconomic impact of drug abuse distribution. The technique uses a tool allowing to carry out a calculation (a heroin equivalent, i.e. the drugs withdrawn by law enforcement agencies and the subsequent calculation of the corresponding number of consumers of each type of drug. This method is aimed at increasing the accuracy of estimates received. On the basis of results calculated according to offered technique, the shares of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse concerning the income of the cumulative consolidated budget and a gross regional product of the Ural Federal District are defined.
Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Maticic, Mojca
in relation to the number of patients who either: (a) tested HCV antibody-positive; (b) tested positive for HCV-RNA; or (c) tested positive for HCV-RNA and met additional treatment criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-five articles from 12 countries were included in the review. Among groups of drug-using study......BACKGROUND: Fifteen million adults in the World Health Organization European Region are estimated to have active hepatitis C infection. Intravenous drug use is a major hepatitis C transmission route in this region, and people who inject drugs (PWID) constitute a high-risk and high......-prevalence population. A systematic review was conducted to assess levels of hepatitis C treatment uptake among PWID in Europe. METHODS: Searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE were carried out for articles in any language published between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012. Articles were included in the review...
Hopwood, L.E.; Davies, B.M.; Moulder, J.E.
RIF-1 tumors contain a small number of cells (1 to 100 per 10(6) cells) that are resistant to 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, or adriamycin. The frequency of drug-resistant cells among individual untreated tumors is highly variable. Radiation, delivered in vivo at doses of 3 to 12 Gy, increases the frequency of methotrexate- and 5-fluorouracil-resistant cells, but not the frequency of adriamycin-resistant cells. The magnitude of induction of 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate resistance shows a complex dependence on the radiation dose and on the interval between irradiation and assessment of drug resistance. For a dose of 3 Gy, induced 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate resistance is seen only after an interval of 5 to 7 days, whereas for a dose of 12 Gy, high levels of induced resistance are observed 1 to 3 days after irradiation. The maximum absolute risk for induction of resistance is 4 per 10(4) cells per Gy for methotrexate, and 3 per 10(6) cells per Gy for 5-fluorouracil. These results indicate that tumor hypoxia may play a role in the increased levels of drug resistance seen after irradiation, and that both genetic and environmental factors may influence radiation-induction of drug resistance. These studies provide essential data for models of the development of tumor drug resistance, and imply that some of the drug resistance seen when chemotherapy follows radiotherapy may be caused by radiation-induced drug resistance
Santos, Cynthia; Olmedo, Ruben E; Kim, Jeremy
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents. Managing withdrawal symptoms requires a patient-specific approach that takes into account the physiologic pathways of the particular drugs used as well as the patient's age and comorbidities. Adjunctive therapies include alpha agonists, beta blockers, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics. Newer pharmacological therapies offer promise in managing withdrawal symptoms. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].
Full Text Available Obejective : Functional dyspepsia is a prevalent disease. It impedes subjective quality of life. The purpose of this research is to examine the equivalent effect of herb drug medicine treatment(H-Dand Over the Counter(OTC for functional dyspepsia. Method : In this controlled study, we compared herb drug medicine(H-D with Over the Counter(OTC of functional dyspepsia. 30 volunteers who satisfied the requirements were enrolled in study. Severity of dyspepsia was measured by Nepean Dyspepsia Index(NDI-K before and after treatments. Result : The results are summarized as follows. 1. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, total key symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 2. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, each symptoms score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. 3. In Herb drug medicine and Over the Counter groups, quality of life score of after treatment were significantly decreased and improve rate of key symptoms was higher than before treatment, but there were no statistical significance between two groups. Conclusion : Herb drug medicine treatment(H-D is effective to improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.
Woods, Beth; Faria, Rita; Griffin, Susan
Health systems worldwide are facing difficult choices about the use of a series of highly effective but costly new treatments for hepatitis C. In this paper we discuss how the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales, the Common Drug Review in Canada and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) in Australia have approached the appraisal of these drugs. We argue that with the exception of the PBAC, assessments of the new drugs have not adequately accounted for their large financial burden. Given the potential health system impact of reimbursing these drugs, the use of lower cost-effectiveness thresholds should be considered. None of the decision-making processes included a comparison of the full range of treatment pathways. In particular, comparisons of using the new drugs as first- versus second-line drugs were omitted from all appraisals, as were comparisons with delayed treatment strategies whereby treatment is withheld until more severe disease stages. Omission of comparators leads to inaccurate estimates of cost effectiveness and potentially sub-optimal decision making. Lessons learned from these appraisals should be considered in future appraisals, particularly the upcoming assessments of the 'blockbuster' PCSK9 inhibitors for hypercholesterolaemia.
Roessler, Kirsten Kaya
AIMS: The paper presents a recent Danish programme using exercise to alter the behaviour and body image of drug addicts. METHODS: 38 participants (23 male and 15 female) took part in groups three times per week for a minimum of two to a maximum of six months. Self-reported data combined with the ......AIMS: The paper presents a recent Danish programme using exercise to alter the behaviour and body image of drug addicts. METHODS: 38 participants (23 male and 15 female) took part in groups three times per week for a minimum of two to a maximum of six months. Self-reported data combined...
Degli Esposti, Luca; Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Sangiorgi, Diego; Di Turi, Roberta; Farina, Giuseppina; Gambera, Marco; Ravasio, Roberto
The aim of this analysis was to provide an estimate of drug utilization indicators (persistence, switch rate and drug consumption) on biologics and the corresponding costs (drugs, admissions and specialist care) incurred by the Italian National Health Service in the management of adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted an observational retrospective cohort analysis using the administrative databases of three local health units. We considered all patients aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of RA and at least one biologic drug prescription between January 2010 and December 2012 (recruitment period). Persistence was defined as maintenance over the last 3 months of the follow-up period of the same biological therapy administered at the index date. A switch was defined as the presence of a biological therapy other than that administered at the index date during the last 3 months of the follow-up period. Hospital admissions (with a diagnosis of RA or other RA-related diagnoses), specialist outpatient services, instrumental diagnostics and pharmaceutical consumption were assessed. The drug utilization analysis took into account only biologics with at least 90 patients on treatment at baseline (adalimumab n=144, etanercept n=236 and infliximab n=94). In each year, etanercept showed better persistence with initial treatment than adalimumab or infliximab. Etanercept was characterized by the lowest number of patients increasing the initial drug consumption (2.6%) and by the highest number of patients reducing the initial drug consumption (10.5%). The mean cost of treatment for a patient persisting with the initial treatment was €12,388 (€14,182 for adalimumab, €12,103 for etanercept and €11,002 for infliximab). The treatment costs for patients switching from initial treatment during the first year of follow-up were higher than for patients who did not switch (€12,710 vs. €11,332). Persistence, switch rate and drug consumption seem to directly
Fischer, Jan; Neale, Joanne; Bloor, Michael; Jenkins, Nicholas
This paper examines client/staff conflict and user involvement in drug misuse treatment decision-making. Seventy-nine in-depth interviews were conducted with new treatment clients in two residential and two community drug treatment agencies. Fifty-nine of these clients were interviewed again after twelve weeks. Twenty-seven interviews were also conducted with staff, who were the keyworkers for the interviewed clients. Drug users did not expect, desire or prepare for conflict at treatment entry. They reported few actual conflicts within the treatment setting, but routinely discussed latent conflicts--that is, negative experiences and problematic aspects of current or previous treatment that could potentially escalate into overt disputes. Conflict resulted in a number of possible outcomes, including the premature termination of treatment; staff deciding on the appropriate outcome; the client appealing to the governance structure of the agency; brokered compromise; and staff skilfully eliciting client consent for staff decisions. Although the implementation of user involvement in drug treatment decision-making has the potential to trigger high levels of staff-client conflict, latent conflict is more common than overt conflict and not all conflict is negative. Drug users generally want to be co-operative at treatment entry and often adopt non-confrontational forms of covert resistance to decisions about which they disagree. Staff sometimes deploy user involvement as a strategy for managing conflict and soliciting client compliance to treatment protocols. Suggestions for minimising and avoiding harmful conflict in treatment settings are given.
Marilyn E. Carroll
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.
efficacy and fewer side effects is urgently needed. Future studies should also examine the relative efficacy of the various treatment modalities; for example, psychological, physical and pharmacological treatments, and clarify how treatment programs should be optimized to best suit the individual patient....
efficacy and fewer side effects is urgently needed. Future studies should also examine the relative efficacy of the various treatment modalities; for example, psychological, physical and pharmacological treatments, and clarify how treatment programs should be optimized to best suit the individual patient...
Liel, Yair; Plakht, Ygal; Tailakh, Muhammad Abu
Little data exist to support concerns over bone turnover suppression during prolonged oral bisphosphonate treatment and on consequences of the recommended "drug holiday." This study was performed to assess bone resorption rates in postmenopausal osteoporotic women on prolonged oral bisphosphonate treatment and in response to switching to "drug holiday" intravenous bisphosphonate, or continuation of oral bisphosphonates. The frequency distribution of the bone resorption marker urinary deoxypyridinoline crosslinks (uDPD), was obtained retrospectively from 211 osteoporotic women attended at an academic hospital endocrine clinic, treated for >2 years with oral bisphosphonates. In some patients, uDPD was re-assessed following modification or continuation of treatment. The mean duration of oral bisphosphonates treatment was 7.2 ± 3.1 years. uDPD was within reference range for premenopausal women in 61.6% of the patients, below in 7.6% of the patients, and above upper limit in 30.8%. uDPD decreased significantly following intravenous zoledronic acid, increased significantly during "drug holiday," and slightly decreased in those continued on oral bisphosphonate treatment. In this real-world study, the majority of women on prolonged oral bisphosphonates maintained bone resorption rates within the normal reference range for premenopausal women. The likelihood for inadequate suppression was considerably greater than that of over-suppression. Implementing a "drug holiday" resulted in a marked increase in bone resorption rates. Additional studies should explore the potential role of bone turnover markers in the evaluation of patients on prolonged oral bisphosphonates and during "drug holiday" in different settings and using additional markers. BMD = bone mineral density; IQR = interquartile range; uDPD = urinary deoxypyridinoline crosslinks.
Boas, Lilian Cristiane Gomes-Villas; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina; Pace, Ana Emilia
This cross-sectional and quantitative study aimed to evaluate the adherence to drug treatment of the people with diabetes mellitus and its relation to clinical, treatment and metabolic control variables. Sample consisted of 162 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus on follow-up outpatient care. The Measure of Treatment Adherence and consultation to the participants' medical records were used for data collection. A high adherence to drug treatment was obtained. For a p<0.05, it was obtained an inverse correlation with diastolic blood pressure and a direct correlation with the frequency of daily administration of insulin and oral antidiabetic agents. There were no statistically significant correlations between adherence and metabolic control variables. Results diverge from the literature regarding the adherence to drug treatment in chronic diseases, as well as in the correlation between adherence and complexity of drug regimen, which points to the need for more studies on this theme.
Truvada is getting a new lease on life as a preventive agent. It is the only drug approved to prevent HIV infections, and Truvada is the key pharmaceutical component of pre-exposure prophylaxis, which is aimed at preventing, rather than treating, HIV infection and transmission.
We recommend an urgent program of intervention targeted specifically at drug store operator/attendants on the management of diarrhoea in the short term while ORT instructions and management of diarrhoea be incorporated into health education curriculum in primary and secondary schools in Nigeria. Nigerian Medical ...
Zalkind, D; Zelon, H; Moore, M; Kaluzny, A
An attempt to set up a management information system for individual drug abuse programs throughout a state is described. The principles upon which the system is based are discussed along with the problems encountered in its implementation. A series of guidelines for establishing management information systems in operating human services agencies is included.
Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Wells, Rebecca S.; Theno, Shelley A.; Fisher, Dennis G.
In a sample of 700 drug users, 64% evidenced comorbidity (i.e., coexisting substance use and psychiatric disorders). Robust relationships between the presence of comorbidity and increased levels of risk behavior, such as needle sharing and trading sex for money, were revealed. (Contains 44 references and 2 tables.) (Author)
Ishida, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Higaki, Nobuaki; Goto, Takaharu; Ichikawa, Tetsuo
There are two key considerations for successful esthetic dental treatments. This article systematically describes the two key considerations: the end points of esthetic dental treatments and assessments of esthetic outcomes, which are also important for acquiring clinical skill in esthetic dental treatments. The end point and assessment of esthetic dental treatment were discussed through literature reviews and clinical practices. Before designing a treatment plan, the end point of dental treatment should be established. The section entitled "End point of esthetic dental treatment" discusses treatments for maxillary anterior teeth and the restoration of facial profile with prostheses. The process of assessing treatment outcomes entitled "Assessments of esthetic dental treatment" discusses objective and subjective evaluation methods. Practitioners should reach an agreement regarding desired end points with patients through medical interviews, and continuing improvements and developments of esthetic assessments are required to raise the therapeutic level of esthetic dental treatments. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karam, Elie G; Ghandour, Lilian A; Maalouf, Wadih E; Yamout, Karim; Salamoun, Mariana M
Research on substance use and misuse in Lebanon is scarce and, when available, focuses on a specific substance or a limited segment of the population. The objective of this Rapid Situation Assessment (RAS) study was to survey the use of multiple substances in diverse segments of the Lebanese population. A multi-method and multi-sample survey was conducted to collect quantitative and qualitative data from the academic sector (high school and university students), substance users in treatment or under arrest (prison, detention), and non-institutionalized "street" users. Age of first use of substances started as early as 9 years in the youth sample. Moreover, 12% of the high school students reported smoking one or more packs of cigarettes per day and 9% of the university students met criteria for DSM-IV alcohol abuse. Cannabis represented the most commonly used illicit drug in both high school and university students, and tranquilizers were the most frequently misused medicinal substance. Heroin was responsible for 50% of the treatment admissions, followed by cocaine (20%), and alcohol (20%); heroin was also the most common substance of arrest. Recidivism was almost the rule for heroin users across all treatment settings. Unperceived need for treatment was the most common reason for not seeking treatment in non-institutionalized drug users (47.6%). Injecting drug use was a common behavior noted within substance using populations, in treatment and non-institutionalized (about 50% of them), with a high rate of needle sharing practices. About half of all patients in treatment had a history of police arrests, and about one-third of those in prison ever received prior treatment for substance use. The study points towards a growing trend for substance use problems in early adolescence that warrants close monitoring. Further investigation of these patterns is needed since the Lebanese population might have specific pathways of abuse. There is a need to bring together various
Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure lowering drugs are usually evaluated in short term trials determining the absolute blood pressure reduction during trough and the duration of the antihypertensive effect after single or multiple dosing. A lack of persistence with treatment has however been shown to be linked to a worse cardiovascular prognosis. This review explores the blood pressure reduction and persistence with treatment of antihypertensive drugs and the cost consequences of poor persistence with pharmaceutical interventions in arterial hypertension. Methods We have searched the literature for data on blood pressure lowering effects of different antihypertensive drug classes and agents, on persistence with treatment, and on related costs. Persistence was measured as patients' medication possession rate. Results are presented in the form of a systematic review. Results Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs have a competitive blood pressure lowering efficacy compared with ACE-inhibitors (ACEi and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, beta-blockers (BBs and diuretics. 8 studies describing the persistence with treatment were identified. Patients were more persistent on ARBs than on ACEi and CCBs, BBs and diuretics. Thus the product of blood pressure lowering and persistence was higher on ARBs than on any other drug class. Although the price per tablet of more recently developed drugs (ACEi, ARBs is higher than that of older ones (diuretics and BBs, the newer drugs result in a more favourable cost to effect ratio when direct drug costs and indirect costs are also considered. Conclusion To evaluate drugs for the treatment of hypertension several key variables including the blood pressure lowering effect, side effects, compliance/persistence with treatment, as well as drug costs and direct and indirect costs of medical care have to be considered. ARBs, while nominally more expensive when drug costs are considered only, provide substantial cost savings
Fischer, Jane Anne; Clavarino, Alexandra Marie; Najman, Jackob Moses
Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those 'at risk', by drug type, sex and age. The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey) and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006-2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset) and public hospitals (2006-2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset) to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. 'At risk' for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001). 'At risk' for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15-19 years) and older adults (40+ years) seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment. Publicly available data can be used to estimate harms associated with the use of particular
Victor, Grant A; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K
In an effort to mitigate Kentucky's prescription drug misuse, legislative intervention efforts were introduced in 2012 and 2013 to better regulate pain clinics, prescribed use of opioid analgesics, and to expand the monitoring of opioid prescriptions. The focus of this paper is primarily on opioid analgesics and heroin and the relationship of use/misuse patterns of these drugs to state drug policy initiatives. A secondary data analysis of drug treatment clients (N=52,360) was conducted to project illicit drug use trends in Kentucky. This study describes temporal and geographic trends of self-reported illicit drug use among individuals in state-funded treatment in Kentucky between fiscal year 2010 and fiscal year 2013. Significant reductions in the prevalence of illicit opioid use, declined from fiscal year 2010 to fiscal year 2013 (p<.01, CI=-.298 to -.215). However, heroin use rates significantly increased over the years studied, suggesting there may be a transition from prescription opioids to heroin (p<.01, CI=.143 to .178). The analysis suggests these trends may continue. Findings suggest Kentucky's legislative efforts were effective in reducing illicit prescription opioid use, but heroin use has increased. One possible explanation for this relationship is that as prescription opioids became more difficult to obtain, users turned to heroin as a substitute. The finding of rising heroin use suggests a need for further policy initiatives to reduce heroin use, but the potential effectiveness of this policy remains unclear. Understanding trends may help to guide future policy efforts and pain management treatment strategies to where they might have their greatest impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lukeman, D.S.; Vaughn, D.A.; Fanestil, D.D.
The authors have assessed the effects of in vivo administration of different classes of diuretic drugs on the expression of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding site (PBBS) in crude membranes derived from the cortex and outer medulla of rat kidney by saturation analysis with the PBBS-selective ligands [ 3 H]RO5-4864 and [ 3 H]PH 11195 in cortex and [ 3 H]RO5-4864 in outer medulla. Administration for 14-15 days of furosemide, a drug that blocks NaCl-KCl coupled transport in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, produced a significant doubling in the PBBS density (B/sub max/) in outer medulla, a region of the kidney rich in thick ascending limbs, and produced a lesser but significant increase in PBBS density in the cortex. Conversely, administration for 14-15 days of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide, which acts predominantly in the proximal tubule, and hydrochlorothiazide, which acts predominantly in the early distal tubule, elicited statistically significant increases in PBBS density in renal cortex but not in renal outer medulla. Furthermore, all drug treatments were without effect on the equilibrium dissociation constants (K/sub d/s) of [ 3 H]RO5-4864 and [ 3 H]PK 11195 binding to cortical and outer medullary membrane preparations. These findings demonstrate that the PBBS can be selectively up-regulated in different regions of the kidney by diuretic drugs with different modes/sites of action. 50 references, 1 table
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health behaviors in women with addiction history. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in women drug treatment centers under the supervision of Welfare Organization of Tehran province in Iran. Data collection process was conducted in three centers including a questionnaire with an interview format, clinical examination, and Chi-Square test and MANOVA for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of 95 women participating in this study was less than forty, whereas the age of starting drugs was twenty two. A majority of the patients were unemployed (71% and more than that of two-third did not have a diploma education. Almost half of dentate participants had never or rarely brushed their teeth. Most of them had never used dental floss, while more than half had three or more times snacks or sweet drinks and more than three-fourth were daily smokers. The MANOVA analysis showed that the type of clinic to be visited, age, used stimulant, drug dependency length, the last time a dentist being visited and the brushing period had a statistically significant relationship with Decayed Teeth (DT, Missing Teeth (MT and Filled Teeth (FT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Women with the prior drug addiction history had an unpromising oral health status which was obvious in their self-perceived oral health. Taking the appropriate preventive and therapeutic actions aiming for promoting oral health status of them seems to be necessary.
Oryan, A; Bemani, E; Bahrami, S
Leishmaniasis is a group of human and animal diseases causing 20,000 to 40,000 annual deaths and its etiological agents belong to the Leishmania genus. The most current treatment against leishmaniasis is chemotherapy. Pentavalent antimonials such as glucantime and pentostam have been administrated as the first-line drugs in treatment of various forms of leishmaniasis. The second-line drugs such as amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine, pentamidine, azole drugs and paromomycin are used in resistant cases to pentavalent antimonials. Because of drawbacks of the first-line and second-line drugs including adverse side effects on different organs, increasing resistance, high cost, need to hospitalization and long-term treatment, it is necessary to find an alternative drug for leishmaniasis treatment. Several investigations have reported the effectiveness of amiodarone, the most commonly used antiarrhythmic drug, against fungi, Trypanosomes and Leishmania spp. in vitro, in vivo and clinical conditions. Moreover, the beneficial effects of dronedarone, amiodarone analogues, against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania mexicana have recently been demonstrated and such treatment regimens resulted in lower side effects. The anti- leishmanial and anti- trypanosomal effectiveness of amiodarone and dronedarone has been attributed to destabilization of intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis, inhibition of sterol biosynthesis and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Because of relative low cost, excellent pharmacokinetic properties, easy accessibility and beneficial effects of amiodarone and dronedarone on leishmaniasis, they are proper candidates to replace the current drugs used in leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Addiction research has demonstrated how recovering individuals need narratives that make sense of past drug use and enable constructions of future, non-addict identities. However, there has not been much investigation into how these recovery narratives actually develop moment-to-moment in drug treatment. Building on the sociology of storytelling and ethnographic fieldwork conducted at two drug treatment institutions for young people in Denmark, this article argues that studying stories in the context of their telling brings forth novel insights. Through a narrative analysis of both 'the whats' (story content) and 'the hows' (storying process) the article presents four findings: (1) stories of change function locally as an institutional requirement; (2) professional drug treatment providers edit young people's storytelling through different techniques; (3) the narrative environment of the drug treatment institution shapes how particular stories make sense of the past, present and future; and (4) storytelling in drug treatment is an interactive achievement. A fine-grained analysis illuminates in particular how some stories on gender and drug use are silenced, while others are encouraged. The demonstration of how local narrative environments shape stories contributes to the general understanding of interactive storytelling in encounters between professionals and clients in treatment settings. © 2015 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of Foundation for Sociology of Health & Illness.
Le Jeunne, C
When a drug has been granted a marketing authorization, if the pharmaceutical company wants it to be covered by the National Health Insurance, the company has to submit a file with all the studies concerning the drug, especially drug-drug comparative studies, to be assessed by the Transparency Committee. Drugs are assessed on two criteria: actual or expected benefit (AB) and improvement in actual benefit (IAB). Actual benefit mainly takes into account the severity of the disease concerned, the level of efficacy relative to known side effects (risk-benefit ratio), and the place the drug is intended to take in the therapeutic strategy. At the end of the assessment, AB is considered as important, moderate, poor or insufficient (to justify inclusion of the drug on the list of products to be reimbursed). After actual benefit is determined, improvement of actual benefit is assessed, comparing the estimated benefit of this drug with one of drugs with the same indication that is already reimbursed, to assess whether this drug will improve the patient's disease. This can be assessed by direct comparison (two drugs compared in the same clinical trial) or by indirect comparison (separate studies with the same design). There are four levels of added value, from I (major improvement) to IV (minor improvement). Level V represents no improvement. This second assessment is always relative to another drug. It never provides an absolute score. However, IAB is very important for pharmaceutical companies, because it is a fundamental criterion to determine the price of the drug, which is discussed with the Economic Committee of Health Products in a final phase. Actual benefit and improvement in actual benefit are allocated for each indication of a drug.
Advances in the biotechnology of cell specific targeting of cancer and the increased number of clinical trials involving treatment of cancer patients with radiolabelled antibodies, peptides, and similar delivery vehicles have led to an increase in the number of high dose radionuclide therapy procedures. Optimised radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment is based on the concept of absorbed dose to the dose limiting normal organ or tissue. The limiting normal tissue is often the red marrow, but it may sometimes be the lungs, liver, intestinal tract, or kidneys. Appropriate treatment planning requires assessment of radiation dose to several internal organs and tissues, and usually involves biodistribution studies in the patient using a tracer amount of radionuclide bound to the targeting agent and imaged at sequential timepoints using a planar gamma camera. Time-activity curves are developed from the imaging data for the major organ tissues of concern, for the whole body and sometimes for selected tumours. Patient specific factors often require that dose estimates be customised for each patient. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration regulates the experimental use of investigational new drugs and requires 'reasonable calculation of radiation absorbed dose to the whole body and to critical organs' using the methods prescribed by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Review of high dose studies shows that some are conducted with minimal dosimetry, that the marrow dose is difficult to establish and is subject to large uncertainties. Despite the general availability of software, internal dosimetry methods often seem to be inconsistent from one clinical centre to another. (author)
Full Text Available Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA.
Full Text Available Aggressive symptomatology presents across multiple psychiatric, developmental, neurological and behavioral disorders, complicating the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying pathology. Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDs have become an appealing alternative in the treatment of aggression, mood lability and impulsivity in adult and pediatric populations, although few controlled trials have explored their efficacy in treating pediatric populations. This review of the literature synthesizes the available data on ten AEDs – valproate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, zonisamide, gabapentin and tiagabine – in an attempt to assess evidence for the efficacy of AEDs in the treatment of aggression in pediatric populations. Our review revealed modest evidence that some of the AEDs produced improvement in pediatric aggression, but controlled trials in pediatric bipolar disorder have not been promising. Valproate is the best supported AED for aggression and should be considered as a first line of treatment. When monotherapy is insufficient, combining an AED with either lithium or an atypical anti-psychotic can result in better efficacy. Additionally, our review indicates that medications with predominately GABA-ergic mechanisms of action are not effective in treating aggression, and medications which decrease glutaminergic transmission tended to have more cognitive adverse effects. Agents with multiple mechanisms of action may be more effective.
Munshi, Kaizad R; Oken, Tanya; Guild, Danielle J; Trivedi, Harsh K; Wang, Betty C; Ducharme, Peter; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph
Aggressive symptomatology presents across multiple psychiatric, developmental, neurological and behavioral disorders, complicating the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying pathology. Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDs) have become an appealing alternative in the treatment of aggression, mood lability and impulsivity in adult and pediatric populations, although few controlled trials have explored their efficacy in treating pediatric populations. This review of the literature synthesizes the available data on ten AEDs - valproate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, zonisamide, gabapentin and tiagabine - in an attempt to assess evidence for the efficacy of AEDs in the treatment of aggression in pediatric populations. Our review revealed modest evidence that some of the AEDs produced improvement in pediatric aggression, but controlled trials in pediatric bipolar disorder have not been promising. Valproate is the best supported AED for aggression and should be considered as a first line of treatment. When monotherapy is insufficient, combining an AED with either lithium or an atypical anti-psychotic can result in better efficacy. Additionally, our review indicates that medications with predominately GABA-ergic mechanisms of action are not effective in treating aggression, and medications which decrease glutaminergic transmission tended to have more cognitive adverse effects. Agents with multiple mechanisms of action may be more effective.
Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a common endocrine disease. Although thionamide antithyroid drugs are the cornerstone of hyperthyroidism treatment, some patients cannot tolerate this drug class because of its serious side effects including agranulocytosis, hepatotoxicity, and vasculitis. Therefore, nonthionamide antithyroid drugs (NTADs still have an important role in controlling hyperthyroidism in clinical practice. Furthermore, some situations such as thyroid storm or preoperative preparation require a rapid decrease in thyroid hormone by combination treatment with multiple classes of antithyroid drugs. NTADs include iodine-containing compounds, lithium carbonate, perchlorate, glucocorticoid, and cholestyramine. In this narrative review, we summarize the mechanisms of action, indications, dosages, and side effects of currently used NTADs for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. In addition, we also describe the state-of-the-art in future drugs under development including rituximab, small-molecule ligands (SMLs, and monoclonal antibodies with a thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR antagonist effect.
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s Disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately two thirds of the 35 million people worldwide with the condition. Despite this, effective treatments are lacking, and there are no drugs that elicit disease modifying effects to improve outcome. There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate more effective pharmacological treatments. Drug repositioning offers an exciting opportunity to repurpose existing licensed treatments for use in AD, with the benefit of providing a far more rapid route to the clinic than through novel drug discovery approaches. This review outlines the current most promising candidates for repositioning in AD, their supporting evidence and their progress through trials to date. Furthermore, it begins to explore the potential of new transcriptomic and microarray techniques to consider the future of drug repositioning as a viable approach to drug discovery.
Cortes, Laura; Almeida, Laura; Sabra, Sally; Muniesa, Marta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Gomez-Roig, Maria Dolores
In the last two decades, the consumption of drugs of abuse among women of childbearing age has experienced a significant increase and results from analyses of surveys concerning maternal intake of psychoactive prescription drugs during pregnancy indicate that the rates of intake are increasing each year. Analyses of biological matrices such as maternal hair and neonatal meconium have recently been used for assessment of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in high-risk groups of women METHODS: Maternal hair and neonatal meconium were analyzed by validated chromatographic mass spectrometric methodologies to disclose gestational use of drugs of abuse and psychoactive prescription drugs and consequent prenatal exposure in a cohort of 513 mother-newborn dyads at the Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona Hospital, Spain, during 2012- 2013. A total of 3.9% the women reported drugs of abuse or prescription psychoactive drug consumption at any time during pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse (e.g. cannabis, cocaine and MDMA) was 1.2% in maternal hair and 0.4% in meconium; that of psychoactive prescription drugs (e.g. venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, clomipramine) was 1.7% in maternal hair and 1.2% in meconium. The prevalence of drugs of abuse and prescription psychoactive drug consumption was lower in our specific cohort of Spanish pregnant women than in other cohorts such as those from U.S. or Denmark. Analysis of materno-fetal matrices provides a viable alternative to study prenatal exposure to these substances and develop specific social and health intervention recommendations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Fuchs, Patricia; Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram
Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath-similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests-would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The non-invasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the US and the EU. The detection and monitoring of medical drugs in exhaled breath without the need of drawing blood samples on the other hand, is of high relevance in the clinical environment. This could facilitate a more precise medication and enable therapy control without any burden to the patient. Furthermore, it could be a step towards personalized medicine. This review gives an overview of the current state of drug detection in breath, including both volatile and non-volatile substances. The review is divided into two sections. The first section deals with qualitative detection of drugs (drugs of abuse), while the second is related to quantitative drug detection (medical drugs). Chances and limitations are discussed for both aspects. The detection of the intravenous anesthetic propofol is presented as a detailed example that demonstrates the potential, requirements, pitfalls and limitations of therapeutic drug monitoring by means of breath analysis.
have an effective means of monitoring the quality of generic drug products in the market. This results in widespread ... countries. Marketing of such drugs has been widely reported in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. © CNCS .... three-fourth of the plate. The plate was dried in air for 15 minutes and examined under UV-light,.
Weiner, Scott G; Griggs, Christopher A; Mitchell, Patricia M; Langlois, Breanne K; Friedman, Franklin D; Moore, Rebecca L; Lin, Shuo Cheng; Nelson, Kerrie P; Feldman, James A
We compare emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior with objective criteria from a state prescription drug monitoring program, assess change in opioid pain reliever prescribing after prescription drug monitoring program review, and examine clinical factors associated with suspected drug-seeking behavior. This was a prospective observational study of emergency providers assessing a convenience sample of patients aged 18 to 64 years who presented to either of 2 academic medical centers with chief complaint of back pain, dental pain, or headache. Drug-seeking behavior was objectively defined as present when a patient had greater than or equal to 4 opioid prescriptions by greater than or equal to 4 providers in the 12 months before emergency department evaluation. Emergency providers completed data forms recording their impression of the likelihood of drug-seeking behavior, patient characteristics, and plan for prescribing pre- and post-prescription drug monitoring program review. Descriptive statistics were generated. We calculated agreement between emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior and prescription drug monitoring program definition, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of emergency provider impression, using prescription drug monitoring program criteria as the criterion standard. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine clinical factors associated with drug-seeking behavior. Thirty-eight emergency providers with prescription drug monitoring program access participated. There were 544 patient visits entered into the study from June 2011 to January 2013. There was fair agreement between emergency provider impression of drug-seeking behavior and prescription drug monitoring program (κ=0.30). Emergency providers had sensitivity 63.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54.8% to 71.7%), specificity 72.7% (95% CI 68.4% to 77.0%), and positive predictive value 41.2% (95% CI 34.4% to 48
Pol, M; Ruegg, P L
The objective of this study was to develop a method to quantify antimicrobial drug usage and treatment practices on conventional and organic dairy farms that had been recruited to represent a broad spectrum of potential exposure to antimicrobial drugs. Data on disease prevalence and treatment practices of organic (n = 20) and conventional (n = 20) farms were obtained during a farm visit using a survey instrument. A standardized estimate of antimicrobial drug usage was developed using a defined daily dose (DDD) of selected compounds. Density of antimicrobial drug usage was expressed as the number of DDD per adult cow per year. Differences in prevalence and management of selected diseases between conventional and organic farms were identified. The overall estimated prevalence of selected diseases was greater for conventional farms compared with organic farms. Organic farmers reported use of a variety of nonantimicrobial compounds for treatment and prevention of disease. Conventional farmers reported that penicillin was the compound most commonly used for dry cow therapy and cephapirin was most commonly used for treatment of clinical mastitis. On conventional farms, the estimated overall exposure to antimicrobial drugs was 5.43 DDD per cow per year composed of 3.58 and 1.85 DDD of intramammary and parenteral antimicrobial drugs, respectively. Of total intramammary antimicrobial drug usage, treatment of clinical mastitis contributed 2.02 DDD compared with 1.56 DDD attributed to the use of dry cow therapy. Of total parenteral treatments, the distribution of exposure was 0.52 (dry cow therapy), 1.43 (clinical mastitis treatment), 0.39 (treatment of foot disease), 0.14 (treatment of respiratory disease), and 0.32 (treatment of metritis) DDD. For treatments of foot infections (0.33 DDD), respiratory infections (0.07 DDD), and metritis (0.19 DDD), the mean density of ceftiofur usage was significantly greater compared with other compounds.
Oser, Carrie B.; Biebel, Elizabeth P.; Havens, Jennifer R.; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Knudsen, Hannah K.; Mooney, Jenny L.; Leukefeld, Carl G.
The purpose of this study is to use the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies' (CJ-DATS) Inmate Prerelease Assessment (IPASS), which recommends either intensive or nonintensive treatment after release, to predict rural offenders' 12-step attendance and treatment entry within six months of release from prison. IPASS scores indicated that…
Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas
Achieving 'universal access' to antiretroviral HIV treatment (ART) in lower income and transitional settings is a global target. Yet, access to ART is shaped by local social condition and is by no means universal. Qualitative studies are ideally suited to describing how access to ART is socially situated. We explored systemic barriers to accessing ART among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Russian city (Ekaterinburg) with a large burden of HIV treatment demand. We undertook 42 in-depth qualitative interviews with people living with HIV with current or recent experience of injecting drug use. Accounts were analysed thematically, and supplemented here with an illustrative case study. Three core themes were identified: 'labyrinthine bureaucracy' governing access to ART; a 'system Catch 22' created by an expectation that access to ART was conditional upon treated drug use in a setting of limited drug treatment opportunity; and 'system verticalization', where a lack of integration across HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and drug treatment compromised access to ART. Taken together, we find that systemic factors play a key role in shaping access to ART with the potential adverse effects of reproducing treatment initiation delay and disengagement from treatment. We argue that meso-level systemic factors affecting access to ART for PWID interact with wider macro-level structural forces, including those related to drug treatment policy and the social marginalization of PWID. We note the urgent need for systemic and structural changes to improve access to ART for PWID in this setting, including to simplify bureaucratic procedures, foster integrated HIV, TB and drug treatment services, and advocate for drug treatment policy reform.
Ilse C A Bakker
Full Text Available In this report, we describe a female patient with both prolactinoma and psychotic disorder who was successfully treated with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine 2 receptor agonist. During the follow-up of more than 10 years, her psychotic symptoms improved considerably, prolactin levels normalised and the size of the prolactinoma decreased. This observation may be of clinical relevance in similar patients who often are difficult to treat with the regular dopaminergic drugs.
Full Text Available Preconditioning is defined as a range of stimuli that allow cells to withstand subsequent anaerobic and other deleterious conditions. While cell protection under preconditioning is well established, this paper investigates the influence of neuroprotective preconditioning drugs, 4-aminopyridine and bicuculline (4-AP/bic, on synaptic communication across a broad network of in vitro rat cortical neurons. Using a permutation test, we evaluated cross-correlations of extracellular spiking activity across all pairs of recording electrodes on a 64-channel multielectrode array. The resulting functional connectivity maps were analyzed in terms of their graph-theoretic properties. A small-world effect was found, characterized by a functional network with high clustering coefficient and short average path length. Twenty-four hours after exposure to 4-AP/bic, small-world properties were comparable to control cultures that were not treated with the drug. Four hours following drug washout, however, the density of functional connections increased, while path length decreased and clustering coefficient increased. These alterations in functional connectivity were maintained at four days post-washout, suggesting that 4-AP/bic preconditioning leads to long-term effects on functional networks of cortical neurons. Because of their influence on communication efficiency in neuronal networks, alterations in small-world properties hold implications for information processing in brain systems. The observed relationship between density, path length, and clustering coefficient is captured by a phenomenological model where connections are added randomly within a spatially-embedded network. Taken together, results provide information regarding functional consequences of drug therapies that are overlooked in traditional viability studies and present the first investigation of functional networks under neuroprotective preconditioning.
Designing monotherapy trials in epilepsy is fraught with many hurdles, including diagnostic and classification difficulties, sparse information regarding the natural history of the disorder, and ethical objections to the use of placebo or a suboptimal comparator in a condition where the consequences of therapeutic failure can be serious. These issues are further complicated by regulatory differences between the US and the EU.In the US, the FDA considers that evidence of efficacy requires demonstration of superiority to a comparator. Because available antiepileptic drugs possess relatively high efficacy, in most settings it is unrealistic to expect that a new treatment will be superior to a standard treatment used at optimized dosages. To circumvent this problem, trial designs have been developed whereby patients in the control group are assigned to receive a suboptimal comparator and are required to exit from the trial if seizure deterioration occurs. This allows demonstration of a between-group difference in efficacy endpoints, such as time to exit or time to first seizure. Although these trials have come under increasing criticism because of ethical concerns, extensive information is now available on the outcome of patients with chronic epilepsy randomized to suboptimal treatment in similarly designed conversion to monotherapy trials. This has allowed the construction of a dataset of historical controls against which response to a fully active treatment can be compared. A number of studies using this novel approach are now in progress.In the EU, in addition to requiring data on conversion to monotherapy in refractory patients, the European Medicines Agency stipulates that a monotherapy indication in newly diagnosed epilepsy can only be granted if a candidate drug has shown at least a similar benefit/risk balance compared with an acknowledged standard at its optimal use during an assessment period of no less than 1 year. This has led to the implementation of
Peak, Taylor C; Yafi, Faysal A; Sangkum, Premsant; Hellstrom, Wayne J G
Erectile dysfunction adversely affects the lives of millions of men, and is the most commonly treated sexual disorder today. The erectile process has been extensively investigated, with major advances made in elucidating many of the complex molecular pathways involved. These advances have allowed researchers to design and study drug formulations that target various aspects of this complex process. The initial culmination of this research was the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitors. While effective in many patients, they are not satisfactory for all afflicted men. As a result, researchers are developing novel drugs that target different molecular pathways. The paper will review these pathways, and the potential agents that target them. More specifically, first dopaminergic and melanocortin receptor agonists that act centrally will be covered. Then, the paper will examine the "second-generation" phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitors, soluble guanylate cyclases, rho-kinase inhibitors, and maxi-k channel activators that act peripherally. Most of these novel drugs have yet to reach Phase III studies. However, it is likely that in years to come, patients will be selectively treated with these novel agents as a monotherapy or in combination with others acting in a synergistic manner.
Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M; Hoffmann, Pavel; Larstorp, Anne C; Fossum, Eigil; Brekke, Magne; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Gjønnæss, Eyvind; Hjørnholm, Ulla; Kjaer, Vibeke N; Rostrup, Morten; Os, Ingrid; Stenehjem, Aud; Høieggen, Aud
We aimed to investigate for the first time the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) versus clinically adjusted drug treatment in true treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) after excluding patients with confounding poor drug adherence. Patients with apparent TRH (n=65) were referred for RDN, and those with secondary and spurious hypertension (n=26) were excluded. TRH was defined as office systolic BP (SBP) >140 mm Hg, despite maximally tolerated doses of ≥3 antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. In addition, ambulatory daytime SBP >135 mm Hg after witnessed intake of antihypertensive drugs was required, after which 20 patients had normalized BP and were excluded. Patients with true TRH were randomized and underwent RDN (n=9) performed with Symplicity Catheter System versus clinically adjusted drug treatment (n=10). The study was stopped early for ethical reasons because RDN had uncertain BP-lowering effect. Office SBP and diastolic BP in the drug-adjusted group changed from 160±14/88±13 mm Hg (±SD) at baseline to 132±10/77±8 mm Hg at 6 months (P<0.0005 and P=0.02, SBP and diastolic BP, respectively) and in the RDN group from 156±13/91±15 to 148±7/89±8 mm Hg (P=0.42 and P=0.48, SBP and diastolic BP, respectively). SBP and diastolic BP were significantly lower in the drug-adjusted group at 6 months (P=0.002 and P=0.004, respectively), and absolute changes in SBP were larger in the drug-adjusted group (P=0.008). Ambulatory BPs changed in parallel to office BPs. Our data suggest that adjusted drug treatment has superior BP lowering effects compared with RDN in patients with true TRH. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01673516.
Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of functional family therapy (FFT) on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Data and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Results: The search yielded two…
Filges, Trine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials...
Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.
The 12-month cost-effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance-abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a 4-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community…
Nicosia, Nancy; Macdonald, John M; Arkes, Jeremy
We investigated the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in prison and diversion to drug treatment were explained by current arrest and criminal history characteristics among drug-involved offenders, and whether those disparities decreased after California's Proposition 36, which mandated first- and second-time nonviolent drug offenders drug treatment instead of prison. We analyzed administrative data on approximately 170,000 drug-involved arrests in California between 1995 and 2005. We examined odds ratios from logistic regressions for prison and diversion across racial/ethnic groups before and after Proposition 36. We found significant disparities in prison and diversion for Blacks and Hispanics relative to Whites. These disparities decreased after controlling for current arrest and criminal history characteristics for Blacks. Proposition 36 was also associated with a reduction in disparities, but more so for Hispanics than Blacks. Disparities in prison and diversion to drug treatment among drug-involved offenders affect hundreds of thousands of citizens and might reinforce imbalances in criminal justice and health outcomes. Our study indicated that standardized criminal justice policies that improved access to drug treatment might contribute to alleviating some share of these disparities.
Filges, Trine; Jorgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Meta-analytic methods were used to…
Nicita, Francesco; Spalice, Alberto; Papetti, Laura
Verapamil, a voltage-gated calcium channel blocker, has been occasionally reported to have some effect on reducing seizure frequency in drug-resistant epilepsy or status epilepticus. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of verapamil as add-on treatment in children with drug-resistant epilepsy....
Full Text Available Introduction: During the last few years there has been a considerable value growth in the demand for the so-called over-the-counter drugs (OTC, available without doctor’s prescription. Using OTC drugs is related to self-treatment, aimed at mitigating first symptoms of a cold, flu, or various types of pain. The omnipresent advertisements for OTC drugs encourage and contribute to the elevated demand. Unfortunately, the marketing techniques used in advertisements fail to provide reliable and objective information to the viewers about specific products. Aim of the research: To determine the respondents’ opinions on using OTC drugs and to assess how advertisements influence the consumers’ needs. Material and methods : The study was conducted by means of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire. For the purpose of the study, the authors prepared a survey questionnaire, which was used as a research tool. The study included 114 respondents, falling within an age bracket of 18–66 years. Results : The most frequently used OTC drugs were painkillers and medicines for cold and flu symptoms (68.33% of women and 59.09% of men. The drugs were usually bought in pharmacies and grocery/convenience stores. Conclusions: Taking OTC drugs is a widespread phenomenon, both in women and men. The obtained results clearly indicate that advertisements have a considerable impact upon target groups and contribute to increased consumption of OTC drugs.
Caroline Vieira Spessotto
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS with disease-modifying-drugs (DMDs is evolving and new drugs are reaching the market. Efficacy and safety aspects of the drugs are crucial, but the patients’ satisfaction with the treatment must be taken into consideration. Methods Individual interview with patients with MS regarding their satisfaction and points of view on the treatment with DMDs. Results One hundred and twenty eight patients attending specialized MS Units in five different cities were interviewed. Over 80% of patients were very satisfied with the drugs in use regarding convenience and perceived benefits. The only aspect scoring lesser values was tolerability. Conclusion Parameters for improving treatment in MS must include efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction with the given DMD.
Loyal promotion of the pharmaceutical industry has been challenged by stakeholders. Drug advertising is the easiest point to assess. Based on the agency theory, our objective was to describe the governance of advertising control when it was misleading and the terms of penalties within the framework of the contradictory process between the industry and the regulatory authorities. We conducted a thorough analysis of the contents of the minutes of the Board of Control of advertising from April 2007 to May 2010. The amounts of penalties were analyzed according to three criteria: the timing of the examination procedure (first session versus second session), the nature of the penalty (ban versus notice of change) and the company's defense strategy (written response versus presence of company representatives). Thirty-nine reports involving 62 projects to ban advertisements were analyzed. The first two causes of penalties were off label promotion and non-objective use of study results to support claims. The Committee issued 47 advertising bans (76%) and 15 formal notices of change (24%). When the defense strategy of the company involved the presence of representatives, there was a significant reduction of votes in favor of a ban (68% versus 81%, Pstrategy did not influence the nature of the penalty (Chi(2)=2.05; P=n.s). These results should be put into perspective considering the fact that the qualitative composition of the commission was not free of potential conflicts of interest and that, moreover, only 10% of the penalty projects were reviewed. In addition, advertising control does not address the issue of the loyalty of the sales forces. Finally, our results open perspectives for research and managerial applications for the governance of advertising controls. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Full Text Available Unstable housing and homelessness is prevalent among injection drug users (IDU. We sought to examine whether accessing addiction treatment was associated with attaining stable housing in a prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada.We used data collected via the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS between December 2005 and April 2010. Attaining stable housing was defined as two consecutive "stable housing" designations (i.e., living in an apartment or house during the follow-up period. We assessed exposure to addiction treatment in the interview prior to the attainment of stable housing among participants who were homeless or living in single room occupancy (SRO hotels at baseline. Bivariate and multivariate associations between the baseline and time-updated characteristics and attaining stable housing were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models.Of the 992 IDU eligible for this analysis, 495 (49.9% reported being homeless, 497 (50.1% resided in SRO hotels, and 380 (38.3% were enrolled in addiction treatment at the baseline interview. Only 211 (21.3% attained stable housing during the follow-up period and of this group, 69 (32.7% had addiction treatment exposure prior to achieving stable housing. Addiction treatment was inversely associated with attaining stable housing in a multivariate model (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.71; 95% CI: 0.52-0.96. Being in a partnered relationship was positively associated with the primary outcome (AHR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.88. Receipt of income assistance (AHR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96, daily crack use (AHR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.51-0.93 and daily heroin use (AHR=0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.92 were negatively associated with attaining stable housing.Exposure to addiction treatment in our study was negatively associated with attaining stable housing and may have represented a marker of instability among this sample of IDU. Efforts to stably house this vulnerable group may be occurring in contexts
Full Text Available AIMS - This article describes and analyses prisoners’ experiences of drug treatment in prison in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The article examines how prisoners experience drug treatment, control and sanctions as related to three main topics, namely motivation; the content of the measure and relations to staff; and control and sanctions. METHODS & DATA - The article is based on data from twelve prisons, three in each of the four countries; 91 interviews with prisoners; and around six months of observation. The two main kinds of drug treatment measures are drug treatment units and day programmes. RESULTS - Prisoners described several motives to participate in drug treatment measures: to leave drugs and crime; to renew relations with family and friends; to solve health problems; and to improve their prison conditions. Prisoners found that drug treatment measures offered possibilities to acquire new ways of being. Staff behaviour seemed to be more important to prisoners than the methods used, and some prisoners seemed more positive to staff involved with the drug treatment than to other staff. A surprising finding was the prisoners’ limited critique of controls and sanctions. We see this as embedded in the situation of being a prisoner, and also in relation to contexts outside prison. CONCLUSION - In discussing their experiences in the treatment units, prisoners are not so concerned about the rehabilitative features or the controls and sanctions. They evaluate their present situation in light of a future, which is their real concern. This is in line with a main task for staff, which is to prepare prisoners for release.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0179 TITLE: Targeting Extracellular Histones with Novel RNA Bio -drugs for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting Extracellular Histones with Novel RNA Bio -drugs for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...and field situations. To accomplish this goal, we developed novel bio -reagents (RNA aptamers) that bind to those histones known to cause MODS/ARDS and
Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0449 TITLE: New Drugs for Anemia Treatment Based on a New Understanding of the Mechanisms of Stress Erythropoiesis...COVERED 1Sep2012 - 31Aug2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER New Drugs for Anemia Treatment Based on a New Understanding of the...cell formation in "Nan" (neonatal anemia ) mice, raising the level of red cells to almost normal. It also causes an increase in the numbers of splenic
Drug dependence is a recognized medical condition and therefore, right to health applies in the same way to drug dependence as it does to any other health condition. The human rights in patient care framework - which refers to the application of basic human rights principles in the delivery of health care services - was used to explore the experiences of equality in the dignity and rights protected by Polish law within four different specialist drug treatment settings in Poland. The views of patients and staff were examined and compared. Focus group interviews were conducted in 12 drug treatment facilities: three inpatient therapeutic communities, three outpatient programs, three opioid substitution programs and three harm reduction programs (drop-in/needle exchange/support). Interviews were conducted with a total of 43 staff and 73 patients. All interviews were audio-recorded with participants' prior consent and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to the problem-centred interview methodology, using CAQDA. Patients described instances of abuse of their rights regarding dignity, privacy, confidentiality, personalized treatment, and respect of patient's time, right to information and to complain. Those accounts were complemented by the perspective of professionals working in drug treatment. Patients of Polish opioid substitution programs reported experiencing more humiliation and disenfranchisement than patients in other drug treatment settings. Drug testing and control, fuelled by prejudices of health professionals, are leading to discriminatory practices in substitution treatment and damaging the chances of therapeutic success. The concept of epistemic injustice illuminates the reasons behind discrimination against patients on opioid substitution programs, who are seen as continuously sick and their illness perceived as a mark of moral, social and epistemic failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High levels of patient adherence to antimalarial treatment are important in ensuring drug effectiveness. To achieve this goal, it is important to understand levels of patient adherence, and the range of study designs and methodological challenges involved in measuring adherence and interpreting results. Since antimalarial adherence was reviewed in 2004, there has been a major expansion in the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in the public sector, as well as initiatives to make them more widely accessible through community health workers and private retailers. These changes and the large number of recent adherence studies raise the need for an updated review on this topic. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting quantitative results on patient adherence to antimalarials obtained for treatment. RESULTS: The 55 studies identified reported extensive variation in patient adherence to antimalarials, with many studies reporting very high adherence (90-100% and others finding adherence of less than 50%. We identified five overarching approaches to assessing adherence based on the definition of adherence and the methods used to measure it. Overall, there was no clear pattern in adherence results by approach. However, adherence tended to be higher among studies where informed consent was collected at the time of obtaining the drug, where patient consultations were directly observed by research staff, and where a diagnostic test was obtained. CONCLUSION: Variations in reported adherence may reflect factors related to patient characteristics and the nature of their consultation with the provider, as well as methodological variations such as interaction between the research team and patients before and during the treatment. Future studies can benefit from an awareness of the impact of study procedures on adherence outcomes, and the identification of improved measurement methods less dependent on self-report.
Bruxvoort, Katia; Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick; Schellenberg, David
High levels of patient adherence to antimalarial treatment are important in ensuring drug effectiveness. To achieve this goal, it is important to understand levels of patient adherence, and the range of study designs and methodological challenges involved in measuring adherence and interpreting results. Since antimalarial adherence was reviewed in 2004, there has been a major expansion in the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the public sector, as well as initiatives to make them more widely accessible through community health workers and private retailers. These changes and the large number of recent adherence studies raise the need for an updated review on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting quantitative results on patient adherence to antimalarials obtained for treatment. The 55 studies identified reported extensive variation in patient adherence to antimalarials, with many studies reporting very high adherence (90-100%) and others finding adherence of less than 50%. We identified five overarching approaches to assessing adherence based on the definition of adherence and the methods used to measure it. Overall, there was no clear pattern in adherence results by approach. However, adherence tended to be higher among studies where informed consent was collected at the time of obtaining the drug, where patient consultations were directly observed by research staff, and where a diagnostic test was obtained. Variations in reported adherence may reflect factors related to patient characteristics and the nature of their consultation with the provider, as well as methodological variations such as interaction between the research team and patients before and during the treatment. Future studies can benefit from an awareness of the impact of study procedures on adherence outcomes, and the identification of improved measurement methods less dependent on self-report.
Wang, Wenyi; Wat, Elaine; Hui, Patrick C. L.; Chan, Ben; Ng, Frency S. F.; Kan, Chi-Wai; Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Wong, Eric C. W.; Lau, Clara B. S.; Leung, Ping-Chung
The treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) has long been viewed as a problematic issue by the medical profession. Although a wide variety of complementary therapies have been introduced, they fail to combine the skin moisturizing and drug supply for AD patients. This study reports the development of a thermo-sensitive Poloxamer 407/Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (P407/CMCs) composite hydrogel formulation with twin functions of moisture and drug supply for AD treatment. It was found that the presence of CMCs can appreciably improve the physical properties of P407 hydrogel, which makes it more suitable for tailored drug loading. The fabricated P407/CMCs composite hydrogel was also characterized in terms of surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), rheological properties by a rheometer, release profile in vitro by dialysis method and cytotoxicity test. More importantly, the findings from transdermal drug delivery behavior revealed that P407/CMCs showed desirable percutaneous performance. Additionally, analysis of cytotoxicity test suggested that P407/CMCs composite hydrogel is a high-security therapy for clinical trials and thus exhibits a promising way to treat AD with skin moisturizing and medication.
Ho, Benjamin N; Pfeffer, Claire M; Singh, Amareshwar T K
The emerging field of nanotechnology meets the demands for innovative approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable and are made of a core, a particle that acts as a carrier, and one or more functional groups on the core which target specific sites. Nanotech in drug delivery includes nanodisks, High Density Lipoprotein nanostructures, liposomes, and gold nanoparticles. The fundamental advantages of nanoparticles are: improved delivery of water-insoluble drugs, targeted delivery, co-delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy, and visualization of the drug delivery site by combining imaging system and a therapeutic drug. One of the potential applications of nanotechnology is in the treatment of cancer. Conventional methods for cancer treatments have included chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation. Early recognition and treatment of cancer with these approaches is still challenging. Innovative technologies are needed to overcome multidrug resistance, and increase drug localization and efficacy. Application of nanotechnology to cancer biology has brought in a new hope for developing treatment strategies on cancer. In this study, we present a review on the recent advances in nanotechnology-based approaches in cancer treatment. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Lienhardt, Christian; Raviglione, Mario; Spigelman, Mel; Hafner, Richard; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Hoelscher, Michael; Zumla, Alimuddin; Gheuens, Jan
For the first time in 40 years, a portfolio of promising new compounds for the treatment of tuberculosis is on the horizon. The introduction of new drugs in combination treatment for all forms of tuberculosis raises several issues related to patients' access to novel treatments, programmatic feasibility, cost effectiveness, and implications for monitoring and surveillance, particularly with regard to the development of drug resistance. Particular attention should be given to the identification of optimal drug combination(s) for the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis, particularly in high-risk and vulnerable groups, such as human immunodeficiency virus-coinfected persons and children, and to the rational use of new drugs. Addressing these issues adequately requires the establishment of clear guidelines to assist countries in the development of policies for the proper use of tuberculosis drugs in a way that guarantees access to best treatments for all those in need and avoids inappropriate use of new drugs. After a description of these various challenges, we present activities that will be carried out by the World Health Organization in collaboration with key stakeholders for the development of policy guidelines for optimal treatment of tuberculosis.
Results from an international clinical trial suggest that women with metastatic, HER2-positive breast cancer that is no longer responding to the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin) may soon have a new treatment option.
... Drooping of a corner of the mouth • Difficulty smiling, frowning, or making other facial expressions • Twitching or ... no definite added improvement. If there is any benefit to adding an antiviral to steroid treatment, it ...
Malav Suchin Trivedi
Full Text Available Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is the major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. The levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS, for example; under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY to the transsulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting S-adenosylmethionine (SAM levels and DNA methylation status. In this discussion, we compile this and other existing evidence in a coherent manner to present a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Next, we also discuss how gene priming phenomenon can contribute to maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Lastly, based on our hypothesis and some preliminary evidence, we discuss a mechanistic explanation for use of metabolic interventions / redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction and we support this claim via exemplifying the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse.
Weaver, Richard J; Betts, Catherine; Blomme, Eric A G; Gerets, Helga H J; Gjervig Jensen, Klaus; Hewitt, Philip G; Juhila, Satu; Labbe, Gilles; Liguori, Michael J; Mesens, Natalie; Ogese, Monday O; Persson, Mikael; Snoeys, Jan; Stevens, James L; Walker, Tracy; Park, B Kevin
The liver is an important target for drug-induced toxicities. Early detection of hepatotoxic drugs requires use of well-characterized test systems, yet current knowledge, gaps and limitations of tests employed remains an important issue for drug development. Areas Covered: The current state of the science, understanding and application of test systems in use for the detection of drug-induced cytotoxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, cholestasis and inflammation is summarized. The test systems highlighted herein cover mostly in vitro and some in vivo models and endpoint measurements used in the assessment of small molecule toxic liabilities. Opportunities for research efforts in areas necessitating the development of specific tests and improved mechanistic understanding are highlighted. Expert Opinion: Use of in vitro test systems for safety optimization will remain a core activity in drug discovery. Substantial inroads have been made with a number of assays established for human Drug-induced Liver Injury. There nevertheless remain significant gaps with a need for improved in vitro tools and novel tests to address specific mechanisms of human Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Progress in these areas will necessitate not only models fit for application, but also mechanistic understanding of how chemical insult on the liver occurs in order to identify translational and quantifiable readouts for decision-making.
Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Abrahamsen, Bo
supplementation. Several new medications for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis are in the pipeline. AREAS COVERED: The authors present the most recent studies on new and current antiresorptive as well as anabolic drugs. Specifically, the authors present the current knowledge on drugs directed against...... cathepsin K and sclerostin as well as the new pathways of interest from preclinical studies. EXPERT OPINION: New scientific results have identified novel signaling pathways as potential targets for future development of anti-osteoporotic drugs. The treatments close to marketing at the moment are odanacatib...
Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte
Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of functional family therapy (FFT) on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Data and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized...... and nonrandomized trials. Results: The search yielded two studies that met inclusion criteria. Only one study provided numerical results on the effect of FFT on drug use reduction. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to allow any conclusion to be drawn on the effect of FFT for young people in treatment...
Sasaki, Yuka; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Morimoto, Kozo; Okumura, Masao; Watanabe, Masato; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ogata, Hideo; Gotoh, Hajime; Kudoh, Shoji; Suzuki, Hiroaki
Drugs for tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacterial diseases are limited. In particular, no new drugs for non-tuberculosis mycobacterial disease have been developed in recent years. Antimycobacterial drugs have many adverse reactions, for which drug desensitization therapy has been used. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) therapy, including antituberculosis drugs and clarithromycin, has been implemented in many regions in Europe and the United States. We investigated the validity of RDD therapy in Japan. We report our experience with RDD therapy in 13 patients who developed severe drug allergy to antimycobacterial treatment. The desensitization protocol reported by Holland and Cernandas was adapted. The underlying diseases were 7 cases of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease and 6 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Isoniazid was readministered in 2 (100%) of 2 patients; rifampicin, in 8 (67.7%) of 12 patients; ethambutol, in 4 (67.7%) of 6 patients; and clarithromycin, in 2 (100%) of 2 patients. In Japan, the desensitization therapy recommended by the Treatment Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis have been implemented generally. We think RDD therapy is effective and safe as the other desensitization therapy. We will continue to investigate the efficiency of RDD therapy in patients who had discontinued antimycobacterial treatment because of the drug allergic reaction.
Lalor, Maeve K; Greig, Jane; Allamuratova, Sholpan; Althomsons, Sandy; Tigay, Zinaida; Khaemraev, Atadjan; Braker, Kai; Telnov, Oleksander; du Cros, Philipp
The Médecins Sans Frontières project of Uzbekistan has provided multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in the Karakalpakstan region since 2003. Rates of default from treatment have been high, despite psychosocial support, increasing particularly since programme scale-up in 2007. We aimed to determine factors associated with default in multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients who started treatment between 2003 and 2008 and thus had finished approximately 2 years of treatment by the end of 2010. A retrospective cohort analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients enrolled in treatment between 2003 and 2008 compared baseline demographic characteristics and possible risk factors for default. Default was defined as missing ≥60 consecutive days of treatment (all drugs). Data were routinely collected during treatment and entered in a database. Potential risk factors for default were assessed in univariate analysis using chi-square test and in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. 20% (142/710) of patients defaulted after a median of 6 months treatment (IQR 2.6-9.9). Factors associated with default included severity of resistance patterns (pre-extensively drug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.86), previous default (2.38, 1.09-5.24) and age >45 years (1.77, 1.10-2.87). The default rate was 14% (42/294) for patients enrolled 2003-2006 and 24% (100/416) for 2007-2008 enrolments (p = 0.001). Default from treatment was high and increased with programme scale-up. It is essential to ensure scale-up of treatment is accompanied with scale-up of staff and patient support. A successful first course of tuberculosis treatment is important; patients who had previously defaulted were at increased risk of default and death. The protective effect of severe resistance profiles suggests that understanding disease severity or fear may motivate against default. Targeted
Юлия Валентиновна Левачкова
Full Text Available Today the problem of treatment of vaginal candidosis and creation of effective drugs for the treatment of this disease is actual for modern gynecology and pharmacy.Aim: to explore the structure of the assortment of drugs for the treatment of vaginal candidosis, presented in the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market.Methods: Statistical and marketing methods of investigation of electronic and paper sources of information. Implemented analysis assortment based on the materials of the State Register drugs in Ukraine and Compendium.Results: in the treatment of vaginal candidosis greatest efficiency belongs fluconazole. According to the ATC classification drugs with fluconazole includes to 2 anatomical groups, among which the main proportion of drugs for systemic use. In the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine registered 103 drugs with a fluconazole, which are mainly represented by import manufacturers. The largest share of preparations (84.8% constitute solid forms (capsules and tablets.Conclusions: vaginal medications with fluconazole are not present. Considering that the suppositories have several advantages over other pharmaceutical forms, creation of the new drugs with fluconazole is a perspective direction for modern medicine and pharmacy
Mackinnon, M. J.M; Walliker, D.; Babiker, A.; Ahmed, S.; Abdel-Muhsin, A.; Eltayeb, A.
We monitored post-treatment Plasmodium falciparum among patients treated with chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS) in a village in eastern Sudan. Parasites were examined on day zero (pre-treatment), day 7, day 14 and day 21 (post-treatment) during the transmission season. A further sample was taken two months later (Day 80) at the start of the dry season. Asexual forms and gametocytes were detected by microscopy and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect expression of a gametocyte-specific protein pfg377. Gametocyte carriage, as revealed by microscopy, increased significantly following CQ and PS treatment reaching a maximum between days 7 and 14. When measured by RT-PCR, however, there was no significant difference in gametocyte rate between day 0 and day 7 or 14. RT-PCR gametocyte rates dropped dramatically by day 80 post-treatment but were still 33% and 8% in the CQ and PS treated group at this time. Alleles associated with drug resistance of P. falciparum to chloroquine (the chloroquine resistance transporter, pfcrt, and multi-drug resistance, pfmdr-1) and pyrimethamine (dihydrofolate reductase, dhfr) were at high frequency at the beginning of treatment and increased further through time under both drug treatments. Infections with drug-resistant parasites tended to have higher gametocyte prevalence than drug-sensitive infections.
Full Text Available Ultrasound is an emerging modality for drug delivery in chemotherapy. This paper reviews this novel technology by first introducing the designs and characteristics of three classes of drug/gene vehicles, microbubble (including nanoemulsion, liposomes, and micelles. In comparison to conventional free drug, the targeted drug-release and delivery through vessel wall and interstitial space to cancerous cells can be activated and enhanced under certain sonication conditions. In the acoustic field, there are several reactions of these drug vehicles, including hyperthermia, bubble cavitation, sonoporation, and sonodynamics, whose physical properties are illustrated for better understanding of this approach. In vitro and in vivo results are summarized, and future directions are discussed. Altogether, ultrasound-mediated drug/gene delivery under imaging guidance provides a promising option in cancer treatment with enhanced agent release and site specificity and reduced toxicity.
Panzitta, Michele; Bruno, Giorgio; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Mendicino, Francesca R; Ricci, Maurizio
Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary health political instrument that evaluates the consequences, mainly clinical and economical, of a health care technology; the HTA aim is to produce and spread information on scientific and technological innovation for health political decision making process. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as nanocarriers, are technologically complex but they have pivotal relevance in therapeutic innovation. The HTA process, as commonly applied to conventional drug evaluation, should upgrade to a full pharmaceutical assessment, considering the DDS complexity. This is useful to study more in depth the clinical outcome and to broaden its critical assessment toward pharmaceutical issues affecting the patient and not measured by the current clinical evidence approach. We draw out the expertise necessary to perform the pharmaceutical assessment and we propose a format to evaluate the DDS technological topics such as formulation and mechanism of action, physicochemical characteristics, manufacturing process. We integrated the above-mentioned three points in the Evidence Based Medicine approach, which is data source for any HTA process. In this regard, the introduction of a Pharmaceutics Expert figure in the HTA could be fundamental to grant a more detailed evaluation of medicine product characteristics and performances and to help optimizing DDS features to overcome R&D drawbacks. Some aspects of product development, such as manufacturing processes, should be part of the HTA as innovative manufacturing processes allow new products to reach more effectively patient bedside. HTA so upgraded may encourage resource allocating payers to invest in innovative technologies and providers to focus on innovative material properties and manufacturing processes, thus contributing to bring more medicines in therapy in a sustainable manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wasihun, Araya Gebreyesus; Wlekidan, Letemichael Negash; Gebremariam, Senay Aregawi; Welderufael, Abadi Luel; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Haile, Tadesse Dejenie; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash
To determine diagnostic value of the Widal test, treatment pattern of febrile patients and antimicrobial drug susceptibility pattern of blood isolates. Using cross sectional methods, blood samples were collected for culture and Widal test from 502 febrile outpatients attending Mekelle hospital and Mekelle health center with similar symptoms to typhoid. Sensitivity, specificity for anti-TH and anti-TO titers using culture confirmed typhoid fever cases, and Kappa agreement between Titer and slide Widal tests were calculated. Treatment pattern of patients and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the blood isolates was assessed. From the 502 febrile patients, 8(1.6%) of them had culture-proven typhoid fever. However, patients who have results indicative of recent infection by O and H antigens of the Widal slide agglutination test were 343 (68.5%), with specificity and sensitivity of 33% and 100%, respectively. Over prescription of antibiotics was seen by Widal slide test for Ciprofloxacin 268 (76.1%), Amoxicillin- Clavulanic acid 9(2.6%), Amoxicillin 8(2.4%) and Chloranphenicol 8(2.4%). Tube titer positivity was seen in 23(5.3%) patients with 75% sensitivity and 95.8% specificity. Widal slide and Tube titer tests showed poor agreement for both antigens (kappa=0.02 for O) and (Kappa=0.09 for H). A single anti-TH titer of ≥ 1:160 and anti-TO titer ≥ 1:80 higher in our study showed an indication for typhoid fever infection. Drug resistance pattern of blood isolates ranges from 0-89.7% for gram positive and 0-100% for Gram negative, with an overall multi-drug resistance rate of 61.7%. Patients were wrongly diagnosed and treated for typhoid fever by Widal test. The tube titration method was relatively good but still had poor sensitivity. Blood isolates showed multi drug resistance, which may be due to the indiscriminate prescription as seen in this study. Based on our results, the slide Widal test is not helpful in the diagnosis of typhoid, hence other tests with
Magee, M J; Bloss, E; Shin, S S; Contreras, C; Huaman, H Arbanil; Ticona, J Calderon; Bayona, J; Bonilla, C; Yagui, M; Jave, O; Cegielski, J P
Diabetes is a risk factor for active tuberculosis (TB). Data are limited regarding the association between diabetes and TB drug resistance and treatment outcomes. We examined characteristics of TB patients with and without diabetes in a Peruvian cohort at high risk for drug-resistant TB. Among TB patients with diabetes (TB-DM), we studied the association between diabetes clinical/management characteristics and TB drug resistance and treatment outcomes. During 2005-2008, adults with suspected TB with respiratory symptoms in Lima, Peru, who received rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST), were prospectively enrolled and followed during treatment. Bivariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to examine the relationships of diabetes characteristics with drug-resistant TB and TB outcomes. Of 1671 adult TB patients enrolled, 186 (11.1%) had diabetes. TB-DM patients were significantly more likely than TB patients without diabetes to be older, have had no previous TB treatment, and to have a body mass index (BMI) >18.5 kg/m(2) (pdiabetes, and 12% and 28%, respectively, among TB-DM patients. Among 149 TB-DM patients with DST results, 104 (69.8%) had drug-susceptible TB and 45 (30.2%) had drug-resistant TB, of whom 29 had multidrug-resistant TB. There was no association between diabetes characteristics and drug-resistant TB. Of 136 TB-DM patients with outcome information, 107 (78.7%) had a favorable TB outcome; active diabetes management was associated with a favorable outcome. Diabetes was common in a cohort of TB patients at high risk for drug-resistant TB. Despite prevalent multidrug-resistant TB among TB-DM patients, the majority had a favorable TB treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carfora, Anna; Cassandro, Paola; Feola, Alessandro; La Sala, Francesco; Petrella, Raffaella; Borriello, Renata
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects. Studies in humans, determining how these vaccines interact in combination with their target drug, are underway. However, although vaccines can become a reasonable treatment option for drugs of abuse, there are several disadvantages that must be considered. These include i) great individual variability in the formation of antibodies, ii) the lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice, and iii) the lack of an effect on the drug desire that may predispose an addict to relapse. In addition, a comprehensive overview of several crucial ethical issues has not yet been widely discussed in order to have not only a biological approach to immunotherapy of addiction. Overall, immunotherapy offers a range of possible treatment options: the pharmacological treatment of addiction, the treatment of overdoses, the prevention of toxicity to the brain or the heart, and the protection of the fetus during pregnancy. So far, the results obtained from a small-scale experiment using vaccines against cocaine and nicotine suggest that a number of important technical challenges still need to be overcome before such vaccines can be approved for clinical use.
Wasserman, Sean; Meintjes, Graeme; Maartens, Gary
Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with potent activity against M tuberculosis, and improves culture conversion and cure rates when added to treatment regimens for drug resistant tuberculosis. However, linezolid has a narrow therapeutic window, and the optimal dosing strategy that minimizes the substantial toxicity associated with linezolid's prolonged use in tuberculosis treatment has not been determined, limiting the potential impact of this anti-mycobacterial agent. This paper aims to review and summarize the current knowledge on linezolid for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The focus is on the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic determinants of linezolid's efficacy and toxicity in tuberculosis, and how this relates to defining an optimal dose. Mechanisms of linezolid toxicity and resistance, and the potential role of therapeutic drug monitoring are also covered. Expert commentary: Prospective pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies are required to define optimal therapeutic targets and to inform improved linezolid dosing strategies for drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H
Urine source separation has the potential to reduce pharmaceutical loading to the environment, while enhancing nutrient recovery. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) was to evaluate the environmental impacts and economic costs to manage nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (i.e., diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) and nutrients in human urine. Urine source separation was compared with centralized wastewater treatment (WWT) (biological or upgraded with ozonation). The current treatment method (i.e., centralized biological WWT) was compared with hypothetical treatment scenarios (i.e., centralized biological WWT upgraded with ozonation, and urine source separation). Alternative urine source separation scenarios included varying collection and handling methods (i.e., collection by vacuum truck, vacuum sewer, or decentralized treatment), pharmaceuticals removal by ion-exchange, and struvite precipitation. Urine source separation scenarios had 90% lower environmental impact (based on the TRACI impact assessment method) compared with the centralized wastewater scenarios due to reduced potable water production for flush water, reduced electricity use at the wastewater treatment plant, and nutrient offsets from struvite precipitation. Despite the greatest reduction of pharmaceutical toxicity, centralized treatment upgraded with ozone had the greatest ecotoxicity impacts due to ozonation operation and infrastructure. Among urine source separation scenarios, decentralized treatment of urine and centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum truck had negligible cost differences compared with centralized wastewater treatment. Centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum sewer and centralized treatment with ozone cost 30% more compared with conventional wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maisto, Stephen A.; Nirenberg, Ted D.
The matching hypothesis, presented in this study, predicts that designing treatment according to patient characteristics leads to better outcomes. A study was conducted to collect data on current practices of patient-treatment matching in alcohol treatment. A questionnaire was completed by 70 directors of Veterans Administration inpatient alcohol…
Khan, M.A.; Smego Jr, R.A.; Razi, S.T.; Beg, M.A.
The increasing prevalence of multi-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide is a serious public health threat to the global control of malaria, especially in poor countries like Pakistan. In many countries chloroquine-resistance is a huge problem, accounting for more than 90% of malaria cases. In Pakistan, resistance to chloroquine is on the rise and reported in up to 16- 62% of Plasmodium falciparum. Four to 25% of Plasmodium falciparum also reported to be resistant to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and several cases of delayed parasite clearance have been observed in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria treated with quinine. In this article we have introduced the concept of artemisinin- based combination therapy (ACT) and emphasize the use of empiric combination therapy for all patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria to prevent development of drug resistance and to obtain additive and synergistic killing of parasite. (author)
Ciurba, Adriana; Todoran, Nicoleta; Vari, C E; Lazăr, Luminita; Al Hussein, Stela; Hancu, G
The current trend of replacing conventional pharmaceutical forms is justified because most substances administered in this form give fluctuations of therapeutic concentrations and often outside the therapeutic range. In addition, these formulations offer a reduction in the dose or the number of administrations, thus increasing patient compliance. In the experiment, we developed an appropriate technology for the preparation of gelatin microspheres containing tramadol hydrochloride by emulsification/cross-linking method. The formulated microspheres were characterized by product yield, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride. Data obtained from in vitro release studies were fitted to various mathematical models to elucidate the transport mechanisms. The kinetic models used were zero-order, first-order, Higuchi Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hopfenberg. Spherical microspheres were obtained, with free-flowing properties. The entrapment efficiency of tramadol hydrochloride in microparticles was 79.91% and product yield -94.92%. As the microsphere size was increased, the entrapment efficiency increased. This was 67.56, 70.03, 79.91% for formulations MT80-250, MT8-500 and, MT250-500. High entrapment efficiency was observed for MT250-500 formulation. The gelatin microspheres had particle sizes ranging from 80 to 500 microm. The drug was released for a period of 12 hours with a maximum release of 96.02%. Of the three proposed formulations, MT250-500 presented desirable properties and optimal characteristics for the therapy of pain. Release of tramadol hydrochloridi was best fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation because the Akaike Information Criterion had the lowest values for this kinetic model. These results suggest the opportunity to influence the therapeutic characteristics of gelatin microspheres to obtain a suitable drug delivery system for the oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride.
Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a heterogeneous disease characterized by the accumulation of immature myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, compromising of normal blood cell production and ultimately resulting in bone marrow failure. With a 20% overall survival rate at 5 years and 50% in the 18- to 65-year-old age group, new medicines are needed. It is proposed that development of repurposed drugs may be a part of the new therapy needed. AML is subdivided into recurrent molecular entities based on molecular genetics increasingly accessible for precision medicine. Novel therapy developments form a basis for novel multimodality therapy and include liposomal daunorubicin/cytarabine, broad or FLT3-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Bcl-2 family inhibitors, selective inhibitors of nuclear export, metabolic inhibitors, and demethylating agents. The use of non-transplant immunotherapy is in early development in AML with the exceptional re-approval of a toxin-conjugated anti-CD33. However, the full potential of small molecule inhibitors and modalities like immunological checkpoint inhibitors, immunostimulatory small molecules, and CAR-T cell therapy is unknown. Some novel therapeutics will certainly benefit AML patient subgroups; however, due to high cost, more affordable alternatives are needed globally. Also the heterogeneity of AML will likely demand a broader repertoire of therapeutic molecules. Drug repurposing or repositioning represent a source for potential therapeutics with well-known toxicity profiles and reasonable prices. This implies that biomarkers of response need to accompany the development of antileukemic therapies for sharply defined patient subgroups. We will illustrate repurposing in AML with selected examples and discuss some experimental and regulatory limitations that may obstruct this development.
The rate of alcohol and drug dependency is high among homeless persons in Norway as well as in other Western societies. National homeless surveys also show a certain correlation between discharge from institutions and homelessness. However, the rate of homelessness versus the rate with fixed abode at the end of specialised alcohol and drug treatment has not been examined using quantitative methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in alcohol and drug treatment units in the national health services and private clinics. The survey investigates the housing outcome at the end of treatment compared to the situation at the start of treatment using an individual questionnaire for patients ending treatment in a specific time window. Housing outcome is measured by the odds ratio of having a fixed abode at the end of treatment in relation to main intoxicating substance, type of treatment (in- and outpatient), completing versus cutting short the treatment, housing situation at the start of treatment, socioeconomic capital, mental health problems, individual plan, medical assisted treatment, and a set of background variables. The housing versus homeless situation hardly changes during the treatment period. In both a bivariate analysis and a simple multivariate model, principal intoxicating substance is the strongest predictor of having a fixed abode both before and after treatment. However, a more sophisticated analysis indicates that socioeconomic resources and social capital play along with the preferred intoxicating substance as predictors of having permanent housing. After more than a decade of a housing-led national homeless policy, and wide embracement of Housing First approaches in the European Union, homeless persons entering specialised alcohol and drug treatment are likely to return to the streets and hostels at the end of treatment. Access to housing after treatment is very limited for those lacking resources to solve their housing problem without assistance
Marrer, Estelle; Dieterle, Frank
Drug safety has always been a key aspect of drug development. Recently, the Vioxx case and several cases of serious adverse events being linked to high-profile products have increased the importance of drug safety, especially in the eyes of drug development companies and global regulatory agencies. Safety biomarkers are increasingly being seen as helping to provide the clarity, predictability, and certainty needed to gain confidence in decision making: early-stage projects can be stopped quicker, late-stage projects become less risky. Public and private organizations are investing heavily in terms of time, money and manpower on safety biomarker development. An illustrative and 'door opening' safety biomarker success story is the recent recognition of kidney safety biomarkers for pre-clinical and limited translational contexts by FDA and EMEA. This milestone achieved for kidney biomarkers and the 'know how' acquired is being transferred to other organ toxicities, namely liver, heart, vascular system. New technologies and molecular-based approaches, i.e., molecular pathology as a complement to the classical toolbox, allow promising discoveries in the safety biomarker field. This review will focus on the utility and use of safety biomarkers all along drug development, highlighting the present gaps and opportunities identified in organ toxicity monitoring. A last part will be dedicated to safety biomarker development in general, from identification to diagnostic tests, using the kidney safety biomarkers success as an illustrative example.
Lipton, Douglas S.
Discusses in-prison prevalence and transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Focuses on epidemiology in prison settings, the role of ethnicity and gender in transmission, screening for HIV, segregating the HIV-positive inmate, condom distribution, medical treatment for HIV-positive inmates, HIV education and prevention, and tuberculosis…
Full Text Available The synthesis method of layered double hydroxides (LDHs determines nanoparticles’ performance in biomedical applications. In this study, hydrothermal treatment as an important synthesis technique has been examined for its influence on the physicochemical properties and the drug release rate from drug-containing LDHs. We synthesised MgAl–LDHs intercalated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e., naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen using a co-precipitation method with or without hydrothermal treatment (150 °C, 4 h. After being hydrothermally treated, LDH–drug crystallites increased in particle size and crystallinity, but did not change in the interlayer anion orientation, gallery height and chemical composition. The drug release patterns of all studied LDH–drug hybrids were biphasic and sustained. LDHs loaded with diclofenac had a quicker drug release rate compared with those with naproxen and ibuprofen, and the drug release from the hydrothermally-treated LDH–drug was slower than the freshly precipitated LDH–drug. These results suggest that the drug release of LDH–drugs is influenced by the crystallite size of LDHs, which can be controlled by hydrothermal treatment, as well as by the drug molecular physicochemical properties.
Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Altice, Frederick L; Krishnan, Archana; Copenhaver, Michael
Despite promising trends of the efficacy of mobile health (mHealth) based strategies to a broad range of health conditions, very few if any studies have been done in terms of the examining the use of mHealth in HIV prevention efforts among people who use drugs in treatment. Thus, the goal of this study was to gain insight into the real-world acceptance of mHealth approaches among high-risk people who use drugs in treatment. A convenience sample of 400 HIV-negative drug users, who reported drug- and/or sex-related risk behaviors, were recruited from a methadone clinic in New Haven, Connecticut. Participants completed standardized assessments of drug- and sex-related risk behaviors, neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and measures of communication technology access and utilization, and mHealth acceptance. We found a high prevalence of current ownership and use of mobile technologies, such as cell phone (91.5%) including smartphone (63.5%). Participants used mobile technologies to communicate mostly through phone calls (M = 4.25, SD = 1.24), followed by text messages (M = 4.21, SD = 1.29). Participants expressed interest in using mHealth for medication reminders (72.3%), receive information about HIV (65.8%), and to assess drug-related (72.3%) and sex-related behaviors (64.8%). Furthermore, participants who were neurocognitively impaired were more likely to use cell phone without internet and show considerable interest in using mHealth as compared to those without NCI. The findings from this study provide empirical evidence that mHealth-based programs, specifically cell phone text messaging-based health programs, may be acceptable to this high-risk population.
Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M Douglas; Glik, Deborah C; Zavalza, Christina
This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.
Dai, Quan; Wang, Lu-Lu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Si-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Qiu
To study the effect of local interventional treatment of unruptured ectopic pregnancies with multiple-drug injection guided by color Doppler sonography. In this retrospective analysis, 49 patients with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy were treated with two different local injection methods administered under sonographic guidance. The patients were divided into single-drug (n = 23) and multiple-drug (n = 26) injection groups, and they received a locally administered injection of methotrexate alone or a combination including methotrexate, hemocoagulase, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. Overall, local injection treatment was successful in 44 patients. The 5 patients with failed treatment underwent laparotomy about 1 week after single-drug injection. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG ) levels, ectopic pregnancy mass sizes, blood flow at various points after treatment, the incidence of pelvic bleeding, and the time for serum β-hCG levels to return to normal and the mass to resolve were analyzed in the remaining 44 patients. Single-drug treatment was successful in 18 patients; 10 of 23 had low to moderate pelvic bleeding after treatment, and 5 were referred for surgery. All 26 patients were successfully treated by multiple-drug injection. Only 2 patients had a small amount of pelvic bleeding. Differences between groups were statistically significant (P injection under color Doppler guidance is a new, safe, and effective method for treating unruptured ectopic pregnancies. It accelerates the serum β-hCG decline and facilitates mass resolution. This regimen is associated with a very low rate of pelvic bleeding, improves the success rate of conservative treatment, and, therefore, has value as an important clinical application.
Full Text Available Sulfur Mustard (SM, a cytotoxic vesicant chemical warfare agent, has powerful irritant and blistering effects on the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Since during the Iraq-Iran war, many Iranian soldiers and civilians were exposed to SM, there are several victims still suffering from long-term cutaneous, ocular and pulmonary complications. Currently, there is no definite treatment for long-term complications of SM, and only supportive medical care is being taken to minimize the symptoms. In this study, we compared the cost-effectiveness of common drugs that are used against long-term SM-induced complications in Iranian patients. In this review article, electronic databases were checked using the following key words: sulfur mustard, lung, skin, eye, cost-effectiveness, pharmacoeconomics and treatment. Abstracts of non-English papers and proceedings of congresses on SM were also assessed. Among the studied drugs, high-dose oral N-acetyl cysteine and long-acting inhaled corticosteroids against respiratory complications, topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines against cutaneous complications and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids ophthalmic drops against ocular complications were found to be cost-effective. Usage of different drugs in the treatment of SM injuries in Iran, have imposed a significant economic burden to patients and their families because many drugs that are effective against chemical injuries are not covered by insurance. In addition, the development of more effective drugs in this field is considered as an urgent demand that should be noticed by the pharmaceutical industry.
They were also further assessed with the Treatnet Addiction Severity Index (ASI), MMPI-2™ and had urine toxicology carried out to determine the type of substances used as well as other laboratory investigations. The diagnosis was made from information gathered from interview and clinical investigations throughout the ...
Bax, Hannelore I; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; de Vogel, Corné P; van der Meijden, Aart; Verbon, Annelies; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M
Novel treatment strategies for tuberculosis are urgently needed. Many different preclinical models assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity are available, but it is yet unclear which combination of models is most predictive of clinical treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the role of our in vitro time kill-kinetics assay as an asset to a predictive preclinical modeling framework assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity. The concentration- and time-dependent mycobacterial killing capacities of six anti-tuberculosis drugs were determined during exposure as single drugs or in dual, triple and quadruple combinations towards a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strain and drug resistance was assessed. Streptomycin, rifampicin and isoniazid were most active against fast-growing M. tuberculosis. Isoniazid with rifampicin or high dose ethambutol were the only synergistic drug combinations. The addition of rifampicin or streptomycin to isoniazid prevented isoniazid resistance. In vitro ranking showed agreement with early bactericidal activity in tuberculosis patients for some but not all anti-tuberculosis drugs. The time-kill kinetics assay provides important information on the mycobacterial killing dynamics of anti-tuberculosis drugs during the early phase of drug exposure. As such, this assay is a valuable component of the preclinical modeling framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
For some, community inclusion facilitates access to alcohol and drugs and, therefore, the potential for developing substance abuse disorders. However, little is known about substance abuse treatment use among people with intellectual disabilities. Using standardized performance measures, substance abuse treatment utilization was examined for…
Munshi, Kaizad R.; Oken, Tanya; Guild, Danielle J.; Trivedi, Harsh K.; Wang, Betty C.; Ducharme, Peter; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph
Aggressive symptomatology presents across multiple psychiatric, developmental, neurological and behavioral disorders, complicating the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying pathology. Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDs) have become an appealing alternative in the treatment of aggression, mood lability and impulsivity in adult and pediatric populations, although few controlled trials have explored their efficacy in treating pediatric populations. This review of the literature synthesizes the avail...
Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa; Kayentao, Kassoum; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul
Background Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. To reduce these effects, the World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas sleep under insecticide-treated bednets, are treated for malaria illness and anaemia, and receive chemoprevention with an effective antimalarial drug during the second and third trimesters. Objectives To assess the effects of malaria chemoprevention given to pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas on substantive maternal and infant health outcomes. We also summarised the effects of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone, and preventive regimens for Plasmodium vivax. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and reference lists up to 1 June 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any antimalarial drug regimen for preventing malaria in pregnant women living in malaria-endemic areas compared to placebo or no intervention. In the mother, we sought outcomes that included mortality, severe anaemia, and severe malaria; anaemia, haemoglobin values, and malaria episodes; indicators of malaria infection, and adverse events. In the baby, we sought foetal loss, perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality; preterm birth and birthweight measures; and indicators of malaria infection. We included regimens that were known to be effective against the malaria parasite at the time but may no longer be used because of parasite drug resistance. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RR), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD); both are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We
Cortacans Torre, J. A.; Castillo Gonzalez, I. del; Hernandez Lehmann, A.; Hernandez Munoz, A.; Rodriguez Barrera, X.
The occurrence of various pharmaceuticals and psychotic drugs in wastewater and their removal rates in a conventional wastewater treatment plant has been investigated. The psychoactive drugs are poorly removed in the biological step. However, most pharmaceuticals except of carbamazepine, are significantly biodegraded depending the removal degree on the type of compound and on the sludge retention time of the biological treatment. Also, the removal efficiency of conventional tertiary treatments and ultrafiltration and nano filtration membranes using two pilot plants was examined. the effects of retaining pharmaceuticals with ultrafiltration and nano filtration membranes do not greatly differ despite the difference in their pore size. (Author) 25 refs.
Rogoff, Edward G; Guirguis, Hany S; Lipton, Richard A; Seremetis, Stephanie V; DiMichele, Donna M; Agnew, George M; Karpatkin, Margaret; Barish, Robert J; Jones, Robert L; Bianco, Celso; Knothe, Barbara D; Lee, Myung-Soo
Hemophilia is an expensive disease because its treatment is heavily dependent on costly clotting factor drugs. Over the last nine years,a consortium of three Comprehensive Hemophilia Treatment Centers and other hospitals, which purchased clotting factors for their patients, has seen treatment costs escalate on average 17% annually. Currently, new, even more expensive drugs are entering the market. This study analyzes 3,244 purchases that were made over a nine-year period totaling nearly 500 million units of clotting factor, representing every product on the market. Purchases were made both apart from and under the Federal Public Health Service (PHS)discount pricing rules. The main cause of the increases was the move to newer, more expensive products. The average price of existing products increased less than 2%per year, but new products were priced, on average, 47% higher than existing products. Overall consumption increased by an average of 5% per year, likely reflecting prophylactic treatment modalities that require greater amounts of clotting factor. Government pricing programs, such as the PHS program, were ineffective or counterproductive at reducing costs. There is a notable absence of competition in this market, with a few dominant companies having a functional monopoly in the largest segments of the market. Prices of older products are not lowered, even when new products are brought to market. A few products that serve small patient groups have had their prices increased substantially. This escalation is likely to continue as new, more expensive clotting factor drugs are developed. Since these new products are not proven to be any safer or more effective than the current products, this situation creates a risk of intervention by government and insurers to address both treatment costs and exhaustion of patients' insurance caps. Drug companies are not serving the patients by pricing new, but often very similar, products so aggressively. The trends seen in
Mendelevich Vladimir D
Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange, euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts.
Lester Barry M
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper details a model for consulting with mothers and infants, and drug treatment staff used in a residential drug treatment program and relevant to other treatment settings. The role of parent-infant consultation based on the Neonatal Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS was evaluated. Methods A sequential cohort model was used to assign participants to 1. NNNS consultation versus 2. standard care. The effects of NNNS consultation were evaluated using the Parenting Stress Index and NNNS summary scores. Results Participants in the NNNS consultation condition had significantly less stress overall, and less stress related to infant behavior than participants in standard care. There were no differences in infant behavior on the NNNS Summary scores. Conclusion The implications for NNNS consultation in drug treatment programs is outlined. The importance of prevention/intervention to establish satisfactory mother-infant interaction in recovery programs which include a central parenting component is indicated.
靳自斌; 刘娅君; 常余善; 孙宝荣
Objective: To compare effects of drug and psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive disorder. Methods: 63 depressive patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups: drug or psychotherapy. MMPI, SDSS and HAMD were used for assessing treatment effects on personality and social functions. Results: The effects of psychotherapy and drug were compatible for controlling symptoms of depression. Psychotherapy was superior to drug in preventing relapses, as well as improving cognitive and social functions. Conclusion: Psychotherapy should be applied to depressive patients. Dosage and duration of administering sedative antidepressants should be reduced in the treatment of depression.
van der Aa, M.; Bijlsma, L.; Emke, E.; Dijkman, E.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; van de Ven, B.M.; Hernández, F.; Versteegh, A.; de Voogt, P.
A screening campaign of drugs of abuse (DOA) and their relevant metabolites in the aqueous environment was performed in the Netherlands. The presence of DOA, together with the potential risks for the environment and the possible human exposure to these compounds through consumption of drinking water
The safety and efficacy of drug products can be guaranteed when their quality ... required to test their products during and after manufacturing and at various intervals during the ... of this fact that the World Health Organization (WHO) issued guidelines for .... (CLASS VP Version 5.02) all from Shimadzu Instruments (Japan).
Karrari, P.; Mehrpour, O.
Objective: To evaluate the pattern of use of opioid and other illegal drugs in patients seeking addiction treatment in Birjand, eastern Iran. Methods: The prospective study was conducted from March 21, 2009 to March 21, 2010, and comprised all patients referred to the seven addiction treatment centres in Birjand. Data was obtained through pre-designed questionnaires and it was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: Of the 700 substance users referred to the 7 centres and who volunteered to participate, 632 (90.3%) were males and 68 (9.7%) were females. The male/female ratio was approx 9.3/1. Mean age was 34+-10.2 (range: 10-75) years. The type of drugs used included traditional drugs (n= 342; 48.9%) and newer modern drugs (n=314; 44.9 %). The mean age of the first experience with drugs was 21.91+-7.1 (range=0-60) years. There was significant different between the type of drugs used and the place of residence (p<0.019), age (p<0.0001), martial status (p<0.0001), occupation (p<0.006) and education (p<0.017). Conclusion: The prevalence of illicit drug addiction was quite high. There seemed to have been a change in the pattern of drug use and in the type of illegal drugs used in the study area, from traditional drugs to new and modern drugs. As such, identifying risk factors related to addiction and the prevention of addiction should be one of the most important health priorities for the authorities. (author)
Chalmers, Jenny; Ritter, Alison; Berends, Lynda
To estimate the amount of alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment provided and number of treatment recipients in Australia in 2011-12, and document an approach for future estimates internationally. We combined multiple data sources to estimate the amount of treatment received: administrative data on AOD treatment funded by the Australian and state/territory governments, survey data from treatment providers and programme evaluation data. The various data sources were reconciled, using published studies of treatment activity, to estimate the unique number of treatment recipients. Treatment funded by the Australian and state/territory governments provided by general practitioners, specialist treatment services, hospitals, community- and hospital-based ambulatory mental health-care services and allied health professionals. People receiving AOD treatment in the above settings. Annual quantum of AOD treatment (encounters, episodes, consultations) and the number of unique treatment recipients. In 2011/12 we estimated 1.6 million episodes of care, consultations or encounters, noting that measures of treatment are not comparable. Based on a range of conversion rates to account for people accessing treatment multiple times in that year, we estimated that the number of Australians in receipt of AOD treatment ranged from 202 168 to 232 419. This is an underestimate and subject to error. Using the upper range of the estimate, on average each treatment recipient made 4.7 visits to a general practitioner (GP) or allied health professional providing mental health services for AOD treatment, and had 1.2 treatment episodes with a specialist AOD treatment provider and/or hospital. Between 202 168 and 232 419 Australians are estimated to have received alcohol and other drug treatment in 2011-12. The comprehensive approach used to calculate this estimate, combining multiple independent data sets across treatment settings and programmes, can be replicated in other countries. © 2016
Ray, Rajat; Dhawan, Anju; Chopra, Anita
The National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC) is a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, a premier autonomous medical university in India. This article provides an account of its origin and its contribution to the field of substance use disorder at the national and international levels. Since its establishment, the NDDTC has played a major role in the development of various replicable models of care, the training of post-graduate students of psychiatry, research, policy development and planning. An assessment of the magnitude of drug abuse in India began in the early 1990s and this was followed by a National Survey on Extent, Patterns and Trends of Drug Abuse in 2004. Several models of clinical care have been developed for population subgroups in diverse settings. The centre played an important role in producing data and resource material which helped to scale up opioid substitution treatment in India. A nationwide database on the profile of patients seeking treatment (Drug Abuse Monitoring System) at government drug treatment centres has also been created. The centre has provided valuable inputs for the Government of India's programme planning. Besides clinical studies, research has also focused on pre-clinical studies. Capacity-building is an important priority, with training curricula and resource material being developed for doctors and paramedical staff. Many of these training programmes are conducted in collaboration with other institutions in the country. The NDDTC has received funding from several national and international organizations for research and scientific meetings, and, most recently (2012), it has been designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre on Substance Abuse. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Mbonye, Anthony K.; Lal, Sham; Cundill, Bonnie
questionnaire to capture data on drug shops (n=65) including provider characteristics, knowledge on treatment of malaria, previous training received, type of drugs stocked, reported drug sales, and record keeping practices; and a patient questionnaire to capture data from febrile patients (n=540) exiting drug...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the disproportionate prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection among drug users, many remain uninformed or misinformed about the virus. Drug treatment programs are important sites of opportunity for providing HCV education to their patients, and many programs do, in fact, offer this education in a variety of formats. Little is known, however, about the level of HCV knowledge among drug treatment program patients, and the extent to which they utilize their programs' HCV education services. Methods Using data collected from patients (N = 280 in 14 U.S. drug treatment programs, we compared patients who reported that they never injected drugs (NIDUs with past or current drug injectors (IDUs concerning their knowledge about HCV, whether they used HCV education opportunities at their programs, and the facilitators and barriers to doing so. All of the programs were participating in a research project that was developing, implementing, and evaluating a staff training to provide HCV support to patients. Results Although IDUs scored higher on an HCV knowledge assessment than NIDUs, there were many gaps in HCV knowledge among both groups of patients. To address these knowledge gaps, all of the programs offered at least one form of HCV education: all offered 1:1 sessions with staff, 12 of the programs offered HCV education in a group format, and 11 of the programs offered this education through pamphlets/books. Only 60% of all of the participating patients used any of their programs' HCV education services, but those who did avail themselves of these HCV education opportunities generally assessed them positively. In all, many patients were unaware that HCV education was offered at their programs through individual sessions with staff, group meetings, and books/pamphlets, (42%, 49%, and 46% of the patients, respectively, and 22% were unaware that any HCV education opportunities existed. Conclusion Efforts especially need
Full Text Available ... Treatment and Recovery Resources? Prevention Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What to Say if You Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ...
Andreu-Crespo, Àngels; Llibre, Josep M; Cardona-Peitx, Glòria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier
While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals) - with a cost of 47,139.91 € - would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar), should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets.
Zuppa, Athena; Vijayakumar, Sundararajan; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Patel, Dimple; Narayan, Mahesh; Vijayakumar, Kalpana; Mondick, John T; Barrett, Jeffrey S
Drug utilization in the inpatient setting can provide a mechanism to assess drug prescribing trends, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of hospital formularies and examine subpopulations for which prescribing habits may be different. Such data can be used to correlate trends with time-dependent or seasonal changes in clinical event rates or the introduction of new pharmaceuticals. It is now possible to provide a robust, dynamic analysis of drug utilization in a large pediatric inpatient setting through the creation of a Web-based hospital drug utilization system that retrieves source data from our accounting database. The production implementation provides a dynamic and historical account of drug utilization at the authors' institution. The existing application can easily be extended to accommodate a multi-institution environment. The creation of a national or even global drug utilization network would facilitate the examination of geographical and/or socioeconomic influences in drug utilization and prescribing practices in general.
Vuong, Thu; Nguyen, Nhu; Le, Giang; Shanahan, Marian; Ali, Robert; Ritter, Alison
Background In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these t...
Jane Anne Fischer
Full Text Available Context Little is known about the proportion of the Australian population using alcohol or other drugs who may seek treatment. There is a need to have some additional estimates of population morbidity which reflect harms associated with use. Objective To determine Australian population rates of publicly funded community based specialised alcohol and other drug treatment and in-patient hospital care by those ‘at risk’, by drug type, sex and age. Design and setting The design is secondary data analysis of publicly available datasets. We use the latest available complete data on Australian general population incidence of alcohol, cannabis amphetamines and ecstasy use (2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey and nationally collected administrative data on publicly funded specialised alcohol and other drug treatment services (2006–2007 Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset and public hospitals (2006–2007 National Hospital Morbidity Minimum Dataset to calculate rates of drug treatment and in-patient hospital care per 1000 Australians. ‘At risk’ for alcohol is defined as being at risk of short term harm, as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2001. ‘At risk’ for illicit drugs is defined as those exposed to potential harm through at least weekly use of cannabis, amphetamines and ecstasy use. Results Risky alcohol consumption followed by recent cannabis use appears to lead to most harm. Greater harm seems to be experienced by males rather than females. Younger adults (15–19 years and older adults (40+ years seem also to experience the highest rates of harm. Conclusions It is possible to derive population estimates of harms associated with licit and illicit drugs use. Treatment rates vary across drug type, gender and age. Alcohol and cannabis are the substances whose use leads to the greatest demand for services. Ecstasy appears to generate few presentations for treatment
Full Text Available Nanoparticles combined with cells, drugs, and specially designed genes provide improved therapeutic efficacy in studies and clinical setting, demonstrating a new era of treatment strategy, especially in retinal diseases. Nanotechnology-based drugs can provide an essential platform for sustaining, releasing and a specific targeting design to treat retinal diseases. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid is the most widely used biocompatible and biodegradable polymer approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Many studies have attempted to develop special devices for delivering small-molecule drugs, proteins, and other macromolecules consistently and slowly. In this article, we first review current progress in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Then, we discuss the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the pharmacological effects of anti-VEGF-A antibodies and soluble or modified VEGF receptors. Lastly, we summarize the combination of antiangiogenic therapy and nanomedicines, and review current potential targeting therapy in age-related macular degeneration.
I. O. Shchederkina
Full Text Available Among drug-resistant epilepsies, epileptic syndromes, characterized by combination of several types of seizures, are considered to be the most difficult in terms of treatment. Lennox–Gastaut syndrome is one of them. It manifests with polymorphic seizures (tonic axial, myatonic, atypical absence seizures, status epilepticus of minor motor seizures, myoclonic, generalized convulsive, and focal seizures. This is a heterogeneous disease, represented by a complex of clinical and electroencephalographic manifestations with various etiology. Current review is devoted to a novel antiepileptic drug rufinamide, which has a new mechanism of action. The drug has been registered in Russia in 2015. The authors also describe their own experience of rufinamide usage in the treatment of drug-resistant focal epilepsy as a part of multicomponent therapy for polymorphic seizures. One patient achieved clinical remission for 16 months; the second one had more than 50 % decrease in seizures frequency with a remission of drop-attacks.
Bjerrum, H; Allerup, P; Thunedborg, K; Jakobsen, K; Bech, P
In an attempt to evaluate an alternative drug treatment to benzodiazepines in generalized anxiety disorders, a placebo controlled trial was carried out with a new beta-adrenergic blocker (CPG 361 A). A low-dosage neuroleptic (flupenthixol) was included as a reference drug. Depending on the clinical assessment scales the placebo treatment resulted in moderate to excellent improvement in 36% to 56% of the patients after four weeks of treatment. The active drugs generally had a higher improvement range (from 31% to 80%). The global improvement scale was found to be better than the other scales in discriminating between placebo (50% improvement) and the active drugs (CGP 361 A brought about 78% improvement and flupenthixol brought about 80% improvement). However, only for flupenthixol was the difference of statistical significance.
Full Text Available Àngels Andreu-Crespo,1,* Josep M Llibre,2,3,* Glòria Cardona-Peitx,1 Ferran Sala-Piñol,1 Bonaventura Clotet,2,4 Xavier Bonafont-Pujol1 1Pharmacy Department, 2HIV Unit and “Lluita contra la SIDA” Foundation, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, 3Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 4Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya (UVIC-UCC, Vic, Barcelona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to the work Abstract: While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals – with a cost of 47,139.91€ – would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar, should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets. Keywords: antiretroviral treatment, cost efficacy, drug packaging, treatment change
Shahbazian, H.; Saiedinia, S.; Aleali, A.M.
Objective: This study was conducted to observe the optimal results of long term treatment with antithyroid drugs in patients with graves' disease. Methodology: Total of 268 patients with graves' disease who were referred to endocrinology clinic during 2005 - 2008 and treated with anti-thyroid drugs for a long term were studied. Data about the age, gender, estimated weight of thyroid before and after the treatment, level of thyroid hormones, disease relapse, hypothyroidism and the drug side-effects were collected and analyzed. Results: Eighty two (31%) patients were males, 186 (69%) females, mean age of 35 +- 27 years and follow-up course of 31+- 16 months], were studied. After the discontinuation of long term treatment, 53% were affected with relapse of hyperthyroidism. The mean duration of hyperthyroidism relapse after the treatment was 8.3 +- 7.3 months. The relapse rate was and patients with large thyroid and lower TSH level at the end of treatment, the rate of relapse treatment was about 6%. More decrease of thyroid size during the treatment course, higher level of serum TSH after discontinuation of the treatment, and lower thyroid hormone levels before the treatment were some of the effective factors in hypothyroidism incidence (P=0.005, patients (39%) remained euthyroid in the follow-up course. Conclusion: patients with graves' especially in middle-aged women with smaller goiters. (author)
Goodman, Amanda M.; Neumann, Oara; Nørregaard, Kamilla; Henderson, Luke; Choi, Mi-Ran; Clare, Susan E.; Halas, Naomi J.
Remotely controlled, localized drug delivery is highly desirable for potentially minimizing the systemic toxicity induced by the administration of typically hydrophobic chemotherapy drugs by conventional means. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems provide a highly promising approach for localized drug delivery, and are an emerging field of interest in cancer treatment. Here, we demonstrate near-IR light-triggered release of two drug molecules from both DNA-based and protein-based hosts that have been conjugated to near-infrared-absorbing Au nanoshells (SiO2 core, Au shell), each forming a light-responsive drug delivery complex. We show that, depending upon the drug molecule, the type of host molecule, and the laser illumination method (continuous wave or pulsed laser), in vitro light-triggered release can be achieved with both types of nanoparticle-based complexes. Two breast cancer drugs, docetaxel and HER2-targeted lapatinib, were delivered to MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 (overexpressing HER2) breast cancer cells and compared with release in noncancerous RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Continuous wave laser-induced release of docetaxel from a nanoshell-based DNA host complex showed increased cell death, which also coincided with nonspecific cell death from photothermal heating. Using a femtosecond pulsed laser, lapatinib release from a nanoshell-based human serum albumin protein host complex resulted in increased cancerous cell death while noncancerous control cells were unaffected. Both methods provide spatially and temporally localized drug-release strategies that can facilitate high local concentrations of chemotherapy drugs deliverable at a specific treatment site over a specific time window, with the potential for greatly minimized side effects.
Prado, J C; Ruilope, L M; Segura, J
Pathway-2 is the first randomised, double-blind and crossover trial that compares spironolactone as a fourth drug with alfa-blocker, beta-blocker and placebo. This study shows that spironolactone is the drug with more possibilities of success for the management of patients with difficult-to-treat hypertension in patients with a combination of three drugs and poor control. The results validate the widespread treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in resistant hypertension. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the extent of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis (MTB isolated from category II treatment failure pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients. A total of 100 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N smear positive category II failure PTB patients were included in this study. Sputum culture was done in Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J media. Conventional proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J media was used to determine the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RMP, ofloxacin (OFX and kanamycin (KA. Out of 100 sputum samples, a total of 87 samples were positive by culture. Drug susceptibility test (DST revealed that 82 (94.25% isolates were resistant to one or more anti -TB drugs. Resistance to isoniazide (INH, rifampicin (RMP, ofloxacin (OFX and kanamycin (KA was 94.25%, 82.75%, 29.90% and 3.45% respectively. Among these isolates, 79.31% and 3.45% isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR and extended drug resistant (XDR M. tuberculosis respectively. High rate of anti-tubercular drug resistance was observed among the category II treatment failure TB patients. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(1: 9-11
Full Text Available Ever since the success of developing inhalable insulin, drug delivery via pulmonary administration has become an attractive route to treat chronic diseases. Pulmonary delivery system for nanotechnology is a relatively new concept especially when applicable to lung cancer therapy. Nano-based systems such as liposome, polymeric nanoparticles or micelles are strategically designed to enhance the therapeutic index of anti-cancer drugs through improvement of their bioavailability, stability and residency at targeted lung regions. Along with these benefits, nano-based systems also provide additional diagnostic advantages during lung cancer treatment, including imaging, screening and drug tracking. Nevertheless, delivery of nano-based drugs via pulmonary administration for lung cancer therapy is still in its infancy and numerous challenges are expected. Pharmacology, immunology, toxicology and large-scale manufacturing (stability and activity of drugs are some aspects in nanotechnology that should be taken into consideration for the development of inhalable nano-based chemotherapeutic drugs. This review will focus on the current inhalable nano-based drugs for lung cancer treatment.
da Silva, Patricia Bento; de Freitas, Eduardo Sinésio; Bernegossi, Jessica; Gonçalez, Maíra Lima; Sato, Mariana Rillo; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Chorilli, Marlus
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious and transmissible disease that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects the lungs, although it can affect other organs and systems. The pulmonary presentation of TB, in addition to being more frequent, is also the most relevant to public health because it is primarily responsible for the transmission of the disease. The to their low World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a combined therapeutic regimen of several drugs, such as rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (ETB). These drugs have low plasma levels after oral administration, due to their low water solubility, poor permeability and ability to be rapidly metabolized by the liver and at high concentrations. Furthermore, they have short t₁/₂ (only 1-4 hours) indicating a short residence in the plasma and the need for multiple high doses, which can result in neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Nanotechnology drug delivery systems have considerable potential for the treatment of TB. The systems can also be designed to allow for the sustained release of drugs from the matrix and drug delivery to a specific target. These properties of the systems enable the improvement of the bioavailability of drugs, can reduce the dosage and frequency of administration, and may solve the problem of non-adherence to prescribed therapy, which is a major obstacle to the control of TB. The purpose of this study was to systematically review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of TB.
Brunelle, Natacha; Bertrand, Karine; Beaudoin, Isabelle; Ledoux, Cinthia; Gendron, Annie; Arseneault, Catherine
Previous research has documented associations of addiction with delinquency and psychological problems. However, few studies have evaluated their influence on adolescent's drug use trajectories. The current study aims to examine the influence of these factors on the recovery trajectories of 199 youths aged 15.6 years on average admitted to inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment centers, followed up three and six months later. Results indicate that youth who show higher severity of drug abuse exhibit greater improvement than youth with a lower severity of drug abuse at the onset of treatment. Although psychological problems were associated with baseline drug use, they did not influence drug use trajectory over time. Only delinquency influenced the recovery trajectories of these youth. Results suggest that a high level of delinquency can have a significant effect on the drug recovery process of adolescents and that interventions should attempt to reduce both drug use and delinquency. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Falck, Russel S.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Li, Linna; Carlson, Robert G.
Background: Illicit drug use by school-aged teens can adversely affect their health and academic achievement. This study used a survey administered in schools to assess the prevalence of problematic drug use among teenagers in a Midwestern community. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 11th- and 12th-grade students (N = 3974) in 16…
Lanza, Valeria; Milardi, Danilo; Di Natale, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Giuseppe
There is mounting urgency to find new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. A large number of reviews have exhaustively described either the molecular or clinical aspects of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). Conversely, reports outlining how known drugs in use for other diseases can also be effective as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases are less reported. This review focuses on the current uses of some copper(II) chelating molecules as potential drug candidates in neurodegeneration. Starting from the well-known harmful relationships existing between the dyshomeostasis and mis-management of metals and AD onset, we surveyed the experimental work reported in the literature, which deals with the repositioning of metal-chelating drugs in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. The reviewed papers were retrieved from common literature and their selection was limited to those describing the biomolecular aspects associated with neuroprotection. In particular, we emphasized the copper(II) coordination abilities of the selected drugs. Copper, together with zinc and iron, are known to play a key role in regulating neuronal functions. Changes in copper homeostasis are crucial for several neurodegenerative disorders. The studies included in this review may provide an overview on the current strategies aimed at repurposing copper (II) chelating drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Starting from the exemplary case of clioquinol repurposing, we discuss the challenge and the opportunities that repurposing of other metal-chelating drugs may provide (e.g. PBT-2, metformin and cyclodipeptides) in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In order to improve the success rate of drug repositioning, comprehensive studies on the molecular mechanism and therapeutic efficacy are still required. The present review upholds that drug repurposing makes significant advantages over drug discovery since
Kohtaro Ooka; Joseph K.Lim
With 185 million people chronically infected globally,hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection.All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable.However,trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation.Yet,these patients-most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases-could stand to benefit from these treatments.In this study,we systematically review the literature on the treatment of hepatitis C in these neglected populations.Research on patients with organ transplants is more robust and this literature is reviewed here non-systematically.Our systematic review produced 2273 unique works,of which 56 met our inclusion criteria and were used in our review.The quality of data was low;only 3 of the 56 studies were randomized controlled trials.Sustained virologic response was reported sporadically.Interferon-containing regimens achieved this end-point at rates comparable to that in immunocompetent individuals.Severe adverse effects and death were rare.Data on all-oral regimens were sparse,but in the most robust study,rates of sustained virologic response were again comparable to immunocompetent individuals (40/41).Efficacy and safety of interferoncontaining regimens and all-oral regimens were similar to rates in immunocompetent individuals;however,there were few interventional trials.The large number of case reports and case series makes conclusions vulnerable to publication bias.While firm conclusions are challenging,given the dearth of high-quality studies,our results demonstrate that antiviral therapy can be safe and effective.The advent of all-oral regimens offers patients and clinicians greatly increased chances of cure and fewer side effects.Preliminary data reveal that these regimens may confer such benefits in immunosuppressed individuals as well
de Sahb-Berkovitch, Rima; Woronoff-Lemsi, Marie-Christine; Molimard, Mathieu
Reimbursement is assessed by the Transparency Commission from the Health Authority (HAS) using a medical benefit (SMR) score that gives access to reimbursement, an "improvement of medical service rendered" (ASMR) that determines the added therapeutic value, and the target population. Assessing cancer drugs for reimbursement raises the same issues as other therapeutic classes, with some key differences. Overall survival (OS) is considered by the Transparency Commission as the endpoint for assessing clinical benefit, and yet it is not an applicable primary endpoint in all types of cancer. Later lines of treatment, particularly during the development process, may make it difficult to interpret OS as the primary endpoint. Therefore, progression-free survival (PFS) for metastatic situations and disease-free survival (DFS) in adjuvant situations are wholly relevant endpoints for decisions on the reimbursement of a new cancer drug. Effect size is assessed using actuarial survival curves of the product versus the comparator, and it is difficult to summarise them into one single parameter. Results are generally interpreted based on median survival, which is fragmented because it only measures one point of the curve. The hazard ratio measures the effect of treatment throughout the duration of survival and is therefore more comprehensive in quantifying clinical benefit. Determining an effect size threshold for granting reimbursement is difficult given the diversity of cancer settings and the level of medical need, which influences assessment of the clinical relevance of the observed difference. Rapid progress in comparators (700 molecules in development) and the identification of predictive factors of efficacy (biomarkers, histology, etc.) during development may lead to different ASMR scores per population, or to the restriction of the target population to a subgroup of the marketing authorisation (MA) population in which the expected effect size is greater. To address these
Ainscough, Tom S; McNeill, Ann; Strang, John; Calder, Robert; Brose, Leonie S
Use of non-prescribed drugs during treatment for opiate addiction reduces treatment success, creating a need for effective interventions. This review aimed to assess the efficacy of contingency management, a behavioural treatment that uses rewards to encourage desired behaviours, for treating non-prescribed drug use during opiate addiction treatment. A systematic search of the databases Embase, PsychInfo, PsychArticles and Medline from inception to March 2015 was performed. Random effects meta-analysis tested the use of contingency management to treat the use of drugs during opiate addiction treatment, using either longest duration of abstinence (LDA) or percentage of negative samples (PNS). Random effects moderator analyses were performed for six potential moderators: drug targeted for intervention, decade in which the study was carried out, study quality, intervention duration, type of reinforcer, and form of opiate treatment. The search returned 3860 papers; 22 studies met inclusion criteria and were meta-analysed. Follow-up data was only available for three studies, so all analyses used end of treatment data. Contingency management performed significantly better than control in reducing drug use measured using LDA (d=0.57, 95% CI: 0.42-0.72) or PNS (d=0.41) (95% CI: 0.28-0.54). This was true for all drugs other than opiates. The only significant moderator was drug targeted (LDA: Q=10.75, p=0.03). Contingency management appears to be efficacious for treating most drug use during treatment for opiate addiction. Further research is required to ascertain the full effects of moderating variables, and longer term effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483
Mônica Pereira Garcia
Full Text Available The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs in drug delivery vehicles must address issues such as drugloading capacity, desired release profile, aqueous dispersion stability, biocompatibility with cells and tissue, and retention of magnetic properties after interaction with macromolecules or modification via chemical reactions. Amphotericin B (AmB is still the first choice for the treatment of severe paracoccidioidomycosis, an important systemic fungal infection caused by Paracoccidoides brasiliensis. Unfortunately, AmB causes acute side effects (mainly urinary problems following intravenous administration, which limits its clinical use. The use of magnetic nanoparticles stabilized with biocompatible substances, together with the possibility of their conjugation with drugs has become a new nanotechnological strategy in the treatment of diseases for drug delivery to specific locations, such as the lungs in paracoccidoidiodomycosis. This review provides an overview of the disease, its etiologic agent and treatment with emphasis on the main strategies to improve the use of AmB in nanoformulations.
Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli; Pedrão, Luiz Jorge
This study was performed with an aim to understand the conditions causing the ambivalence of the person with bipolar affective disorder (BAD) regarding following the drug treatment. A qualitative approach was used, with the Grounded Theory as the methodology framework, under the light of Symbolic Interactionism. Participants were 14 individuals with BAD who were being followed at an Outpatient Clinic for Mood Disorders of a university hospital and 14 relatives they indicated. Interviews and observation were the main forms of obtaining data. Results revealed three categories that described the referred causal conditions: experiencing the crises of the disorder; needing the drug; and living with the side effects of the drugs. It was found that there is a need to change the attitude of some health professionals from blaming the patient for interrupting the treatment to one of listening, valuing their symbolic and affective universe as well as the partnership in the treatment.
Maynard, Alan; Street, Andrew; Hunter, Rachael
The UK government is changing its system of payment for drug treatment services in order to reward the achievement of better patient outcomes. This is a model that may be taken up internationally. This 'payment by results' funding system will reward providers for achieving good outcomes in terms of whether clients are drug free, employed and/or not convicted of a criminal offence. Providers will also receive a payment based on health and wellbeing outcome measurement. The definition and measurement of success in achieving these outcomes is complex and challenging, as is the need to bridge treatment costs during the period in which outcomes are pursued. This experiment requires careful evaluation if the delivery of drug treatment is not to be jeopardized or fragmented. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Steinbach, J.J.; Donoghue, G.D.; Goldman, J.K.
We report a prospective study to evaluate the effect of antithyroid drugs containing the sulfhydryl radical on the outcome of I-131 (RAI) therapy. Twenty-four male patients with toxic diffuse goiter were assigned randomly into two treatment groups: Group A received RAI treatment while on antithyroid drugs after attainment of euthyroidism; Group B received no antithyroid drugs before, or when, RAI was given. Patients in each group received a dose of RAI calculated to deliver approximately 5000 rads per treatment. The incidence of hypothyroidism at 12 mo was 8% for Group A and 36% for Group B (p 0.45). The improved therapeutic outcome of patients in Group A suggests that further validation of the method in a larger patient population, including females, is warranted
Golightly, Larry K; Barber, Gerard R; Barron, Michelle A; Page, Robert L
Acute muscle injury and potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis may occur with use of statins and certain interacting medications. This investigation assessed risk for myopathy in patients receiving treatment with a statin in combination with daptomycin, a medication also associated with muscle injury. Patients hospitalized from July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2010, who received simvastatin or rosuvastatin concurrently with daptomycin were identified and their medical records were examined. Patients were judged to have treatment-related muscle injury if their records contained evidence of myalgia with or without weakness and secondarily impaired mobility together with elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels. These assessments were compared with similar data from hospitalized patients who received a statin alone. A total of 52 patients received 66 courses of concurrent treatment with simvastatin or rosuvastatin and daptomycin. Of these, no patient (0%) met evidentiary requirements for diagnosis of myopathy or related complications. No patient (0%) developed muscle pain or discomfort and none developed markedly elevated CK levels. The incidence of asymptomatic elevations of CK in these simvastatin or rosuvastatin plus daptomycin recipients (9%) was statistically indistinguishable from the incidence of CK elevations found in a cohort of 105 inpatients who received simvastatin or rosuvastatin alone (21%; p=0.135). In patients receiving treatment with simvastatin or rosuvastatin and daptomycin, no symptoms or objective evidence of muscle injury attributable to a drug interaction were identified. These findings are consistent with data indicating that the myopathic effects of statins and daptomycin are incited by disparate and perhaps unique pharmacological mechanisms. Risk of muscle injury therefore appears to be no greater when a statin is administered with daptomycin than when either medication is used alone.
Rapakoulia, Trisevgeni; Gao, Xin; Huang, Yi; de Hoon, Michiel; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Suzuki, Harukazu; Arner, Erik
Motivation: Drug combination therapy for treatment of cancers and other multifactorial diseases has the potential of increasing the therapeutic effect, while reducing the likelihood of drug resistance. In order to reduce time and cost spent
Misri, Shaila; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Sanders, Shawn; Swift, Elena
Perinatal generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has a high prevalence of 8.5%-10.5% during pregnancy and 4.4%-10.8% postpartum. Despite its attendant dysfunction in the patient, this potentially debilitating mental health condition is often underdiagnosed. This overview will provide guidance for clinicians in making timely diagnosis and managing symptoms appropriately. A significant barrier to the diagnosis of GAD in the perinatal population is difficulty in distinguishing normal versus pathological worry. Because a perinatal-specific screening tool for GAD is nonexistent, early identification, diagnosis and treatment is often compromised. The resultant maternal dysfunction can potentially impact mother-infant bonding and influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in the children. Comorbid occurrence of GAD and major depressive disorder changes the illness course and its treatment outcome. Psychoeducation is a key component in overcoming denial/stigma and facilitating successful intervention. Treatment strategies are contingent upon illness severity. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), relaxation, and mindfulness therapy are indicated for mild GAD. Moderate/severe illness requires pharmacotherapy and CBT, individually or in combination. No psychotropic medications are approved by the FDA or Health Canada in pregnancy or the postpartum; off-label pharmacological treatment is instituted only if the benefit of therapy outweighs its risk. SSRIs/SNRIs are the first-line treatment for anxiety disorders due to data supporting their efficacy and overall favorable side effect profile. Benzodiazepines are an option for short-term treatment. While research on atypical antipsychotics is evolving, some can be considered for severe manifestations where the response to antidepressants or benzodiazepines has been insufficient. A case example will illustrate the onset, clinical course, and treatment strategies of GAD through pregnancy and the postpartum.
Amol Chandrakant Deshmukh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypertension, a common clinical problem is considered as an ‘iceberg disease’ because its unknown morbidity far exceeds the known morbidity. In terms of attributable deaths, it is one of the leading behavioural and physiological risk factors amounting to 13% of global deaths. Drug selection is based on efficacy in lowering BP (blood pressure and in reducing Cardiovascular (CV endpoints like stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure. This study was carried out to evaluate the pattern, extent, rationality and frequency of the use of antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the study is to analyse drug utilisation in the treatment of hypertension in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted during January 2014 to December 2015 in Medicine OPD (Outpatient Department in a tertiary care hospital. The sample size was selected as per the WHO recommendations on conducting Drug Utilisation Studies (DUS. Statistical Analysis- The collected data was numerically coded and entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analysed by SPSS version 16. Settings and Design- Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS Out of 612 patients, 262 (42.81% were in the age group of 60 and above. Considering gender distribution, 328 (53.59% were males and 284 (46.41% were females. Of these, 274 (44.78% were prescribed monotherapy, 256 (41.83% were prescribed two-drug therapy, 72 (11.76% were prescribed three-drug therapy and 10 (1.63% were prescribed four-drug therapy. Among 274 (44.78% patients prescribed with monotherapy, 112 (40.87% were prescribed with CCB (calcium channel blocker, 76 (27.73% were given BB (B-blocker, 45 (16.42% were prescribed ACEI (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, 35 (12.77% were prescribed with ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker and 6 (2.18% were prescribed with Diuretics (D. Of the total antihypertensive drugs prescribed, 68.30% were prescribed by generic name
Ozdemir, Pinar Guzel; Karadag, Ayşe Serap; Selvi, Yavuz; Boysan, Murat; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Aydin, Adem; Onder, Sevda
There are limited comparative studies on classic and new-generation antihistamines that affect sleep quality and mood. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the effects of classic and new-generation antihistamines on sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, dream anxiety, and mood. Ninety-two patients with chronic pruritus completed study in the dermatology outpatient clinic. Treatments with regular recommended therapeutic doses were administered. The effects of antihistaminic drugs on mood, daytime sleepiness, dream anxiety, and sleep quality were assessed on the first day and 1 month after. Outpatients who received cetirizine and hydroxyzine treatments reported higher scores on the depression, anxiety, and fatigue sub-scales than those who received desloratadine, levocetirizine, and rupatadine. Pheniramine and rupatadine were found to be associated with daytime sleepiness and better sleep quality. UKU side effects scale scores were significantly elevated among outpatients receiving pheniramine. Classic antihistamines increased daytime sleepiness and decreased the sleep quality scores. New-generation antihistamines reduced sleep latency and dream anxiety, and increased daytime sleepiness and sleep quality. Both antihistamines, significantly increased daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep quality. Daytime sleepiness was significantly predicted by rupadatine and pheniramine treatment. Cetirizine and hydroxyzine, seem to have negative influences on mood states. Given the extensive use of antihistamines in clinical settings, these results should be more elaborately examined in further studies.
Li, Jing; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu; Oupický, David
Cancer treatment that uses a combination of approaches with the ability to affect multiple disease pathways has been proven highly effective in the treatment of many cancers. Combination therapy can include multiple chemotherapeutics or combinations of chemotherapeutics with other treatment modalities like surgery or radiation. However, despite the widespread clinical use of combination therapies, relatively little attention has been given to the potential of modern nanocarrier delivery methods, like liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles, to enhance the efficacy of combination treatments. This lack of knowledge is particularly notable in the limited success of vectors for the delivery of combinations of nucleic acids with traditional small molecule drugs. The delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations is particularly challenging due to differences in the physicochemical properties of the two types of agents. This review discusses recent advances in the development of delivery methods using combinations of small molecule drugs and nucleic acid therapeutics to treat cancer. This review primarily focuses on the rationale used for selecting appropriate drug-nucleic acid combinations as well as progress in the development of nanocarriers suitable for simultaneous delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Fonseca, Begoña; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Martin-Gil, Alba; Martinez-Aguila, Alejandro; Pintor, Jesús
Dry eye disease affects a substantial segment of the word population with increasing frequency. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film, which causes ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Because of its multifactorial etiology, the use of different pharmacological treatment for dry eye treatment has been proposed, which include anti-inflammatory molecules, lubricants or comfort agents, and secretagogues. However, in some cases these pharmacological approaches only relieve symptoms temporarily, and consequently, eye care professionals continue to have difficulties managing dry eye. To improve pharmacological therapy that allows a more efficient and long-term action, effective ocular drug delivery of the currently available drugs for dry eye treatment is required. Contact lenses are emerging as alternative ophthalmic drugs delivery systems that provide an increased residence time of the drug at the eye, thus leading to enhanced bioavailability and more convenient and efficacious therapy. In this article, we reviewed the different techniques used to prepare contact lens-based drug delivery systems and focused on articles that describe the delivery of compounds for dry eye treatment through contact lenses.
Shah, S.S.; Hafeez, F.; Akhtar, N.
The management of Steroid Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome (SRNS) is an uphill task for paediatric nephrologists as immunosuppressive agents are the mainstay of treatment in these patients. Tacrolimus is used along with steroids. This study is conducted to see the relationship between the tacrolimus dose, drug level and response in the management of SRNS. Methods: This quasi experimental study was conducted at The Childrens Hospital Lahore over a period of one year. Patients with SRNS of either sex and 1-10 years of age were included and those with secondary nephrotic syndrome were excluded. Tacrolimus was given at a dose of 0.05-0.1 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses along with steroids. The follow-up was done for six months with proteinuria monitoring and tacrolimus drug levels done two weeks after initiation of treatment. Results: Out of 42 patients, 27 (64.3%) were males and 15 (35.7%) were females. The most common histological diagnosis observed was mesangio-proliferative glomerulonephritis in 30 (71.4%) patients. The tacrolimus trough level range was 0.5-15.20 ng/ml with a mean value of 4.68 ng/ml±2.85. Forty-one (97.6%) children showed complete response to treatment while one patient showed partial response. Conclusion: This study suggests that tacrolimus is an effective drug for treatment of SRNS in paediatric patients and there is no linear relationship between the drug dose, response and drug level. (author)
The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...
Hoffman, Melissa B; Hill, Dane; Feldman, Steven R
Psoriasis is a common skin disorder associated with physical, social, psychological and financial burden. Over the past two decades, advances in our understanding of pathogenesis and increased appreciation for the multifaceted burden of psoriasis has led to new treatment development and better patient outcomes. Yet, surveys demonstrate that many psoriasis patients are either undertreated or are dissatisfied with treatment. There are