Sample records for assessing donor suitability

  1. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of medical history, a test...

  2. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor. (United States)


    ... the opinion of the interviewer, appears to be under the influence of any drug, alcohol, or for any... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS.... (3) Each donor shall be certified to be in good health by the examining physician. The...

  3. Identification of suitable reference genes in bone marrow stromal cells from osteoarthritic donors. (United States)

    Schildberg, Theresa; Rauh, Juliane; Bretschneider, Henriette; Stiehler, Maik


    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are key cellular components for musculoskeletal tissue engineering strategies. Furthermore, recent data suggest that BMSCs are involved in the development of Osteoarthritis (OA) being a frequently occurring degenerative joint disease. Reliable reference genes for the molecular evaluation of BMSCs derived from donors exhibiting OA as a primary co-morbidity have not been reported on yet. Hence, the aim of the study was to identify reference genes suitable for comparative gene expression analyses using OA-BMSCs. Passage 1 bone marrow derived BMSCs were isolated from n=13 patients with advanced stage idiopathic hip osteoarthritis and n=15 age-matched healthy donors. The expression of 31 putative reference genes was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using a commercially available TaqMan(®) assay. Calculating the coefficient of variation (CV), mRNA expression stability was determined and afterwards validated using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Importin 8 (IPO8), TATA box binding protein (TBP), and cancer susceptibility candidate 3 (CASC3) were identified as the most stable reference genes. Notably, commonly used reference genes, e.g. beta-actin (ACTB) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) were among the most unstable genes. For normalization of gene expression data of OA-BMSCs the combined use of IPO8, TBP, and CASC3 gene is recommended.

  4. Being Sherlock Holmes: the Internet as a tool for assessing live organ donors. (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A; Katznelson, Steven


    Donor advocacy is a critical feature of live donor transplantation. Donor Advocates and Donor Advocate Teams (DAT) are now routine to the practice of live donor evaluation in the USA. Multidisciplinary in nature, DATs gather both medical and psychosocial information about potential live organ donors and then render a decision as to whether or not these individuals are suitable to participate. Because of the critical ethical and psychosocial concerns about live donation, thorough donor evaluations are essential. Additionally, the information gathered must be accurate, and this requires honest disclosure by the donor candidate. In this paper, we describe how DATs can use various forms of free, public content available on the Internet to aid live donor assessments. In this way, the DAT assumes somewhat of an investigative role; however, this is ethically justified in light of the DAT duty to protect the donor. The protective effect can also spread to the transplant program, in general, when inappropriate donors are excluded from the donation process.

  5. Criteria for Viability Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Livers during Ex Vivo Normothermic Machine Perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, Michael E.; op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Weeder, Pepijn D.; de Boer, Marieke T.; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.


    Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate vi

  6. The retrieval of thoracic organs: donor assessment and management. (United States)

    MacLean, A; Dunning, J


    The optimal management of the multi-organ donor is critical to the successful outcome of transplantation. It is a complex challenge demanding careful attention to detail, and requiring a shift in emphasis, since the pathophysiological processes have far reaching effects which many clinicians do not see on a day-to-day basis. The optimal management of haemodynamic and respiratory status is essential in order to maximise the yield of suitable thoracic donor organs, yet this process will also improve the condition of other organs at the time of procurement and thus enable prompt recovery of function following hepatic and renal transplantation. The process commences when a potential donor is identified, and is only complete after successful transplantation of all possible organs. In order to achieve this end, a dedicated, multi-disciplinary team is necessary, consisting not only of medical staff, but also support workers who organise logistics, and who play their own part in vital areas, such as transport of the donor team and organs. The co-ordinator's role is pivotal in bringing together, in harmony, teams from different centres. It is important to remember that the effort of every person involved in the management and procurement of donor organs is primarily directed towards maximisation of the donor pool, and that our main responsibility is to the recipients on our waiting lists.

  7. Donor conversion rates depend on the assessment tools used in the evaluation of potential organ donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick); E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco); M. van der Jagt (Mathieu); J. Bakker (Jan); B. Roozenbeek (Bob); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)


    textabstractPurpose: It is desirable to identify a potential organ donor (POD) as early as possible to achieve a donor conversion rate (DCR) as high as possible which is defined as the actual number of organ donors divided by the number of patients who are regarded as a potential organ donor. The DC

  8. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

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    Baert, G.


    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  9. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.


    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.


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    Boris Đurđević


    Full Text Available A total of 17404 soil samples (2003rd-2009th year were analysed in the eastern Croatia. The largest number of soil samples belongs to the Osijek-Baranya county, which together with both Eastern sugar beet Factories (Osijek and Županja, conduct the soil fertility control (~4200 samples/yr.. Computer model suitability assessment for crops, supported by GIS, proved to be fast, efficient enough reliable in terms of the number of analyzed soil samples. It allows the visualization of the agricultural area and prediction of its production properties for the purposes of analysis, planning and rationalization of agricultural production. With more precise data about the soil (soil, climate and reliable Digital Soil Map of Croatia, the model could be an acceptable, not only to evaluate the suitability for growing different crops but also their need for fertilizer, necessary machinery, repairs (liming, and other measures of organic matter input. The abovementioned aims to eliminate or reduce effects of limiting factors in primary agricultural production. Assessment of the relative benefits of soil presented by computer model for the crops production and geostatistical method kriging in the Osijek-Baranya county showed: 1 Average soil suitability being 60.06 percent. 2 Kriging predicted that 51751 ha (17.16% are of limited resources (N1 for growing crops whereas a 86142 ha (28.57% of land is limited suitably (S3, b 132789 ha (44.04% are moderately suitable (S2 and c 30772 ha (10.28% are of excellent fertility (S1. A large number of eastern Croatian land data showed that the computer-geostatistical model for determination of soil benefits for growing crops was automated, fast and simple to use and suitable for the implementation of GIS and automatically downloading the necessary benefit indicators from the input base (land, analytical and climate as well as data from the digital soil maps able to: a visualize the suitability for soil tillage, b predict the

  11. Criteria for viability assessment of discarded human donor livers during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion.

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    Michael E Sutton

    Full Text Available Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate viable from non-viable livers we have studied functional performance as well as biochemical and histological evidence of hepatobiliary injury during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion of human donor livers. After a median duration of cold storage of 6.5 h, twelve extended criteria human donor livers that were declined for transplantation were ex vivo perfused for 6 h at 37 °C with an oxygenated solution based on red blood cells and plasma, using pressure controlled pulsatile perfusion of the hepatic artery and continuous portal perfusion. During perfusion, two patterns of bile flow were identified: (1 steadily increasing bile production, resulting in a cumulative output of ≥ 30 g after 6 h (high bile output group, and (2 a cumulative bile production <20 g in 6 h (low bile output group. Concentrations of transaminases and potassium in the perfusion fluid were significantly higher in the low bile output group, compared to the high bile output group. Biliary concentrations of bilirubin and bicarbonate were respectively 4 times and 2 times higher in the high bile output group. Livers in the low bile output group displayed more signs of hepatic necrosis and venous congestion, compared to the high bile output group. In conclusion, bile production could be an easily assessable biomarker of hepatic viability during ex vivo machine perfusion of human donor livers. It could potentially be used to identify extended criteria livers that are suitable for transplantation. These ex vivo findings need to be confirmed in a transplant experiment or a clinical trial.

  12. Assessment of donor heart viability during ex vivo heart perfusion. (United States)

    White, Christopher W; Ambrose, Emma; Müller, Alison; Li, Yun; Le, Hoa; Hiebert, Brett; Arora, Rakesh; Lee, Trevor W; Dixon, Ian; Tian, Ganghong; Nagendran, Jayan; Hryshko, Larry; Freed, Darren


    Ex vivo heart perfusion (EVHP) may facilitate resuscitation of discarded donor hearts and expand the donor pool; however, a reliable means of demonstrating organ viability prior to transplantation is required. Therefore, we sought to identify metabolic and functional parameters that predict myocardial performance during EVHP. To evaluate the parameters over a broad spectrum of organ function, we obtained hearts from 9 normal pigs and 37 donation after circulatory death pigs and perfused them ex vivo. Functional parameters obtained from a left ventricular conductance catheter, oxygen consumption, coronary vascular resistance, and lactate concentration were measured, and linear regression analyses were performed to identify which parameters best correlated with myocardial performance (cardiac index: mL·min(-1)·g(-1)). Functional parameters exhibited excellent correlation with myocardial performance and demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for identifying hearts at risk of poor post-transplant function (ejection fraction: R(2) = 0.80, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.85; stroke work: R(2) = 0.76, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.77; minimum dP/dt: R(2) = 0.74, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.54; tau: R(2) = 0.51, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.92), whereas metabolic parameters were limited in their ability to predict myocardial performance (oxygen consumption: R(2) = 0.28; coronary vascular resistance: R(2) = 0.20; lactate concentration: R(2) = 0.02). We concluded that evaluation of functional parameters provides the best assessment of myocardial performance during EVHP, which highlights the need for an EVHP device capable of assessing the donor heart in a physiologic working mode.

  13. Investigation of Suitability of Cascading Outage Assessment Methods for Real-Time Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pauli Fríðheim; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    of the method to real-time assessment. The investigation revealed that two of the methods are of special interest for further study on real-time assessment of cascading outages. These are the betweenness centrality model, based on network topology, and the manchester model, based on AC power flow.......This paper investigates the suitability of assessment methods for cascading outages for real-time assessment. A total of ten assessment methods for cascading outages are investigated, and for all of the investigated methods a complexity assessment is performed to assess the suitability...

  14. Concrete with carpet recyclates: suitability assessment by surface energy evaluation. (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Cieślak, M


    Worn out textile floor coverings are burdensome wastes that are degraded in landfill sites after a very long period of time. One of the ways to manage this kind of waste may be the use of carpet recyclate (CR) as an additive for concrete reinforcement. Therefore, an attempt was made to predict the effects of recyclate additives on the durability a concrete-carpet mixture by employing the method of assessing surface properties of components in the concrete-carpet recyclates composite. Testing was performed on carpet wastes, containing polyamide (PA) and polypropylene (PP) piles and butadiene-styrene resin with chalk filler (BSC) as back coating, to assess the suitability of CR additive for concrete reinforcement by surface energy evaluation. Based on the measurements of contact angles, the free surface energy of recyclate components was determined. The reversible work of adhesion at the interface between these components in dry and wet states was also calculated. The results show that CR with both PA and PP fibers form a strong and water-resistant bond with concrete.


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    D. Dicu


    Full Text Available Soil characteristics can exert an influence on the development of root systems, mineral nutrition, providing the required heat treatment and conduct aerohidric main physiological processes, and plants (phytocoenosis, in turn, act both directly and indirectly on the state of soil fertility. In the soil conditions can be defined certain characteristics that may be conducive to land productivity and other properties derived from the first. Attributes such as size and composition of soil, humus content are crucial features, while cationic exchange capacity is determined by the first two and by the mineralogical nature of clay. Similarly, available water capacity can be considered as determined by soil texture and structure. Our research concerns an area of 141,249 ha. (72721ha. in Timis county and 68,528 ha in Arad county, belonging to areas located in Vinga Plain and its connection to the low plains or Lipova hills. The research of ecopedological conditions, data ordering and processing was done according to the Methodology of pedological studies elaboration; (vol I, II, III, developed by ICPA Bucharest in 1987 and the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (SRTS-2003. In assessing of land pretability for culture systems are considered soil factors who determine the degree of suitability, soil texture and soil moisture excess. Pretability estimation can be based on the information contained in existing soil studies in the area but also in the field research conducted on soils representative of a particular physical and geographical space.

  16. Design of Acceptors with Suitable Frontier Molecular Orbitals to Match Donors via Substitutions on Perylene Diimide for Organic Solar Cells. (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoli; Li, Zhuoxin; Li, Songyang; Luan, Guoyou; Liang, Dadong; Tang, Shanshan; Jin, Ruifa


    A series of perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives have been investigated at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G(d) and the TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) levels to design solar cell acceptors with high performance in areas such as suitable frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energies to match oligo(thienylenevinylene) derivatives and improved charge transfer properties. The calculated results reveal that the substituents slightly affect the distribution patterns of FMOs for PDI-BI. The electron withdrawing group substituents decrease the FMO energies of PDI-BI, and the electron donating group substituents slightly affect the FMO energies of PDI-BI. The di-electron withdrawing group substituents can tune the FMOs of PDI-BI to be more suitable for the oligo(thienylenevinylene) derivatives. The electron withdrawing group substituents result in red shifts of absorption spectra and electron donating group substituents result in blue shifts for PDI-BI. The -CN substituent can improve the electron transport properties of PDI-BI. The -CH₃ group in different positions slightly affects the electron transport properties of PDI-BI.

  17. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

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    Gupta Nitin


    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  18. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers


    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Wim H.


    This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Process models, such as the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications, seem to be suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers. However, they must be thoroughly tested in practice.

  19. Characteristics of meat packaging materials and their environmental suitability assessment

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    Šuput Danijela Z.


    Full Text Available After functional phase, packaging becomes waste that is recycled or disposed of in landfills. Recently, numerus packages have been developed for assessing the packaging risk on the environment. We applied Gabi 4 Education software on polymer product packaging for meat products. The objective of first part of the paper was characterization of materials used for meat and meat products packaging in terms of mechanical and barrier properties. Results show that tested materials are able to keep protective atmosphere and contribute to the quality and sustainability of the product. Air permeability was 3.60 and 26.60 ml/m224h, and water vapor was 6.90 and 9.50 ml/m224h, respectively, for foils 1 and 2, as a result of different film composition. In second part, based on real data, Gabi 4 Education software is applied. The obtained results showed that organic compounds emissions have the highest impact on human health and the most damaging environmental impact observed was the emission of CO2.

  20. Assessment of cryopreserved donor skin viability: the experience of the regional tissue bank of Siena. (United States)

    Pianigiani, E; Tognetti, L; Ierardi, F; Mariotti, G; Rubegni, P; Cevenini, G; Perotti, R; Fimiani, M


    Skin allografts from cadaver donors are an important resource for treating extensive burns, slow-healing wounds and chronic ulcers. A high level of cell viability of cryopreserved allografts is often required, especially in burn surgery, in Italy. Thus, we aimed to determine which conditions enable procurement of highly viable skin in our Regional Skin Bank of Siena. For this purpose, we assessed cell viability of cryopreserved skin allografts procured between 2011 and 2013 from 127 consecutive skin donors, before and after freezing (at day 15, 180, and 365). For each skin donor, we collected data concerning clinical history (age, sex, smoking, phototype, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cause of death), donation process (multi-tissue or multi-organ) and timing of skin procurement (assessment of intervals such as death-harvesting, harvesting-banking, death-banking). All these variables were analysed in the whole case study (127 donors) and in different groups (e.g. multi-organ donors, non refrigerated multi-tissue donors, refrigerated multi-tissue donors) for correlations with cell viability. Our results indicated that cryopreserved skin allografts with higher cell viability were obtained from female, non smoker, heartbeating donors died of cerebral haemorrhage, and were harvested within 2 h of aortic clamping and banked within 12 h of harvesting (13-14 h from clamping). Age, cause of death and dyslipidaemia or diabetes did not appear to influence cell viability. To maintain acceptable cell viability, our skin bank needs to reduce the time interval between harvesting and banking, especially for refrigerated donors.

  1. Donor disc attachment assessment with intraoperative spectral optical coherence tomography during descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

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    Edward Wylegala


    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography has already been proven to be useful for pre- and post-surgical anterior eye segment assessment, especially in lamellar keratoplasty procedures. There is no evidence for intraoperative usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT. We present a case report of the intraoperative donor disc attachment assessment with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in case of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK surgery combined with corneal incisions. The effectiveness of the performed corneal stab incisions was visualized directly by OCT scan analysis. OCT assisted DSAEK allows the assessment of the accuracy of the Descemet stripping and donor disc attachment.

  2. Development and validation of a pharmacy migraine questionnaire to assess suitability for treatment with a triptan


    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dowson, Andrew; Whicker, Susan; Bacon, Teresa


    A questionnaire (Migraine Questionnaire; MQ) was developed to help pharmacists identify consumers with migraine suitable for non-prescription treatment with a triptan. Adults, who knew or thought that they had migraine, participated in three, sequential, community-based studies to validate the MQ. Overall, 1,353 subjects completed independent assessments with a pharmacist and a clinician (reference standard). The accuracy of the pharmacist assessment of suitability for a triptan was compared ...

  3. Development and validation of a pharmacy migraine questionnaire to assess suitability for treatment with a triptan. (United States)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dowson, Andrew; Whicker, Susan; Bacon, Teresa


    A questionnaire (Migraine Questionnaire; MQ) was developed to help pharmacists identify consumers with migraine suitable for non-prescription treatment with a triptan. Adults, who knew or thought that they had migraine, participated in three, sequential, community-based studies to validate the MQ. Overall, 1,353 subjects completed independent assessments with a pharmacist and a clinician (reference standard). The accuracy of the pharmacist assessment of suitability for a triptan was compared with the clinician assessment. Clinicians using their standard practice determined that triptan therapy was suitable in 76.8% of cases compared with 48.8% for pharmacists using the MQ. The lack of concordance between pharmacists and clinicians in the false-positive cases (n = 113 of 660 subjects considered suitable for triptan by the pharmacists) usually related to headache diagnosis (57.5%), not safety aspects. The MQ is an effective tool for pharmacists to guide appropriate recommendation of a non-prescription triptan for migraine.

  4. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using bibliographic information to assess pet suitability of mammal species

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    Paul eKoene


    Full Text Available Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health and/or human-animal interaction, resulting for example in stereotypies, disease and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human-animal relationship (HAR of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g. birds, reptiles and amphibians.

  5. Components of pain assessment after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ergun, M.; Berkers, A.W.; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Ozdemir-Brunschot, D. van; Vliet, J.A. van der; D'Ancona, F.C.H.; Warle, M.C.


    BACKGROUND: Pain after laparoscopic surgery can be divided into three components: incisional or superficial wound pain, deep intra-abdominal pain and referred shoulder pain. Better understanding and adequate assessment of post-operative pain may be an important clue to the optimisation of recovery a

  6. Guidelines for the assessment and acceptance of potential brain-dead organ donors (United States)

    Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; Garcia, Valter Duro; de Souza, Rafael Lisboa; Franke, Cristiano Augusto; Vieira, Kalinca Daberkow; Birckholz, Viviane Renata Zaclikevis; Machado, Miriam Cristine; de Almeida, Eliana Régia Barbosa; Machado, Fernando Osni; Sardinha, Luiz Antônio da Costa; Wanzuita, Raquel; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo Soares; Costa, Gerson; Braatz, Vera; Caldeira Filho, Milton; Furtado, Rodrigo; Tannous, Luana Alves; de Albuquerque, André Gustavo Neves; Abdala, Edson; Gonçalves, Anderson Ricardo Roman; Pacheco-Moreira, Lúcio Filgueiras; Dias, Fernando Suparregui; Fernandes, Rogério; Giovanni, Frederico Di; de Carvalho, Frederico Bruzzi; Fiorelli, Alfredo; Teixeira, Cassiano; Feijó, Cristiano; Camargo, Spencer Marcantonio; de Oliveira, Neymar Elias; David, André Ibrahim; Prinz, Rafael Augusto Dantas; Herranz, Laura Brasil; de Andrade, Joel


    Organ transplantation is the only alternative for many patients with terminal diseases. The increasing disproportion between the high demand for organ transplants and the low rate of transplants actually performed is worrisome. Some of the causes of this disproportion are errors in the identification of potential organ donors and in the determination of contraindications by the attending staff. Therefore, the aim of the present document is to provide guidelines for intensive care multi-professional staffs for the recognition, assessment and acceptance of potential organ donors. PMID:27737418

  7. Assessing the suitability of medial sural artery perforator flaps in tongue reconstruction – An outcome study (United States)

    Kwon, Soo-Ha; Tsai, Chia-Hsuan; Chang, Kai-Ping; Kao, Huang-Kai


    Introduction Oncological resection of the tongue can be reconstructed using a multitude of free flaps. The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap has been well described in the literature in terms of its anatomy and harvest. However, functional outcome studies of post-reconstruction tongue defects using the MSAP flap have not been reported. This study represents the largest outcome study of patients with tongue reconstructions using MSAP flaps and a comprehensive review of its use. Materials and methods From December of 2010 to October of 2015, 579 patients with subtotal glossectomy and free flap reconstructions in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. 27 patients were reconstructed with MSAP flap. The pre- and intra-operative factors, as well as flap-related factors were analyzed. Post-operative complications and functional outcomes were evaluated. Donor site assessment were also conducted. Results A 96.3% flap survival rate was found with an average total operating time of 6 hours and 18 minutes. 84.6% of patients had primary closure of the donor site with and the remaining either had skin grafts or delayed closure. Donor site closure can be achieved primarily with no functional deficit. Speech intelligibility remained for most patients. 100% of patients resumed normal oral feeding. Conclusion The MSAP flap is a small to medium sized flap most suited for subtotal glossectomy defects where optimal outcomes can be achieved in terms of speech clarity and restoration of oral intake. PMID:28182639

  8. Assessing Land Suitability for Rainwater Harvesting Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of Njoro Catchment, Kenya

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    C. W. Maina


    Full Text Available Water demand increases as population increases leading to overexploitation of water resource. Consequently, there is need for improved water resources management complemented with rain water harvesting within the catchments. This study sought to assess land suitability for surface runoff harvesting using geospatial techniques. Land use/land cover maps of the area were derived from Landsat image. Land use and soils data were used in generating curve number map of the catchment. Lineaments greatly affect the storage depending on whether runoff is for surface storage or ground water recharge purposes. As a result, ArcGIS was used in delineating the lineaments from Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the catchment. Further, using weighted overlay the catchment was grouped into categories of restricted, not suitable, moderately suitable, suitable, or highly suitable. The study found that forest, agriculture, and built-up areas occupied about 39.42%, 36.32%, and 1.35% of catchment area, respectively. A large part of catchment was found to have curve number range of 82–89. About 50% of the catchment was found to fall within suitable and highly suitable categories. This implied that a great potential exists for rain water harvesting within the catchment.

  9. Suitability estimation for urban development using multi-hazard assessment map. (United States)

    Bathrellos, George D; Skilodimou, Hariklia D; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Youssef, Ahmed M; Pradhan, Biswajeet


    Preparation of natural hazards maps are vital and essential for urban development. The main scope of this study is to synthesize natural hazard maps in a single multi-hazard map and thus to identify suitable areas for the urban development. The study area is the drainage basin of Xerias stream (Northeastern Peloponnesus, Greece) that has frequently suffered damages from landslides, floods and earthquakes. Landslide, flood and seismic hazard assessment maps were separately generated and further combined by applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce a multi-hazard map. This map represents the potential suitability map for urban development in the study area and was evaluated by means of uncertainty analysis. The outcome revealed that the most suitable areas are distributed in the southern part of the study area, where the landslide, flood and seismic hazards are at low and very low level. The uncertainty analysis shows small differences on the spatial distribution of the suitability zones. The produced suitability map for urban development proves a satisfactory agreement between the suitability zones and the landslide and flood phenomena that have affected the study area. Finally, 40% of the existing urban pattern boundaries and 60% of the current road network are located within the limits of low and very low suitability zones.

  10. Evaluation of potential kidney donors with the personality assessment inventory: normative data for a unique population. (United States)

    Hurst, Duane F; Locke, Dona E C; Osborne, David


    Many transplant centers require personality assessment and/or psychiatric clearance prior to allowing an individual to donate a kidney. This is a unique cohort for personality assessment, and there is no normative information available for this population on standardized self-report measures such as the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). We evaluated a prospective sample of 434 kidney donor candidates with development of normative T-scores relevant to this specific comparison group. Compared to the original normative group from the PAI manual, potential kidney donors are 5-7 T-score points above the mean on PIM, RXR, DOM, and WRM and 4-6 points below the mean on the majority of the remaining scales. Raw score/T score conversion tables are provided. The normative data provided here is meant to supplement the original normative information and aid psychologists in evaluation of this unique medical population.

  11. Model suitability to assess regional potato yield patterns in northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltani Largani, A.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Veldkamp, A.


    A wide range of scenario studies aiming at rural development require regional patterns of crop yield. This study aims to evaluate three different modeling approaches for their suitability to assess regional potato yield patterns. The three model approaches include (1) an empirical model; (2) a proce

  12. 78 FR 26056 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland, TX (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland... proposed expansion of its Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) facility in Nederland, Texas, and increased LHG... solicit public comments on the proposed increase in LHG marine traffic in Nederland, Texas....

  13. Suitability of voltage stability study methods for real-time assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Angel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Vancraeyveld, Pieter;


    This paper analyzes the suitability of existing methods for long-term voltage stability assessment for real-time operation. An overview of the relevant methods is followed with a comparison that takes into account the accuracy, computational efficiency and characteristics when used for security...

  14. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange... (United States)


    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied...

  15. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail:; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)


    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

  16. An Expert-Based Assessment Model for Evaluating Habitat Suitability of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ruoh Juang


    Full Text Available Farm ponds are important habitats for amphibians, birds, and other wildlife. In Taiwan, artificial ponds were originally created on farmlands for irrigation purposes and the needs of the domestic water supply. Although pond creation is a typical farming practice, it also provides habitats for pond-breeding amphibians. Thus, it is essential to understand the current status of habitats and their vulnerability regarding urgent conservation needs for target species. Günther’s frog (Hylarana guentheri, a pond-breeding amphibian, has a high sensitivity towards surrounding environmental changes, and can be used as an indicator species to assess habitat suitability. The purpose of this study is to establish a systematic framework to assess the habitat suitability of pond-breeding amphibians by using Günther’s frog as a pilot-study species. First, we collected frog survey data from Chiayi, Taiwan, from winter 2013 to spring 2015, and investigated the present status of the environmental conditions around the ponds. Next, expert questionnaires and the fuzzy Delphi method were applied to establish the hierarchical evaluation criteria regarding the habitat suitability assessment. Four indicators: the aquatic environments of farm ponds; the terrestrial environments around ponds; landscape connectivity; and the conservation perceptions of the residents, were determined as first-layer factors in the assessment criteria, while ten other indicators were defined as second-layer factors. Based on the established assessment criteria, we performed in situ habitat suitability evaluations on 69 selected sites and surveyed the perceptions of the residents using questionnaires. Results revealed that 19% of locations were rich in frog species with a high habitat suitability. However, 67% of locations showed signs of habitat degradation, which may imply a higher need in practicing habitat improvement or restoration. The Kappa value was 0.6061, which indicated a high

  17. GIS-Based Assessment of Land Suitability for Optimal Allocation in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jie-Yong; GUO Li-Ying


    A GIS-based method was used to assess land suitability in the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province of China through simultaneous consideration of physical features and current land use. Through interpretation of Landsat TM images and extensive field visits the area was modeled into 40 land types in five altitudinal zones (valleys and gullies, hillsides and terraces, foothills, mid-mountain, and sub-alpine mountain). Then, a suitability score was assigned to five physical factors (climate, hydrology, topography, soil, and vegetation). Next, their integrated overall suitability value scores were compared with the observed land cover to determine whether it should be reallocated a new use. Results showed that the five suitability classes of agriculture, forest, grassland, farmland-woodland, and scrub-pasture had altitudinal stratification and a total of 1 151 km2 (8.89%) of lands on the northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains had to be reallocated. To achieve this reallocation, 657 km2 of arable land should be reduced, and forest, grassland and scrub-pasture increased by 615 km2, 131 km2 and 405 km2, respectively. Implementation of these recommended land reallocations should help achieve suitable use of land resources and prevent land degradation.

  18. Assessing the Application of a Geographic Presence-Only Model for Land Suitability Mapping. (United States)

    Heumann, Benjamin W; Walsh, Stephen J; McDaniel, Phillip M


    Recent advances in ecological modeling have focused on novel methods for characterizing the environment that use presence-only data and machine-learning algorithms to predict the likelihood of species occurrence. These novel methods may have great potential for land suitability applications in the developing world where detailed land cover information is often unavailable or incomplete. This paper assesses the adaptation and application of the presence-only geographic species distribution model, MaxEnt, for agricultural crop suitability mapping in a rural Thailand where lowland paddy rice and upland field crops predominant. To assess this modeling approach, three independent crop presence datasets were used including a social-demographic survey of farm households, a remote sensing classification of land use/land cover, and ground control points, used for geodetic and thematic reference that vary in their geographic distribution and sample size. Disparate environmental data were integrated to characterize environmental settings across Nang Rong District, a region of approximately 1,300 sq. km in size. Results indicate that the MaxEnt model is capable of modeling crop suitability for upland and lowland crops, including rice varieties, although model results varied between datasets due to the high sensitivity of the model to the distribution of observed crop locations in geographic and environmental space. Accuracy assessments indicate that model outcomes were influenced by the sample size and the distribution of sample points in geographic and environmental space. The need for further research into accuracy assessments of presence-only models lacking true absence data is discussed. We conclude that the Maxent model can provide good estimates of crop suitability, but many areas need to be carefully scrutinized including geographic distribution of input data and assessment methods to ensure realistic modeling results.

  19. Assessment of brown trout habitat suitability in the Jucar River Basin (SPAIN): comparison of data-driven approaches with fuzzy-logic models and univariate suitability curves. (United States)

    Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Schneider, Matthias; Mouton, Ans M


    The implementation of the Water Framework Directive implies the determination of an environmental flow (E-flow) in each running water body. In Spain, many of the minimum flow assessments were determined with the physical habitat simulation system based on univariate habitat suitability curves. Multivariate habitat suitability models, widely applied in habitat assessment, are potentially more accurate than univariate suitability models. This article analyses the microhabitat selection by medium-sized (10-20 cm) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in three streams of the Jucar River Basin District (eastern Iberian Peninsula). The data were collected with an equal effort sampling approach. Univariate habitat suitability curves were built with a data-driven process for depth, mean velocity and substrate classes; three types of data-driven fuzzy models were generated with the FISH software: two models of presence-absence and a model of abundance. FISH applies a hill-climbing algorithm to optimize the fuzzy rules. A hydraulic model was calibrated with the tool River-2D in a segment of the Cabriel River (Jucar River Basin). The fuzzy-logic models and three methods to produce a suitability index from the three univariate curves were applied to evaluate the river habitat in the tool CASiMiR©. The comparison of results was based on the spatial arrangement of habitat suitability and the curves of weighted usable area versus discharge. The differences were relevant in different aspects, e.g. in the estimated minimum environmental flow according to the Spanish legal norm for hydrological planning. This work demonstrates the impact of the model's selection on the habitat suitability modelling and the assessment of environmental flows, based on an objective data-driven procedure; the conclusions are important for the water management in the Jucar River Basin and other river systems in Europe, where the environmental flows are a keystone for the achievement of the goals established

  20. Assessing Land Suitability for Rainwater Harvesting Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of Njoro Catchment, Kenya


    Maina, C. W.; J. M. Raude


    Water demand increases as population increases leading to overexploitation of water resource. Consequently, there is need for improved water resources management complemented with rain water harvesting within the catchments. This study sought to assess land suitability for surface runoff harvesting using geospatial techniques. Land use/land cover maps of the area were derived from Landsat image. Land use and soils data were used in generating curve number map of the catchment. Lineaments grea...

  1. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.


    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  2. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich


    Full Text Available Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  3. Children as donors: a national study to assess procurement of organs and tissues in pediatric intensive care units. (United States)

    Siebelink, Marion J; Albers, Marcel J I J; Roodbol, Petrie F; Van de Wiel, Harry B M


    A shortage of size-matched organs and tissues is the key factor limiting transplantation in children. Empirical data on procurement from pediatric donors is sparse. This study investigated donor identification, parental consent, and effectuation rates, as well as adherence to the national protocol. A national retrospective cohort study was conducted in all eight Dutch pediatric intensive care units. Records of deceased children were analyzed by an independent donation officer. Seventy-four (11%) of 683 deceased children were found to be suitable for organ donation and 132 (19%) for tissue donation. Sixty-two (84%) potential organ donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 42%. Sixty-three (48%) potential tissue donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 27%. Correct identification increased with age (logistic regression, organs: P = .024; tissues: P = .011). Although an overall identification rate of 84% of potential organ donors may seem acceptable, the variation observed suggests room for improvement, as does the overall low rate of identification of pediatric tissue donors. Efforts to address the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation in children should focus on identifying potential donors and on the reasons why parents do not consent.

  4. Assessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge Site Suitability Using a GIS and Modeling. (United States)

    Russo, Tess A; Fisher, Andrew T; Lockwood, Brian S


    We completed a two-step regional analysis of a coastal groundwater basin to (1) assess regional suitability for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), and (2) quantify the relative impact of MAR activities on groundwater levels and sea water intrusion. The first step comprised an analysis of surface and subsurface hydrologic properties and conditions, using a geographic information system (GIS). Surface and subsurface data coverages were compiled, georeferenced, reclassified, and integrated (including novel approaches for combining related datasets) to derive a spatial distribution of MAR suitability values. In the second step, results from the GIS analysis were used with a regional groundwater model to assess the hydrologic impact of potential MAR placement and operating scenarios. For the region evaluated in this study, the Pajaro Valley Groundwater Basin, California, GIS results suggest that about 7% (15 km2) of the basin may be highly suitable for MAR. Modeling suggests that simulated MAR projects placed near the coast help to reduce sea water intrusion more rapidly, but these projects also result in increased groundwater flows to the ocean. In contrast, projects placed farther inland result in more long-term reduction in sea water intrusion and less groundwater flowing to the ocean. This work shows how combined GIS analysis and modeling can assist with regional water supply planning, including evaluation of options for enhancing groundwater resources.

  5. Suitability assessment of health education brochures in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulat Jahan


    Full Text Available Background: Health education is the cornerstone of primary health care. Health education materials distributed to the community should, therefore, be suitable and effective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health education brochures, designed and disseminated by Ministry of Health institutions in the Qassim province. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional review of health education brochures. We used a structured evaluation form, comprising general information on the brochures and a modified Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM score sheet. The SAM consisting of 22 criteria in six groups, includes content, literacy demands, graphics, layout/typography, learning stimulation/motivation, and cultural appropriateness. SAM criteria categorize written material into "superior," "adequate" and "not suitable." Two qualified consultant family physicians evaluated the brochures. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.4 statistical package. Results: We evaluated 110 brochures, the majority of which addressed chronic health conditions such as mental health, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Seventy-four (67.3% brochures were evaluated as "adequate," 34 (30.9% as "not suitable" and 2 (1.8% as "superior." "Cultural appropriateness" was the highest scoring factor, with 92 (83.6% brochures falling into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. With regard to "content," 88 (80.0% brochures fell into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. This was the second highest scoring factor. Graphics was the factor that scored the least. Seventy-five (68.2% brochures were rated in this factor as "not suitable." Conclusions: Although two-thirds of our brochures were considered "adequate," the majority needed improvement to their graphics and learning stimulation factors. We recommend that guidelines for designing health education brochures should be formulated to improve the quality of health education brochures.

  6. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas


    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics.

  7. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Alsulaiman


    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04–June 08. Of those, 65 (40% proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5% did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88% were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P=0.00004. Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out.

  8. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital. (United States)

    Alsulaiman, Thamer; Mark, Stephen; Armstrong, Sarah; McGregor, David


    Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04-June 08. Of those, 65 (40%) proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5%) did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88%) were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P = 0.00004). Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out.

  9. Use of a Three Dimensional Printed Cardiac Model to Assess Suitability for Biventricular Repair. (United States)

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Gonzalez-Lengua, Carlos; Shenoy, Rajesh; Sanz, Javier; Nguyen, Khanh


    Three dimensional (3D) printing is rapidly gaining interest in the medical field for use in presurgical planning. We present the case of a seven-year-old boy with double outlet right ventricle who underwent a bidirectional Glenn anastomosis. We used a 3D cardiac model to assess his suitability for a biventricular repair. He underwent a left ventricle-to-aorta baffle with a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit placement. He did well postoperatively and was discharged home with no evidence of baffle obstruction and good biventricular function. A 3D printed model can provide invaluable intracardiac spatial information in these complex patients.

  10. Win percentage: a novel measure for assessing the suitability of machine classifiers for biological problems (United States)


    Background Selecting an appropriate classifier for a particular biological application poses a difficult problem for researchers and practitioners alike. In particular, choosing a classifier depends heavily on the features selected. For high-throughput biomedical datasets, feature selection is often a preprocessing step that gives an unfair advantage to the classifiers built with the same modeling assumptions. In this paper, we seek classifiers that are suitable to a particular problem independent of feature selection. We propose a novel measure, called "win percentage", for assessing the suitability of machine classifiers to a particular problem. We define win percentage as the probability a classifier will perform better than its peers on a finite random sample of feature sets, giving each classifier equal opportunity to find suitable features. Results First, we illustrate the difficulty in evaluating classifiers after feature selection. We show that several classifiers can each perform statistically significantly better than their peers given the right feature set among the top 0.001% of all feature sets. We illustrate the utility of win percentage using synthetic data, and evaluate six classifiers in analyzing eight microarray datasets representing three diseases: breast cancer, multiple myeloma, and neuroblastoma. After initially using all Gaussian gene-pairs, we show that precise estimates of win percentage (within 1%) can be achieved using a smaller random sample of all feature pairs. We show that for these data no single classifier can be considered the best without knowing the feature set. Instead, win percentage captures the non-zero probability that each classifier will outperform its peers based on an empirical estimate of performance. Conclusions Fundamentally, we illustrate that the selection of the most suitable classifier (i.e., one that is more likely to perform better than its peers) not only depends on the dataset and application but also on the

  11. Suitability assessment of health education brochures in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Jahan, Saulat; Al-Saigul, Abdullah M.; Alharbi, Ali M.; Abdelgadir, Muzamil H.


    Background: Health education is the cornerstone of primary health care. Health education materials distributed to the community should, therefore, be suitable and effective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health education brochures, designed and disseminated by Ministry of Health institutions in the Qassim province. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional review of health education brochures. We used a structured evaluation form, comprising general information on the brochures and a modified Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) score sheet. The SAM consisting of 22 criteria in six groups, includes content, literacy demands, graphics, layout/typography, learning stimulation/motivation, and cultural appropriateness. SAM criteria categorize written material into “superior,” “adequate” and “not suitable.” Two qualified consultant family physicians evaluated the brochures. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.4 statistical package. Results: We evaluated 110 brochures, the majority of which addressed chronic health conditions such as mental health, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Seventy-four (67.3%) brochures were evaluated as “adequate,” 34 (30.9%) as “not suitable” and 2 (1.8%) as “superior.” “Cultural appropriateness” was the highest scoring factor, with 92 (83.6%) brochures falling into either the “superior” or “adequate” category. With regard to “content,” 88 (80.0%) brochures fell into either the “superior” or “adequate” category. This was the second highest scoring factor. Graphics was the factor that scored the least. Seventy-five (68.2%) brochures were rated in this factor as “not suitable.” Conclusions: Although two-thirds of our brochures were considered “adequate,” the majority needed improvement to their graphics and learning stimulation factors. We recommend that guidelines for designing health education brochures should be formulated to improve the

  12. Assessment of Geological Security and Integrated Assessment Geo-environmental Suitability in Worst-hit Areas in Wenchuan Quake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenpeng; WEN Dongguang; ZHOU Aiguo; SUN Xiaoming; MENG Hui; SHI Jusong; CHEN Zongyu; XHANG Liqin; FENG Xiaoming; LIU Changli; ZHOU Jianwei


    The Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and geo-hazards triggered by the earthquake caused large injuries and deaths as well as destructive damage for infrastructures like construction, traffic and electricity. It is urgent to select relatively secure areas for townships and cities constructed in high mountainous regions with high magnitude earthquakes. This paper presents the basic thoughts, evaluation indices and evaluation methods of geological security evaluation, water and land resources security demonstration and integrated assessments of geo-environmental suitability for reconstruction in alp and ravine with high magnitude earthquakes, which are applied in the worst-hit areas (12 counties). The integrated assessment shows that: (1) located in the Longmenshan fault zone, the evaluated area is of poor regional crust stability, in which the unstable and second unstable areas account for 79% of the total; (2) the geo-hazards susceptibility is high in the evaluation area. The spots of geo-hazards triggered by earthquake are mainly distributed along the active fault zone with higher distribution in the moderate and high mountains area, in which the areas of high and moderate susceptibility zoning accounts for 40.1% of the total; (3) geological security is poor in the evaluated area, in which the area of the unsuitable construction occupies 73.1%, whereas in the suitable construction area, the areas of geological security, second security and insecurity zoning account for 8.3%, 9.3% and 9.3% of the evaluated area respectively; (4) geo-environmental suitability is poor in the evaluated area, in which the areas of suitability and basic suitability zoning account for 3.5% and 7.3% of the whole evaluation area.

  13. Integrated and holistic suitability assessment of recycling options for masonry rubble (United States)

    Herbst, T.; Rübner, K.; Meng, B.


    Our industrial society depends on continuous mining and consumption of raw materials and energy. Besides, the building sector causes one of the largest material streams in Germany. On the one hand, the building sector is connected with a high need in material and energetic resources as well as financial expenditures. On the other hand, nearly 50 % of the volume of waste arises from the building industry. During the last years, the limitation of natural resources, increasing negative environmental consequences as well as rising prices and shortages of dump space have led to a change in thinking in the building and waste industry to a closed substance cycle waste management. In consideration of the production figures of the main kinds of masonry units (clay bricks, sand-lime bricks, autoclaved aerated concrete brick, concrete blocks), a not unimportant quantity of masonry rubble (including gypsum plaster boards, renders, mortars and mineral insulating materials) of more than 20 million tons per year is generated in the medium term. With regard to a sustainable closed substance cycle waste management, these rest masses have to be recycled if possible. Processed aggregates made from masonry rubble can be recycled in the production of new masonry units under certain conditions. Even carefully deconstructed masonry units can once more re-used as masonry units, particularly in the area of the preservation of monuments and historical buildings. In addition, masonry rubble in different processing qualities is applied in earth and road construction, horticulture and scenery construction as well as concrete production. The choice of the most suitable recycling option causes technical, economical and ecological questions. At present, a methodology for a comprehensive suitability assessment with a passable scope of work does not exist. Basic structured and structuring information on the recycling of masonry rubble is absent up to now. This as well as the economic and technical

  14. Landscape-level Connectivity in Coastal Southern California, USA, as Assessed through Carnivore Habitat Suitability (United States)

    Hunter, R.D.; Fisher, R.N.; Crooks, K.R.


    Although the fragmentation of the natural landscape of coastal southern California, USA, is accelerating, large-scale assessments of regional connectivity are lacking. Because of their large area requirements and long dispersal movements, mammalian carnivores can be effective focal species to use when evaluating landscape-level connectivity. Our goal was to make an initial assessment of the extent of landscape-level connectivity in coastal southern California using mountain lions (Felis concolor [Linnaeusl) and bobcats (Felis rufus [Shreber]) as focal species. We first characterized habitat preferences for mountain lions and bobcats from previously derived habitat relationship models for these species; the resulting maps provided a coarse view of habitat preferences for use at regional scales. We then constructed GIS models to evaluate the disturbance impact of roadways and development, major determinants of carnivore distribution and abundance in the south coast region. Finally, we combined the habitat relationship models with the disturbance impact models to characterize habitat connectivity for mountain lions and bobcats in the ecoregion. Habitat connectivity in the ecoregion appeared higher for bobcats than for mountain lions due in part to higher habitat suitability for bobcats in coastal lowland areas. Our models suggest that much of the key carnivore habitat in the coastal southern California is at risk; over 80% of high suitability habitat and over 90% of medium suitability habitat for carnivores is found in the least protected land management classes. Overall, these models allow for (1) identification of core habitat blocks for carnivores and key landscape connections between core areas, (2) evaluation of the level of protection of these areas, and (3) a regional framework within which to develop and coordinate local management and conservation plans.

  15. Assessing Donor Site Complications of Iliac Crest Bone Graft in Treatment of Scaphoid Nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Jafari


    Full Text Available Background Bone grafting is a common surgical technique to augment bone regeneration in orthopedic surgery. Autologous bone graft harvesting is the reliable treatment option and iliac crest is the most common harvesting site for healing bone fractures. However, the results of iliac crest bone graft harvesting are associated with morbidity and a number of complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess donor site complications of scaphoid nonunion, to find clinical outcomes and the impact of iliac crest bone graft on age, gender, pain, numbness, itching, nerve injury and scar appearance of patients. Methods In a prospective review of 61 cases of iliac crest bone graft procedures at the Shafa hospital from 2013 to 2014, complications including pain, infection, hematoma, stress fracture, hypertrophic scars, numbness area and itching were assessed clinically. Results Pain identified as the most common complication. The most common complications following postoperative pain at the donor site that reduced after six weeks were: numbness 3.27%, unsatisfactory scar appearance 3.27% and itching discomfort 1.63%. Conclusions Harvesting of iliac crest bone graft can be the ideal way to prepare graft procedures required surgery scaphoid nonunion fractures with minimal complications. Nevertheless, with an adequate preoperative planning and appropriate surgical technique, the prevalence of these complications can be reduced.

  16. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess Site Suitability for Managed Aquifer Recharge using Stormwater Capture (United States)

    Teo, E. K.; Harmon, R. E.; Beganskas, S.; Young, K. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Weir, W. B.; Lozano, S.


    We are completing a regional analysis of Santa Cruz and northern Monterey Counties, CA, to assess the conditions amenable to managed aquifer recharge using stormwater runoff. Communities and water supply agencies across CA are struggling to mitigate the ongoing drought and to develop secure and sustainable water supplies to support long-term municipal, agricultural, environmental and other needs. Enhanced storage of groundwater is an important part of this effort in many basins. This work is especially timely because of the recently enacted "Sustainable Groundwater Management Act" (SGMA), which requires the development of groundwater sustainability agencies and implementation of basin management plans in coming decades. Our analysis focuses specifically on the distributed collection of stormwater runoff, a water source that has typically been treated as a nuisance or waste, from drainages having an area on the order of 40-160 hectares. The first part of this project is a geographic information system (GIS) analysis using surface and subsurface data sets. Developing complete and accurate datasets across the study region required considerable effort to locate, assemble, co-register, patch, and reconcile information from many sources and scales. We have complete spatial coverage for surface data, but subsurface data is more limited in lateral extent. Sites that are most suitable for distributed stormwater capture supporting MAR have high soil infiltration capacity, are well-connected to an underlying aquifer with good transmissive and storage properties, and have space to receive MAR. Additional considerations include method of infiltration, slope, and land use and access. Based on initial consideration of surface data and slope, 7% of the complete study region appears to be "suitable or highly suitable" for MAR (in the top third of the rating system), but there is considerable spatial heterogeneity based on the distribution of shallow soils and bedrock geology.

  17. Assessing the suitability of recycled plastics used as agricultural soil covers: migration study and experimental harvest. (United States)

    Nerín, C; Batlle, R


    The present work is focused on evaluating the suitability of recycling postconsumer agricultural plastic films again for the same use. The criteria to assess the suitability was based on migration study. Both overall and specific migration tests were performed, and the results obtained (ranging from 0.14 to 1.27 mg/dm(2) for overall migration and from not detectable to 6.98 microg/dm(2) for specific migration) show how, from this point of view, the recycled material can be safely proposed to be used again as agricultural soil covers. A theoretical discussion about the migration process is also presented and a simple mathematical model was applied to the data obtained, showing how total migration which is experimentally detected is theoretically predictable. These conclusions found were used to design and develop a controlled crop of tomato by using this recycled film. The use of the recycled plastic in the whole process and the behavior and properties of the pesticides absorbed in the postconsumer film are discussed.

  18. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.


    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  19. Assessment of water quality and suitability analysis of River Ganga in Rishikesh, India (United States)

    Haritash, A. K.; Gaur, Shalini; Garg, Sakshi


    The water samples were collected from River Ganga in Rishikesh during December 2008 to assess its suitability for drinking, irrigation, and industrial usages using various indices. Based on the values obtained and suggested designated best use, water in upper segment can be used for drinking but after disinfection (Class A); organized outdoor bathing in middle segment (Class B); and can be used as drinking water source (Class C) in lower segment in Rishikesh. All the parameters were within the specified limits for drinking water quality except E. coli. The indices of suitability for irrigation and industrial application were also evaluated. The irrigation quality ranged from good to excellent at almost all places with the exception of percent sodium. The abundance of major ions followed K+> Ca2+> Cl- > HCO3 - > Na+> Mg2+> CO3 2- trend. The major cations suggested that the water is alkaline (Na + K) than alkaline earth (Ca + Mg) type. The heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni) were found either absent or within the limits specified. There was no specific industrial input of pollutants. Industrial applications of the river water should be limited since the water was found to be aggressive, based on Langelier saturation index (0.3) and Ryznar stability index (8.8), with the problem of heavy to intolerable corrosion. Water quality of Ganga in Rishikesh was good with exception of most probable number (MPN) which needs regular monitoring and measures to control.

  20. Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schermeyer


    Full Text Available Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data.

  1. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)


    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  2. Assessment of water pollution and suitability to fish life in six Italian rivers. (United States)

    Barghigiani, C; Ristori, T; Scerbo, R; Cini, C; Nottoli, R; Moschini, L; Giaconi, V


    This paper reports the results of a monitoring programme of six rivers (Serchio, Cecina, Cascina, ERa, Elsa and Pavone) that drain north-west Tuscany (Italy). In this area, agricultural, industrial and urbanization pressures affect water quality, also in terms of suitability for the survival of aquatic organisms. The river waters were monitored for several physico-chemical parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, total ammonia, nitrites, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) in order to assess the anthropogenic impact on the environmental conditions of these watercourses and their suitability for fish life. Statistical data handling was performed for each river and the percentage of physico-chemical parameters that, according to the E.C. law, were over the limits that must not be exceeded to protect fish life, was calculated and a classification was made of the six rivers in this sense. Concerning the metals, inter-element relationships (between chromium and nichel, lead and copper, nichel and lead and copper, copper and lead) were found which allow some remarks on the origins of the anthropogenic impacts, and comparisons were made with two metal-polluted watercourses in northern Italy, the Po and Lambro rivers. From the comparison, the Tuscan rivers showed generally lower metal contamination, especially with respect to the Lambro.

  3. Nutrition assessment and counseling of the medically complex live kidney donor. (United States)

    Bergen, Carol R; Reese, Peter P; Collins, Donna


    Kidney transplantation is the preferred option for patients with end-stage renal disease facing the need for dialysis because it provides maximum survival benefit. The number of people seeking kidney transplantation greatly exceeds available deceased donor organs. Organs from live donors provide a survival advantage over organs from deceased donors while also broadening the pool of available organs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical guidelines that pertain to live kidney organ donation and to describe the nutrition evaluation and care of live kidney donors. The process for living kidney donation is dictated by policies centered on protecting the donor. In a perfect world, the living donor would present with a flawless medical examination and a benign family health history. The obesity epidemic has emerged as a major health concern. Live donor programs are faced with evaluating increasing numbers of obese candidates. These "medically complex donors" may present with obesity and its associated comorbid conditions, including hypertension, impaired glycemic control, and kidney stone disease. The dietitian's role in the live donor program is not well defined. Participation in the living donor selection meeting, where details of the evaluation are summarized, provides a platform for risk stratification and identification of donors who are at increased lifetime risk for poor personal health outcomes. Guiding the donor toward maintenance of a healthy weight through diet and lifestyle choices is a legitimate goal to minimize future health risks.

  4. Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and Their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Henders


    Full Text Available This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites for leakage assessment in REDD. We then analyzed a total of 34 quantification methods for leakage emissions from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS, the Climate Action Reserve (CAR, the CarbonFix Standard (CFS, and from scientific literature sources. We screened these methods for the leakage aspects they address in terms of leakage type, tools used for quantification and the geographical scale covered. Results show that leakage methods can be grouped into nine main methodological approaches, six of which could fulfill the recommended REDD leakage requirements if approaches for primary and secondary leakage are combined. The majority of methods assessed, address either primary or secondary leakage; the former mostly on a local or regional and the latter on national scale. The VCS is found to be the only carbon accounting standard at present to fulfill all leakage quantification requisites in REDD. However, a lack of accounting methods was identified for international leakage, which was addressed by only two methods, both from scientific literature.

  5. Assessment of Irrigation Land Suitability and Development of Map for the Fogera Catchment Using GIS, South Gondar

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    Dagnenet Sultan


    Full Text Available Irrigation land suitability assessment and mapping play an imperative role for sustainable utilization of scarce physical land resources. The objectives of this study were to prepare spatial data base of physical land resources for irrigated agriculture and to assess land suitability for irrigation and developing suitable area map for the study area. The study was conducted at Fogera catchment, South Gondar. Soil and water sampling spots were selected based on free and grid survey techniques and their locations were taken using Global Positioning System (GPS. Geographical Information System (GIS techniques were used to develop irrigation land suitability map of the study area. Attributes of parameters were collected and used for suitability assessment. Attributes used as criteria for irrigation suitability analysis were ECe, ESP, soil depth, texture, pH, top and sub soil stoniness, water table depth, flood hazard, ground water quality (SAR and EC and slope. Point data with their attribute were arranged and proximity analysis of Arc-GIS was made this resulted into twelve mapping units. The final irrigation suitability map of the project area was derived after overlay analysis. On the basis of stoniness, soil salinity, soil alkalinity, soil depth and groundwater quality it was concluded that 72 percent of the study area is potentially suitable for irrigation and 28 percent was classified as unsuitable (N due to drainage limitation, flood hazard, texture and slope factors. Of the potentially suitable land, 1 percent was highly suitable (S1, 28 percent was moderately suitable (S2, and 43 percent is marginally suitable (S3.

  6. Assessing anxiety levels and empathic tendency in blood and platelet donors. (United States)

    Kılıç, Suar Çakı; Doğan, Erdoğan; Sevimligül, Gülgün; Yücel, Birsen; Bolat, Fatih; Kavakçı, Onder; Sencan, Mehmet


    In spite of a constantly-increasing requirement for blood transfusion in the world, blood donation does not exhibit an increase at the same rate. In Turkey with a population of 74 million, only 15 per 10,000 people donate blood regularly and rate of voluntary blood donation is very low compared to developed countries. The aim of this study is to determine empathic level of donors and anxiety levels of blood and platelet donors and also to enable comfort and motivation of donors by taking precautions for reducing their anxieties. This prospective and descriptive study was conducted with 100 voluntary donors (50 blood donors, 50 platelet donors) who admitted to Blood Centre of Cumhuriyet University Hospital between 15 March 2012 and 30 April 2012. Average age of these donors was 27 (19-48)years. The mean scores of donors from Empathic Tendency Scale (ETS), State Anxiety Invertory (SAI) and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) were 70 (49-83), 40 (33-45) and 34 (30-44), respectively. ETS score of those donating blood/platelet for the first time was low, >1 is higher in those who donated previously. SAI and TAI scores of blood donors were higher than those of platelet donors (pempathy. Donation made during the continuous disclosure is an important factor for being a donor.

  7. Land Use Suitability Assessment in Low-Slope Hilly Regions under the Impact of Urbanization in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Jin


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the conflict between land development and land conservation has become increasingly serious in China. The plan called “town of mountain” is carried out in many nonplain areas to alleviate the conflict. To avoid geological disasters and ecological risks in those areas, land use suitability assessment is of great importance. In this paper, the fuzzy weight of evidence model is applied into land use suitability assessment in low-slope hilly regions in Yunnan, China. Fuzzy weight of evidences is calculated to determine 9 map layers. Finally, posterior probabilities are modified after synthesizing each map layer, which are used to generate a land use suitability map. The results show that 9.33%, 26.18%, 45.98%, and 18.51% of low-slope hilly regions are separately highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and unsuitable for development. Besides, highly and moderately suitable areas are mainly located in towns with excellent natural and socioeconomic conditions. The largest areas which are marginally suitable for development are most widely distributed. Unsuitable areas are mainly distributed far away from towns and water sources. The findings of the research will promote the rational use and scientific management of the land.

  8. Noninvasive assessment of macrovesicular liver steatosis in cadaveric donors based on computed tomography liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio. (United States)

    Rogier, Julien; Roullet, Stéphanie; Cornélis, François; Biais, Matthieu; Quinart, Alice; Revel, Philippe; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Le Bail, Brigitte


    Fatty liver disease, including liver steatosis, is a major health problem worldwide. In liver transplantation, macrovesicular steatosis in donor livers is a major cause of graft failure and remains difficult to assess. On one hand, several imaging modalities can be used for the assessment of liver fat, but liver biopsy, which is still considered the gold standard, may be difficult to perform in this context. On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) is commonly used by teams managing cadaveric donors to assess donors and to minimize the risk of complications in recipients. The purpose of our study was to validate the use of CT as a semiquantitative method for assessing macrovesicular steatosis in cadaveric donors with liver biopsy as a reference standard. A total of 109 consecutive cadaveric donors were included between October 2009 and May 2011. Brain death was diagnosed according to French legislation. Liver biopsy and then CT were performed on the same day to determine the degree of macrovesicular steatosis. All liver biopsies and CT scans were analyzed in a double-blinded fashion by a senior pathologist and a senior radiologist, respectively. For CT, we used the liver-to-spleen (L/S) attenuation ratio, which is a validated method for determining 30% or greater steatosis in living liver donors. Fourteen of 109 biopsies exhibited macrovesicular steatosis > 30% upon histologic analysis. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated for the L/S ratio to identify its ability to predict significant steatosis, which was defined as >30%. A cutoff value of 0.9 for the CT L/S ratio provided a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 97% to detect significant steatosis.

  9. The suitability of EBC-Pb as a new biomarker to assess occupational exposure to lead. (United States)

    Félix, Pedro M; Almeida, Susana Marta; Franco, Cristiana; Almeida, António Bugalho; Lopes, Carlos; Claro, Maria Inês; Fragoso, Elsa; Teles, Catarina; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Pinheiro, Teresa


    Occupational exposure to lead (Pb) requires continuous surveillance to assure, as much as possible, safe and healthful working conditions. This study addresses the suitability of assessing Pb exposure in relevant workers using their exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study enrolled workers of two different Pb processing industries characterized by moderate and high Pb exposure levels in the work environment, and a group of non-exposed individuals working in offices who served as baseline for Pb exposure. The EBC-Pb of workers reflected the Pb levels in the work environment of all three settings, although the relationship with B-Pb was not clear. The lack of correlation between EBC-Pb and B-Pb most probably indicates the time lag for Pb to enter in the two body pools. The EBC-Pb seems to reflect immediate exposure, providing a prompt signature of Pb in the environmental that may interact directly with the organ. By delivering short-term evaluation of exposure, EBC-Pb represents a clear advantage in biomonitoring and may become an interesting tool for estimating organ burden.

  10. Assessing the Suitability of Various Physiological Traits to Screen Wheat Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah E. El-Hendawy; Yuncai Hu; Urs Schmidhalter


    Success of improving the salt tolerance of genotypes requires effective and reliable screening traits in breeding programs.The objective was to assess the suitability of various physiological traits to screen wheat genotypes for salt tolerance.Thirteen wheat genotypes from Egypt, Germany, Australia and India were grown in soil with two salinity levels (control and 150 mmol/L NaCl) in a greenhouse. The physiological traits (ion contents in leaves and stems, i.e. Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+), the ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+/Na+ in the leaves and stems, net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate,chlorophyll content (SPAD value), and leaf water relations, were measured at different growth stages. The physiological traits except for Na+ and Cl- in stems and the leaf transpiration rate at 150 mmol/L NaCl showed a significant genotypic variation, indicating that the traits that have a significant genotypic variation may be possibly used as screening criteria.According to the analysis of linear regression of the scores of the physiological traits against those of grain yield, however,the physiological traits of Ca2+ and Ca2+/Na+ at 45 d and final harvest with the greatest genotypic variation were ranked at the top. From a practical and economic point of view, SPAD value should be considered to be used as screening criteria and/or there is a need to develop a quick and practical approach to determine Ca2+ in plant tissues.

  11. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong


    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits. PMID:27536316

  12. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits. (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong


    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits.

  13. Assessment of Hydroponically Grown Macrophytes for Their Suitability as Fish Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow


    Full Text Available Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot's feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly in the hydroponics system and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot's feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO43--P reductions ranged from 21.4 to 48.0%, from 71.1 to 89.5%, from 55.9 to 76.0%, from 49.6 to 90.6%, from 34.5 to 54.4% and from 64.5 to 76.8%, respectively. Generally, the reductions increased with longer retention times and were highest in compartments containing water hyacinth followed by compartments containing water lettuce and parrot's feather. The nutritive value of the three wastewater grown plants was assessed to determine the suitability of using the plants as a component in fish feed. The three wastewater grown plants did not contain sufficient amounts of protein and fat to meet the dietary requirements of fish and shellfish. They also contained high concentrations of K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn, which can lead to reduced feed intake, weight gain and growth rates in fish and shellfish.

  14. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS (United States)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake


    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  15. Residual kidney function after donor nephrectomy. Assessment by {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamscho, N.; Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Berner, U.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F. [Hospital of the J.W.G.-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wilhelm, A.; Gossmann, J.; Scheuermann, E.H. [Hospital of the J.W.G.-University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine


    Aim: We evaluated the long-term residual renal function after donor nephrectomy using {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycin (MAG3)-clearance. Donors, methods: Altogether 49 kidney donors were examined using {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance after nephrectomy for donation to a relative (m:f=11.38; age 55{+-}27 years). The donors were examined 16{+-}8 years postoperatively (1.5-26 years). 42 donors (86%) showed normal creatinine values, whereas the other seven (14%) exhibited slightly elevated levels. 20 donors were examined pre- and postoperatively and compared intraindividually. The kidney function was compared to the age adapted normal values of healthy persons with two kidneys (67-133% of age related mean). Results: After nephrectomy all donors showed a normal perfusion, good secretion, merely physiological intrarenal transit and a normal elimination from the kidneys. The {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance was 69{+-}15% of the normal mean value of healthy carriers of two kidneys regardless of the gender. 20 donors with a preoperative examination showed a significantly reduced total renal function from 84{+-}15% of the mean normal value preoperatively to 60{+-}15% postoperatively (p<0.005). 15 donors of this group exhibited a significant functional increase of the residual kidney from 40% initially to 60% after nephrectomy (p=0.003). No correlation was found between the initial {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance measured prior to nephrectomy and the clearance levels after nephrectomy. Also, no correlation between the preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-clearance and the postoperative serum creatinine values could be observed. Althogether, 22% of the donors (11/49) developed arterial hypertension 10{+-}8 years after donation (1-23 years). This corresponds to the normal age prevalence of hypertension in the carriers of two kidneys. Three donors suffered from arterial hypertension prior to the operation. Conclusion: Kidney donors with normal or slightly elevated creatinine values postoperatively

  16. Land suitability assessment in the catchment area of four Southwestern Atlantic coastal lagoons: multicriteria and optimization modeling. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gallego, Lorena; Achkar, Marcel; Conde, Daniel


    In the present study, a land suitability assessment was conducted in the basin of four Uruguayan coastal lagoons (Southwestern Atlantic) to analyze the productive development while minimizing eutrophication, biodiversity loss and conflicts among different land uses. Suitable land for agriculture, forest, livestock ranching, tourism and conservation sectors were initially established based on a multi-attribute model developed using a geographic information system. Experts were consulted to determine the requirements for each land use sector and the incompatibilities among land use types. The current and potential conflicts among incompatible land use sectors were analyzed by overlapping land suitability maps. We subsequently applied a multi-objective model where land (pixels) with similar suitability was clustered into "land suitability groups", using a two-phase cluster analysis and the Akaike Information Criterion. Finally, a linear programming optimization procedure was applied to allocate land use sectors into land suitable groups, maximizing total suitability and minimizing interference among sectors. Results indicated that current land use overlapped by 4.7 % with suitable land of other incompatible sectors. However, the suitable land of incompatible sectors overlapped in 20.3 % of the study area, indicating a high potential for the occurrence of future conflict. The highest competition was between agriculture and conservation, followed by forest and agriculture. We explored scenarios where livestock ranching and tourism intensified, and found that interference with conservation and agriculture notably increased. This methodology allowed us to analyze current and potential land use conflicts and to contribute to the strategic planning of the study area.

  17. Application of computer-assisted three-dimensional quantitative assessment and a surgical planning tool for living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Lin; ZHU Zhi-jun; L(U) Yi; JIANG Wen-tao; GAO Wei; ZENG Zhi-gui; SHEN Zhong-yang


    Background Precise evaluation of the live donor's liver is the most important factor for the donor's safety and the recipient's prognosis in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).Our study assessed the clinical value of computer-assisted three-dimensional quantitative assessment and a surgical planning tool for donor evaluation in LDLT.Methods Computer-assisted three-dimensional (3D) quantitative assessment was used to prospectively provide quantitative assessment of the graft volume for 123 consecutive donors of LDLT and its accuracy and efficiency were compared with that of the standard manual-traced method.A case of reduced monosegmental LDLT was also assessed and a surgical planning tool displayed the precise surgical plan to avoid large-for-size syndrome.Results There was no statistically significant difference between the detected graft volumes with computer-assisted 3D quantitative assessment and manual-traced approaches ((856.76±162.18) cm3 vs.(870.64±172.54) cm3,P=0.796).Estimated volumes by either method had good correlation with the actual graft weight (r-manual-traced method:0.921,r-3D quantitative assessment method:0.896,both P <0.001).However,the computer-assisted 3D quantitative assessment approach was significantly more efficient taking half the time of the manual-traced method ((16.91±1.375) minutes vs.(39.27±2.102) minutes,P <0.01) to estimate graft volume.We performed the reduced monosegmental LDLT,a pediatric case,with the surgical planning tool (188 g graft in the operation,which was estimated at 208 cm3 pre-operation).The recipient recovered without large-for-size syndrome.Conclusions Computer-assisted 3D quantitative assessment provided precise evaluation of the graft volume.It also assisted surgeons with a better understanding of the hepatic 3D anatomy and was useful for the individual surgical planning tool.

  18. Land Suitability Assessment for Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Development in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celián Román-Figueroa


    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa L. is an oilseed with potential for use as a raw material in second-generation biofuels. Camelina has a seed yield of up to 2380 kg·ha−1 and contains around 45% fatty acids. Selection of a suitable site is critical for production optimization. The objective of this study was to determine Chilean agro-climatic suitability for establishing camelina as a productive alternative. Climate and soil requirements and geographical restraints were evaluated for the species, considering the climatological characteristics of its regions of origin, as well as regions where camelina is successfully grown in the rest of the world. The variables considered included factors (maximum temperatures of the warmest month, water deficits, and degree days and limitations (altitude, geomorphology, and current land use, which permitted the evaluation of the national territory for a certain level of suitability. It was determined that 1.3% of the national territory (960,664 ha has some degree of suitability for camelina adoption. Between the Biobío and Los Lagos regions, 49.0% of the land (471,203 ha is in the category of no thermic restrictions, with mild water restrictions, and mild soil restrictions or without information, which can be used for camelina production. The Los Ríos region has 21.4% surface area (321,176 ha with some level of suitability for camelina, the most suitable region to establish this crop in Chile. This research has provided valuable information applicable to new species and geographic areas which facilitate the adaptation of agricultural and forestry production to global changes.

  19. Use of Ex Vivo Normothermic Perfusion for Quality Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Pancreases. (United States)

    Barlow, A D; Hamed, M O; Mallon, D H; Brais, R J; Gribble, F M; Scott, M A; Howat, W J; Bradley, J A; Bolton, E M; Pettigrew, G J; Hosgood, S A; Nicholson, M L; Saeb-Parsy, K


    A significant number of pancreases procured for transplantation are deemed unsuitable due to concerns about graft quality and the associated risk of complications. However, this decision is subjective and some declined grafts may be suitable for transplantation. Ex vivo normothermic perfusion (EVNP) prior to transplantation may allow a more objective assessment of graft quality and reduce discard rates. We report ex vivo normothermic perfusion of human pancreases procured but declined for transplantation, with ABO-compatible warm oxygenated packed red blood cells for 1-2 h. Five declined human pancreases were assessed using this technique after a median cold ischemia time of 13 h 19 min. One pancreas, with cold ischemia over 30 h, did not appear viable and was excluded. In the remaining pancreases, blood flow and pH were maintained throughout perfusion. Insulin secretion was observed in all four pancreases, but was lowest in an older donation after cardiac death pancreas. Amylase levels were highest in a gland with significant fat infiltration. This is the first study to assess the perfusion, injury, as measured by amylase, and exocrine function of human pancreases using EVNP and demonstrates the feasibility of the approach, although further refinements are required.

  20. Properties of Technogenous Substrates and Assessment of their Suitability for Recultivation – Technosol Development Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnija Resulović


    Full Text Available Soil damage comes as a result of various types of soil utilization in regard to its technical functions, and during that, huge quantities of various waste materials form (industrial, communal, mines, etc.. Such materials cover up vast land areas, which lead to a significant reduction of land fund. It is essential to identify the ways and appropriate measures for transforming such areas into the areas suitable for any environmental functions. While executing these measures, various materials are identified as technogenous substrates. When it comes to conducting the rehabilitation measures, it is important to have a good knowledge of the substrate properties, both general and specific. The general ones include: pH reaction, content of CaCO3, physiologically active calcium (CaO, organic matter, texture, content of skeleton. The specific properties encompass: heavy metals content, biological infection and radioactivity of the soil.This paper identifies seven basic groups of technogenous substrates: suitable, medium suitable, less suitable, unsuitable, very unsuitable - toxic, infectious and radioactive. The actions for the application of direct or indirect recultivation are developed by the subject groups. Direct recultivation includes the actions of immediate execution of rehabilitation measures, while indirect recultivation includes the application of a special layer of soil (suitable geological material or natural soil. It also provides the appropriate depths of such materials for the corresponding technical substrate. The paper’s attention is focused on the follow-up of the impact of pedo-technogenous factors on the processes within the established disposal sites. Therefore, further elaboration and classification of technogenous soils continues to be important.The paper also provides a projection of development of technogenous soils that encompasses three different substrates: natural geological substrate, industrial waste, and communal waste

  1. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model]. (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong


    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  2. Assessing Suitability of Rural Settlements Using an Improved Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanfang; CUI Jiaxing; KONG Xuesong; ZENG Chen


    Land suitability assessment is a prerequisite phase in land use planning;it guides toward optimal land use by providing information on the opportunities and constraints involved in the use of a given land area.A geographic information system-based procedure,known as rural settlement suitability evaluation (RSSE) using an improved technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS),was adopted to determine the most suitable area for constructing rural settlements in different geographical locations.Given the distribution and independence of rural settlements,a distinctive evaluation criteria system that differed from that of urban suitability was established by considering the level of rural infrastructure services as well as living and working conditions.The unpredictable mutual interference among evaluation factors has been found in practical works.An improved TOPSIS using Mahalanobis distance was applied to solve the unpredictable correlation among the criteria in a suitability evaluation.Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses obtained via Monte Carlo simulation were performed to examine the robustness of the model.Daye,a resource-based city with rapid economic development,unsatisfied rural development,and geological environmental problems caused by mining,was used as a case study.Results indicate the following findings:1) The RSSE model using the improved TOPSIS can assess the suitability of rural settlements,and the suitability maps generated using the improved TOPSIS have higher information density than those generated using traditional TOPSIS.The robustness of the model is improved,and the uncertainty is reduced in the suitability results.2) Highly suitable land is mainly distributed in the northeast of the study area,and the majority of which is cultivated land,thereby leading to tremendous pressure on the loss of cultivated land.3) Lastly,12.54% of the constructive expansion permitted zone and 8.36% of the constructive expansion

  3. Assessing the quality, suitability and readability of internet-based health information about warfarin for patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeed Nasser


    Full Text Available BackgroundWarfarin is a high-risk medication where patient information may be critical to help ensure safe and effective treatment. Considering the time constraints of healthcare providers, the internet can be an important supplementary information resource for patients prescribed warfarin. The usefulness of internet-based patient information is often limited by challenges associated with finding valid and reliable health information. Given patients’ increasing access of the internet for information, this study investigated the quality, suitability and readability of patient information about warfarin presented on the internet.MethodPreviously validated tools were used to evaluate the quality, suitability and readability of patient information about warfarin on selected websites.ResultsThe initial search yielded 200 websites, of which 11 fit selection criteria, comprising seven non-commercial and four commercial websites. Regarding quality, most of the non-commercial sites (six out of seven scored at least an ‘adequate’ score. With regard to suitability, 6 of the 11 websites (including two of the four commercial sites attained an ‘adequate’ score. It was determined that information on 7 of the 11 sites (including two commercial sites was written at reading grade levels beyond that considered representative of the adult patient population with poor literacy skills (e.g. school grade 8 or less.ConclusionDespite the overall ‘adequate’ quality and suitability of the internet derived patient information about warfarin, the actual usability of such websites may be limited due to their poor readability grades, particularly in patients with low literacy skills.

  4. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone (United States)

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David


    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  5. Assessing Pearl Quality Using Reflectance UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Does the Same Donor Produce Consistent Pearl Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Southgate


    with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Nevertheless, this technique could have a role to play in developing less subjective methods of assessing pearl quality and in further studies of the relationships between pearl quality and that of the donor and recipient oysters.

  6. Assessing pearl quality using reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy: does the same donor produce consistent pearl quality? (United States)

    Mamangkey, Noldy Gustaf F; Agatonovic, Snezana; Southgate, Paul C


    -Vis spectrophotometry. Nevertheless, this technique could have a role to play in developing less subjective methods of assessing pearl quality and in further studies of the relationships between pearl quality and that of the donor and recipient oysters.

  7. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H., E-mail: [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Deram, Annabelle, E-mail: [Laboratoire des sciences vegetales et fongiques - EA4483, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques-ILIS, Universite Lille Nord de France - 3, rue du Professeur Laguesse, B.P. 83, F-59006 Lille Cedex (France); Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Bjoern; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2-8.9 mg kg{sup -1}) than willow and poplar (5-80 mg kg{sup -1}), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300-6200 mg kg{sup -1}) and K (320-1250 mg kg{sup -1}), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  8. Cadaveric donor selection and management. (United States)

    Studer, Sean M; Orens, Jonathan B


    While there is little doubt that proper donor selection is extremely important to achieve good outcomes from transplantation, there are only limited data regarding the current criteria utilized to select the "ideal donor". Importantly, there are not enough donor lungs available for all of those in need. Until an adequate supply of donor organs exists, lives will be lost on the transplant waiting list. While efforts have been made to increase donor awareness, additional transplants can be realized by improving donor utilization. This can be achieved by active participation of transplant teams in donor management and by utilizing "extended criteria" organs. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of using "extended criteria" donors, as this practice could result in increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the approach to identification of potential lung donors, optimal donor management, and the clinical importance of various donor factors upon recipient outcomes.

  9. Spatial Based Assessment of Land Suitability and Availability for Maize (Zea mays L.) Development in Maros Region, South Sulawesi, Indonesia


    Baja, Sumbangan


    all the resources (land, infrastructures, and farmers) in agriculture areas for maize production in the province. This study is aimed at identifying the suitability and availability of land areas for maize development in Maros Region- the regency having the most extensive agriculture production in South Sulawesi province. This study employed land evaluation method in geographic information system (GIS) based on the FAO Framework for Land Evaluation. Land availability was assessed from overlay...

  10. [Identification and conservation assessment of suitable habitats for Tibetan antelope in the alpine desert, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau]. (United States)

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Li, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Xiang; Gao, Feng; Xu, Dong-hua


    As a flagship and one of most endangered ungulates in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the habitat conservation of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is vital to sustain its long-term population existence. In consideration of key habitat factors of the Tibetan antelope (i.e., food, topography and water source) as well as human interference factors like roads and settlements, the habitat suitability was modeled, and potential and valid suitable habitats were identified for Tibetan antelope in the alpine desert, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Furthermore, the conservation proportion index and conservation efficacy index were developed to facilitate the conservation assessment of three national reserves (i.e., Altun Mountain, Kekexili and Qiangtang) and their associated functional zones in the study area. The results showed that potential and valid area of suitable habitat across overall study area were 2.84 x 10(5) and 2.08 x 10(5) km2 respectively, with 16.1% of suitable habitat loss by human disturbance. At reserve level, the potential suitable habitats of Altun Mountain, Kekexili and Qiangtang were 2.01 x 10(4), 3.13 x 104 and 1.26 x 10(5) km2, which however decreased by 12.9%, 10.2% and 21.1% human disturbance respectively, indicating a prominent habitat fragmentation especially in Qiangtang National Nature Reserve (NNR). Although three NNRs had captured nearly 2/3 of the potential/valid suitable habitats with favorable conservation efficacy, there were still obvious conservation gaps outside the existing reserve network. At the functional zone level, buffer and experimental zones also showed significant conservation proportion and efficacy besides the core zone. Our research highlighted the necessity to optimize the existing re serve system by filling the conservation gaps, restructuring the functional zones and safeguarding the potential refuge habitats for those endangered ungulates in face of climate change.

  11. Data base manipulation for assessment of multiresource suitability and land change (United States)

    Colwell, J.; Sanders, P.; Davis, G.; Thomson, F. (Principal Investigator)


    Progress is reported in three tasks which support the overall objectives of renewable resources inventory task of the AgRISTARS program. In the first task, the geometric correction algorithms of the Master Data Processor were investigated to determine the utility of data corrected by this processor for U.S. Forest Service uses. The second task involved investigation of logic to form blobs as a precursor step to automatic change detection involving two dates of LANDSAT data. Some routine procedures for selecting BLOB (spatial averaging) parameters were developed. In the third task, a major effort was made to develop land suitability modeling approches for timber, grazing, and wildlife habitat in support of resource planning efforts on the San Juan National Forest.

  12. Review on Suitability of Available LCIA Methodologies for Assessing Environmental Impact of the Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Amani


    Full Text Available Production, processing, distribution, and consumption of a wide variety of products in the food sector have different ranges of environmental impacts. Methodologies used in environmental impact assessment differ in which set of impact categories is covered and which models are used to assess them. In the food sector, life cycle assessment results are mostly presented without any clear distinction of the principles applied to selecting the relevant methodology. In this paper, the most relevant life cycle impact assessment methodologies are determined from the list of recommended methodologies published recently in the international reference life cycle data system (ILCD handbook. The range of the relevant impacts covered is considered as the main indicator decisive in selecting a methodology. The selection of the relevant set of impact categories is performed through an overview of more than 50 recent LCA case studies of different products in the sector. The result of the research is a short list of three LCIA methodologies recommended to be used for environmental impact assessment of products in the food sector.

  13. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products]. (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter E


    The transfusion efficacy of ATK, which contain fully functional platelets, is beyond all doubt. The equivalence of ATK and PTK has been subject of many studies. Some of those studies show the superiority of ATK's, while others do not, but there have been no studies that demonstrated a superiority of PTK's. The superiority of platelets stored in plasma and in third generation additive solution was demonstrated in clinical studies; therefore, it cannot be said that all the platelet concentrates on the German market are equivalent in efficacy. Of decisive importance, above all, is the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections with known pathogens, or those not yet discovered. This risk is different for ATK compared to PTK. Taking this difference in risk and the difference in donor exposure of transfused patients into account, it can definitely be said that ATK and PTK are not equivalent. In 2012, the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) published a mathematical risk model for different platelet concentrates and assessed the risk of transmitting known pathogens such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. The risk was higher for PTK compared to ATK. The relative risks for PTK derived from 4BCs were 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.1-2.4) for HIV, 2.7 (95%--CI: 2.5-3.0) for HCV, and 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.8-3.7) for HBV. At the present time, these are the relative risks of transfusion-transmitted infections with the traditional pathogens for PTK compared to ATK. In addition to the RKI assessed risks, there is the theoretical risk of a new, unknown agent, transmitted through blood exposure. The magnitude of this risk is hardly predictable for PTK. The experience gathered so far, especially in the last three decades, with the emergence of HIV, prions, and West Nil virus, shows that the biological nature of a next transfusion-transmissible infectious agent cannot be predictable. This agent, if we think at a conventional sexually transmissible agent with nucleic acid and long latent period, would spread first in areas with

  14. Development and suitability of in vitro digestion models in assessing bioaccessibility of lead from toy matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Twillert K van; Hofhuis MFA; Rompelberg CJM; Versantvoort CHM; SIR; ARO


    Children can be orally exposed to compounds by chewing, sucking and ingestion of toy (parts). Only the fraction of contaminant that is released from the toy can reach the blood stream (internal exposure) and can contribute to toxicity. In present risk assessment the release of contaminants from toy

  15. Assessing the Habitat Suitability of Dam Reservoirs: A Quantitative Model and Case Study of the Hantan River Dam, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsik Kang


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate ecologically healthy regions near a dam reservoir. This study developed a model for assessing habitat suitability as a proxy for the ecological value of reservoirs. Three main factors comprising nine assessment variables were selected and classified as having a habitat suitability (HS between 0 and 1: (1 geomorphic factors of altitude, slope steepness, and slope aspect; (2 vegetation factors of forest physiognomy, vegetation type, and tree age; and (3 ecological factors of land cover, ecological quality index, and environmental conservation value assessment. The spatial distribution of the nine HS indices was determined using geographic information systems and combined into one HS index value to determine ecologically healthy regions. The assessment model was applied to areas surrounding the Hantan River Dam, South Korea. To verify the model, wildlife location data from the national ecosystem survey of the Ministry of Environment were used. Areas with an HS index between 0.73 and 1 were found to contain 72% of observed wildlife locations. Ecologically healthy areas were identified by adding the indices of each variable. The methods shown here will be useful for establishing ecological restoration plans for dam reservoirs in South Korea.

  16. A flexible matrix-based human exposure assessment framework suitable for LCA and CAA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, Lei


    of near-and far-field pathways and helps to understand the contribution of individual pathways to overall human exposure in various product application contexts. When combined with toxicity information this approach is a resourceful way to inform LCA and CAA and minimize human exposure to toxic chemicals...... are not applicable to all types of near-field chemical releases from consumer products, e.g. direct dermal application. A consistent near-and far-field framework is needed for life cycle assessment (LCA) and chemical alternative assessment (CAA) to inform mitigation of human exposure to harmful chemicals. To close...... way to compare exposure pathways for different user groups (e.g. children and adults) and the general population exposed via the environment associated with product use. Our framework constitutes a user-friendly approach to test and interpret multiple human exposure scenarios in a coupled system...

  17. Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing for Shoulder Launched Munitions (United States)


    the default Tactical Wheeled Vehicle (TWV) and Two Wheeled Trailer ( TWT ) curves in AECTP 400, Method 401 be used to provide a conservative set of...confined space or enclosure. This measurement is specific to ‘fire from enclosure’. JOTP-010A 7 November 2014 A-28...arm/fuze component(s) have been qualified (or has a favourable S3 assessment) in accordance with AOP-20. 2.2 Tailoring of Test Asset

  18. An Assessment Of Landscape Segments Suitable For Agriculture In Kerang Volcanic Area Of Jos Plateau Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohotden Christopher Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract This study was carried out to investigate the landscape segments suitable for agricultural purpose in a volcanic land catena of Kerang Area on the Jos Plateau. A reconnaissance survey of the study area was carried out and three different slope segments were identified a total of 41 surface soil samples were taken from the three segments using a stratified systematic sampling. These soils were then analyzed for the physical and chemical properties. The result of the analyses revealed that the organic matter total nitrogen soil PH and exchangeable Ca Mg decline down slope however potassium K and sodium Na increase down slope. Co-efficient of variation of the soil properties for the three different slope segments showed low variability for the upper slope crest and shoulder exception being that phosphorus 43.10 and potassium 41.10 exhibited moderate variability. At the middle slope the co-efficient of variation exhibited by soil properties is predominantly moderate exception being that sodium 75 varies at high proportion at this slope segment. At the lower slope majority of the soil properties exhibited low variability. On the other hand total nitrogen available phosphorous and potassium have values of co-efficient of variation 23.10 65.60 and 23.10 respectively. This indicates that available phosphorus exhibited high variability while total nitrogen and exchangeable potassium have intermediate variability. The between or over all co-efficient or variation for the soil properties are predominantly moderate for most variable except PHH2O 11.80 and PH Cad2 10.60 that have low variability and phosphorous 78 has high variability. Differences in the degree of variation of soil variables from one segment to another can be attributed to soil erosion as affected by slope nature of soil parent materials and soil management technique. The study also revealed that some of the properties determining soil fertility total Nitrogen Available Phosphorus

  19. Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues. (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony


    The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety.

  20. [Habitat suitability assessment of medicinal Polyporus umbellatusin China based on Maxent modeling]. (United States)

    Liu, Meng-meng; Xing, Yong-mei; Guo, Shun-xing


    Geographic distribution of Polyporus umbellatus was predicted by using distribution records. Based on 42 distribution records from 12 provinces and bioclimatic data (1950-2000), georaphic distribution of P. umbellatus was modeled using Maxent. The results showed thatthe Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis method was used to assess the accuracy of MAXENT model and the area under ROC curve (AUC) value of MAXENT was 0. 960 which suggested that the result of assessment was dependable. The geographic distribution pattern of were divided into three distribution block based on distribution values of 0.5-0.8: small area of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Hebei province, the board area of Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan, the southeast area of Tibet and the most area of Shanxi and Shannxi, the southeast board area of Shannxi, Gansu and Ningxia. Jackknife Test showed that average precipitation in warm seasons had the greatest contribution to the distribution gain of P. umbellatus, followed by mean temperature of driest quarter and annual mean temperature. The object suggests the potential distribution areasof P. umbellatus which is useful for the habitat conservation and introduction of P. umbellatus.

  1. Assessing the hydrological suitability of floodplains for species-rich meadow restoration: a case study of the Thames floodplain, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The physical and chemical environment of a floodplain needs to be assessed to define conservation targets for restoring it to species-rich meadows from agricultural land. A straightforward technique, widely applicable by site managers for assessing the suitability of the hydrological and hydro-chemical regime of a floodplain for wet grassland restoration, has been tested by examining the feasibility of restoring plants characteristic of NVC MG4 and MG8 communities to the Castle Meadows, Wallingford (Oxfordshire, UK. Hydro-chemical suitability has been assessed by comparing phosphorus concentrations with species-rich meadows nearby. The flooding regime was estimated based on a rating curve and a digital elevation model and groundwater levels were measured monthly in dipwells and piezometers. The hydrological regime was then compared with published reference guidelines for communities of conservation interest. For the Castle Meadows, the maximum duration of flood events in autumn and winter exceeded MG4 and MG8 species requirements across half of the site, while the depth of the groundwater table in summer exceeded species requirements in the other half. It was shown that, depending on topography, MG5 or MG13 may be more realistic vegetation targets.

  2. Mitochondrial membrane potential is a suitable candidate for assessing pollution toxicity in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmini, Ekambaram, E-mail:; Usha Rani, Munuswamy, E-mail:


    Fish inhabiting polluted estuaries are highly exposed to severe stress characterized by an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance. The aim of the study was to explore the use of stress parameters such as adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential ({Delta}{psi}m) and total protein expression patterns as biomarkers against oxidant exposures in hepatocytes of Mugil cephalus living in either a contaminated (Test; Ennore) or uncontaminated (Control; Kovalam) estuary. Earlier, the pollutant stress impact was determined through light and electron microscopy studies. The ATP/ADP ratio was measured using high performance liquid chromatography; {Delta}{psi}m by fluorescent probe 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethyl benzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) dye and total protein expression patterns by protein profiling. The preponderance of stress impact was confirmed through microscopy studies that featured cytological alterations, disturbances in the surface morphology and in the cell organelles at the ultrastructural levels. Hepatocytes of test fish demonstrated a decrease in ATP and an increase in ADP and thereby alteration in ATP/ADP ratio (p < 0.05; 20.75%). A significant disturbance (p < 0.05; 26.57%) in {Delta}{psi}m with a ratio of J-aggregates/JC-1 monomer of 1 was observed for test fish hepatocytes compared to control group with a J-aggregates/JC-1 monomer ratio of 1.5. Quantitative assessment of protein expression levels also revealed enhanced induction of both low and high molecular weight proteins in test fish hepatocytes. The findings highlight the use of these parameters as the highly sensitive biomarkers in response to contaminant exposure compared to the routinely used antioxidant and oxidant stress parameters in biomonitoring programs. Among the measured parameters, the determination of {Delta}{psi}m may be suggested as a novel candidate as a biomarker because of its greater specificity

  3. Critical assessment of suitable methods used for determination of antibacterial properties at photocatalytic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysa, Josef, E-mail: [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Musilova, Eva [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Zita, Jiri [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Inorganic Technology, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: {yields} Methods for antibacterial activity of irradiated TiO{sub 2} films were critically assessed. {yields} As test bacteria gram negative E. coli and gram positive E. faecalis were employed. {yields} The ISO glass adhesion method is more appropriate than method with bacteria suspension. {yields} Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested. - Abstract: This work describes the development of methods necessary for antibacterial effect evaluation on irradiated TiO{sub 2} layers. Two methods using bacteria suspensions and the glass adhesion method (based on ISO 27447:2009(E)) were critically assessed and compared. As test bacteria gram negative Escherichia coli and gram positive Enterococcus faecalis were employed. The method using 50 cm{sup 3} of bacteria suspension is convenient for testing layers with strong antibacterial effect (prepared from powder photocatalysts). For the evaluation of the antibacterial effect of sol gel layers, the glass adhesion method based on the ISO is more appropriate than the method with 3 cm{sup 3} of bacteria suspension. The reason is that the later does not allow a distinction between the inhibition effect of TiO{sub 2} and UV light itself. Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested, namely the use of gelatinous pills (CCM) of bacteria, using saline solution instead of nutrient broth for bacteria suspension preparation and the application of selective media for bacteria cultivation. Decreasing the light intensity from 0.6 mW cm{sup -2} to 0.2 mW cm{sup -2} (fulfilling the requirements of the ISO) results in almost negligible effect of UV light itself, thus enabling proper testing of the antibacterial properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films.

  4. Conventional deep pressure algometry is not suitable for clinical assessment of nociception in painless diabetic neuropathy

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    Ernst A. Chantelau


    Full Text Available Background: In diabetic persons with painless neuropathic foot ulceration, foot skin was found to be insensate to noxious pinprick stimulation (stimulation area less than 0.05 mm2, while compression of deep subcutaneous foot tissues by Algometer II® (stimulation area 1 cm2 could evoke a deep dull aching. To elucidate this discrepancy, the Algometer II stimulation technique was critically reviewed by varying probe sizes and anatomical sites in the same study population 3 years later. Methods: Ten control subjects without neuropathy and 11 persons with painless diabetic neuropathy (PLDN, seven of whom with diabetic foot syndrome, i.e., past painless foot ulcer, or inactive Charcot arthropathy were re-examined using Algometer II. Deep pressure pain perception threshold (DPPPT was measured in random sequence with stimulation areas of 0.5 cm2, 1 cm2, and 2 cm2 (separated by 5 min intervals, at the plantar forefoot, the instep, and the hindfoot of both legs. Results: In the control and PLDN groups, median DPPPTs differed significantly between stimulation areas (highest with 0.5 cm2, intermediate with 1 cm2, lowest with 2 cm2; p<0.001, and varied moderately by anatomical site. Between-group differences were relatively small. Results of the 1 cm2 assessments repeated 3 years apart were similar. Conclusions: Algometer II readings represent spatial summation of low-threshold pressure-receptor rather than of high-threshold nociceptor stimulation and are, thus, unhelpful for assessing PLDN. Reproducibility of the measurements is good.

  5. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

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    Jansa Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.

  6. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) in development cooperation. A presentation of development challenges and research issues in developing countries and donor agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Harald


    This document discusses some development challenges and research needs related to environmental impact assessment (EIA) in development cooperation. After a general introduction to basic principles of EIA, the document deals with some general conditions for EIA in developing countries and in donor agencies. Through a presentation of experiences with EIA from selected donor agencies (with emphasis on NORAD) the report ends up with focusing on some research issues that may come up with recommendations for improving EIA practices in developing countries and donor agencies. 37 refs., 6 figs., 3 refs.

  7. A GIS-based assessment of groundwater suitability for irrigation purposes in flat areas of the wet Pampa plain, Argentina. (United States)

    Romanelli, Asunción; Lima, María Lourdes; Quiroz Londoño, Orlando Mauricio; Martínez, Daniel Emilio; Massone, Héctor Enrique


    The Pampa in Argentina is a large plain with a quite obvious dependence on agriculture, water availability and its quality. It is a sensitive environment due to weather changes and slope variations. Supplementary irrigation is a useful practice for compensating the production in the zone. However, potential negative impacts of this type of irrigation in salinization and sodification of soils are evident. Most conventional methodologies for assessing water irrigation quality have difficulties in their application in the region because they do not adjust to the defined assumptions for them. Consequently, a new GIS-based methodology integrating multiparametric data was proposed for evaluating and delineating groundwater suitability zones for irrigation purposes in flat areas. Hydrogeological surveys including water level measurements, groundwater samples for chemical analysis and electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were performed. The combination of EC, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, slopes and hydraulic gradient parameters generated an irrigation water index (IWI). With the integration of the IWI 1 to 3 classes (categories of suitable waters for irrigation) and the aquifer thickness the restricted irrigation water index (RIWI) was obtained. The IWI's index application showed that 61.3 % of the area has "Very high" to "Moderate" potential for irrigation, while the 31.4 % of it has unsuitable waters. Approximately, 46 % of the tested area has high suitability for irrigation and moderate groundwater availability. This proposed methodology has advantages over traditional methods because it allows for better discrimination in homogeneous areas.

  8. Suitability of static tests for acid rock drainage assessment of mine waste rock

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    Päivi M. Kauppila


    Full Text Available In the present study, eight rock samples were analysed with a modified acid-base accounting (ABA test and the corresponding net acid generation (NAG test. In addition, the main and trace elements solubilised during the tests were determined with ICPOES/MS. Both the modified ABA and NAG tests classified the rock samples with a lowsulphide-S content (0.1–0.4 % and low carbonate mineral content (≤0.2 % into the category of ‘potentially acid generating’. The low neutralization potentials of these rocks were partly due to additional acid produced in silicate weathering, upon the hydrolyzation of Fe and Al during the tests. In contrast to the modified ABA, the contribution of slowly reactive carbonate minerals to the neutralisation potential was seen in the NAG test and in the carbonate NP calculation, as they classified the rock samples containing these minerals into the category of ‘non-acid generating’. This supports the use of the carbonate neutralizing potential (NP and/or the NAG test in mine waste screening. In the NAG test, acid generation and neutralization reactions either raising or decreasing the pH significantly influenced the solubility of trace metals and Al. This suggests that the extract contents could be useful in assessing contaminant mobility during long-term acid generating reactions.

  9. Can surgeons assess CT suitability for endovascular repair (EVAR) in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm? Implications for a ruptured EVAR trial. (United States)

    Rayt, Harjeet; Lambert, Kelly; Bown, Matthew; Fishwick, Guy; Morgan, Robert; McCarthy, Mark; London, Nick; Sayers, Robert


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgeons without formal radiological training are able to assess suitability of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) for EVAR. The CT scans of 20 patients with AAA were reviewed under timed conditions by six vascular surgeons. Twenty minutes was allocated per scan. They were asked to determine if each aneurysm would be treatable by EVAR in the emergency setting and, if so, to measure for device selection. The results were then compared with those of a vascular radiologist. Six surgeons agreed on the suitability of endovascular repair in 45% of cases (95% CI, 23.1-68.5%; 9/20 scans; kappa = 0.41 [p = 0.01]) and concurred with the radiologist in eight of these. Individually, agreement ranged from 13 to 16 of the 20 scans, 65-80% between surgeons. The kappa value for agreement between all the surgeons and the radiologist was 0.47 (p = 0.01, moderate agreement). For the individual surgeons, this ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 (p = 0.01). In conclusion, while overall agreement was moderate between the surgeons and the radiologist, it is clear that if surgeons are to assess patients for ruptured EVAR in the future, focused training of surgical trainees is required.

  10. Determining the Suitability of Two Different Statistical Techniques in Shallow Landslide (Debris Flow Initiation Susceptibility Assessment in the Western Ghats

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    M. V. Ninu Krishnan


    Full Text Available In the present study, the Information Value (InfoVal and the Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR methods based on bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis have been applied for shallow landslide initiation susceptibility assessment in a selected subwatershed in the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, to determine the suitability of geographical information systems (GIS assisted statistical landslide susceptibility assessment methods in the data constrained regions. The different landslide conditioning terrain variables considered in the analysis are geomorphology, land use/land cover, soil thickness, slope, aspect, relative relief, plan curvature, profile curvature, drainage density, the distance from drainages, lineament density and distance from lineaments. Landslide Susceptibility Index (LSI maps were produced by integrating the weighted themes and divided into five landslide susceptibility zones (LSZ by correlating the LSI with general terrain conditions. The predictive performances of the models were evaluated through success and prediction rate curves. The area under success rate curves (AUC for InfoVal and MLR generated susceptibility maps shows 84.11% and 68.65%, respectively. The prediction rate curves show good to moderate correlation between the distribution of the validation group of landslides and LSZ maps with AUC values of 0.648 and 0.826 respectively for MLR and InfoVal produced LSZ maps. Considering the best fit and suitability of the models in the study area by quantitative prediction accuracy, LSZ map produced by the InfoVal technique shows higher accuracy, i.e. 82.60%, than the MLR model and is more realistic while compared in the field and is considered as the best suited model for the assessment of landslide susceptibility in areas similar to the study area. The LSZ map produced for the area can be utilised for regional planning and assessment process, by incorporating the generalised rainfall conditions in the area. DOI

  11. Prediction of time of death after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in potential donors after cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jentina; Snoeijs, Maarten G. J.; Brugman, Cees A.; Vervelde, Janneke; Zwaveling, Janharm; van Mook, Walther N.; van Heurn, Ernest L.


    Objective: Organ donation after cardiac death increases the number of donor organs. In controlled donation after cardiac death donors, the period between withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and cardiac arrest is one of the parameters used to assess whether organs are suitable for transplantation

  12. A polyphasic approach for assessing the suitability of bioremediation for the treatment of hydrocarbon-impacted soil. (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Smith, Renee J; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Mitchell, James G; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L


    Bioremediation strategies, though widely used for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, suffer from lack of biodegradation endpoint accountability. To address this limitation, molecular approaches of alkB gene analysis and pyrosequencing were combined with chemical approaches of bioaccessibility and nutrient assays to assess contaminant degrading capacity and develop a strategy for endpoint biodegradation predictions. In long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil containing 10.3 g C10-C36 hydrocarbons kg(-1), 454 pyrosequencing detected the overrepresentation of potential hydrocarbon degrading genera such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Mycobacterium and Gordonia whilst amplicons for PCR-DGGE were detected only with alkB primers targeting Pseudomonas. This indicated the presence of potential microbial hydrocarbon degradation capacity in the soil. Using non-exhaustive extraction methods of 1-propanol and HP-β-CD for hydrocarbon bioaccessibility assessment combined with biodegradation endpoint predictions with linear regression models, we estimated 33.7% and 46.7% hydrocarbon removal respectively. These predictions were validated in pilot scale studies using an enhanced natural attenuation strategy which resulted in a 46.4% reduction in soil hydrocarbon content after 320 days. When predicted biodegradation endpoints were compared to measured values, there was no significant difference (P=0.80) when hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed with HP-β-CD. These results indicate that a combination of molecular and chemical techniques that inform microbial diversity, functionality and chemical bioaccessibility can be valuable tools for assessing the suitability of bioremediation strategies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  13. A resource-based modelling framework to assess habitat suitability for steppe birds in semiarid Mediterranean agricultural systems.

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    Laura Cardador

    Full Text Available European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species' key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site, and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species' distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species' occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models.

  14. Assessment of the potential suitability of selected commercially available enzymes for cleaning-in-place (CIP) in the dairy industry. (United States)

    Boyce, Angela; Piterina, Anna V; Walsh, Gary


    The potential suitability of 10 commercial protease and lipase products for cleaning-in-place (CIP) application in the dairy industry was investigated on a laboratory scale. Assessment was based primarily on the ability of the enzymes to remove an experimentally generated milk fouling deposit from stainless steel (SS) panels. Three protease products were identified as being most suitable for this application on the basis of their cleaning performance at 40 °C, which was comparable to that of the commonly used cleaning agent, 1% NaOH at 60 °C. This was judged by quantification of residual organic matter and protein on the SS surface after cleaning and analysis by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Enzyme activity was removed/inactivated under conditions simulating those normally undertaken after cleaning (rinsing with water, acid circulation, sanitation). Preliminary process-scale studies strongly suggest that enzyme-based CIP achieves satisfactory cleaning at an industrial scale. Cost analysis indicates that replacing caustic-based cleaning procedures with biodegradable enzymes operating at lower temperatures would be economically viable. Additional potential benefits include decreased energy and water consumption, improved safety, reduced waste generation, greater compatibility with wastewater treatment processes and a reduction in the environmental impact of the cleaning process.

  15. Nonwoven-based gelatin/polycaprolactone membrane proves suitability in a preclinical assessment for treatment of soft tissue defects. (United States)

    Schulz, Simon; Angarano, Marco; Fabritius, Martin; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Dard, Michel; Obrecht, Marcel; Tomakidi, Pascal; Steinberg, Thorsten


    Standard preclinical assessments in vitro often have limitations regarding their transferability to human beings, mainly evoked by their nonhuman and tissue-different/nontissue-specific source. Here, we aimed at employing tissue-authentic simple and complex interactive fibroblast-epithelial cell systems and their in vivo-relevant biomarkers for preclinical in vitro assessment of nonwoven-based gelatin/polycaprolactone membranes (NBMs) for treatment of soft tissue defects. NBMs were composed of electrospun gelatin and polycaprolactone nanofiber nonwovens. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with actin/focal contact integrin fluorescence revealed successful adhesion and proper morphogenesis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, along with cells' derived extracellular matrix deposits. The "feel-good factor" of cells under study on the NBM was substantiated by forming a confluent connective tissue entity, which was concomitant with a stratified epithelial equivalent. Immunohistochemistry proved tissue authenticity over time by abundance of the biomarker vimentin in the connective tissue entity, and chronological increase of keratins KRT1/10 and involucrin expression in epithelial equivalents. Suitability of the novel NBM as wound dressing was evidenced by an almost completion of epithelial wound closure in a pilot mini-pig study, after a surgical intervention-caused gingival dehiscence. In summary, preclinical assessment by tissue-authentic cell systems and the animal pilot study revealed the NBM as an encouraging therapeutic medical device for prospective clinical applications.

  16. Assessment of apixaban plasma levels by laboratory tests: suitability of three anti-Xa assays. A multicentre French GEHT study. (United States)

    Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Flaujac, Claire; Delavenne, Xavier; Quenet, Sara; Horellou, Marie-Hélenè; Laporte, Silvy; Siguret, V; Lecompte, T


    While laboratory monitoring is not required in patients treated with apixaban, a direct factor-Xa inhibitor, assessment of its concentration is useful in some critical situations. However, few data are available on its effect on coagulation tests and on the suitability of anti-Xa assays for its quantification. It was the objective of this study to identify laboratory tests suitable for apixaban concentration assessment. Coagulation tests - PT and aPTT- and anti-Xa assays were performed in apixaban-spiked plasma samples. To evaluate the sensitivity of PT and aPTT to apixaban, we conducted a first monocenter part, with a wide range of concentrations (50-1,000 ng/ml), a large panel of reagents (20 reagents), and two coagulometers (STAR®, Stago and ACL TOP®, IL), and a second multicenter part involving 13 laboratories using either a common PT reagent (RecombiPlastin2G®) or the local PT and aPTT reagents. In the multicentre part, five blinded apixaban-spiked plasma samples (0/100/200/400/800 ng/ml - checked by HPLC-MS/MS) were used; apixaban concentrations were measured with three anti-Xa assays, apixaban calibrators and controls (Stago). PT and aPTT tests using a large panel of reagents displayed a low sensitivity to a wide range of apixaban concentrations. The concentrations to double PT ranged from 400 to >1,000 ng/ml with the 10 reagents. With the three anti-Xa assays, inter-laboratory precision and accuracy were below 11% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, whereas PT and aPTT tests were not sensitive enough to detect apixaban, the three anti-Xa assays tested using lyophilised apixaban calibrators and controls allowed to reliably quantify a wide range of apixaban concentrations.

  17. Suitability of 239+240Pu and 137Cs as tracers for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands. (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E


    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been distributed globally due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. While the negative consequences of this radioactive contamination are self-evident, the ubiquitous fallout radionuclides (FRNs) distribution form the basis for the use as tracers in ecological studies, namely for soil erosion assessment. Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. We compare the suitability of the anthropogenic FRNs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracers in two alpine valleys of Switzerland (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri, Central Swiss Alps and Val Piora, Ticino, Southern Alps). We sampled reference and potentially erosive sites in transects along both valleys. 137Cs measurements of soil samples were performed with a Li-drifted Germanium detector and 239+240Pu with ICP-MS. Our data indicates a heterogeneous deposition of the 137Cs, since most of the fallout origins from the Chernobyl April/May 1986 accident, when large parts of the European Alps were still snow-covered. In contrast, 239+240Pu fallout originated mainly from 1950s to 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, resulting in a more homogenous distribution and thus seems to be a more suitable tracer in mountainous grasslands. Soil erosion assessment using 239+240Pu as a tracer pointed to a huge dynamic and high heterogeneity of erosive processes (between sedimentation of 1.9 and 7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.2-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the Urseren Valley and sedimentation of 0.4-20.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.1-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) at Val Piora). Our study represents a novel and successful application of 239+240Pu as a tracer of soil erosion in a mountain environment.

  18. Assessment of ocular surface toxicity after topical instillation of nitric oxide donors

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    Angelino Julio Cariello


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the ocular surface toxicity of two nitric oxide donors in ex vivo and in vivo animal models: S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC matrix at final concentrations 1.0 and 10.0 mM. METHODS: Ex vivo GSNO and SNAC toxicities were clinically and histologically analyzed using freshly excised pig eyeballs. In vivo experiments were performed with 20 albino rabbits which were randomized into 4 groups (5 animals each: Groups 1 and 2 received instillations of 150 µL of aqueous HPMC solution containing GSNO 1.0 and 10.0 mM, respectively, in one of the eyes; Groups 3 and 4 received instillations of 150 µL of aqueous HPMC solution-containing SNAC 1.0 and 10.0 mM, respectively, in one of the eyes. The contralateral eyes in each group received aqueous HPMC as a control. All animals underwent clinical evaluation on a slit lamp and the eyes were scored according to a modified Draize eye test and were histologically analyzed. RESULTS: Pig eyeballs showed no signs of perforation, erosion, corneal opacity or other gross damage. These findings were confirmed by histological analysis. There was no difference between control and treated rabbit eyes according to the Draize eye test score in all groups (p>0.05. All formulations showed a mean score under 1 and were classified as "non-irritating". There was no evidence of tissue toxicity in the histological analysis in all animals. CONCLUSION: Aqueous HPMC solutions containing GSNO and SNAC at concentrations up to 10.0 mM do not induce ocular irritation.

  19. Suitability of single tissue dielectric constant measurements to assess local tissue water in normal and lymphedematous skin. (United States)

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Davey, Suzanne; Shapiro, Elizabeth


    Previous reports described the use of average tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements to assess local tissue water and its change. Our goal was to determine if a single TDC measurement could be used in place of the average of multiple measurements. The comparison criteria used to test this was the extent to which single and averaged measurements yielded similar TDC values in both normal and lymphedematous tissue. Measurements were made in two groups of women; a control group (n = 20) and a group with unilateral arm lymphedema (n = 10). In the control group, TDC was measured to multiple depths (0.5-5.0 mm) on both ventral forearms and to a depth of 2.5 mm on the lateral thorax on both body sides. In the lymphedematous group, TDC was measured on both ventral forearms to a depth of 2.5 mm. Results showed that the 95% confidence interval for differences between single and averaged TDC values was less than +/-1 TDC unit and that the limits of agreement between methods was less than +/-2.5 TDC units (+/-6.5%) for each condition, site and depth measured. This finding suggests that where this level of agreement is acceptable suitable clinical assessments can be made using a single TDC measurement.

  20. Suitability of energy cone for probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment: validation tests at Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei (Italy) (United States)

    Tierz, Pablo; Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Zaccarelli, Lucia; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Sulpizio, Roberto; Marzocchi, Warner


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are gravity-driven hot mixtures of gas and volcanic particles which can propagate at high speed and cover distances up to several tens of kilometers around a given volcano. Therefore, they pose a severe hazard to the surroundings of explosive volcanoes able to produce such phenomena. Despite this threat, probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA) of PDCs is still in an early stage of development. PVHA is rooted in the quantification of the large uncertainties (aleatory and epistemic) which characterize volcanic hazard analyses. This quantification typically requires a big dataset of hazard footprints obtained from numerical simulations of the physical process. For PDCs, numerical models range from very sophisticated (not useful for PVHA because of their very long runtimes) to very simple models (criticized because of their highly simplified physics). We present here a systematic and robust validation testing of a simple PDC model, the energy cone (EC), to unravel whether it can be applied to PVHA of PDCs. Using past PDC deposits at Somma-Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei (Italy), we assess the ability of EC to capture the values and variability in some relevant variables for hazard assessment, i.e., area of PDC invasion and maximum runout. In terms of area of invasion, the highest Jaccard coefficients range from 0.33 to 0.86 which indicates an equal or better performance compared to other volcanic mass-flow models. The p values for the observed maximum runouts vary from 0.003 to 0.44. Finally, the frequencies of PDC arrival computed from the EC are similar to those determined from the spatial distribution of past PDC deposits, with high PDC-arrival frequencies over an ˜8-km radius from the crater area at Somma-Vesuvius and around the Astroni crater at Campi Flegrei. The insights derived from our validation tests seem to indicate that the EC is a suitable candidate to compute PVHA of PDCs.


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    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the blood among healthy voluntary blood donors in and around Bellary. SAMPLE SIZE: 51,144 blood donors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. DURATION OF THE STUDY: Jan-2006 to Dec-2013. RESULTS: In the 8-year study period, 51,144 units of blood were collected. The Seroprevalence of HIV was found to be 0.38%. Also, the Seroprevalence of HIV in Voluntary Blood Donors and Replacement Blood Donors was found to be 0.35% and 0.81%. In males and female blood donors, the Seroprevalence was fond to be 0.38% and 0.39%. CONCLUSION: The 8 year study reveals that the Seroprevalence of HIV in replacement donors is nearly twice as that of voluntary donors and nearly equal in male and female donors. Screening the blood donors for IV infection has to be made mandatory and the tests should be of the highest quality. Education and awareness among people should be encouraged and imparted.

  2. New strategies for evaluating the quality of kidney grafts from elderly donors. (United States)

    Wohlfahrtova, Mariana; Viklicky, Ondrej


    The increased demand for kidney transplantation and organ shortage resulted in the increased use of kidneys from suboptimal donors. Therefore, identification of kidneys that can be accepted without significantly compromising the outcome of allograft or recipient has become critical. A robust assessment of organ quality is of particular importance especially in kidneys from elderly donors in whom morphological and functional changes associated with aging and diseases are obvious. A number of predictive tools have been developed to help with evaluating the suitability of a deceased-donor kidney for transplantation. Among those, Kidney Donor Profile Index and zero hour graft biopsy in elderly donors have been already implemented in several transplant programs. This review captures the recent literature on this subject and discusses approaches for evaluating the quality of kidney grafts from elderly donors.

  3. GIS-based assessment of land suitability for alfalfa cultivation: a case study in the dry continental steppes of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Deng


    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the most valuable perennial forage grass in northern China. We selected 12 ecological criteria and 4 socioeconomic criteria to calculate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation in the Xilingol League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We combined ecological suitability assessment with fuzzy analysis to standardize the criteria. We used the analytical hierarchy process to determine the weight of these criteria, and used multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA to aggregate the criteria. We then calculated the suitability score for each evaluation unit. The suitability was divided into highly, moderately, and marginally suitable, or unsuitable, using the geoprocessing module of ArcGIS 9.3 according to the FAO land suitability classification. We found that highly suitable areas covered 10,799.84 km2, accounting for 5.3% of the total area, and unsuitable areas covered 99,235.87 km2, accounting for 48.9% of the total area. Combining the fuzzy analysis method with the theory of ecological suitability and the MCDA method to evaluate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation provided insights that can guide decisionmakers and farmers to make more practical and scientific decisions.

  4. Children as donors : a national study to assess procurement of organs and tissues in pediatric intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, Marion J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Van de Wiel, Harry B. M.


    A shortage of size-matched organs and tissues is the key factor limiting transplantation in children. Empirical data on procurement from pediatric donors is sparse. This study investigated donor identification, parental consent, and effectuation rates, as well as adherence to the national protocol.

  5. Assessing coastal reclamation suitability based on a fuzzy-AHP comprehensive evaluation framework: A case study of Lianyungang, China. (United States)

    Feng, Lan; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang


    Coastal reclamation suitability evaluation (CRSE) is a difficult, complex and protracted process requiring the evaluation of many different criteria. In this paper, an integrated framework employing a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to the suitability evaluation for coastal reclamation for future sustainable development in the coastal area of Lianyungang, China. The evaluation results classified 6.63%, 22.99%, 31.59% and 38.79% of the coastline as suitable, weakly suitable, unsuitable and forbidden, respectively. The evaluation results were verified by the marine pollution data and highly consistent with the water quality status. The fuzzy-AHP comprehensive evaluation method (FACEM) was found to be suitable for the CRSE. This CRSE can also be applied to other coastal areas in China and thereby be used for the better management of coastal reclamation and coastline protection projects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Wirosoedarmo


    Full Text Available Land suitability assessment was needed to plan productive and sustainable land use. The aim of this research was to de- liver an informative data about land suitability of corn using spatial analysis model. The research was conducted from July 2007 to January 2008, located in Blitar district. The land survey and analysis covered several parameters needed for suitability assessment for corn such as temperature, rainfall, soil drainage, soil texture, pH, effective depth of soil, organic- C, soil content, Cation Exchange Capacity of clay, slope, altitude, and erosion endangered. The land suitability classes were classified into four classes, those were very suitable, suitable, marginally suitable, and not suitable. The data were finally analyzed using Map Calculator in Arc View GIS Software.The results showed that there were three classes of land suitability for corn i.e. very suitable, suitable and marginally suitable which accounted for 85 %, 10 %, and 5 % of 150.96 hectare areas in Blitar. The suitable class mainly located in the northern of Blitar district, while the marginally suitable class mostly located in more than 1200 meters height above sea level covered 10, 117, and 52 hectares area of Wlingi, Gandusari, and Doko county area respectively. ABSTRAK Evaluasi kesesuaian lahan diperlukan untuk perencanaan penggunaan lahan yang produktif dan lestari. Tujuan peneli- tian adalah untuk menyajikan data dan informasi tentang evaluasi kesesuaian lahan bagi tanaman jagung menggunakan model analisa spasial. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan Juli 2007 sampai bulan Januari 2008. Lokasi penelitian dilaksanakan di Blitar, Jawa Timur. Data yang diperlukan meliputi data spasial berupa peta kontur dan peta jenis tanah skala 1:25000 serta data atribut berupa data klimatologi wilayah dan hasil pengamatan lapangan terhadap sifat fisik, morfologi dan kimia tanah. Parameter kesesuaian untuk tanaman jagung yang ditetapkan meliputi temperatur, curah hujan

  7. Assessing the Suitability of Future Multi- and Hyperspectral Satellite Systems for Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Norway Spruce Timber Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nink


    Full Text Available The availability of accurate and timely information on timber volume is important for supporting operational forest management. One option is to combine statistical concepts (e.g., small area estimates with specifically designed terrestrial sampling strategies to provide estimations also on the level of administrative units such as forest districts. This may suffice for economic assessments, but still fails to provide spatially explicit information on the distribution of timber volume within these management units. This type of information, however, is needed for decision-makers to design and implement appropriate management operations. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is currently implementing an object-oriented database that will also allow the direct integration of Earth observation data products. This work analyzes the suitability of forthcoming multi- and hyperspectral satellite imaging systems for producing local distribution maps for timber volume of Norway spruce, one of the most economically important tree species. In combination with site-specific inventory data, fully processed hyperspectral data sets (HyMap were used to simulate datasets of the forthcoming EnMAP and Sentinel-2 systems to establish adequate models for estimating timber volume maps. The analysis included PLS regression and the k-NN method. Root Mean Square Errors between 21.6% and 26.5% were obtained, where k-NN performed slightly better than PLSR. It was concluded that the datasets of both simulated sensor systems fulfill accuracy requirements to support local forest management operations and could be used in synergy. Sentinel-2 can provide meaningful volume distribution maps in higher geometric resolution, while EnMAP, due to its hyperspectral coverage, can contribute complementary information, e.g., on biophysical conditions.

  8. Assessing the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing piggery under tropical conditions using the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara


    Full Text Available Studies were carried out worldwide for evaluating different types of floor systems for growing-finishing pigs, specifically for assessing their effectiveness on pig performance, health and behaviour, leaving the opportunity for using multi-criteria analysis in decisionmaking towards the selection of flooring type. This study aimed to select the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing pigs under tropical conditions, considering performance traits and farmers management aspects. The analytic hierarchy process was applied for seeking the best solution considering both the farmers’ goals and the pigs’ welfare. Aspects considered in the analysis were: economic feasibility, rearing thermal and aerial ambient, animal behaviour, performance, and health status. The input used in the calculation was based on the results of a field trial using three treatments: whole concrete floor, coffee and rice husk bedding, and wood shavings deepbedding. Rearing conditions and pigs’ physiological parameters, performance, behaviour, and health status were analysed. When the floor system was considered, the most significant criteria were economic feasibility (0.31 and overall pig performance (0.31 leading to a final deep-bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, concrete floor (2nd, and wood shavings (3rd. Conversely, when the animal welfare was considered, the most decisive criterion was health status (0.32, followed by physiological parameters (0.25, and behaviour (0.23 leading to a final bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, wood shavings (2nd, and concrete floor (3rd. Results indicate that the deep-bedding of coffee and rice husks provided the best choice for both the farmer and the growing-finishing pigs.

  9. Assessment of Climate for Agricultural Suitability and Optimal Allocation of Agricultural Production in the Guanzhong Region, Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on spatial climatic data of agriculture and the experiment data, the models of agro-ecological assessment of climate for agricultural suitability in this study were developed using the fuzzy mathematical method. Three coefficients, in- cluding the resource coefficient (Cr), the efficiency coefficient (Ce), and the utility co- efficient (K), were used in the models, which were calculated based on temperature, moisture, and sunshine duration data of Guanzhong region, Shaanxi Province. The results indicated that resource coefficient was higher in west of the region than that in east, and higher in south (especially in the Central Shaanxi Plain) than that in the Weibei plateau. The value of Cr changed from 6.5 to 9.2 from north to plain area. Spatial change of efficiency coefficient was obvious, lower in the northeast than in the central plain, and the value of Ce changed from 2.3 to 6.5 from the northeast to the central plain. As for utility coefficient, it was lower in northeastern part of the Weibei plateau and in southern mountain areas than that in the central plain, showing significant latitudinal zonality. Furthermore, the value of K increased from 0.35 to 0.78 from northeast to the central plain, and decreased from 0.78 to 0.53 from the central plain to southern mountain areas. These indicated that climate resource in the central plain region was more abundant and potential, compared with other regions. GuanZhong region was classified into three larger agricultural zones and three small independent zones, according to agro-ecological assessment. Light, heat and water resources should be made use of in an efficient way in spatial allo- cation of agricultural production. For example, water facilities should also be im- proved in Weibei plateau region where highly-qualified fruit should be enhanced and fruit processing industrial chain should be shaped. Large-scale production area of wheat should be increased in central irrigation region and more vegetable

  10. Application of the soil-ecological multiplicative index to assess suitability of Cis-Ural chernozems for cultivation with due account for economic parameters (United States)

    Levykin, S. V.; Chibilev, A. A.; Kazachkov, G. V.; Petrishchev, V. P.


    The evolution of Russian concepts concerning the assessment of soil suitability for cultivation in relation to several campaigns on large-scale plowing of virgin steppe soils is examined. The major problems of agricultural land use in steppe areas—preservation of rainfed farming in the regions with increasing climatic risks, underestimation of the potential of arable lands in land cadaster assessments, and much lower factual yields in comparison with potential yields—are considered. It is suggested that the assessments of arable lands should be performed on the basis of the soil-ecological index (SEI) developed by I. Karmanov with further conversion of SEI values into nominal monetary values. Under conditions of land reforms and economic reforms, it is important to determine suitability of steppe chernozems for plowing and economic feasibility of their use for crop growing in dependence on macroeconomic parameters. This should support decisions on optimization of land use in the steppe zone on the basis of the principles suggested by V. Dokuchaev. The developed approach for assessing soil suitability for cultivation was tested in the subzone of herbaceous-fescue-feather grass steppes in the Cis-Ural part of Orenburg oblast and used for the assessment of soil suitability for cultivation in the southern and southeastern regions of Orenburg oblast.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier


    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the requirement of the population of the Russian Federation for an organ transplantation and donor resource, to offer approach to planning of an effective network of the medical organizations (the centers of transplantation. Materials and methods. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the patients receiving a dialysis, data about medical care on an organ transplantation in Russia and foreign countries is made. Results. On the basis of what the assessment of requirement of the population of the Russian Federation in an organ transplantation and donor resource is carried out, approach to planning of an effective network of the medical organizations (the centers of transplantation and scenarios of development of organ do- nation and transplantation in Russia is offered. Conclusion. To provide the population of the Russian Federation with medical care on an organ transplantation according to real requirement and donor resource, in each region of the Russian Federation have to be organized deceased organ donation and transplantation of a cadaveric kidney. But the transplantation of extrarenal organs is better to develop in the federal centers of hi-tech medical care with donor providing from territories of adjacent regions. 

  12. Biodiesel production process optimization and characterization to assess the suitability of the product for varied environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eevera, T.; Rajendran, K.; Saradha, S. [Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Periyar Nagar, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu 613 403 (India)


    In this study, both edible (coconut oil, palm oil, groundnut oil, and rice bran oil) and non-edible oils (pongamia, neem and cotton seed oil) were used to optimize the biodiesel production process variables like catalyst concentration, amount of methanol required for reaction, reaction time and reaction temperature. The fuel properties like specific gravity, moisture content, refractive index, acid value, iodine number, saponification value and peroxide value were estimated. Based on the cetane number and iodine value, the methyl esters obtained from palm and coconut oils were not suitable to use as biodiesel in cold weather conditions, but for hot climate condition biodiesel obtained from the remaining oil sources is suitable. (author)

  13. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State (United States)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  14. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran. (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid


    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection.

  15. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water qu

  16. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus. (United States)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H J H; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N


    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  17. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  18. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs. (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K; Serra, Kayla; Joyner, T Andrew; Humphries, Austin


    Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed) and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y(-1). Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects.

  19. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs (United States)

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Serra, Kayla; Joyner, T. Andrew; Humphries, Austin T.


    Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed) and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y−1. Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects.

  20. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. La Peyre


    Full Text Available Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y−1. Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects.

  1. Donor Tag Game (United States)

    ... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter your ...

  2. The identification of potential cadaveric organ donors. (United States)

    Thompson, J F; McCosker, C J; Hibberd, A D; Chapman, J R; Compton, J S; Mahony, J F; Mohacsi, P J; MacDonald, G J; Spratt, P M


    Most Australian transplantation programs are severely restricted in their activities by a limited availability of cadaveric donor organs. To investigate possible reasons for this problem, an audit was undertaken over three 12-month periods of all deaths in 13 hospitals in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. From 7406 deaths, 271 patients were classified as having been realistic, medically suitable potential donors. Of these, only 60 (22%) became actual donors. In the other 211 patients, donation did not occur because of unsuccessful resuscitation (30%), permission refusal by relatives (34%), and failure to identify or support the potential donors (36%). If the impediments to organ donation which were identified in this study could be overcome, allowing a greater number of potential donors to become actual donors, the chronic shortage of cadaveric donor organs for transplantation could be at least partly relieved.

  3. 城市土地生态适宜性评价研究综述%Study on Urban Land Ecological Suitability Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨轶; 赵楠琦; 李贵才


    As a response to urban land use expansion, urban sprawl, and ecological and environmental quality declines, urban land ecological suitability assessment is becoming increasingly significant not only for rational and effective urban land use, but for urban and regional ecological planning. The current literature has paid attention to the study of urban land ecological suitability assessment. This paper, from the perspective of literature review, mainly focuses on the concepts, evaluation index systems, and estimation method of urban land ecological suitability assessment, and its potential planning implications. This research ifnds that there are still certain problems and dififculty for further land ecological suitability assessment research.%城市土地生态适宜性评价是城市生态规划的核心内容,是应对城市建设用地无序扩张,实现土地资源合理利用的有效方法。本文从城市土地生态适宜性评价的内涵入手,针对不同地域类型的特征,从评价指标体系、评价方法和实践应用三个方面,对国内外研究进行了系统回顾。研究认为,国内外现有研究成果已十分丰富,但仍存在一些问题和研究难点。

  4. Management of the multiple organ donor. (United States)

    Grebenik, C R; Hinds, C J


    The need for cadaveric organs for transplantation is increasing. This article provides guidelines for the identification of potential organ donors and suggests suitable principles of management. The physiological changes after brain death are briefly reviewed.

  5. On the suitability of ultrathin detectors for absorbed dose assessment in the presence of high-density heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, M., E-mail:; Duch, M. A. [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Carrasco, P.; Jornet, N. [Servei de Radiofísica i Radioprotecció, Hospital de la Santa Creu i de Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Muñoz-Montplet, C. [Servei de Física Mèdica i Protecció Radiològica, Institut Català d’Oncologia—Girona, 17007 Girona (Spain)


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of several detectors for the determination of absorbed dose in bone. Methods: Three types of ultrathin LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs)—two LiF:Mg,Cu,P-based (MCP-Ns and TLD-2000F) and a{sup 7}Li-enriched LiF:Mg,Ti-based (MTS-7s)—as well as EBT2 Gafchromic films were used to measure percentage depth-dose distributions (PDDs) in a water-equivalent phantom with a bone-equivalent heterogeneity for 6 and 18 MV and a set of field sizes ranging from 5×5 cm{sup 2} to 20×20 cm{sup 2}. MCP-Ns, TLD-2000F, MTS-7s, and EBT2 have active layers of 50, 20, 50, and 30 μm, respectively. Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations (PENELOPE code) were used as the reference and helped to understand the experimental results and to evaluate the potential perturbation of the fluence in bone caused by the presence of the detectors. The energy dependence and linearity of the TLDs’ response was evaluated. Results: TLDs exhibited flat energy responses (within 2.5%) and linearity with dose (within 1.1%) within the range of interest for the selected beams. The results revealed that all considered detectors perturb the electron fluence with respect to the energy inside the bone-equivalent material. MCP-Ns and MTS-7s underestimated the absorbed dose in bone by 4%–5%. EBT2 exhibited comparable accuracy to MTS-7s and MCP-Ns. TLD-2000F was able to determine the dose within 2% accuracy. No dependence on the beam energy or field size was observed. The MC calculations showed that a50 μm thick detector can provide reliable dose estimations in bone regardless of whether it is made of LiF, water or EBT’s active layer material. Conclusions: TLD-2000F was found to be suitable for providing reliable absorbed dose measurements in the presence of bone for high-energy x-ray beams.

  6. lociNGS: a lightweight alternative for assessing suitability of next-generation loci for evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Hird

    Full Text Available Genomic enrichment methods and next-generation sequencing produce uneven coverage for the portions of the genome (the loci they target; this information is essential for ascertaining the suitability of each locus for further analysis. lociNGS is a user-friendly accessory program that takes multi-FASTA formatted loci, next-generation sequence alignments and demographic data as input and collates, displays and outputs information about the data. Summary information includes the parameters coverage per locus, coverage per individual and number of polymorphic sites, among others. The program can output the raw sequences used to call loci from next-generation sequencing data. lociNGS also reformats subsets of loci in three commonly used formats for multi-locus phylogeographic and population genetics analyses - NEXUS, IMa2 and Migrate. lociNGS is available at and is dependent on installation of MongoDB (freely available at lociNGS is written in Python and is supported on MacOSX and Unix; it is distributed under a GNU General Public License.

  7. Assessment of land suitability for olive mill wastewater disposal site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP, and WLC in a GIS. (United States)

    Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek; Nasr, Imen Hamdi; Louati, Mourad; Zairi, Moncef


    This paper presents a geographic information system-based multi-criteria site selection tool of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) disposal site in Sidi Bouzid Region, Tunisia. The multi-criteria decision framework integrates ten constraints and six factors that relate to environmental and economic concerns, and builds a hierarchy model for OMW disposal site suitability. The methodology is used for preliminary assessment of the most suitable OMW disposal sites by combining fuzzy set theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The fuzzy set theory is used to standardize factors using different fuzzy membership functions while the AHP is used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by both environmental and economic decision criteria. The OMW disposal site suitability is achieved by applying a weighted linear combination that uses a comparison matrix to aggregate different importance scenarios associated with environmental and economic objectives. Three different scenarios generated by different weights applied to the two objectives. The scenario (a) assigns a weight of 0.75 to the environmental and 0.25 to the economic objective, scenario (b) has equal weights, and scenario (c) features weights of 0.25 and 0.75 for environmental and economic objectives, respectively. The results from this study assign the least suitable OMW disposal site of 2.5 % when environmental and economic objectives are rated equally, while a more suitable OMW disposal site of 1.0 % is generated when the economic objective is rated higher.

  8. Joint Ordnance Test Procedure (JOTP)-010 Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing for Shoulder Launched Munitions (United States)


    c. Test Level. It is recommended that the default Tactical Wheeled Vehicle (TWV) and Two Wheeled Trailer ( TWT ) curves in AECTP 400, Method...are fired from a confined space or enclosure. This measurement is specific to ‘fire from enclosure’. JOTP-010 8 January 2013 A-2...environment. The warhead safe and arm/fuze component(s) have been qualified (or has a favourable S3 assessment) in accordance with AOP-20. 2.2 Tailoring

  9. [Risk Assessment of Single-Donor (Apheresis) Platelet Concentrates and Pooled Whole-Blood-Derived Platelet Concentrates]. (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Wartensleben, Herbert


    According to the risk estimates of the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) and the Paul Ehrlich-Institute (PEI) an equivalence cannot be assumed to exist between the two different platelet preparations. Differences between single-donor (apheresis) platelet concentrates (ATK) and pooled whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates (PTK) result from donor populations, donation intervals, and preparation techniques. There are no prospective randomized studies with regard to the clinical efficacy, which would unambiguously demonstrate equivalence of the therapeutic efficacy of PTK (buffy coat method) in comparison to ATK. The German Association of Blood Transfusion Services (StKB) points out that, due to the non-equivalence of PTK and ATK, it is incumbent on the transfusion physician to select the platelet concentrate, make the appropriate disclosures, and assume treatment responsibility. Proper compensation for ATK and PTK must be ensured by the health insurance companies, whereby a special indication for the selection of either PTK or ATK is not given. Exceptions are patients with known HLA antibodies in which only selected platelet concentrates may be administered. Otherwise, no indication exists in the selection of the different platelet concentrates (Article is in German).

  10. Assessing suitable area for Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira River Basin (Central Portugal based on maximum entropy modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira


    Full Text Available Biological invasion by exotic organisms became a key issue, a concern associated to the deep impacts on several domains described as resultant from such processes. A better understanding of the processes, the identification of more susceptible areas, and the definition of preventive or mitigation measures are identified as critical for the purpose of reducing associated impacts. The use of species distribution modeling might help on the purpose of identifying areas that are more susceptible to invasion. This paper aims to present preliminary results on assessing the susceptibility to invasion by the exotic species Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira river basin. The results are based on the maximum entropy modeling approach, considered one of the correlative modelling techniques with better predictive performance. Models which validation is based on independent data sets present better performance, an evaluation based on the AUC of ROC accuracy measure.

  11. Assessing water quality suitability for shortnose sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA with an in situ bioassay approach (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Oakley, N.C.; Lazaro, P.R.; Shea, D.; Augspurger, T.; Law, J.M.; Henne, J.P.; Ware, K.M.


    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of water quality in the Roanoke River of North Carolina for supporting shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, an endangered species in the United States. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were also evaluated alongside the sturgeon as a comparative species to measure potential differences in fish survival, growth, contaminant accumulation, and histopathology in a 28-day in situ toxicity test. Captively propagated juvenile shortnose sturgeon (total length 49??8mm, mean??SD) and fathead minnows (total length 39??3mm, mean??SD) were used in the test and their outcomes were compared to simultaneous measurements of water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total ammonia nitrogen, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity) and contaminant chemistry (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, current use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) in river water and sediment. In the in situ test, there were three non-riverine control sites and eight riverine test sites with three replicate cages (25??15-cm (OD) clear plexiglass with 200-??m tear-resistant Nitex?? screen over each end) of 20 shortnose sturgeon per cage at each site. There was a single cage of fathead minnows also deployed at each site alongside the sturgeon cages. Survival of caged shortnose sturgeon among the riverine sites averaged 9% (range 1.7-25%) on day 22 of the 28-day study, whereas sturgeon survival at the non-riverine control sites averaged 64% (range 33-98%). In contrast to sturgeon, only one riverine deployed fathead minnow died (average 99.4% survival) over the 28-day test period and none of the control fathead minnows died. Although chemical analyses revealed the presence of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a pulp and paper mill derived compound with known dioxin-like toxicity to early life stages of fish, in significant quantities in the water (251-603ngL-1) and sediment (up to 5000ngg-1


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lopes GONÇALES Jr.


    Full Text Available The determination of aminotranferases levels is very useful in the diagnosis of hepatopathies. In recent years, an elevated serum ALT level in blood donors has been associated with an increased risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH. The purpose of the study was to research the factors associated with elevated ALT levels in a cohort of voluntary blood donors and to evaluate the relationship between increased ALT levels and the development of hepatitis C (HCV infection. 166 volunteer blood donors with elevated ALT at the time of their first donation were studied. All of the donors were questioned about previous hepatopathies, exposure to hepatitis, exposure to chemicals, use of medication or drugs, sexual behaviour, contact with blood or secretions and their intake of alcohol. Every three months, the serum levels of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, cholesterol, triglyceride and glycemia are assessed over a two year follow-up. The serum thyroid hormone levels as well as the presence of auto-antibodies were also measured. Abdominal ultrasound was performed in all patients with persistently elevated ALT or AST levels. A needle biopsy of liver was performed in 9 donors without definite diagnostic after medical investigation. The presence of anti-HCV antibodies in 116 donors were assayed again the first clinical evaluation. At the end of follow-up period (2 years later 71 donors were tested again for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. None of donors resulted positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C markers during the follow-up. Of the 116 donors, 101 (87% had persistently elevated ALT serum levels during the follow-up. Obesity and alcoholism were the principal conditions related to elevated ALT serum levels in 91/101 (90.1% donors. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus also were associated with increased ALT levels. Only 1/101 (0.9% had mild chronic active non A-G viral

  13. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena


    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesn´t present contradictions for transplant (possible donor and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  14. Is hair analysis for dialkyl phosphate metabolites a suitable biomarker for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphate pesticides? (United States)

    Tsatsakis, A M; Tutudaki, M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Dawson, A; Mohamed, F; Christaki, M; Alegakis, A K


    In the present paper, the possibility to use dialkyl phosphate metabolites (DAPs) hair segmental analysis as a biomarker of past acute exposure to organophosphates is examined. Hair samples of four acute poisoning survivors were collected and segmental hair analysis was performed. The total hair samples were divided to 1 cm segments and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the presence of four DAP metabolites, dimethyl phosphate (DMP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP) and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP). Results were examined under the light of pesticide type and time of hair sample collection. Although DAPs were detected all along the hair shaft, higher concentrations (peaks) were detected in the segments proximate to the suicide period. It was also observed that the elevated concentrations of the present metabolites corresponded to the ones produced by the ingested parent compound. Conclusively, measurements of DAPs in the appropriate hair segments of OP-poisoned patients can be used for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphates in certain cases.

  15. Development, validation and quantitative assessment of an enzymatic assay suitable for small molecule screening and profiling: A case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sancenon


    Full Text Available The successful discovery and subsequent development of small molecule inhibitors of drug targets relies on the establishment of robust, cost-effective, quantitative, and physiologically relevant in vitro assays that can support prolonged screening and optimization campaigns. The current study illustrates the process of developing and validating an enzymatic assay for the discovery of small molecule inhibitors using alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestine as model target. The assay development workflow includes an initial phase of optimization of assay materials, reagents, and conditions, continues with a process of miniaturization and automation, and concludes with validation by quantitative measurement of assay performance and signal variability. The assay is further evaluated for dose–response and mechanism-of-action studies required to support structure–activity-relationship studies. Emphasis is placed on the most critical aspects of assay optimization and other relevant considerations, including the technology, assay materials, buffer constituents, reaction conditions, liquid handling equipment, analytical instrumentation, and quantitative assessments. Examples of bottlenecks encountered during assay development and strategies to address them are provided.

  16. Assessing glomerular filtration rate in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh: a comparison of various prediction equations with measured glomerular filtration rate by diethylentriamine pentaacetic acid renogram. (United States)

    Jahan, F; Chowdhury, M N U; Mahbub, T; Arafat, S M; Jahan, S; Hossain, M; Khan, M F


    To ensure that potential kidney donors in Bangladesh have no renal impairment, it is extremely important to have accurate methods for evaluating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We evaluated the performance of serum creatinine based GFR in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh to compare GFR determined by DTPA with that determined by various prediction equations. In this study GFR in 61 healthy adult potential kidney donors were measured with 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) renogram. We also estimated GFR using a four variable equation modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (CGCrCl), Cockcroft-Gault glomerular filtration rate (CG-GFR). The mean age of study population was 34.31 +/- 9.46 years and out of them 65.6% was male. In this study mean mGFR was 85.4 +/- 14.8. Correlation of estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR and MDRD were done with measured GFR DTPA using quartile. Kappa values were also estimated which was found to be 0.104 for (p = 0.151), 0.336 for (p = 0.001) and 0.125 for (p = 0.091) respectively. This indicates there is no association between estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR, MDRD with measured GFR DTPA. These results show poor performance of these equations in evaluation of renal function among healthy population and also raise question regarding validity of these equations for assessment of renal function in chronic kidney disease in our population.

  17. The Relationship Between Verified Organ Donor Designation and Patient Demographic and Medical Characteristics. (United States)

    Sehgal, N K R; Scallan, C; Sullivan, C; Cedeño, M; Pencak, J; Kirkland, J; Scott, K; Thornton, J D


    Previous studies on the correlates of organ donation consent have focused on self-reported willingness to donate and on self-reported medical suitability to donate. However, these may be subject to social desirability bias and inaccurate assessments of medical suitability. The authors sought to overcome these limitations by directly verifying donor designation on driver's licenses and by abstracting comorbid conditions from electronic health records. Using a cross-sectional study design, they reviewed the health records of 2070 randomly selected primary care patients at a large urban safety-net medical system to obtain demographic and medical characteristics. They also examined driver's licenses that were scanned into electronic health records as part of the patient registration process for donor designation. Overall, 943 (46%) patients were designated as a donor on their driver's license. On multivariate analysis, donor designation was positively associated with age 35-54 years, female sex, nonblack race, speaking English or Spanish, being employed, having private insurance, having an income >$45 000, and having fewer comorbid conditions. These demographic and medical characteristics resulted in patient subgroups with donor designation rates ranging from 21% to 75%. In conclusion, patient characteristics are strongly related to verified donor designation. Further work should tailor organ donation efforts to specific subgroups.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Mariana DAN


    Full Text Available One of the three strategic objectives of the Europe 2020 Agenda is to ensure the sustainable management of the natural resources and to fight against climate changes. Considering water to be not only a valuable natural resource for any type of landscape, but also the vital environmental component that ensured a minimum of productivity for the people working the unproductive salinization and gleyzation affected soils in the Jiu-Corabia enclosure, using embankment dams to breake the link between the Danube and the flood organism it created over a timespan of millenia has proven in the last 50 years to be an economic and ecological failure. Since the December 1989 events in Romania, after most of the socialist institutions have proven to be too resource consuming, thus unprofitable or maladaptive, the Jiu-Corabia locals have individually experimented with various land cultivation patterns, all of them based on draught-resistant crops, such as peanuts. In spite of it being the original natural landuse, lake usage has only been scarcely mentioned as a project after the 2006 flood, but after being institutionally rejected, its benefits in terms of ecological restoration, financial productivity have not been further looked into. The current article aims to identify different height level scenarios of lake usage in the Jiu-Corabia enclosure, using GIS technique. Lake volumes are calculated for each scenario with the aim of assessing the volume of water this enclose can absorb during flooding periods, as well as of estimating fish production for when the waters are low and it is not needed as a controlled flood chamber. Other benefits, such as providing a source of humidity for precipitations which will aid the crops nearby, have not been monetized, but contribute to the regional development efforts.

  19. Suitability of Isotope Kinetic Approach to Assess Phos—phorus Status and Bioavailability of Major Acidic Soils in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A 32P isotope kinetic approach was used to describe the chemical status and bioavailability of phosphorus in 32 acidic soils from subtropical China.By determining the residual radoactivity,rt,in soil solution at different time,t,after introduction of the isotope in an amount of R into the steady soil-water system,a well-defined isotope kinetic model was established,and upon this model the decrease rate ,n,of log(rt/R) with respect to logt,the mean sojourn time of phosphate ions in solution,the mean exchange rate and the mean flux of phosphate ions between soil solid and solution phases were calculated.Other parameters,such as the exchangeable P within the first minute of isotope exchange(E1),and P in various compartments that could be exchanged with solution phosphte ions at different perods of time,were also obtained.For these acidic soils,the r1/R had a significant correlation with the contents of clay and free Al2O3 where r1 is the radioactivity in solution 1 minute after introduction of the isotope into the system.Parameter n also had a significant correlation with clay content and a neagtive correlation with soil pH,E1 values and Cp,the P concentration in soil solution,also Significantly correlated with clay and sesquioxide contents of the soils.these indicated that these isotope kinetic parameters were largely influenced by P-fixing components of the soils.For the soils with strong P-fixing ability,the E1 values overestimated labile P pools and hence their correlations with A values and plant P uptake were not significant .The other iostope kinetic parameters also had no significant correlation with plant P uptak.On the other hand,the convetional chemical-extracted p correlated better with plant P uptake .It was concluded that the iostope kinetic method could assess the p chemical status yet it would inappropriate in predicting plant available P for soils with a high P-fixing ability as the problem of an overestimation of soil lable P in these soils was

  20. Assessment of Wells Water Quality and their Suitability for Drinking in M'Bahiakro City (Côte d'Ivoire

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    Kouassi Innocent KOUAME


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the quality and the suitability of the well waters for drinking in M’bahiakro city (centre-east of Côte d’Ivoire. The work was performed on 71 wells in February 2012 (dry season and June 2012 (rainy season. Groundwater levels and physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, redox potential (Eh, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS and Salinity were measured to assess the water table fluctuation and the groundwater quality. Standardized Principal Component Analysis (SPCA was calculated to group the well waters and to evaluate their suitability for drinking according to different classes. Water table varies between 125 and 135 m during the dry season and between 127 and 136 m during the rainy season with a West-Est flow direction. The recharge values ranged between 0.57 m and 5.57 m. Wells waters are generally acidic (pH<6.5, high mineralized with conductivities and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS respectively above 600 µS/cm and 300 mg/l. Well water salinity values ranged between 0.30 and 0.5%. The Standardized Principal Component Analysis (SPCA allowed distinguishing three important groups of water within M’bahiakro area: the first group of wells with high mineralized water, the second group of wells with high potential redox (Eh and the third group of wells with pH closer to neutral. The first and second groups are not very suitable for drinking because they are suspected of being contaminated by anthropogenic sources such as septic tanks and wild dump. Waters of these wells need to be treated before any domestic use.

  1. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

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    Getaneh Alemu


    Full Text Available Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22±0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean. Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%, A (136, 32.7%, B (87, 20.9%, and AB (18, 4.3%. Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%. The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416. ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P=0.022. High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P=0.003 compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

  2. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia. (United States)

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman


    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

  3. Assessment of 188Re marked anti MHC class Ⅱ antibody by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by donor alloantigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guo-ping; CAO Li-ping; LIU Jie; LIU Da-ren; QUE Ri-sheng; ZHU Lin-hua; ZHOU Yi-ming; MAO Ke-jie; HU Jun-an


    Background Previous studies showed that anti MHC-Ⅱ monoclone antibody (MAb) only had partial inhibiting effect of alloreactive mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in vitro and it was unsteady and non-persistent. The aim of this research was to determine whether radioactive isotope 188Re marked MHC-Ⅱ antibody could benefit the allograft acceptance in transplantation as compared to normal MHC-Ⅱ antibody.Methods 188Re was incorporated to 2E9/13F(ab')2 which is against swine MHC class Ⅱ antigen (MAb-188Re). Porcine peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells were examined for proliferation and cytokine mRNA expression after stimulation with MHC-Ⅱ MAb or MAb-188Re.Results The proliferative response of recipient PBMCs in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) to donor alloantigen showed that the stimulation index of MAb-188Re group was significantly lower than the MHC-Ⅱ MAb group and control (P<0.05). mRNA expression of interleukin 2, interferon Y and tumor necrosis factor α (type 1 cytokines) was lower in MAb-188Re group than the MHC-Ⅱ MAb group, while interleukin 10 (type 2 cytokines) was higher in MAb-188Re group in the first 24 hours.Conclusion MAb-188Re could help the graft acceptance by inhibiting T cell proliferation, lowering the expression of type 1 cytokines and elevating the type 2 cytokines produced by PBMC.

  4. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana (United States)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include

  5. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Akoh


    Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.

  6. 栖息地适宜度评价方法研究进展%Research progress in habitat suitability assessment methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易雨君; 程曦; 周静


    suitability simulation is considered to be a most reliable method to determine the environmental flow. The purpose of evaluating habitat suitability is to provide a suitable habitat for aquatic organisms. Compared with other evaluation methods of environmental flow, habitat suitability simulation consid-ers the species-habitat relationships, and quantifies habitat requirements by evaluation indices. This paper aims to provide an over-view of the current habitat suitability assessment methods for describing the relationship between species and habitat. Methods in-cluding habitat suitability index, multivariate statistical methods, fuzzy logic method, artificial neural networks, statistical analysis of multi-species and community are introduced. The development and application of these methods are described in this paper. At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages of statistical methods are compared. Habitat suitability index is a classical method for quantifying habitat Binary format, univariate format and multivariate format are the three formats of habitat suitability index. The first two methods only consider single factor. Because of the intuitive, required less field survey data, and can be easily used, multi-variate format is the most popular method at present. However, it strongly relies on the experience of expert and tends to be subjec-tive easily. Multivariate statistical methods include multiple linear regressions, ridge regression method, principal component regres-sion, logistic regression, generalized linear model approach, generalized additive model method, and so on. More and more applica-tions of multivariate statistical methods in habitat suitability assessment have appeared in recent years. Multivariate statistical meth-ods considered the interaction between the physical factors. The fuzzy logic method is better dealing with uncertainties in the process of habitat simulation. It uses expert knowledge and dispose inaccuracies and uncertainties of

  7. 基于AHP的浅层地热能适宜性分区评价%Assessment of suitability of shallow geothermal energy based on AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金婧; 席文娟; 陈宇飞; 王涛


    Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a quantitative and measurable method and also a multi - target decision - making analyzsis method and has been widely applied to many fields. In this paper AHP was used to confirm the weight of every evaluated factor in the process of assessing the suitability of developing the shallow geothermal energy in Yinchuan city. On the basis of that, the suitability of zoning based on the weight system and marking system was evaluated. The conclusion indicates that Yinchuan city is fit for adopting water - source heat pump of groundwater to exploit shallow geothermal energy. The result is consistent with the reality, the zoning result is reasonable and reliable can provides basis and references for the development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy in Yinchuan city.%层次分析法是一种定性和定量分析相结合的多目标决策分析方法,在很多领域都得到广泛的应用.本文运用层次分析法进行银川市地下水水源热泵适宜性分区评价,确定浅层地热能适宜性分区评价体系中的各评价指标的权重.在此基础上,利用权重系统和评分系统进行适宜性分区评价,评价结果显示银川市除局部地区外,大部分地区适宜采用地下水水源热泵开采浅层地热能,评价结果与客观情况基本吻合,分区结果合理可靠,为银川市浅层地热能的合理开发利用提供借鉴和参考.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability index (CFD-HSI) modelling as an exploratory tool for assessing passability of riverine migratory challenge zones for fish (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Chelminski, Michael; Dudley, Robert W.


    We developed two-dimensional computational fluid hydraulics-habitat suitability index (CFD-HSI) models to identify and qualitatively assess potential zones of shallow water depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five major anadromous fish species in a 2.63-km reach of the main stem Penobscot River, Maine, as a result of a dam removal downstream of the reach. Suitability parameters were based on distribution of fish lengths and body depths and transformed to cruising, maximum sustained and sprint swimming speeds. Zones of potential depth and velocity challenges were calculated based on the hydraulic models; ability of fish to pass a challenge zone was based on the percent of river channel that the contiguous zone spanned and its maximum along-current length. Three river flows (low: 99.1 m3 sec-1; normal: 344.9 m3 sec-1; and high: 792.9 m3 sec-1) were modelled to simulate existing hydraulic conditions and hydraulic conditions simulating removal of a dam at the downstream boundary of the reach. Potential depth challenge zones were nonexistent for all low-flow simulations of existing conditions for deeper-bodied fishes. Increasing flows for existing conditions and removal of the dam under all flow conditions increased the number and size of potential velocity challenge zones, with the effects of zones being more pronounced for smaller species. The two-dimensional CFD-HSI model has utility in demonstrating gross effects of flow and hydraulic alteration, but may not be as precise a predictive tool as a three-dimensional model. Passability of the potential challenge zones cannot be precisely quantified for two-dimensional or three-dimensional models due to untested assumptions and incomplete data on fish swimming performance and behaviours.

  9. Computer algorithms in the search for unrelated stem cell donors. (United States)

    Steiner, David


    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a "donor search process" by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU). Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  10. Computer Algorithms in the Search for Unrelated Stem Cell Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Steiner


    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a “donor search process” by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU. Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  11. Report of the clinical donor case workshop of the European Association of Tissue Banks annual meeting 2014. (United States)

    Beele, Hilde; van Wijk, Marja J; Wulff, Birgit; Holsboer, Noor; de Bruijn, Marieke; Segerström, Camilla; Trias, Esteve


    The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) donor case workshop is a forum held within the program of the EATB annual congress. The workshop offers an opportunity to discuss and evaluate possible approaches taken to challenging situations regarding donor selection. Donor case workshops actively engage participants with diverging background and experience in an informal, secure and enjoyable setting. The resulting discussion with peers promotes consensus development in deciding tissue donor acceptability, especially when donor health issues are not conclusively addressed in standards and regulations. Finally the workshop serves to strengthen the professional tissue banking networks across Europe and beyond. This report reflects some of the discussion at the workshop during the annual congress in Lund, Sweden, in 2014. The cases presented demonstrate that the implications of various donor illnesses, physical findings and behaviours on the safety of tissue transplantation, may be interpreted in a different way by medical directors and other professionals of different tissue facilities. This will also result in diverging preventive measures and decisions taken by the tissue facilities. Some of the donor cases illustrate varied responses from participants and demonstrate that operating procedures, regulations and standards cannot comprehensively cover all tissue donor illnesses, medical histories and circumstances surrounding the cause of death. For many of the issues raised, there is a lack of published scientific evidence. In those cases, tissue bank medical director judgement is critical to guarantee transplantation safety. This judgement should be based on a proper and documented risk assessment case by case. Conditions or parameters taken into account for risk assessment are amongst others, the type of tissue, the type of processing, the characteristics of the final product, and the availability of an adequate sterilisation methodology. By publishing these

  12. Behavior assessment of blood donors facing the risk of HIV infection, Abidjan, Cotê D'Ivoire, 2001-2002. (United States)

    Minga, Albert K; Huët, Charlotte; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Bonard, Dominique; Gourvellec, G; Coulibaly, Ali; Konaté, Seidou; Dabis, Francois; Salamon, Roger


    Despite precautions taken to guarantee blood safety, in the National Blood Transfusion Center (CNTS) of Abidjan, about 30 regular blood donors are detected with HIV seroconversion each year, two-thirds of them men. A survey through face-to-face interviews was carried out at the CNTS of Abidjan from September 2001 to March 2002 among HIV-positive and HIV-negative regular blood donors, informed about their serologic status. HIV-negative regular blood donors informed about their serologic status since a median time of 67 months (n = 50) disclosed more risky behaviors such as multiple sexual partners (68%) than HIV-positive blood donors informed about their status (n = 112) since a median time of 35 months (41%) (P < 0.001). Condoms were systematically used by 17% of HIV-negative blood donors and 55% of HIV-positive blood donors (P < 0.001). Enhanced counseling and awareness could reduce in the future the number of cases of seroconversion among regular blood donors and improve their subsequent behavior. Blood donors who have unprotected sex with partners of unknown HIV serologic status and especially with casual partners are strongly exposed to HIV transmission and should be discouraged to continue giving blood, after adequate counseling.

  13. Assessment of the abdominal wall function after pedicled TRAM flap surgery for breast reconstruction: Use of modified mesh repair for the donor defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyriac Chacko


    Full Text Available Background: The pedicled TRAM flap has been a workhorse of autologous breast reconstruction for decades. However, there has been a rising concern about the abdominal wall donor site morbidity with the use of conventional TRAM flap. This has generally been cited as one of the main reasons for resorting to "abdominal wall friendly" techniques. This study has been undertaken to assess the abdominal wall function in patients with pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. The entire width of the muscle and the overlying wide disk of anterior rectus sheath were harvested with the TRAM flap in all our patients and the anterior rectus sheath defect was repaired by a Proline mesh. Materials and Methods: Abdominal wall function was studied in 21 patients who underwent simultaneous primary unipedicled TRAM flap reconstruction after mastectomy for cancer. In all the patients, the abdominal wall defect was repaired using wide sheet of Proline mesh both as inlay and onlay. The assessment tools included straight and rotational curl ups and a subjective questionnaire. The abdominal wall was also examined for any asymmetry, bulge, or hernia. The minimal follow-up was 6 months postoperative. The objective results were compared with normal unoperated volunteers. Results and Conclusions: The harvesting the TRAM flap certainly results in changes to the anterior abdominal wall that can express themselves to a variable degree. A relatively high incidence of asymptomatic asymmetry of the abdomen was seen. There was total absence of hernia in our series even after a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. A few patients were only able to partially initiate the sit up movement and suffered an important loss of strength. In most patients, synergists took over the functional movement but as the load increased, flexion and rotation performances decreased. The lack of correlation between exercise tests and the results of the questionnaire suggests that this statistically

  14. Effects of electron donors on the microbial reductive dechlorination of hexachlorocyclohexane and on the environment. (United States)

    Cui, Zhaojie; Meng, Fanli; Hong, Jinglan; Li, Xiangzhi; Ren, Xiaohua


    The reductive biotransformation of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane isomers was investigated using five alternative electron donors (i.e., glucose plus methanol, glucose only, methanol only, acetate, and ethanol) in a batch assay of an HCH-dechlorinating anaerobic culture. In addition, a life cycle assessment was conducted using the IMPACT2002+ method to evaluate the environmental effects of HCH bioremediation with the aforementioned electron donors. Results showed that the electron donors methanol plus glucose, ethanol, glucose, and methanol can significantly enhance the biotransformation of each HCH isomer. However, the amended electron donors and the byproduct of the anoxic/anaerobic systems may negatively affect the environment (e.g., respiratory inorganic, land occupation, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories). These effects are attributed to the electron donor production processes. To avoid secondary pollutants, a linear relationship between the upper bound electron donor applications and HCH concentration was observed from an environmental perspective. Results indicated that the methanol scenario was the most suitable option for the current research.

  15. Development of habitat suitability criteria for Neotropical stream fishes and an assessment of their transferability to streams with different conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Barreto Teresa

    Full Text Available We assessed the preference of 10 fish species for depth and velocity conditions in forested streams from southeastern Brazil using habitat suitability criteria (HSC curves. We also tested whether preference patterns observed in forested streams can be transferred to deforested streams. We used data from fish sampled in 62 five-meter sites in three forested streams to construct preference curves. Astyanax altiparanae, A. fasciatus, Knodus moenkhausii, and Piabina argentea showed a preference for deep slow habitats, whereas Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, Characidium zebra, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Pseudopimelodus pulcher, and Hypostomus nigromaculatus showed an opposite pattern: preference for shallow fast habitats. Hypostomus ancistroides showed a multimodal pattern of preference for depth and velocity. To evaluate whether patterns observed in forested streams may be transferred to deforested streams, we sampled 64 five-meters sites in three deforested streams using the same methodology. The preference for velocity was more consistent than for depth, as success in the transferability criterion was 86% and 29% of species, respectively. This indicates that velocity is a good predictor of species abundance in streams, regardless of their condition

  16. A new approach for the assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation: a case study of the Korba Coastal Aquifer (Tunisia, Africa). (United States)

    El Ayni, Foued; Cherif, Semia; Jrad, Amel; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika


    Groundwater is the main source of water in Mediterranean, water-scarce, semiarid regions of Tunisia, Africa. In this study of the Korba coastal aquifer, 17 water wells were studied to assess their suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes. Assessment parameters include pH, salinity, specific ion toxicity, sodium adsorption ratio, nutrients, trace metals pollutants, and fecal indicators and pathogens. Results indicate that salinity of groundwater varied between 0.36 dS/m and 17.4 dS/m; in addition, its degree of restriction is defined as "none", "slight to moderate", and "severe" for 18, 23, and 59% of the studied wells, respectively. To control salts brought in by irrigation waters, the question arises as to how much water should be used to reach crop and soil requirements. To answer this question, a new approach that calculates the optimum amount of irrigation water considering the electrical conductivity of well water (ECw), field crops, and the semiarid meteorological local conditions for evapotranspiration and rainfall is developed. This is applied to the authors' case study area; barley and lettuce were selected among the commonly grown crops because they are high- and low-salinity tolerant, respectively. Leaching requirements were found to be independent of the crop selected, and depend only on the season, that is, 250 to 260 mm/month in the driest season, with a minimum of 47 mm/month though all seasons. A high bacteriological contamination appears in almost all samples. However, if disinfected and corrected for pH, all the well waters can be used for animal farming (including livestock and poultry), although only 29% could be used for human consumption.

  17. Assessment of the Suitability of a Global Hydrodynamic Model in Simulating a Regional-scale Extreme Flood at Finer Spatial Resolutions (United States)

    Mateo, C. M. R.; Yamazaki, D.; Kim, H.; Champathong, A.; Oki, T.


    Global river models (GRMs) are elemental for large-scale predictions and impact analyses. However, they have limited capability in providing accurate flood information at fine resolution for practical purposes. Hyperresolution (~1km resolution) modelling is believed to improve the representation of topographical constraints, which consequently result to better predictions of surface water flows and flood inundation at regional to global scales. While numerous studies have shown that finer resolutions improve the predictions of catchment-scale floods using local-scale hydrodynamic models, the impact of finer spatial resolution on predictions of large-scale floods using GRMs is rarely examined. In this study, we assessed the suitability of a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic GRM, CaMa-Flood, in the hyperresolution simulation of a regional-scale flood. The impacts of finer spatial resolution and representation of sub-grid processes on simulating the 2011 immense flooding in Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand was investigated. River maps ranging from 30-arcsecond (~1km) to 5-arcminute (~10km) spatial resolutions were generated from 90m resolution HydroSHEDS maps and SRTM3 DEM. Simulations were executed in each spatial resolution with the new multi-directional downstream connectivity (MDC) scheme in CaMa-Flood turned on and off. While the predictive capability of the model slightly improved with finer spatial resolution when MDC scheme is turned on, it significantly declined when MDC scheme is turned off; bias increased by 35% and NSE-coefficient decreased by 60%. These findings indicate that GRMs which assume single-downstream-grid flows are not suitable for hyperresolution modelling because of their limited capability to realistically represent floodplain connectivity. When simulating large-scale floods, MDC scheme is necessary for the following functions: provide additional storage for ovehrbank flows, enhance connectivity between floodplains which allow more realistic

  18. Donor Financing of Global Mental Health, 1995—2015: An Assessment of Trends, Channels, and Alignment with the Disease Burden (United States)

    Dieleman, J.; Singh, L.; Whiteford, H. A.


    Background A recent report by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) highlights that mental health receives little attention despite being a major cause of disease burden. This paper extends previous assessments of development assistance for mental health (DAMH) in two significant ways; first by contrasting DAMH against that for other disease categories, and second by benchmarking allocated development assistance against the core disease burden metric (disability-adjusted life year) as estimated by the Global Burden of Disease Studies. Methods In order to track DAH, IHME collates information from audited financial records, project level data, and budget information from the primary global health channels. The diverse set of data were standardised and put into a single inflation adjusted currency (2015 US dollars) and each dollar disbursed was assigned up to one health focus areas from 1990 through 2015. We tied these health financing estimates to disease burden estimates (DALYs) produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study to calculated a standardised measure across health focus areas—development assistance for health (in US Dollars) per DALY. Findings DAMH increased from USD 18 million in 1995 to USD 132 million in 2015, which equates to 0.4% of total DAH in 2015. Over 1990 to 2015, private philanthropy was the most significant source (USD 435 million, 30% of DAMH), while the United States government provided USD 270 million of total DAMH. South and Southeast Asia received the largest proportion of funding for mental health in 2013 (34%). DAMH available per DALY in 2013 ranged from USD 0.27 in East Asia and the Pacific to USD 1.18 in the Middle East and North Africa. HIV/AIDS received the largest ratio of funds to burden—approximately USD150 per DALY in 2013. Mental and substance use disorders and its broader category of non-communicable disease received less than USD1 of DAH per DALY. Interpretation Combining estimates of disease burden

  19. 75 FR 68222 - Suitability (United States)


    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR PART 731 RIN 3206-AL90 Suitability AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... possible, of security and suitability standards. Public Trust Positions Public trust positions are those...) for a new public trust reinvestigation. Likewise, a suitability investigation based on a change...

  20. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F


    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associate...... in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients.......In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associated...... with only few complications. The long-term outcome for kidney donors is good without increase in mortality or risk for development of hypertension and renal failure; proteinuria may be seen. Living kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment of end-stage renal disease with better graft survival than...

  1. Assessment of the efficacy of membrane filtration processes to remove human enteric viruses and the suitability of bacteriophages and a plant virus as surrogates for those viruses. (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Murai, K


    Here, we evaluated the efficacy of direct microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) to remove three representative human enteric viruses (i.e., adenovirus [AdV] type 40, coxsackievirus [CV] B5, and hepatitis A virus [HAV] IB), and one surrogate of human caliciviruses (i.e., murine norovirus [MNV] type 1). Eight different MF membranes and three different UF membranes were used. We also examined the ability of coagulation pretreatment with high-basicity polyaluminum chloride (PACl) to enhance virus removal by MF. The removal ratios of two bacteriophages (MS2 and φX174) and a plant virus (pepper mild mottle virus; PMMoV) were compared with the removal ratios of the human enteric viruses to assess the suitability of these viruses to be used as surrogates for human enteric viruses. The virus removal ratios obtained with direct MF with membranes with nominal pore sizes of 0.1-0.22 μm differed, depending on the membrane used; adsorptive interactions, particularly hydrophobic interactions between virus particles and the membrane surface, were dominant factors for virus removal. In contrast, direct UF with membranes with nominal molecular weight cutoffs of 1-100 kDa effectively removed viruses through size exclusion, and >4-log10 removal was achieved when a membrane with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 1 kDa was used. At pH 7 and 8, in-line coagulation-MF with nonsulfated high-basicity PACls containing Al30 species had generally a better virus removal (i.e., >4-log10 virus removal) than the other aluminum-based coagulants, except for φX174. For all of the filtration processes, the removal ratios of AdV, CV, HAV, and MNV were comparable and strongly correlated with each other. The removal ratios of MS2 and PMMoV were comparable or smaller than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV, and were strongly correlated with those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. The removal ratios obtained with coagulation-MF for φX174 were markedly smaller than

  2. Testing research for assessing suitability of multi-species of trees Introduced in habitats In hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hai; Zhang Lixin; Liu Jianghua


    To enrich resource of species,105 arbor species (25 genera,15 families) were introduced to the hilly and gully areas on Loess Plateau.By acclimation and selection,more than 90 tree species (12 genera,8 families) were identified as fine species,including trees suitable for sloping fields such as Pinus sylvestri var mongolica,Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, and Robinia pseudoacacia,trees suitable for gully bottoms such as Populus davidiana, Populus diversifolia, and Salix cheilophila and non-timber trees such as Prunus armeniaca,Ziziphus jujuba and Prunus persica.For those fine trees,habitat conditions and regularity of requirement of water and fertilizers were studied and then habitat ranges were given.From research results,it could be seen that Robinia pseudoacacia consumed more water,but it could improve the content of organic matters in soil;by contrast,Pinus tabulaeformis and Platycladus orientalis consumed less water and were suitable for dry sloping fields;species of apricot were suitable for sunny or semi-shady sloping fields with good conditions of water and fertilizer;species of pear were suitable for both shady sloping fields and sunny sloping fields;species of Chinese date were suitable for sunny sloping fields.

  3. Shorebird Habitat Suitability Indicies (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset consists of predicted habitat suitability indices and species richness for eight shorebird species (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola],...

  4. Evaluation of 100 patients for living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Trotter, J F; Wachs, M; Trouillot, T; Steinberg, T; Bak, T; Everson, G T; Kam, I


    The initial success of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the United States has resulted in a growing interest in this procedure. The impact of LDLT on liver transplantation will depend in part on the proportion of patients considered medically suitable for LDLT and the identification of suitable donors. We report the outcome of our evaluation of the first 100 potential transplant recipients for LDLT at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (Denver, CO). All patients considered for LDLT had first been approved for conventional liver transplantation by the Liver Transplant Selection Committee and met the listing criteria of United Network for Organ Sharing status 1, 2A, or 2B. Once listed, those patients deemed suitable for LDLT were given the option to consider LDLT and approach potential donors. Donors were evaluated with a preliminary screening questionnaire, followed by formal evaluation. Of the 100 potential transplant recipients evaluated, 51 were initially rejected based on recipient characteristics that included imminent cadaveric transplantation (8 patients), refusal of evaluation (4 patients), lack of financial approval (6 patients), and medical, psychosocial, or surgical problems (33 patients). Of the remaining 49 patients, considered ideal candidates for LDLT, 24 patients were unable to identify a suitable donor for evaluation. Twenty-six donors were evaluated for the remaining 25 potential transplant recipients. Eleven donors were rejected: 9 donors for medical reasons and 2 donors who refused donation after being medically approved. The remaining 15 donor-recipient pairs underwent LDLT. Using our criteria for the selection of recipients and donors for LDLT gave the following results: (1) 51 of 100 potential transplant recipients (51%) were rejected for recipient issues, (2) only 15 of the remaining 49 potential transplant recipients (30%) were able to identify an acceptable donor, and (3) 15 of 100 potential living donor

  5. 76 FR 69601 - Suitability (United States)


    ... RIN 3206-AL90 Suitability AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... reinvestigation) as determined by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, to ensure their suitability... public trust positions with a frequency as determined by the Director of the Office of...

  6. National Marrow Donor Program (United States)


    Collection and Apheresis Centers Closed 7 IIC. Immunogenetic Studies 8 IIC.1 Objective 1 – Influence of HLA Mismatches 8 Task 1 – Donor Recipient... Apheresis Centers – This task is closed. National Marrow Donor Program® N000014-11-1-0339 QUARTER PROGRESS REPORT Development of Medical Technology

  7. Donor Telomere Length SAA (United States)

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  8. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors. (United States)

    Müller, Carlheinz R


    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web.

  9. Seasonal Assessment of Habitat Suitability of the Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus in Mountainous Areas of Kolah-Qazi National Park using Maximum Entropy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ranjbar


    Full Text Available Knowledge of species’ habitat needs is considered as one of the requirements of wildlife management. We studied seasonal habitat suitability and habitat associations of wild goat (Capra aegagrus in Kolah-Qazi National Park, one of its typical habitats in central Asia, using Maximum Entropy approach. The study area was confined to mountainous areas as the potential habitat of the wild goat. Elevation, distance to water sources, distance to human settlements, and distance to guard patrol roads were recognised as the most important variables determining habitat suitability of the species. The extent of suitable habitats was maximum in spring (3882.25 ha and the least in summer (1362.5 ha. The AUC values of MaxEnt revealed acceptable to good efficiency (AUC ≥0.7. The obtained results may have implications for conservation of the wild goat in similar habitats across its distribution range.

  10. Use of body and beard donor hair in surgical treatment of androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Poswal


    Full Text Available Objectives: Follicular unit transplant is a widely used surgical treatment for androgenic alopecia. However, for patients with extensive hair loss (Norwood 5 and above, scalp donor hair are not sufficient to cover all areas of baldness. This study aims to assess suitability of beard and body donor hair when transplanted to the scalp. Materials and Methods: In 35 male patients having varying degrees of androgenic alopecia, body and beard donor hair were extracted by follicular unit extraction method (under local anesthesia. They were transplanted in different locations of the scalp. Follow-up was carried out at various intervals (6 months to 2 years. The hairs were observed for colour, curl and calibre. Results: In all the patients, there was no change in the colour, curl or calibre of the transplanted body/beard hair. They maintained the same characteristics as in their original location. Conclusion: Body and beard hair can be used as additional donor resource for treating androgenic alopecia. These hairs, however, do not change their colour, curl, and shaft diameter (calibre. Thus, proper planning is a must when using the different types of donor hair for transplanting.

  11. Baseline donor chronic renal injury confers the same transplant survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys. (United States)

    Kosmoliaptsis, V; Salji, M; Bardsley, V; Chen, Y; Thiru, S; Griffiths, M H; Copley, H C; Saeb-Parsy, K; Bradley, J A; Torpey, N; Pettigrew, G J


    Histological assessment of baseline chronic kidney injury may discriminate kidneys that are suitable for transplantation, but has not been validated for appraisal of donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidneys. 'Time-zero' biopsies for 371 consecutive, solitary, deceased-donor kidneys transplanted at our center between 2006 and 2010 (65.5% DCD, 34.5% donation after brain death [DBD]) were reviewed and baseline chronic degenerative injury scored using Remuzzi's classification. High scores correlated with donor age and extended criteria donors (42% of donors), but the spectrum of scores was similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Transplant outcomes for kidneys scoring from 0 to 4 were comparable (1 and 3 year graft survival 95% and 92%), but were much poorer for kidneys scoring ≥5, with 1 year graft survival only 73%, and 12.5% suffering primary nonfunction. Critically, high Remuzzi scores conferred the same survival disadvantage for DCD and DBD kidneys. On multi-variable regression analysis, time-zero biopsy score was the only independent predictor for graft survival, whereas one-year graft estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) correlated with donor age and biopsy score. In conclusion, the relationship between severity of chronic kidney injury and transplant outcome is similar for DCD and DBD kidneys. Kidneys with Remuzzi scores of ≤4 can be implanted singly with acceptable results.

  12. 超声评价双胎输血综合征“供血儿”的心功能改变%Ultrasonographic assessment on cardiovascular function in donor fetus of twin-twin transfusion syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵胜; 邓又斌; 陈欣林


    Objective To observe the value of 2D and color Doppler ultrasonography in assessing cardiac function of donor fetus in twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) pregnancies. Methods Seventeen TTTS pregnancies and 19 normal monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies (controls) were enrolled. Cardiac function of donor fetus and Doppler patterns of the umbilical artery, umbilical vein, ductus venosus and myocardial performance index of both ventricles were assessed. Results Absent or reversed diastolic blood flow in umbilical artery was found in 7 donor fetus. One donor fetus showed increased cardiothoracic ratio and pericardial effusion. Pulsatility index of the ductus venosus in donor fetus was significant higher than that of controls. Conclusion Mild cardiovascular abnormalities were found in donor fetus, and follow-up examination were helpful to the assessment of severity of this disease.%目的 探讨二维及彩色多普勒超声评价双胎输血综合征(TTTS)“供血儿”心功能的临床价值.方法 选择17例TTTS孕妇及19名正常单绒毛膜囊双羊膜囊双胎孕妇,测量脐动脉、脐静脉、静脉导管等血流频谱参数,计算胎儿心胸面积比值及心肌做功指数,重点分析“供血儿”的心功能改变.结果 TTTS“供血儿”中,7胎出现脐动脉舒张期血流缺失或反向,1胎发现心脏明显扩大并合并心包积液.“供血儿”静脉导管搏动指数明显高于正常胎儿.结论 TTTS“供血儿”已出现一定程度的心功能异常,动态监测心功能状况有助于判断TTTS严重程度,评价干预治疗的疗效.

  13. The science of Stewardship: due diligence for kidney donors and kidney function in living kidney donation--evaluation, determinants, and implications for outcomes. (United States)

    Poggio, Emilio D; Braun, William E; Davis, Connie


    Living kidney donor transplantation is now a common treatment for ESRD because it provides excellent outcomes to transplant recipients and is considered a safe procedure for prospective donors. The short- and long-term safety of prospective donors is paramount to the continued success of this procedure. Whereas the initial experiences with living kidney donors mostly included the healthiest, the increase in the need for organs and the changing demographic characteristics of the general population have subtly reshaped the suitability for donation. Kidney function assessment is a critical component of the evaluation of prospective donors; therefore, special emphasis is usually placed on this aspect of the evaluation. At the same time, consideration of kidney function after donation is important because it assists with the determination of renal health in donors. This review summarizes the process of predonation kidney function assessment, determinants of pre- and postdonation renal function, and, importantly, the potential implications of kidney function to the long-term outcomes of kidney donors.

  14. Assessment of Chinese sturgeon habitat suitability in the Yangtze River (China): Comparison of generalized additive model, data-driven fuzzy logic model, and preference curve model (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong; Yang, Zhifeng


    To date, a wide range of models have been applied to evaluate aquatic habitat suitability. In this study, three models, including the expert knowledge-based preference curve model (PCM), data-driven fuzzy logic model (DDFL), and generalized additive model (GAM), are used on a common data set to compare their effectiveness and accuracy. The true skill statistic (TSS) and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the three models. The results indicate that the two data-based methods (DDFL and GAM) yield better accuracy than the expert knowledge-based PCM, and the GAM yields the best accuracy. There are minor differences in the suitable ranges of the physical habitat variables obtained from the three models. The hydraulic habitat suitability index (HHSI) calculated by the PCM is the largest, followed by the DDFL and then the GAM. The results illustrate that data-based models can describe habitat suitability more objectively and accurately when there are sufficient data. When field data are lacking, combining expertise with data-based models is recommended. When field data are difficult to obtain, an expert knowledge-based model can be used as a replacement for the data-based methods.

  15. Designing shallow donors in diamond (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan


    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Blood donor: nursing care plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro


    Full Text Available The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordon’s functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested according to the NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification taxonomy. Also, certain potential complications, which are infrequent, must be observed and controlled in the blood donation process. Our main aim with this article has been to offer to professionals resources that grant to the caring activity scientific rigor, professional recognition and an unique and valid tool to evaluate the assistance with the best levels of quality for the blood donor.

  17. Individual differences in personality profiles among potential living kidney transplant donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. van-der Hofstadt Román


    Full Text Available Background: Although the psychological assessment of potential living kidney donors (PLKD is part of the recommendations for action for any transplant coordination, there are not many studies that provide data about the importance of selecting donors for improving transplant outcomes. This work aims to raise awareness of potential kidney donors by designing methods for early detection of potential problems after the transplant, as well as by selecting the most suitable donors.Methods: This is a study of 25 PLKD drawn from the General University Hospital of Alicante. Participants completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III for the study of personality characteristics.Results: Women scored higher than men in the compulsive personality scale, and individuals with a genetic link with the recipient scored higher on depressive and dependent scales than did those with other relationships (emotional or altruistic.Conclusions: Women showed a pattern of significantly more compulsive personality traits (cautious, controlled, perfectionist within a non-pathological style. Among the PLKD, there were significantly more women, which is contrary to what typically happens with donations from cadavers. Genetically related subjects scored higher on depression than did those that were emotionally related. The personality assessment of candidates for PLKD can help with developing a post-transplant follow-up regimen for an improved quality of life. 

  18. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin


    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  19. Statement on the suitability of the BEEHAVE model for its potential use in a regulatory context and for the risk assessment of multiple stressors in honeybees at the landscape level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John


    The Panel has interpreted the Terms of Reference by carrying out a stepwise evaluation of the BEEHAVE simulation model with a view to assessing its suitability for use in a regulatory context and for risk assessment of multiple stressors at the landscape level. The EFSA opinion on good modelling...... usable in a regulatory context primarily because it needs a pesticide module. BEEHAVE has a Varroa/virus module, although this seems to underestimate the impact of Varroa/virus on colony survival, and additional stressors (chemical and biological) would need to be added to allow investigation...

  20. Mapping large-area landscape suitability for honey bees to assess the influence of land-use change on sustainability of national pollination services. (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L; Euliss, Ned H; Browning, Zac


    Pollination is a critical ecosystem service affected by various drivers of land-use change, such as policies and programs aimed at land resources, market values for crop commodities, local land-management decisions, and shifts in climate. The United States is the world's most active market for pollination services by honey bees, and the Northern Great Plains provide the majority of bee colonies used to meet the Nation's annual pollination needs. Legislation requiring increased production of biofuel crops, increasing commodity prices for crops of little nutritional value for bees in the Northern Great Plains, and reductions in government programs aimed at promoting land conservation are converging to alter the regional landscape in ways that challenge beekeepers to provide adequate numbers of hives for national pollination services. We developed a spatially explicit model that identifies sites with the potential to support large apiaries based on local-scale land-cover requirements for honey bees. We produced maps of potential apiary locations for North Dakota, a leading producer of honey, based on land-cover maps representing (1) an annual time series compiled from existing operational products and (2) a realistic scenario of land change. We found that existing land-cover products lack sufficient local accuracy to monitor actual changes in landscape suitability for honey bees, but our model proved informative for evaluating effects on suitability under scenarios of land change. The scenario we implemented was aligned with current drivers of land-use change in the Northern Great Plains and highlighted the importance of conservation lands in landscapes intensively and extensively managed for crops.

  1. Mapping large-area landscape suitability for honey bees to assess the influence of land-use change on sustainability of national pollination services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L Gallant

    Full Text Available Pollination is a critical ecosystem service affected by various drivers of land-use change, such as policies and programs aimed at land resources, market values for crop commodities, local land-management decisions, and shifts in climate. The United States is the world's most active market for pollination services by honey bees, and the Northern Great Plains provide the majority of bee colonies used to meet the Nation's annual pollination needs. Legislation requiring increased production of biofuel crops, increasing commodity prices for crops of little nutritional value for bees in the Northern Great Plains, and reductions in government programs aimed at promoting land conservation are converging to alter the regional landscape in ways that challenge beekeepers to provide adequate numbers of hives for national pollination services. We developed a spatially explicit model that identifies sites with the potential to support large apiaries based on local-scale land-cover requirements for honey bees. We produced maps of potential apiary locations for North Dakota, a leading producer of honey, based on land-cover maps representing (1 an annual time series compiled from existing operational products and (2 a realistic scenario of land change. We found that existing land-cover products lack sufficient local accuracy to monitor actual changes in landscape suitability for honey bees, but our model proved informative for evaluating effects on suitability under scenarios of land change. The scenario we implemented was aligned with current drivers of land-use change in the Northern Great Plains and highlighted the importance of conservation lands in landscapes intensively and extensively managed for crops.

  2. Appraisal of donor steatosis in liver transplantation: a survey of current practice in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare AJ


    Full Text Available Anna J Dare,1 Anthony RJ Phillips,1–3 Michael Chu,1 Anthony JR Hickey,2 Adam SJR Bartlett1–31Department of Surgery, 2Maurice Wilkins Centre for Biodiscovery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: Hepatic steatosis is increasingly encountered among organ donors. Currently, there is no consensus guideline as to the type or degree of donor steatosis considered acceptable for liver transplantation (LT, and little is known about local practices in this area. The aim of this survey was to evaluate current clinical practices amongst liver transplant surgeons in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ in the evaluation and use of steatotic donor livers in LT.Methods: An anonymous online twelve-question survey was emailed to all practicing LT surgeons in ANZ (n = 23 in January 2010.Results: The response rate was 83%. Estimated prevalence of steatosis in donor livers was between 40% and 60%. In determining suitability for LT, 90% of respondents reported rejecting organs with "severe" steatosis based on visual and palpation grounds alone. A total of 68% sought further histological assessment if the donor liver looked bad and there were risk factors for steatosis. The majority of respondents performed only one biopsy of the liver (79%, using hematoxylin and eosin staining for fat assessment (53%. There was wide variation in the upper limit of steatosis considered to be acceptable for LT (40%–80% steatosis. A total of 21% of respondents still considered microvesicular steatosis a risk factor for primary graft nonfunction.Conclusion: This survey highlights the significant variation in the appraisal and use of steatotic grafts by LT surgeons in ANZ. Accurate evaluation and judicious use of mild and moderately steatotic grafts is required if we are to utilize the available donor pool best.Keywords: liver transplantation, steatosis, fatty liver, organ donors

  3. Suitability of measurements used to assess mental health outcomes in men and women trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation: a systematic review. (United States)

    Doherty, S; Oram, S; Siriwardhana, C; Abas, M


    Trafficking is a global human rights violation with multiple and complex mental health consequences. Valid and reliable mental health assessment tools are needed to inform health-care provision. We reviewed mental health assessment tools used in research with men and women trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation. We searched nine electronic databases (PsycINFO, Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase, Assia, the Web of Science, Global Health, Google Scholar, and Open Grey) and hand-searched the reference lists of relevant identified studies. Seven studies were included in this Review. Six of the studies screened for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety; one study screened for harmful use or abuse of alcohol and used a diagnostic tool to assess post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two studies included men in their sample population. Although the reported prevalence of mental health problems was high, little information was provided about the validity, reliability, and cultural appropriateness of assessment tools. Further research is needed to determine which assessment tools are culturally appropriate, valid, and reliable for trafficked people.

  4. Primary Study on Spatial Assessment of Natural Suitable Forest Land of Mangrove in Xiamen%厦门红树林天然宜林地空间评价初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With literature reference ,field survey and 3S technology application combined ,the indicator system and model for natural mangrove suitable forest land were built ,a comprehensive survey of mangrove growth status in Xiamen was also carried out ,and finally spatial pattern of natural mangrove suitable forest land ares in the natural mudflat was assessed .Meanwhile ,we also predicted changes in natural mangrove suitable forest land area at sea -level rise scenarios .The results provided basic data and available suggestions for the planning of natural mangrove suitable forest land area and the ecological restoration of mangrove ecosystems around the Ximen City .%采用文献查阅、实地考察以及3S技术应用相结合的方法,建立了厦门红树林天然宜林地评估指标体系,调查了厦门红树林生长现状,评价了厦门周边现存天然滩涂中红树林宜林地的空间格局,并在海平面上升情景下预测了红树林天然宜林地的变化趋势,为厦门市红树林天然宜林地规划以及红树林生态恢复的空间格局提供基础数据和可行性建议。

  5. Suitability Assessment of an ICE-Based Micro-CCHP Unit in Different Spanish Climatic Zones: Application of an Experimental Model in Transient Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rey


    Full Text Available Tri-generation plants will have an important role in the near future in the residential sector where heating and cooling demands come into play throughout the year. Depending on the building’s location, the characteristics of its enclosure and its use, the thermal loads and demands will be different. This article analyses and compares a combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP system tested in the laboratory and a single household located in Spain. The cooling capacity is obtained using a reversible heat pump where the compressor is driven directly by a gas engine with internal combustion engine (ICE technology. The tests were carried out in a work bench at three different operating speeds. A variable-speed model is developed in the TRNSYS simulation environment with an operating strategy following the thermal load (FTL. Once the micro-CCHP system was modeled with experimental data and validated, it was dynamically simulated to analyze its performance in different climatic zones defined in the Spanish “Código Técnico de la Edificación” (CTE. This study reveals that the micro-CCHP system is suitable in mild weathers during the summer season.

  6. Non-parametric methods – Tree and P-CFA – for the ecological evaluation and assessment of suitable aquatic habitats: A contribution to fish psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas H. Melcher


    Full Text Available This study analyses multidimensional spawning habitat suitability of the fish species “Nase” (latin: Chondrostoma nasus. This is the first time non-parametric methods were used to better understand biotic habitat use in theory and practice. In particular, we tested (1 the Decision Tree technique, Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detectors (CHAID, to identify specific habitat types and (2 Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA to test for statistical significance. The combination of both non-parametric methods, CHAID and P-CFA, enabled the identification, prediction and interpretation of most typical significant spawning habitats, and we were also able to determine non-typical habitat types, e.g., types in contrast to antitypes. The gradual combination of these two methods underlined three significant habitat types: shaded habitat, fine and coarse substrate habitat depending on high flow velocity. The study affirmed the importance for fish species of shading and riparian vegetation along river banks. In addition, this method provides a weighting of interactions between specific habitat characteristics. The results demonstrate that efficient river restoration requires re-establishing riparian vegetation as well as the open river continuum and hydro-morphological improvements to habitats.

  7. Suitability of the marine prosobranch snail Hydrobia ulvae for sediment toxicity assessment: A case study with the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS). (United States)

    Hampel, M; Moreno-Garrido, I; González-Mazo, E; Blasco, J


    Individuals of the mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) were exposed to sediments spiked with increasing concentrations (1.59-123.13mgkg(-1) dry weight) of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) which is employed in the formulation of laundry powders and liquids, as well as hand dishwashing products. The suitability of the selected organism, H. ulvae for routine sediment toxicity testing was evaluated by measuring acute toxicity recording survival. Sublethal toxicity was evaluated as total number of produced veliger larvae per treatment throughout the test (9d). Mortality has shown to be a reliable and reproducible indicator of acute toxicity. LC(50) values were comprised between 203.4 (48h) and 94.3mgkg(-1) (9d) dry weight. As sublethal endpoint, the total number of produced larvae showed to be a useful indicator of toxicity for this organism. The number of produced larvae increased at lower exposure concentrations, whereas at the highest LAS concentration, the number of produced larvae decreased. This is the first report of acute and sublethal toxicity of sediment associated LAS for this species.

  8. Wait, treat and see: echocardiographic monitoring of brain-dead potential donors with stunned heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casartelli Marilena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart transplantation is limited by a severe donor organ shortage. Potential donors with brain death (BD and left ventricular dysfunction due to neurogenic stunning are currently excluded from donation – although such abnormalities can be reversible with aggressive treatment including Hormonal Treatment (HT and deferred organ retrieval. Aim To assess the recovery of left ventricular dysfunction in potential brain-dead donors with hemodynamic instability treated by aggressive treatment and HT. Methods In a single-center, observational study design, we evaluated 15 consecutive brain-dead potential donors (DBD (8 males, age = 48 ± 15 years with hemodynamic instability. All underwent standard hemodynamic monitoring and transthoracic 2-dimensional echo (2-DE with assessment of Ejection Fraction (EF. Measurements were obtained before BD and after BD within 6 h, at 24 h and within 48 h. HT (with insulin, methylprednisolone, vasopressin and T3 was started as soon as possible to treat hemodynamic instability and avoid administration of norepinephrine (NE. Eligible potential heart donors underwent coronary angiography. Results After HT, we observed a normalization of hemodynamic conditions with improvement of mean arterial pressure (pre = 68 ± 8 mmHg vs post = 83 ± 13 mmHg, p 2 vs post 3.7 ± 1.2 L/min/m2, p , coronary artery stenosis was present in 2 of the 10 consented donors. Eight hearts were uneventfully transplanted. No early graft failure occurred and all eight recipients were alive at 6-month follow-up. Conclusion In BD donors, intensive treatment including HT is associated with improvement of regional and global LV function and reverse remodeling detectable by transthoracic 2DE. Donor hearts with recovered LV function may be eligible for uneventful heart transplant. The wait (in brain death, treat (with HT and see (with 2D echo strategy can help rescue organs suitable for

  9. The new portfolio of global precipitation data products of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre suitable to assess and quantify the global water cycle and resources (United States)

    Schneider, Udo; Ziese, Markus; Meyer-Christoffer, Anja; Finger, Peter; Rustemeier, Elke; Becker, Andreas


    Precipitation plays an important role in the global energy and water cycle. Accurate knowledge of precipitation amounts reaching the land surface is of special importance for fresh water assessment and management related to land use, agriculture and hydrology, incl. risk reduction of flood and drought. High interest in long-term precipitation analyses arises from the needs to assess climate change and its impacts on all spatial scales. In this framework, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) has been established in 1989 on request of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It is operated by Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, National Meteorological Service of Germany) as a German contribution to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). This paper provides information on the most recent update of GPCC's gridded data product portfolio including example use cases.

  10. The importance of accurate landuse/landcover maps for assessing habitat suitability for black bear (Ursus americanus) in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas.


    Rice, M.; W. Ballard; E. Fish; McIntyre, N.; D. Holdermann


    Landcover/landuse layers can be used to map species’ distributions as a potential indicator of habitat selection. We used this approach to assess habitat selection by a small population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Trans-Pecos of Texas. We compared the accuracy of the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) landcover/landuse layer and a second derived landcover/landuse layer (derived) from LANDSAT images. We then determined habitat selection using sighting data collected from 1901-2003 for bot...


    CERN Multimedia


    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Multimedia


    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Document Server


    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Document Server


    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  16. Assessment of soil characteristics in the vicinity of open cast coal mine and its suitability for vegetative reclamation in Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand, India. (United States)

    Prathap, Amudala; Kujur, Vivek; Chakraborty, Sukalyaon; Bhattacharya, Tanushree


    Coal mining is inevitable for economic growth of a country, but at the same time deteriorates the quality of the environment. Open cast mine, especially affects the top soil most negatively. In the present study, soil samples from three representative areas of mining viz proposed, operational and abandoned sites from Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand were collected and analysed for physicochemical parameters and metals with an objective to determine their suitability for vegetative reclamation. Soil samples appeared to be slightly acidic (5.97 ± 0.66) with low EC values (101 ± 76 μScm(-1)), total organic carbon (0.71 ± 0.35 %), organic matter (1.34 ± 0.66%) and overall nutrient, especially nitrogen (167 ± 64 kg ha(-1)) contents than required for reclamation by revegetation. However, bulk density was found conducive for reclamation. Total Cr (317 ± 287 to 417 ± 393 mg kg(-1)), Cu (121 ± 72 to 344 ± 143 mg kg(-1)), Ni (171 ± 46 to 373 ± 134 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (114 ± 115 to 182 ± 145 mg kg(-1)) content were found to be higher in soil. Sitewise variation was also significant for Cu and Ni. Pearson's correlation suggested significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive inter elemental correlation between Cr-Fe, Cr-Mn, Cu-Ni, Fe-Mn and Mn-Ni. Positive geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values for all the metals except Fe, overall contamination degree of 31.10 and significant enrichment factor indicated considerable contamination. This baseline data could be utilized for vegetative reclamation planning of the study area in future.

  17. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA. (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D


    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  18. Addressing the Donor Liver Shortage with EX VIVO Machine Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Louisa Izamis


    Full Text Available Despite a critical shortage of viable donor livers for transplantation, only a fraction of the available organs are used. Donor organ defects, which in the majority of cases are caused by extensive exposure to ischemia, cannot be reversed by static cold storage, the current gold standard of organ preservation. In this review, the role of machine perfusion (MP in the recovery of non-transplantable ischemic donor organs is discussed. Though still in the experimental phase, various models of MP have consistently demonstrated that ischemic donor organs can be recovered to a transplantable state through continuous perfusion. MP can also provide dynamic quantitative assessments of the extent of ischemia, in addition to predicting the likelihood of organ recovery. Continued endeavors to translate MP into clinical use and eventually incorporate it into routine donor organ care will have a significant impact on the quality and availability of transplantable donor organs.

  19. Scientific advice on the suitability of data for the assessment of DNA integration into the fish genome of a genetically modified DNA plasmid-based veterinary vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority


    Full Text Available Pancreas disease caused by salmonid alphavirus in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar leads to high mortality rates post infection and histopathological lesions in several organs. As protection against pancreas disease, Novartis developed a prophylactic DNA plasmid-based vaccine to be administered to salmon as naked plasmid in a single intramuscular injection. In order to assess the legal status of the fish vaccinated with this new vaccine with regard to the legislation on genetically modified organisms, the European Commission suggested that the company carry out a scientific study on the integration/non-integration of the plasmid DNA into the fish genome. Subsequently, the European Commission requested EFSA to give scientific advice on the study design and the conclusions drawn by the company. PCR based analysis of genomic DNA from muscle samples, taken from at or around the injection site 436 days post vaccination, led the company to conclude that integration of plasmid DNA into the fish genome is extremely unlikely. After an assessment of the study, EFSA considers that the study presented by Novartis Animal Health on the integration/non-integration of DNA plasmid-based vaccine into the salmon genomic DNA provides insufficient information on the potential integration of plasmid DNA fragments into the fish genome due to a limited coverage of the plasmid DNA by the detection method provided, the limited number of samples analysed and an insufficient limit of detection and method validation. Therefore, EFSA is of the opinion that the results from the integration/non-integration study submitted by Novartis Animal Health are not sufficient to support the conclusion of non-integration of plasmid DNA into the fish genome drawn by the company.

  20. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios.

  1. Living Kidney Donors and ESRD


    Ross, Lainie Friedman


    There are over 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These two locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry s...

  2. Habitat Suitability Assessment for Hume's Pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae) in Nanhua Part of Ailaoshan National Nature Reserve%哀牢山自然保护区南华片黑颈长尾雉生境适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚小刚; 李明会; 周伟; 邓忠坚; 张仁功


    在地理信息系统(GIS)支持下,结合实地调查,对分布于云南哀牢山自然保护区南华片的黑颈长尾雉生境适宜性进行评价.结果表明:不考虑人类活动影响时,黑颈长尾雉的适宜生境面积为2041.38 hm2,占保护区总面积的8.06%;次适宜生境面积为2775.84 hm2,占保护区总面积的10.96%;较不适宜生境面积为18612.81 hm2,占保护区总面积的73.49%:而不适宜生境面积为1896.99 hm2,占保护区总面积的7.49%.考虑人类活动影响时,黑颈长尾雉的适宜生境和次适宜生境分别减少27.30%和9.49%,而较不适宜生境和不适宜生境分别增加4.34%和0.68%.表明哀牢山自然保护区南华片黑颈长尾雉的生境适宜性较差.%Based on the field investigations and GIS, habitat suitability of Syrmaticus humiae in the Nanhua part of Ailaoshan National Nature Reserve was assessed. The results showed that, the suitable habitat for Syrmaticus humiae was 2 041. 38 hm2(8. 06% of the total area) ; the less suitable habitat was 2 775. 84 hm2 (10. 96% ); rarely suitable habitat was 18 612. 81 hm2 (73. 49% ) ; and the unsuitable habitat was 1 896. 99 hm2 (7. 49% ) when human disturbances were not taken into account. However, when influenced by human activities, less suitable habitat and suitable habitat decreased by 27. 30% 和 9. 49% , respectively, while the area of rarely habitat and unsuitable habitat increased by 4. 34% 和 0. 68%. The present study showed that human activities have a strong impact on the habitat of Syrmaticus humiae.

  3. Longer-term clinical and economic benefits of offering acupuncture to patients with chronic low back pain assessed as suitable for primary care management. (United States)

    Thomas, K J; Fitter, M; Brazier, J; MacPherson, H; Campbell, M; Nicholl, J P; Roman, M


    This paper presents the research protocol for a pragmatic study of the benefits of providing an acupuncture service to patients in primary care with chronic low back pain. The proposal was written in response to a call for bids from the NHS Executive's centrally funded research programme for Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The research question posed was 'Does acupuncture have long-term effectiveness in the management of pain in primary care?' The present study was designed as a collaboration between an interdisciplinary team drawn from health services researchers at the University of Sheffield, acupuncture researchers from the Foundation for Traditional Chinese Medicine in York, and practitioners from general practice and acupuncture in York. The proposal presented here was submitted in response to an invitation from the Commissioning Board following a successful outline bid. It is reproduced here, largely as submitted in January 1998, using the headings under which information was requested. We also present an appendix describing methodological alterations made to the design in response the Commissioning Board's comments on the proposal. We present it in this format to give an idea of the evolution of the design and the process by which the research proposal was shaped. The final working protocol comprises a combination of these two elements.

  4. Soil health: looking for suitable indicators. What should be considered to assess the effects of use and management on soil health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso


    Full Text Available Soil Health refers to the ecological equilibrium and the functionality of a soil and its capacity to maintain a well balanced ecosystem with high biodiversity above and below surface, and productivity. To understand and use soil health as a tool for sustainability, physical, chemical, and biological properties must be employed to verify which respond to the soil use and management within a desired timescale. Attributes with a rapid response to natural or anthropogenic actions are considered good indicators of soil health. Among the physical indicators, soil texture, aggregation, moisture, porosity, and bulk density have been used, while among chemical indicators total C and N, mineral nutrients, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, among others are well established. However, most of them generally have a slow response, when compared to the biological ones, such as microbial biomass C and N, biodiversity, soil enzymes, soil respiration, etc., in addition to macro and mesofauna. Thus, a systemic approach based on different kinds of indicators (physical, chemical and biological in assessing soil health would be safer than using only one kind of attribute. Many human activities have caused desertification, loss of biodiversity, disruption of aggregates, loss of organic matter and nutrients, among others. Today, it is imperious to maintain soil health and productivity with increasing emphasis on reforestation and recuperation of degraded areas through the use of organic amendments, reintroduction of plants, soil fauna and microorganisms. This review focused on an integrative view on indicators of soil health to be used as tools for prediction of sustainability in production systems.

  5. The impact of donor policies in Europe: a steady increase, but not everywhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blok Geke A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantable organs are scarce everywhere. Therefore, countries have developed policies to support the efficient use of potential donors. Nevertheless, the shortage of organs remains. Were these policies in vain? The aim of this study is to assess the impact of donor policies on donor procurement in 10 Western European countries from 1995 to 2005. Method To assess the impact of the donor policies we studied the conversion of potential donors into effectuated donors. 80% of the donors died from CVAs or a (traffic accident. We considered these mortality rates to be a good proxy for potential donors. Here we call the conversion of potential donors into actual donors 'the donor efficiency rate by proxy'. Results The mortality rates for CVA and (traffic accidents have decreased in the countries under study. At the same time, in most countries the donor efficiency rates have steadily increased. The variance in donor efficiency rates between countries has also increased from 1995 to 2005. Four countries introduced a new consent system or changed their existing system, without (visible long-term effects. Conclusion The overall increase in donor efficiency means that the efforts to improve donor policies have paid off. However, substantial differences between countries were found. The success of donor policies in terms of the number of absolute donors is blurred by the success of policies on traffic safety and CVA treatment. It remains unclear which specific policy measures are responsible for the increase in donor efficiency rates. This increase is not related to having a presumed consent system. Furthermore, an analysis of countries that introduced a new consent system or changed their system showed no effect on donor efficiency.

  6. Habitat suitability assessment of Mongolian gazelle around Dalai Lake area in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古达赉湖地区蒙原羚生境适宜度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丙万; 顾丽; 张博; 秦立鑫; 包黎明


    2008年在内蒙古达赉湖地区蒙原羚(Procapra gutturosa)生境考察基础上,以植被类型、植被盖度、坡度、距水源距离、距放牧点距离、距居民点距离、距道路距离为生境适宜性评价因子,利用3S技术和模糊赋值对蒙原羚生境适宜度进行评价.结果表明:在不考虑人为干扰时,蒙原羚的最适宜生境面积占总面积的17.7%,次适宜生境面积占总面积的36.9%,不适宜生境面积占总面积的45.4%;考虑人为干扰时蒙原羚的最适宜生境面积占总面积的13.0%,次适宜生境面积占总面积的28.3%,不适宜生境面积占总面积的58.7%;研究地区蒙原羚实际生境和潜在生境相比,不适宜生境面积增加了29.2%,表明人为干扰是内蒙古达赉湖地区蒙原羚适宜生境急剧减少的主要原因.%Based on the survey of Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa) habitats around the Dalai Lake area of Inner Mongolia in 2008 , the vegetation type, vegetation coverage, slope, distance from water, distance to grazing point, distance to residential area, and distance to road were selected as the factors for the assessment of habitat suitability, and the 3S technique and fuzzy evaluation were adopted to assess the habitat suitability of the Mongolian gazelle around the Dalai Lake area. Without considering human disturbance, the most suitable, less suitable, and unsuitable habitat areas for Mongolian gazelle were 17. 7% , 36. 9% , and 45. 4% of the total, respectively; with the consideration of human disturbances, the most suitable, less suitable, and unsuitable habitat areas for Mongolian gazelle reduced to 13. 0% , 28. 3% , and 58. 7% of the total, respectively. The comparison of the actual and potential habitats of the Mongolian gazelle showed that the unsuitable habitat area was increased by 29. 2% , suggesting that human disturbance could be the main cause of the sharp decrease of suitable habitat for Mongolian gazelle around the Dalai

  7. Evaluating the Performance of DFT Functionals in Assessing the Interaction Energy and Ground-State Charge Transfer of Donor/Acceptor Complexes: Tetrathiafulvalene−Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF−TCNQ) as a Model Case

    KAUST Repository

    Sini, Gjergji


    We have evaluated the performance of several density functional theory (DFT) functionals for the description of the ground-state electronic structure and charge transfer in donor/acceptor complexes. The tetrathiafulvalene- tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) complex has been considered as a model test case. Hybrid functionals have been chosen together with recently proposed long-range corrected functionals (ωB97X, ωB97X-D, LRC-ωPBEh, and LC-ωPBE) in order to assess the sensitivity of the results to the treatment and magnitude of exact exchange. The results show an approximately linear dependence of the ground-state charge transfer with the HOMO TTF-LUMOTCNQ energy gap, which in turn depends linearly on the percentage of exact exchange in the functional. The reliability of ground-state charge transfer values calculated in the framework of a monodeterminantal DFT approach was also examined. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. 卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区蒙古野驴生境适宜性评价%Habitat suitability assessment of Equus hemionus hemionus in Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰; 徐文轩; 杨维康; 夏参军; 刘伟


    为加强蒙古野驴(Equus hemionus hemionus)的生境保护及管理工作,作者以2005年以来在卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区的野外调查数据为基础,在地理信息系统(GIS)支持下,以距水源点距离、坡度、植被类型和人类活动为评价因子,采用生境评价模型,对蒙古野驴的生境进行了适宜性评价.不考虑人类活动影响下,春、夏、秋、冬四季潜在总适宜生境面积分别为9,784 km2、8,090 km2、9,379 km2和10,856 km2,分别占保护区总面积的54.4%、44.9%、52.1%和60.3%.由于受到国道、矿产开采、冬季放牧等人类活动的强烈影响,研究区内适宜生境大量丧失,冬季丧失面积最多,为6,629 km2,占冬季潜在总适宜面积的61.1%.基于评价结果作者提出了相应的蒙古野驴种群保护措施:(1)加强水源地的保护;(2)限制冬季进入保护区内家畜的数量,并为蒙古野驴划定预留适宜生境;(3)严格制定进入保护区的制度;(4)拆除迁移路线上的边境围栏或建设野生动物通道,以保障蒙古野驴正常的迁徙活动,恢复其种群基因交流.%To improve habitat conservation and management of the Khulan {Equus hemiomus hemionus), we assessed the habitat suitability of this species in the Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve. Distance from water point, slope, vegetation type and human activities were selected as factors for habitat suitability assessment, and the habitat evaluation model for the assessment was conducted with GIS. In the absence of human activities, the total area of potential suitable habitat was 9,784 km2, 8,090 km2, 9,379 km2 and 10,856 km2 during the four seasons, accounting for 54.4%, 44.9%, 52.1% and 60.3% of the total reserve area, respectively. However, the reserve was negatively affected by a national highway, mine exploration, and grazing livestock. As a result, a large amount of suitable habitats were lost in the reserve. Especially in winter, nearly 6,629 km2 of

  9. Preclinical assessment of the distribution,metabolism, and excretion of S-propargyl-cysteine, a novel H2S donor, in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-ting ZHENG; Yi-zhun ZHU; Wei-min CAI; Jian-hua ZHU; Guo MA; Qing ZHU; Ping YANG; Bo TAN; Jin-lian ZHANG; Hai-xing SHEN; Jia-lin XU


    Aim:To study the distribution,metabolism and excretion of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC),a novel hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor,after oral administration in rats.Methods:Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used.The tissue distribution of [35S] SPRC-derived radioactivity was measured using a liquid scintillation counter.The plasma protein binding of SPRC was examined using 96-well equilibrium dialysis.The excretion of SPRC in urine,bile and feces was analyzed using the LC-MS/MS method.The major metabolites in rat biomatrices were identified using MRM information-dependent,acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) scans on API 4000QTrap system.Results:After oral administration of [35S] SPRC at a dose of 75 mg/kg,[35S] SPRC-derived radioactivity displayed broad biological distribution in various tissues of rats,including its target organs (heart and brain) with the highest in kidney.On the other hand,the binding of SPRC to human,rat and dog plasma protein was low.Only 2.18%±0.61% and 0.77%±0.61% of the total SPRC administered was excreted unchanged in the bile and urine.However,neither intact SPRC nor its metabolites were detected in rat feces.The major metabolic pathway in vivo (rat bile,urine,and plasma) was N-acetylation.Conclusion:The preliminary results suggest that SPRC possesses acceptable pharmacokinetic properties in rats.

  10. National Marrow Donor Program (United States)


    this quarter. for Selected Donors er P iod 4 Activity: IIB 1 Task 6: Maintain a Quality Control Program – This task is closed. National Marrow...interpret incoming SBT typings and process version 3 nomenclature on incoming typings. • Code moved to production on March 30th, 2011. IIB. DRB3/4/5 typing intent is known. • Calculated 6-locus A~C~B~DRB3/4/5~DRB1~DQB1 haplotype frequencies for HapLogic III evaluation. In contrast

  11. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés


    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia

  12. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing. (United States)

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T


    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  13. 基于地理探测器的大熊猫生境适宜度评价模型及验证%Suitability Assessment and Validation of Giant Panda Habitat Based on Geographical Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖颖; 王心源; 周俊明


    动物生境适宜度评价对于野生动物生境保护十分重要。基于物种活动点来建模的生态位模型是目前应用最广泛的动物生境评价方法,但该方法不能直接表达生境适宜度与环境因子间具有生态学意义的数量关系。本文以雅安地区为例,提出一种新的大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)生境适宜度评价方法,选取海拔、坡度、坡向、地形指数、距水源距离、植被类型、主食竹及距公路距离8个环境因子,引入地理探测器,在分别基于MAXENT模型和层次分析法(The Analytic Hierarchy Process,AHP)所构建生境适宜度模型的基础上,通过4个地理探测器(风险探测器、因子探测器、生态探测器和交互作用探测器)探寻大熊猫生境与各环境因子间的关系以及环境因子对大熊猫生境的影响机理,并将其预测结果与单一MAXENT模型和AHP法进行对比。结果表明:(1)AHP、AHP-Geogdetector、MAXENT和MAXENT-Geogdetector模型总体评价精度分别为85.6%、86.5%、91.3%和94.2%,kappa系数分别为0.699、0.718、0.821和0.882,AUC值分别为0.902、0.928、0.949和0.966,模型所预测的适宜和较适宜区与实际分布区重叠比分别为63.66%、61.30%、76.70%和90.10%,说明AHP-Geogdetector和MAXENT-Geog-detector模型精度均比相应的单一模型有所提高,且MAXENT-Geogdetector模型精度最高;(2)基于地理探测器的大熊猫生境适宜度评价模型能以“生境适宜度和环境因子间具有生态学意义的数量关系”的形式直接体现环境因子对动物生境利用的生态学作用,具有较好的生态学可解释性。因此,用地理探测器进行大熊猫生境适宜度评价具有较好的可行性。%The suitability assessment of wildlife habitat is very important for wildlife management and protection. Niche model is the most commonly used presence-only based habitat suitability model, which cannot

  14. 单兵光电侦察装备作战适用性试验评估方法%Assessment Method Study on Operational Suitability Evaluation of Portable Photoelectric Reconnaissance Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜锋; 刘帅; 史圣兵; 秦少刚; 张宏江


    With the change of war mode and battle modality,traditional performance test is required to change to operational test for assessing capacity of weapon system under the condition of similar war circumstance.Roundly analysis of key elements of operational suitability test was processed,and index system of operational suitability test on AHP method was established,and evaluation method of operational suitability test based on AHP and Fuzzy Synthesis was constructed,and above method was applied to one portable infrared imaging device test and obtained good test performance.%随着战争模式和作战样式的变化,武器装备试验鉴定要求传统的性能试验向作战试验转型,以考核武器装备在接近真实作战环境下的性能和能力。本文全面分析了作战适用性试验关键要素,基于层次分析法建立了作战适用性试验考核指标体系,提出了针对评价因素的客观、定量评价原则,并采取层次分析法和模糊综合法综合给出了作战适用性试验评估方法,并应用于某型手持式红外热像仪靶场作战适用性试验,取得了很好的试验效果。

  15. Can egg donor selection be improved? - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weghofer Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessments of ovarian reserve (OR in egg donor candidates are crucial for maximal donor selection. This study assesses whether recently reported new methods of OR assessment by age-specific (as-, rather than non-as (nas- hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, and triple nucleotide (CGG repeats on the FMR1 (fragile X gene have the potential of improving egg donor selection. Methods Seventy-three consecutive egg donor candidates (candidates, amongst those 21 who reached egg retrieval (donors, were prospectively investigated for as-FSH, as-AMH and number of CGG repeats. Abnormal findings were assessed in candidates and donors and oocyte yields in the latter were statistically associated with abnormal FSH and AMH (>/ Results Amongst candidates mean as-AMH was 3.8 +/- 2.8 ng/mL (37.0% normal, 3.0 +/- 0.7 ng/mL; 26.6% low, 1.5 +/- 0.5 ng/mL; and 37.0% high, 5.8 +/- 2.2 ng/mL. AMH among donors was 4.2 +/- 1.7 ng/mL (33.3% normal, 14.3% low, and 52.4% high, yielding 17.8 +/- 7.2 oocytes, 42.9% in normal range (10-15, 9.5% in low (less than or equal to 9 and 47.6.% in high range (16-32. Candidates in 41.9% and donors in 38.1% demonstrated normal CGG counts; the remained were mostly heterozygous abnormal. Discussion Prospective assessment of even carefully prescreened candidates and donors still demonstrates shortcomings on both ends of the OR spectrum. Utilization of ovarian reserve testing methods, like as-hormones and CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene have potential of improving candidate selections.

  16. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun


    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  17. 金钟山国家级自然保护区黑颈长尾雉生境适宜性评价%Assessment and Conservation Strategy on Habitat Suitability of Syrmaticus humiae in Jinzhongshan National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧明; 刘晓曼; 王昌佐; 王桥


    为加强对珍稀动物黑颈长尾雉(Syrmaticus humiae)的保护,本研究以广西金钟山国家级自然保护区的黑颈长尾雉野外实地调查数据为基础,在地理信息系统(GIS)技术支持下,以植被类型、植被覆盖度、海拔和坡度为评价因子,采用生境适宜性评价模型,对黑颈长尾雉潜在生境的适宜性进行了评价.研究结果表明:(1)黑颈长尾雉最适宜的生境是海拔1000~1850 m、坡度为5~25o、盖度大于70%的落叶阔叶林,这些区域应该成为重点保护的生境;(2)保护区内黑颈长尾雉分布的生境类型有25种,鉴于保护的有效性和成本,选择面积占主导的15种生境类型为潜在生境,其中,54.31%的潜在生境分布在核心区内,15.75%分布在缓冲区,29.94%分布在实验区;(3)生境适宜性评价结果表明,保护区适宜栖息生境的面积达74 km2,约占保护区总面积的36.30%.最后,基于黑颈长尾雉在金钟山自然保护区的生境适宜性研究范围提出了相应的保护对策.%To strengthen the protection of the rare animal species of Syrmaticus humiae, we assessed the habitat suitability of Syrmaticus humiae in Jinzhongshan Nature Reserve. Based on the field survey data, we selected the vegetation type, vegetation coverage, altitude and slope as the evaluation factors and built the habitat suitability model using GIS technology. The results showed that:(1) the deciduous broadleaved forest area with the altitude of 1000-1850 m, the slope of 5-25o and the vegetation cov-erage higher than 70%are the most suitable habitat for Syrmaticus humiae, so these areas should be taken as the key protection habi-tat;(2) there are a total of 25 kinds of habitat types for Syrmaticus humiae to settle, however, considering the efficiency and cost of the conservation, 15 kinds among the habitat types with bigger area are selected as the potential habitat, and 54.31%of the potential habitat is distributed in the core zone of the nature reserve

  18. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma: Focus on Longitudinal Assessment of Donor Chimerism, Extramedullary Disease, and High-Risk Cytogenetic Features. (United States)

    Rasche, Leo; Röllig, Christoph; Stuhler, Gernot; Danhof, Sophia; Mielke, Stephan; Grigoleit, Goetz Ulrich; Dissen, Lea; Schemmel, Lea; Middeke, Jan Moritz; Rücker, Viktoria; Schreder, Martin; Schetelig, Johannes; Bornhäuser, Martin; Einsele, Hermann; Thiede, Christian; Knop, Stefan


    Although generally not applied as first-line treatment of multiple myeloma, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can still be chosen as ultimate escalation approach in high-risk patients, preferentially within the framework of clinical trials. In this study, we investigated whether decreasing donor chimerism (DC) is predictive for relapse. In addition, we comprehensively determined the impact of several other disease- and treatment-related factors on outcome. One hundred fifty-five multiple myeloma patients whose DC status was followed serially by the short tandem repeat-based techniques at a single lab were included in this retrospective study. Outcome variables were studied in univariate and multivariable analyses. Available were 2.324 DC samples (median, 12 per patient). Loss of full DC was associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.6) but did not impact overall survival. Two-thirds of patients with International Myeloma Working Group-defined relapses still displayed a full DC in peripheral blood or bone marrow. Extramedullary manifestations were observed in 33% of patients, accounting for the discrepancy between DC analysis and the actual disease status. In multivariable analysis, the 2 most relevant variables for an unfavorable PFS were progressive disease before allo-SCT (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5 to 5.9) and allo-SCT at least the second relapse (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.9), whereas for overall survival progressive disease or partial response before allo-SCT had the strongest negative effects (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 9, and HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.8, respectively). Adverse cytogenetics such as del17p, t(4,14) or amp(1q21) were not associated with shorter survival after allo-SCT. Extensive DC sampling beyond robust engraftment does not appear to provide additional information helpful for disease management in most patients and is challenged by a significant incidence of extramedullary disease. In our

  19. Organ donor shortage in the Netherlands : definition of the potential donor pool and the role of family refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frazer-Jansen, N.E.


    The shortage of post-mortem organ donors in the Netherlands is a prominent problem for patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation. As long as there is a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation, the need to identify bottlenecks in the organ donation process is crucial to further i

  20. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation. (United States)

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok


    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  1. In vitro donor-specific hyporesponsiveness and T cell subsets in renal allograft recipients. (United States)

    Bas, J; Mestre, M; Griñó, J M; Massip, E; Castelao, A M; Romeu, A; González, L; Valls, A; Buendía, E


    In order to assess the immune mechanisms triggered by an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of prophylactic antilymphocyte globulin plus low-dose cyclosporine A and steroids, we studied the short-term evolution of both, anti donor in vitro alloresponse and peripheral blood T cell subsets in 21 recipients of a cadaveric kidney allograft. Spleen cells from cadaveric donors and peripheral blood lymphocytes from the respective recipients pretransplant (pre-Tx), at three and six months posttransplant (post-Tx) were obtained to perform one-way mixed lymphocyte cultures and flow cytometry analysis of lymphocyte subsets. The results indicated the development of donor-specific mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) hyporesponsiveness as early as three months post-Tx, paralleled by a decrease in CD4+CD29+ helper-inducer cells and by an increase in CD8+CD45RA+ suppressor lymphocytes in peripheral blood. These changes were reflected in a very good clinical outcome of the patients. The present results further suggest that suppression of the immune system just before transplantation is a suitable method to induce early specific hyporesponsiveness to the allograft.

  2. Assessing Support Activities by International Donors for CDM Development in Sub-Saharan Africa with Focus on Selected Least Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arens, Christof; Wang-Helmreich, Hanna; Hodes, Glenn Stuart

    This report assesses capacity building activities of multilateral organisations as well as individual Annex I countries in selected Least Developed Countries (LDC) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In the context of the ongoing research project “Integrating Africa’s Least Developed Countries...... is part of the subsequent work packages. These are going to focus on two different countries, thus making it possible to assess and to evaluate the local climate policy and the state of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) infrastructure in detail and on the ground. Therefore, the following provides...... for a broad overview of support activities funded by developed countries in the study region. This comprises both country-specific programmes as well as activities addressing regional aspects. This is followed by a short glance at the overall capacity building needs of sub-Saharan LDCs, complemented...

  3. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  4. Improved Outcome of Alternative Donor Transplantations in Patients with Myelofibrosis: From Unrelated to Haploidentical Family Donors. (United States)

    Bregante, Stefania; Dominietto, Alida; Ghiso, Anna; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca; Varaldo, Riccardo; Di Grazia, Carmen; Lamparelli, Teresa; Luchetti, Silvia; Geroldi, Simona; Casarino, Lucia; Pozzi, Sarah; Tedone, Elisabetta; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Galaverna, Federica; Barosi, Giovanni; Bacigalupo, Andrea


    This is a retrospective analysis of 95 patients with myelofibrosis who were allografted between 2001 and 2014. The aims of the study were to assess whether the outcome of alternative donor grafts has improved with time and how this compares with the outcome of identical sibling grafts. Patients were studied in 2 time intervals: 2000 to 2010 (n = 58) and 2011 to 2014 (n = 37). The Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System score was comparable in the 2 time periods, but differences in the most recent group included older age (58 versus 53 years, P = .004), more family haploidentical donors (54% versus 5%, P < .0001), and the introduction of the thiotepa-fludarabine-busulfan conditioning regimen (70% of patients versus 2%, P < .0001). Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were comparable in the 2 time periods. The 3-year transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in the 2011 to 2014 period versus the 2000 to 2010 period is 16% versus 32% (P = .10), the relapse rate 16% versus 40% (P = .06), and actuarial survival 70% versus 39% (P = .08). Improved survival was most pronounced in alternative donor grafts (69% versus 21%, P = .02), compared with matched sibling grafts (72% versus 45%, P = .40). In conclusion, the outcome of allografts in patients with myelofibrosis has improved in recent years because of a reduction of both TRM and relapse. Improvement is most significant in alternative donor transplantations, with modifications in donor type and conditioning regimen.

  5. Isolation and selection of suitable reference genes for real-time PCR analyses in the skeletal muscle of the fine flounder in response to nutritional status: assessment and normalization of gene expression of growth-related genes. (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Safian, Diego; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo


    In the present study, different reference genes were isolated, and their stability in the skeletal muscle of fine flounder subjected to different nutritional states was assessed using geNorm and NormFinder. The combinations between 18S and ActB; Fau and 18S; and Fau and Tubb were chosen as the most stable gene combinations in feeding, long-term fasting and refeeding, and short-term refeeding conditions, respectively. In all periods, ActB was identified as the single least stable gene. Subsequently, the expression of the myosin heavy chain (MYH) and the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) was assessed. A large variation in MYH and IGF-IR expression was found depending on the reference gene that was chosen for normalizing the expression of both genes. Using the most stable reference genes, mRNA levels of MYH decreased and IGF-IR increased during fasting, with both returning to basal levels during refeeding. However, the drop in mRNA levels for IGF-IR occurred during short-term refeeding, in contrast with the observed events in the expression of MYH, which occurred during long-term refeeding. The present study highlights the vast differences incurred when using unsuitable versus suitable reference genes for normalizing gene expression, pointing out that normalization without proper validation could result in a bias of gene expression.

  6. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.


    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  7. A joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data to better assess the specific role of donor and recipient factors on long-term kidney transplantation outcomes. (United States)

    Fournier, Marie-Cécile; Foucher, Yohann; Blanche, Paul; Buron, Fanny; Giral, Magali; Dantan, Etienne


    In renal transplantation, serum creatinine (SCr) is the main biomarker routinely measured to assess patient's health, with chronic increases being strongly associated with long-term graft failure risk (death with a functioning graft or return to dialysis). Joint modeling may be useful to identify the specific role of risk factors on chronic evolution of kidney transplant recipients: some can be related to the SCr evolution, finally leading to graft failure, whereas others can be associated with graft failure without any modification of SCr. Sample data for 2749 patients transplanted between 2000 and 2013 with a functioning kidney at 1-year post-transplantation were obtained from the DIVAT cohort. A shared random effect joint model for longitudinal SCr values and time to graft failure was performed. We show that graft failure risk depended on both the current value and slope of the SCr. Deceased donor graft patient seemed to have a higher SCr increase, similar to patient with diabetes history, while no significant association of these two features with graft failure risk was found. Patient with a second graft was at higher risk of graft failure, independent of changes in SCr values. Anti-HLA immunization was associated with both processes simultaneously. Joint models for repeated and time-to-event data bring new opportunities to improve the epidemiological knowledge of chronic diseases. For instance in renal transplantation, several features should receive additional attention as we demonstrated their correlation with graft failure risk was independent of the SCr evolution.

  8. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors. (United States)

    Boot, C L; Luken, J S; van den Burg, P J M; de Kort, W L A M; Koopman, M M W; Vrielink, H; van Schoor, N M; den Heijer, M; Lips, P


    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115 times in up to 15 years) with that of 20 whole blood donors (for 15 years or more) aged 55-70. BMD in the lumbar spine was not lower in apheresis donors than in blood donors (mean ± SD 1.00 ± 0.18 vs. 0.92 ± 0.12, P = 0.09). In the hip, BMD was not different between the groups.

  9. Are the imaging findings used to assess the portal triad reliable to perform living-donor liver transplant?; Os achados de imagem para avaliacao da triade portal sao confiaveis para realizacao do transplante hepatico com doador vivo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazzi, Francisco Leoncio; Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; Mancero, Jorge Marcelo Padilla; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; D' Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro, E-mail: [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia Geral e Transplante; Leao-Filho, Hilton Muniz [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem; Silva, Adavio de Oliveira e [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Gastroenterologia e Hepatologia


    Background: a crucial aspect of living-donor liver transplant is the risk imposed to the donor due to a procedure performed in a healthy individual that can lead to a high postoperative morbidity rate Aim: To correlate the pre- and intraoperative hepatic imaging findings of living adult donors. Methods: From 2003 to 2008 the medical charts of 66 donors were revised; in that, 42 were males (64%) and 24 females (36%), mean age of 30±8 years. The preoperative anatomy was analyzed by magnetic resonance cholangiography to study the bile ducts and by computed tomography angiography to evaluate the hepatic artery and portal vein. Normalcy criteria were established according to previously published studies. Results: Anatomic variations of the bile ducts were found in 59.1% of donors, of the artery hepatic in 31.8% and of the portal vein in 30.3% of the cases during the preoperative period. The magnetic resonance cholangiography findings were in agreement in 44 (66.6%) of donors and in disagreement in 22 (33.3%). With regards to hepatic artery, in all donors the findings of the imaging examination were in agreement with those of the intraoperative period. As to the portal vein, the computed tomography findings were in agreement in 59 (89.4%) donors and in disagreement in seven (10.6%). Conclusions: the bile duct anatomic variations are frequent, and the magnetic resonance cholangiography showed moderate accuracy (70%) in reproducing the surgical findings; the computed tomography reproduced the intraoperative findings of the hepatic artery in 100% of donors, and of the portal vein in 89.4% of the cases, thus demonstrating high accuracy (89%). (author)

  10. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F


    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  11. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Godin


    Full Text Available This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI. Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3% new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P<.001; the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps<.001 gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d=.26; SPI: d=.32; the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P<.05 the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  12. Evaluation of sustainable electron donors for nitrate removal in different water media. (United States)

    Fowdar, Harsha S; Hatt, Belinda E; Breen, Peter; Cook, Perran L M; Deletic, Ana


    An external electron donor is usually included in wastewater and groundwater treatment systems to enhance nitrate removal through denitrification. The choice of electron donor is critical for both satisfactory denitrification rates and sustainable long-term performance. Electron donors that are waste products are preferred to pure organic chemicals. Different electron donors have been used to treat different water types and little is known as to whether there are any electron donors that are suitable for multiple applications. Seven different carbon rich waste products, including liquid and solid electron donors, were studied in comparison to pure acetate. Batch-scale tests were used to measure their ability to reduce nitrate concentrations in a pure nutrient solution, light greywater, secondary-treated wastewater and tertiary-treated wastewater. The tested electron donors removed oxidised nitrogen (NOx) at varying rates, ranging from 48 mg N/L/d (acetate) to 0.3 mg N/L/d (hardwood). The concentrations of transient nitrite accumulation also varied across the electron donors. The different water types had an influence on NOx removal rates, the extent of which was dependent on the type of electron donor. Overall, the highest rates were recorded in light greywater, followed by the pure nutrient solution and the two partially treated wastewaters. Cotton wool and rice hulls were found to be promising electron donors with good NOx removal rates, lower leachable nutrients and had the least variation in performance across water types.

  13. [Effectiveness of a Simulation of the Donor Surgery with Other Extraction Teams to Improve Various Problems in Pulmonary Extraction from a Brain-dead Donor]. (United States)

    Niikawa, Hiromichi; Okada, Yoshinori; Noda, Masafumi; Watanabe, Tatsuaki; Notsuda, Hirotsugu; Matsuda, Yasushi; Sakurada, Akira; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Endo, Chiaki; Adachi, Osamu; Miyagi, Shigehito; Kondo, Takashi


    The pulmonary extraction from a brain-dead donor is one of the important elements for the success of lung transplantation, but the current scarcity of practical training opportunities is a major problem. We performed a simulation of the donor surgery of multiple organs using a pig with other extraction teams to provide more training opportunities. The effectiveness of this simulation lies in its potential to improve the surgical procedure;furthermore, it may solve problems associated with communicating with other extraction teams. However, it is difficult to judge whether the donor lung is suitable for transplantation, as it would be inappropriate to use such a lung for simulation in training. Since this simulation system is considered to be effective to solve various problems in the current donor surgery, it should be available more frequently to improve a technical level of the donor surgery and to aid surgeons in the rapid implementation of next-generation techniques.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe


    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  15. Niche suitability affects development: skull asymmetry increases in less suitable areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Maestri

    Full Text Available For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual's performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species.

  16. Ecological suitability assessment and eco-mapping for tourism development in an Eco-sensitive region%生态敏感区旅游开发适宜性评价及生态制图方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石垚; 张微; 任景明; 张建平


    Ecological suitability analysis is an important method of applying ecological principles to guide rational spatial distribution and regional development for the planning of certain areas. This method has been widely applied in urban and regional ecological planning. However, due to the lack of systematic assessment methodologies, it has not been significantly promoted for spatial siting, ecological planning, or eco-environmental impact assessments of ecologically sensitive areas, such as nature reserve areas and tourism areas. This study proposes the use of an ecological suitability analysis method and a GIS-based mapping approach to develop an eco-tourism project in an ecologically sensitive montane area. We use the Wudangzhao Scenic Area in Inner Mongolia, China, as a case study for analyzing various ecological factors including topography, slope, aspect, soil organic environment, vegetation cover, river hydrology, geology and lithology. These factors reflect the four typical ecologically sensitive elements of erosion prevention, geological disasters prevention, biodiversity protection, and flood control. We first completed the ecological sensitivity assessment and spatial suitability mapping using both single and integrated eco-sensitive factors. We then superimposed the distribution of relevant tourism projects in the research area in relation to the eco-sensitive assessment results in the form of an eco-map. Finally, we suggest specific ecological risk prevention and protective measures for tourism development and spatial planning in the research area. In addition, this method provided a comprehensive overview of all ecologically sensitive characteristics for mountain based tourism projects currently being developed, spatially displaying them through ecological mapping. Therefore, this method contributes to a more effective decision-making process and helps decision makers develop more appropriate regulatory measures to prevent ecological risk. In conclusion

  17. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

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    Nitin P Ghonge


    Full Text Available As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.

  18. Living and cadaver donor transplant programs in the maghreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Hachicha


    Full Text Available In the Maghreb, organ failure constitutes a major public health problem, especially given the increasing number of patients with chronic renal failure and the high cost of care. In this study, we attempted to seek the recommendations, through a questionnaire, of various officials related to organ transplantation as well as leaders of ethics committees and religious groups in different countries of the Maghreb. The objective was to improve the rate of organ donation and transplantation. We received 36 replies (62% within the prescribed time limit. In our survey, 83% of the respondents felt that living donor transplantation should be promoted initially, followed gradually by measures to increase cadaver donor transplantation to achieve a target of about 30 transplants with cadaver kidney donors per million inhabitants. To expand the donor pool, 83% of the respondents proposed to expand the family circle to include the spouse and inlaws. To improve the cadaver donation activity, one should improve the organizational aspects to ensure at least 50 renal transplantations per year (100% and provide material motivation to the treatment team proportional to the activity of organ donation and transplantation. Finally, 93% of the respondents suggested suitable moral motivation of the donors.

  19. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S


    is a population-based study and biobank. We performed multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the effects of donation activity, physiologic and lifestyle factors, and diet on Hb levels among 15,197 donors. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these factors...... on the risk of having low Hb (defined as Hb below the 10th percentile among men and women, respectively) and of a decrease in Hb greater than 0.5 mmol/L (0.8 g/dL) between successive donations. All analyses were performed stratified for sex and smoking status. We also tested a previously used model...

  20. 21 CFR 1270.21 - Determination of donor suitability for human tissue intended for transplantation. (United States)


    ... of a neonate, the mother's specimen is acceptable for testing. (c) Such infectious disease testing... red blood cells), or colloids within 48 hours; or more than 2,000 mL of crystalloids within 1 hour;...

  1. Evaluation of Agricultural Land Suitability: Application of Fuzzy Indicators (United States)

    The problem of evaluation of agricultural land suitability is considered as a fuzzy modeling task. The application of individual fuzzy indicators provides an opportunity for assessment of lsand suitability of lands as degree or grade of performance when the lands are used for agricultural purposes....

  2. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications]. (United States)

    Karam, Georges


    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  3. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation: A fourteen-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Background. In countries without a national organization for retrieval and distribution of organs of the deceased donors, problem of organ shortage is still not resolved. In order to increase the number of kidney transplantations we started with the program of living unrelated - spousal donors. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcome and renal graft function in patients receiving the graft from spousal and those receiving ghe graft from living related donors. Method. We retrospectively identified 14 patients who received renal allograft from spousal donors between 1996 and 2009 (group I. The control group consisted of 14 patients who got graft from related donor retrieved from the database and matched than with respect to sex, age, kidney disease, immunological and viral pretransplant status, the initial method of the end stage renal disease treatment and ABO compatibility. In the follow-up period of 41 ± 38 months we recorded immunosuppressive therapy, surgical complications, episodes of acute rejection, CMV infection and graft function, assessed by serum creatinine levels at the beginning and in the end of the follow-up period. All patients had pretransplant negative cross-match. In ABO incompatible patients pretransplant isoagglutinine titer was zero. Results. The patients with a spousal donor had worse HLA matching. There were no significant differences between the groups in surgical, infective, immunological complications and graft function. Two patients from the group I returned to hemodialysis after 82 and 22 months due to serious comorbidities. Conclusion. In spite of the worse HLA matching, graft survival and function of renal grafts from spousal donors were as good as those retrieved from related donors.

  4. The relationship of platelet yield, donor's characteristic and apheresis instruments in China. (United States)

    Yin, Guomei; Xu, Jian; Shen, Zhuolan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun


    Platelet yield was associated with donor's characteristic and property of apheresis instruments. Here, we have analyzed the relationship of platelet yield, physiologic parameters of donors for different apheresis instruments in China. Data were consecutively retrieved from plateletapheresis donors during March 1, 2007 and March 1, 2012. Three different apheresis instruments MCS+, Amicus, Trima system were used for plateletapheresis and defined as group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Totally 77,091 Plateletapheresis donations were performed in this study. 17 donations were finally aborted because of vasovagal reaction with syncope. 5861, 37,036, 34,177 donations were performed in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Hct and platelet values before donations were similar, but platelet yield and collection rate were showed significantly difference (papheresis instruments and donor's characteristic. These data will help to work out suitable apheresis protocol based on the Chinese donor's characteristic.

  5. Characterization of physico-mechanical properties of indomethacin and polymers to assess their suitability for hot-melt extrusion processs as a means to manufacture solid dispersion/solution. (United States)

    Chokshi, Rina J; Sandhu, Harpreet K; Iyer, Raman M; Shah, Navnit H; Malick, A Waseem; Zia, Hossein


    The objective of the study was to characterize the physical and viscoelastic properties of binary mixtures of drug and selected polymers to assess their suitability for use in the hot-melt extrusion (HME) process as a means to improve solubility by manufacturing either solid dispersion or solid solution. Indomethacin (INM) was selected as a model drug. Based on comparable solubility parameters, the selected polymers were Eudragit EPO (EPO), polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymer (PVP-VA), polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30), and poloxamer 188 (P188). The various drug and polymer systems were characterized for thermal and rheological properties as a function of drug concentration to provide an insight into miscibility and processibility of these systems. From the thermal analysis studies, a single T(g) was observed for the binary mixtures of INM/EPO, INM/PVP-VA, and INM/PVPK30, indicating miscibility of drug and polymer in the given ratios. In the case of mixtures of INM/P188, two melting endotherms were observed with decreasing drug melting point as a function of polymer concentration indicating partial miscibility of drug in polymer. As part of the rheological evaluation, zero rate viscosity (eta(o)) and activation energy (E(a)) was determined for the various systems using torque rheometer at varying shear rates and temperatures. The eta(o) for binary mixtures of drug and EPO, PVP-VA and PVPK30 were found to be significantly lower as compared to pure polymer, indicating disruption of the polymer structure due to miscibility of the drug. On the other hand, INM/P188 mixtures showed a higher eta(o) compared to pure polymer indicating partial miscibility of drug and polymer. With respect to E(a), the mixtures of INM/EPO showed an increase in E(a) with increasing drug concentration, suggesting antiplasticization effect of the drug. These findings corroborate the thermal analysis results showing increase T(g) for the various binary mixtures. The mixtures of INM

  6. Charge-transfer (CT) orbitals for the one-electron description of CT excitations in a wide range of donor-acceptor separations (United States)

    Gritsenko, O. V.


    A transformation of the virtual Kohn-Sham orbitals is proposed to a set of charge-transfer orbitals (CTOs) adapted to description of CT excitations. The CTO scheme offers a simple estimate of the CT excitation energy with an orbital energy difference. This estimate reproduces well the reference values of the configuration interaction (CI) method in a wide range of donor-acceptor separations in the paradigmatic He -Be complex. CTO-based orbital energy and shape indices are proposed to assess the suitability of the CT description with virtual orbitals of a given basis set. Both indices yield correct trends for the Kohn-Sham and Hartree-Fock orbitals.

  7. Living related donor liver transplantation in Iranian children: a 12- year experience (United States)

    Hassanzade, Jafar; Mohsen Dehghani, Seyed; Bahador, Ali; Ali Malek-Hosseini, Seyed


    Aim The aim of this study was to describe our results and investigate the survival of below-18-year-old patients undergoing LRDLT and the factors affecting this. Background Living Related Donor Liver Transplantation (LRDLT) has become a good option to provide suitable grafts for children with liver diseases. Using this method, children who have no chance for life can live a much longer life. Patients and methods The present study is a historical cohort study carried on 191 patients below-18-year-sold who had undergone LRDLT for the first time in the Namazi hospital liver transplantation center. Survival rate of the patients was assessed using Kaplan-Meier method. The effect of factors related to the recipients, donors, and the transplantation process on the patients’ survival was also investigated. Results 1, 3, 5 and 11-year survival of patients was 71%, 66%, 65%, and 65%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, age, weight at transplantation, PELD/MELD score, existence of post-transplant complications were found to be effective factors on the patients’ survival. In the multivariate analysis, weight at transplantation, PELD/MELD score, and existence of post-transplant complications were the prognostic variables. Conclusion LRDLT is now well established with satisfactory results in our center. Although the survival rate of the patients is lower than the survival rate reported in other studies, but the survival of the patients who had survived 1 month after the transplantation was comparable to other studies. PMID:24834270

  8. 利用层次分析法评价东营市浅层地热能适宜性%Suitability Assessment of Shallow Geothermal Energy in Dongying City Based on Ananalytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡松涛; 孙云川; 胡思敬


    By using analytical hierarchy process method (AHP method )which combines qualitative analysis and semi-quantitative analysis together,the hierarchical structure model of the suitability of ground heat exchange sys-tem has been established.Based on datas acquired from field and indoor tests,choosing seven evaluation indica-tors,such as depth of groundwater,depth of sand,difficulty degree of drilling holes,ground subsidence,thermal diffusivity,specific heat capacity and heat conductivity,suitability of shallow geothermal energy in Dongying city can be divided into well suitable region and suitable region.This is the first time to analyze the suitability of shallow geothermal energy by using experimental data in Dongying city.It will provide a scientific basis for reasonable ap-plication of shallow geothermal energy in the future.%利用定性、半定量相结合的层次分析法(AHP),建立地埋管换热系统适宜性递阶层次结构模型,在野外试验、室内测试等基础数据的基础上,选取地下水埋藏深度、砂层厚度、成孔难易程度、地面沉降、热扩散率、比热容、综合热导率等7个评价指标,将东营市浅层地热能开发利用划分为适宜区、较适宜区。这是东营地区第一次利用实测数据开展浅层地热能适宜性评价,为今后的合理开发利用提供了科学依据。

  9. Evaluation of Aquacel Ag for Autogenous Skin Donor Sites. (United States)

    Haith, Linwood R; Stair-Buchmann, Megan E; Ackerman, Bruce H; Herder, Diane; Reigart, Cynthia L; Stoering, Marla; Guilday, Robert E; Patton, Mary Lou; Ross, Kerry M


    An ongoing objective of burn research is to evaluate wound dressings and develop new treatments to expedite wound healing. This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of Aquacel Ag as a dressing for autogenous skin donor sites compared with Xeroform. We hypothesized that donor sites treated with Aquacel Ag would heal faster. Patients were considered for enrollment if they required skin grafting with two donor sites >100 cm at least 2 inches apart. Dressings were observed daily starting on post-op day #2 until discharge and then weekly in the outpatient burn clinic. Assessments evaluated pain, infection, and reapplication. Photographs were taken on post-op day #2, upon "90% re-epithelialization," and at post-op day #30-45. Scar assessments and blinded photographic reviews were completed to assess cosmetic healing. Twenty-nine patients completed the study. Re-epithelialization occurred faster with Xeroform (15.2 days vs. 17.6 days). Daily pain scores were higher with Xeroform (6.72 vs. 5.68) and Aquacel Ag needed to be replaced more often (1.72 times vs. 0.10 times). Three patients developed donor site infections with Aquacel Ag. Scar scores between the donor sites were not statistically significant. The blinded photo review concluded that Xeroform had a better cosmetic outcome (24 vs. 10%). Although patients complained of more pain with Xeroform, it demonstrated shorter healing times and better cosmetic outcomes. Aquacel Ag needed to be replaced more often and represented the only three donor site infections.

  10. DCD lung donation : donor criteria, procedural criteria, pulmonary graft function validation, and preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, Michiel E.; van Raemdonck, Dirk; Akhtar, Mohammed Zeeshan; Neyrinck, Arne; de Antonio, David Gomez; Varela, Andreas; Dark, John


    In an era where there is a shortage of lungs for transplantation is increased utilization of lungs from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. We review the reports of 11 controlled and 1 uncontrolled DCD programs focusing on donor criteria, procedural criteria, graft assessment, and preserv

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  14. [Kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors]. (United States)

    Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dazhkova, N G; Salimov, E L


    The experience of 28 kidney allotransplantations from the AB0-incompatible donors was analyzed. The comparative group consisted of 38 patients, who received the AB0-compatible organ. The results were assessed using the following parameters: renal function, morphology of the biopsy samples of the transplanted kidney and actuary survival of the recipients with functioning transplants in both groups. The comparative analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups, giving the right to consider the kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors safe and effective.

  15. Liver grafts for transplantation from donors with diabetes: an analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database. (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhiwei; Hu, Zhenhua; Lo, Chung Mau; Wang, Weilin


    Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) have worse survival than those without DM after liver transplantation. However, the effect of liver grafts from DM donors on the post-transplantation survival of recipients is unclear. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database (2004-2008), 25,413 patients were assessed. Among them, 2,469 recipients received grafts from donors with DM. The demographics and outcome of patients were assessed. Patient survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression analyses. Recipients from DM donors experienced worse graft survival than recipients from non-DM donors (one-year survival: 81% versus 85%, and five-year survival: 67% versus 74%, PGraft survival was significantly lower for recipients from DM donors with DM duration >5 years (Pgraft survival (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.19). The effect of DM donors was more pronounced on certain underlying liver diseases of recipients. Increases in the risk of graft loss were noted among recipients from DM donors with hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection, whereas those without HCV experienced similar outcomes compared with recipients from non-DM donors. These data suggest that recipients from DM donors experience significantly worse patient survival after liver transplantation. However, in patients without HCV infection, using DM donors was not independently associated with worse post-transplantation graft survival. Matching these DM donors to recipients without HCV may be safe.

  16. Amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants. (United States)

    Chegaev, Konstantin; Lazzarato, Loretta; Rolando, Barbara; Marini, Elisabetta; Lopez, Gloria V; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto


    Models of amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants 24-26 were designed and synthesized. The products were obtained by linking a lipophilic tail (C(6), C(8), C(10)) with a polar head constituted by the 2,6-dimethoxyphenol antioxidant joined to the NO-donor 3-furoxancarboxamide substructure through a bridge containing a quaternary ammonium group. Compound 23, containing the shortest C(2)-alkyl chain, was also studied as a reference. The antioxidant properties (TBARS and LDL oxidation assays) and the vasodilator properties of the compounds were studied in vitro. The ability of these products to interact with phospholipid vesicles was also investigated by NMR techniques. The results indicate that both activities are modulated by the ability of the compounds to accumulate on phospholipid layers.

  17. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor notification. 630.6 Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an...

  18. Assessment of Suitability of Shallow Geothermal Energy in Luoyang Basin Based on AHP%基于AHP的洛阳盆地浅层地热能适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟小洁; 任静; 周奇蒙


    运用AHP分析法分别建立地下水热泵换热和地埋管换热适宜性分区评价体系,确定浅层地热能适宜性分区评价体系中的各评价指标的权重,利用权重系统和评分系统,对洛阳盆地地区浅层地热能适宜性进行评价,评价结果与客观情况基本吻合,分区结果合理可靠,为洛阳盆地浅层地热能的合理开发利用提供了科学依据和技术支持。%By using AHP analysis method, suitability evaluation system of groundwater heat exchange and buried pipe heat exchange is estabilished. to determine the weight of each evaluation index of shallow geothermal energy suitability division evaluation system, using a weighting system and scoring system, evaluated suitability of shallow geothermal energy in Luoyang basin, the partition result is reasonable and reliable, the evaluation results are in agreement with the objective, can provides scientific basis and technical references for the development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy in Luoyang basin.

  19. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  20. Multidetector row-CT in evaluation of living renal donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-qing; HU Xiao-peng; WANG Wei; LI Xiao-bei; YIN Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong


    Background Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) has been evolving to the standard evaluating method of potential living donor in most centers, and can provide excellent details for selecting candidates and determining surgical technique.This study aimed to assess the value of MDCT in evaluation of the anatomy of living kidney donors and to reveal the prevalence of renal vascular variations in a Chinese population.Methods One hundred and four potential donors underwent MDCT and the data sets were post-processed for reformatted images with various techniques, such as maximum intensity projection (MIP), a volume-rendering technique (VR), and multiplanar reformation (MPR). Donor nephrectomies were performed on 97 candidates after MDCT evaluation with the findings during surgery constituting the standard of reference. Resulting MDCT images were compared with actual anatomy found during surgery. Results The MDCT images accurately displayed the anatomic structure of the main renal arteries and veins as well as the upper ureters, except in one case with horseshoe kidney. The prevalence of accessory arteries revealed in images was 27.2% (28/103) and early branching was found in 12.6% (13/103). Compared with findings during surgery, the detection of accessory arteries in MDCT images was 85.7% (6/7), and the detection of larger accessory arteries (>1.5 mm in diameter) was 100%. Detection of early branching was 100%.Conclusion MDCT helps accurately evaluate the renal anatomy of potential donors thus facilitating the planning of surgery.

  1. Identification of process suitable diluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean R. Peterman


    The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation (STMAS) was formed within the USDOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program in order to develop more efficient methods for the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MA) from used nuclear fuel. The development of processes for MA separations is driven by the potential benefits; reduced long-term radiotoxicty of waste placed in a geologic repository, reduced timeframe of waste storage, reduced repository heat load, the possibility of increased repository capacity, and increased utilization of energy potential of used nuclear fuel. The research conducted within the STMAS framework is focused upon the realization of significant simplifications to aqueous recycle processes proposed for MA separations. This report describes the research efforts focused upon the identification of a process suitable diluent for a flowsheet concept for the separation of MA which is based upon the dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants previously developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  2. Suitable footwear for enhanced safety

    CERN Multimedia


    Safety shoes are the theme of a new safety campaign. Always remember that accidents can happen - even to your feet! When entering hazardous areas such as underground halls, work sites, experiment assembly sites, workshops etc., sandals, ordinary shoes or similar light footwear should not be worn. Whatever the risks to which you may be exposed, always think safety and wear suitable footwear, i.e. safety shoes, which have non-slip soles and steel reinforcements to protect your feet from being crushed, fractured or pierced. Is it serious, Doctor? "Some traumas resulting from foot-related accidents - open fractures for instance - can be quite serious," explains CERN Works Doctor Véronique Fassnacht. "But the most common injuries are sprained ankles sustained during simple falls caused by differences in floor-levels (e.g. false floors). Fractures, bruising, surface wounds or deep wounds caused by objects falling onto the top of the foot are also quite common." ...

  3. Heteroaromatic donors in donor-acceptor-donor based fluorophores facilitate zinc ion sensing and cell imaging. (United States)

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Divya, Kizhumuri P; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Mathew, Jomon; Anupama, V N; Philips, Divya Susan; Anees, Palappuravan; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai


    The excited state intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) property of fluorophores has been extensively used for the design of fluorescent chemosensors. Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of three donor–π-acceptor–π-donor (D–π-A–π-D) based molecular probes BP, BT and BA. Two heteroaromatic rings, pyrrole (BP), and thiophene (BT) and a non-heteroaromatic ring N-alkoxy aniline (BA) were selected as donor moieties which were linked to a bipyridine binding site through a vinylic linkage. The heteroaromatic systems BP and BT perform selective and ratiometric emission signalling for zinc ions whereas the non-heteroaromatic probe BA does not. The advantages of the D–π-A–π-D design strategy in the design of ICT based probes for the selective fluorescent ratiometric signalling of zinc ions in biological media is discussed. Further, the use of BP, BT and BA for imaging Zn(2+) ions from MCF-7 cell lines is demonstrated.

  4. Evaluation of living liver donors using contrast enhanced multidetector CT – The radiologists impact on donor selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringe Kristina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT is a valuable and legitimate treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Computed tomography (CT has proven to be an important tool in the process of donor evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of CT in the donor selection process. Methods Between May 1999 and October 2010 170 candidate donors underwent biphasic CT. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the CT and liver volumetry, and assessed reasons for rejection. Results 89 candidates underwent partial liver resection (52.4%. Based on the results of liver CT and volumetry 22 candidates were excluded as donors (31% of the cases. Reasons included fatty liver (n = 9, vascular anatomical variants (n = 4, incidental finding of hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 1 and small (n = 5 or large for size (n = 5 graft volume. Conclusion CT based imaging of the liver in combination with dedicated software plays a key role in the process of evaluation of candidates for LDLT. It may account for up to 1/3 of the contraindications for LDLT.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Blood Donor’s Status of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis in this Region of Marathwada, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangrao H. Deshpande


    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Blood transfusion can cause the transmission of infections to recipients. This is an important mode of infection. The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of such type of infections among blood donors and to compare the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in voluntary donors and replacement donors. Retrospective study of five years from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 was done. This study was conducted at Blood bank, MIMSR Medical College Latur, Govt. Medical College, Latur and Bhalchandra Blood bank, Latur. Material & Methods: Total 10, 4925 donors were tested. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBC, HCV and Syphilis. Screening of HIV, HBV & HCV was done by ELISA method & Syphilis was screened by RPR type. Results: The comparison of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & Syphilis in voluntary donors and replacement donors showed significant difference only for HIV in the years 2007, 2010, and 2011. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in the study is very low or negligible in voluntary donors as compared to replacement donors. There was a declining trend of seroprevalence for all the disease screened. But in our study the difference is not significant, which indicates that the selection of donors is of low quality. The selection of high quality voluntary donors should be achieved by creation of awareness by education of the prospective donor populations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier


    Full Text Available Aim of study. The demonstration of our own experience in heart transplantation after valve reconstruction. Methods and results. From May 2012 to March 2013 3 mitral valve annuloplasties were performed to recipi- ents, requiring urgent HT and having extremely unfavorable prognosis of survival without HT. The recipients were classified as United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS IB, and all of them were on inotropic support. In one case, HT was performed after reconstruction of rheumatic mitral stenosis, in two other cases – after dege- nerative mitral regurgitation. The technical aspects are reviewed of ex-vivo mitral and tricuspid valves repair with concomitant heart transplantation. All patients were discharged from the hospital having excellent postope- rative recovery. Conclusion. Taking into consideration the demonstrated satisfactory result of surveillance and presence of significant experience in performing of reconstructive valve surgery among no-HT cardiosurgical patients, an increase in the pool of suitable donor organs is expected due to the liberalization of the selection criteria and the possibility of the innovative valve reconstruction procedures ex vivo. 

  7. Outcome of kidney transplantation between controlled cardiac death and brain death donors: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yingzi; Shao Mingjie; Tian Tingting; She Xingguo; Liu Hong; Ye Shaojun; Ye Qifa


    Background Our goal was to evaluate the outcomes of kidney transplants from controlled cardiac death donors compared with brain death donors by conducting a meta-analysis of cohort studies.Methods The PubMed database and EMBASE were searched from January 1980 to July 2013 to identify studies that met pre-stated inclusion criteria.Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed.Two authors independently extracted information on the designs of the studies,the characteristics of the study participants,and outcome assessments.Results Nine cohort studies involving 84 398 participants were included in this meta-analysis; 3 014 received kidneys from controlled cardiac death donors and 80 684 from brain death donors.Warm ischemia time was significantly longer for the controlled cardiac death donor group.The incidence of delayed graft function was 2.74 times (P <0.001) greater in the controlled cardiac death donor group.The results are in favor of the brain death donor group on short-term patient and graft survival while this difference became nonsignificant at mid-term and long term.Sensitivity analysis yielded similar results.No evidence of publication bias was observed.Conclusion This meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies suggests that the outcome after controlled cardiac death donors is comparable with that obtained using kidneys from brain death donors.

  8. Uncertainty in Various Habitat Suitability Models and Its Impact on Habitat Suitability Estimates for Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Lin


    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are extensively used to project habitat suitability of species in stream ecological studies. Owing to complex sources of uncertainty, such models may yield projections with varying degrees of uncertainty. To better understand projected spatial distributions and the variability between habitat suitability projections, this study uses five SDMs that are based on the outputs of a two-dimensional hydraulic model to project the suitability of habitats and to evaluate the degree of variability originating from both differing model types and the split-sample procedure. The habitat suitability index (HSI of each species is based on two stream flow variables, including current velocity (V, water depth (D, as well as the heterogeneity of these flow conditions as quantified by the information entropy of V and D. The six SDM approaches used to project fish abundance, as represented by HSI, included two stochastic models: the generalized linear model (GLM and the generalized additive model (GAM; as well as three machine learning models: the support vector machine (SVM, random forest (RF and the artificial neural network (ANN, and an ensemble model (where the latter is the average of the preceding five models. The target species Sicyopterus japonicas was found to prefer habitats with high current velocities. The relationship between mesohabitat diversity and fish abundance was indicated by the trends in information entropy and weighted usable area (WUA over the study area. This study proposes a method for quantifying habitat suitability, and for assessing the uncertainties in HSI and WUA that are introduced by the various SDMs and samples. This study also demonstrated both the merits of the ensemble modeling approach and the necessity of addressing model uncertainty.

  9. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  10. Anaerobic Degradation of Tetrachloroethylene Using Different Co-substrates as Electron Donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To investigate the biodegradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by acclimated anaerobic sludge using different co-substrates, I.e., glucose, acetate, and lactate as electron donors. Methods HP-6890 gas chromatograph (GC) in combination with auto-sampler was used to analyze the concentration of PCE and its intermediates. Results PCE could be degraded by reductive dechlorination and the degradation reaction conformed to the first-order kinetic equation. The rate constants are k1actate>kglucose>kacetate. The PCE degradation rate was the highest in the presence of lactate as an electron donor.Conclusion Lactate is the most suitable electron donor for PCE degradation and the electron donors supplied by co-metabolic substrates are not the limiting factors for PCE degradation.

  11. Significant Improvements in the Practice Patterns of Adult Related Donor Care in US Transplantation Centers. (United States)

    Anthias, Chloe; Shaw, Bronwen E; Kiefer, Deidre M; Liesveld, Jane L; Yared, Jean; Kamble, Rammurti T; D'Souza, Anita; Hematti, Peiman; Seftel, Matthew D; Norkin, Maxim; DeFilipp, Zachariah; Kasow, Kimberly A; Abidi, Muneer H; Savani, Bipin N; Shah, Nirali N; Anderlini, Paolo; Diaz, Miguel A; Malone, Adriana K; Halter, Joerg P; Lazarus, Hillard M; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; O'Donnell, Paul V


    Recent investigations have found a higher incidence of adverse events associated with hematopoietic cell donation in related donors (RDs) who have morbidities that if present in an unrelated donor (UD) would preclude donation. In the UD setting, regulatory standards ensure independent assessment of donors, one of several crucial measures to safeguard donor health and safety. A survey conducted by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) Donor Health and Safety Working Committee in 2007 reported a potential conflict of interest in >70% of US centers, where physicians had simultaneous responsibility for RDs and their recipients. Consequently, several international organizations have endeavored to improve practice through regulations and consensus recommendations. We hypothesized that the changes in the 2012 Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy and the Joint Accreditation Committee-International Society for Cellular Therapy and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation standards resulting from the CIBMTR study would have significantly impacted practice. Accordingly, we conducted a follow-up survey of US transplantation centers to assess practice changes since 2007, and to investigate additional areas where RD care was predicted to differ from UD care. A total of 73 centers (53%), performing 79% of RD transplantations in the United States, responded. Significant improvements were observed since the earlier survey; 62% centers now ensure separation of RD and recipient care (P < .0001). This study identifies several areas where RD management does not meet international donor care standards, however. Particular concerns include counseling and assessment of donors before HLA typing, with 61% centers first disclosing donor HLA results to an individual other than the donor, the use of unlicensed mobilization agents, and the absence of long-term donor follow-up. Recommendations for improvement are made.

  12. Design directed self-assembly of donor-acceptor polymers. (United States)

    Marszalek, Tomasz; Li, Mengmeng; Pisula, Wojciech


    Donor-acceptor polymers with an alternating array of donor and acceptor moieties have gained particular attention during recent years as active components of organic electronics. By implementation of suitable subunits within the conjugated backbone, these polymers can be made either electron-deficient or -rich. Additionally, their band gap and light absorption can be precisely tuned for improved light-harvesting in solar cells. On the other hand, the polymer design can also be modified to encode the desired supramolecular self-assembly in the solid-state that is essential for an unhindered transport of charge carriers. This review focuses on three major factors playing a role in the assembly of donor-acceptor polymers on surfaces which are (1) nature, geometry and substitution position of solubilizing alkyl side chains, (2) shape of the conjugated polymer defined by the backbone curvature, and (3) molecular weight which determines the conjugation length of the polymer. These factors adjust the fine balance between attractive and repulsive forces and ensure a close polymer packing important for an efficient charge hopping between neighboring chains. On the microscopic scale, an appropriate domain formation with a low density of structural defects in the solution deposited thin film is crucial for the charge transport. The charge carrier transport through such thin films is characterized by field-effect transistors as basic electronic elements.

  13. Efficacy and Safety Outcomes of Extended Criteria Donor Kidneys by Subtype: Subgroup Analysis of BENEFIT‐EXT at 7 Years After Transplant


    Florman, S.; Becker, T.; Bresnahan, B.; Chevaile‐Ramos, A.; D. Carvalho; Grannas, G.; Muehlbacher, F; O'Connell, P. J.; Meier‐Kriesche, H. U.; Larsen, C P


    The phase III Belatacept Evaluation of Nephroprotection and Efficacy as First‐Line Immunosuppression Trial–Extended Criteria Donors Trial (BENEFIT‐EXT) study compared more or less intensive belatacept‐based immunosuppression with cyclosporine (CsA)–based immunosuppression in recipients of extended criteria donor kidneys. In this post hoc analysis, patient outcomes were assessed according to donor kidney subtype. In total, 68.9% of patients received an expanded criteria donor kidney (United Ne...

  14. Pre-birth selection of umbilical cord blood donors (United States)

    Urciuoli, Patrizia; Passeri, Simona; Ceccarelli, Francesca; Luchetti, Barbara; Paolicchi, Aldo; Lapi, Simone; Nocchi, Francesca; Lamanna, Roberta; Iorio, Mariacarla; Vanacore, Renato; Mazzoni, Alessandro; Scatena, Fabrizio


    Background . The fact that only a small percentage of cord blood units (CBU) stored are actually used for transplantation contributes to raising the already high costs of their processing and cryopreservation. The identification of predictors allowing the early identification of suitable CBU would allow a reduction of costs for the collection, storage and characterisation of CBU with insufficient volume or cell numbers. In our bank we have adopted a cut-off value for using CBU of 8 × 108 nucleated cells and a volume ≥ 60 mL. Materials and methods In 365 banked CBU, we evaluated the correlation between neonatal/gestational parameters and laboratory data used to assess their quality. Results Biparietal diameter (BPD) and abdominal circumference were significantly and positively correlated with CBU volume (r2=0.12, p=0.0011 and r2=0.092, p=0.0063, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that both parameters can be used to identify CBU with insufficient volume (BPD: area under the curve 0.69, 95% CI=0.57–0.82, p=0.004; abdominal circumference: area under the curve 0.67, 95% CI=0.54–0.79, p<0.01). BPD and head circumference, but not abdominal circumference or femoral length, were positively correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count (r2=0.215, p=0.031, and r2=0.299, p=0.015, respectively). Abdominal circumference, but not BPD, head circumference or femoral length, was statistically significantly correlated with the number of CD34+ cells in the CBU. Weight at birth and placental weight were positively correlated with WBC count, blood volume, CD34+ cell count, total colony-forming units and burst-forming units. Conclusion . Pre-birth assessment of BPD might allow the selection of donors who would yield CBU of sufficient volume and WBC count and avoid the costs of collecting, transferring, storing and analysing CBU with a high probability of resulting unsuitable for transplantation. PMID:20104277

  15. 基于ArcGIS的高陵县农作物产地适宜性评价%Assessment on the Suitability of Crop Producing in Gaoling County Based on ArcGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Taking Gaoling County of Shanxi Province as the study area, based on the analysis of soil distribution, landscape characteristics, and agricultural cropping characteristics, soil samples from 119 soil points and water samples from 41 irrigation water points were collected with the asistant of GPS space location, pH value and 5 heavy metal pollution index of soil samples and 11 test items (such as heavy metals and chemical oxygen demand) of water samples were measured to quantitatively analyze the effects of multiple pollution factors on crop by contamination index method. The results showed that the contents of heavy metals were rich in the east and west of Gaoling, whereas poor in the south and north. The comprehensive pollution degree of the irrigation water in north and south was slight, and increased gradually from west to east. The suitability of wheat planting was wide in Gaoling County; and the suitability of grape and strawberry was similar. Carrot could be planted in most area but in border of Tongyuan town, Wanzi county and Jingwei town.%以陕西省高陵县为研究区域,在分析其土壤分布规律和地形地貌特征的基础上,结合其农业种植特点,利用GPS技术进行空间定位,对119个土壤点和41个灌溉水点进行采样统计,采用污染指数法,就土壤中多种污染因子对农产品的影响进行定量分析.结果表明,高陵县的土壤重金属含量北部和南部较低,东部和西部较高.北部和南部的灌溉水的综合污染程度较轻,由西向东污染程度逐渐增大.高陵县小麦的适宜性较广泛,鲜食葡萄和草莓的适宜性相似,胡萝卜仅在通远镇和湾子乡、泾渭镇的交界处有少量不适宜种植,其他大部分地区都适宜种植.

  16. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors. (United States)

    Shenfield, Francoise


    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved.

  17. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Sheung Tat Fan


    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless,LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving predictable recipient success. With this background, a reflection of the development of LDLT may be appropriate to direct future research and patient- care efforts on this life-saving treatment alternative.

  18. Donor Centers in a Gaussian Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang


    We study a neutral donor center (D0) and a negatively charged donor center (D-) trapped by a quantum dot, which is subjected to a Gaussian potential confinement. Calculations are made by using the method of numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. The dependence of the ground state of the neutral shallow donor and the negatively charged donor on the dot size and the potential depth is investigated. The same calculations performed with the parabolic approximation of the Gaussian potential lead to the results that are qualitatively and quantitatively different from each other.

  19. [Living donor liver transplantation in adults]. (United States)

    Neumann, U P; Neuhaus, P; Schmeding, M


    The worldwide shortage of adequate donor organs implies that living donor liver transplantation represents a valuable alternative to cadaveric transplantation. In addition to the complex surgical procedure the correct identification of eligible donors and recipients plays a decisive role in living donor liver transplantation. Donor safety must be of ultimate priority and overrules all other aspects involved. In contrast to the slightly receding numbers in Europe and North America, in recent years Asian programs have enjoyed constantly increasing living donor activity. The experience of the past 15 years has clearly demonstrated that technical challenges of both bile duct anastomosis and venous outflow of the graft significantly influence postoperative outcome. While short-term in-hospital morbidity remains increased compared to cadaveric transplantation, long-term survival of both graft and patient are comparable or even better than in deceased donor transplantation. Especially for patients expecting long waiting times under the MELD allocation system, living donor liver transplantation offers an excellent therapeutic alternative. Expanding the so-called "Milan criteria" for HCC patients with the option for living donor liver transplantation is currently being controversially debated.

  20. 24 CFR 581.4 - Suitability determination. (United States)


    ... reviewed for suitability. HUD will maintain a written public record of the following: (1) The suitability... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability determination. 581.4... (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  1. A Prospective Controlled Study of Living Kidney Donors: Three-Year Follow-up (United States)

    Kasiske, Bertram L.; Anderson-Haag, Teresa; Israni, Ajay K.; Kalil, Roberto S.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kraus, Edward S.; Kumar, Rajiv; Posselt, Andrew A.; Pesavento, Todd E.; Rabb, Hamid; Steffes, Michael W.; Snyder, Jon J.; Weir, Matthew R.


    Background There have been few prospective controlled studies of kidney donors. Understanding the pathophysiological effects of kidney donation is important for judging donor safety and for improving our understanding of the consequences of reduced kidney function in chronic kidney disease. Study Design Prospective, controlled, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants Three-year follow-up of kidney donors and paired controls suitable for donation at their donor’s center. Predictor Kidney donation. Outcomes Medical history, vital signs, glomerular filtration rate and other measurements at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after donation. Results At 36 months, 182 of 203 (89.7%) original donors and 173 of 201 (86.1%) original controls continue to participate in follow-up visits. The linear slope of the glomerular filtration rate measured by plasma iohexol clearance declined 0.36±7.55 mL/min per year in 194 controls, but increased 1.47±5.02 mL/min per year in 198 donors (P = 0.005) between 6 and 36 months. Blood pressure was not different between donors and controls at any visit, and at 36 months all 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure parameters were similar in 126 controls and 135 donors (mean systolic: 120.0±11.2 [SD] v. 120.7±9.7 mmHg [P=0.6]; mean diastolic: 73.4±7.0 v. 74.5±6.5 mmHg [P=0.2]). Mean arterial pressure nocturnal dipping was manifest in 11.2%±6.6% of controls and 11.3%±6.1% donors (P=0.9). Urinary protein-creatinine and albumin-creatinine ratios were not increased in donors compared to controls. From 6 to 36 months post-donation, serum parathyroid hormone, uric acid, homocysteine and potassium levels were higher, whereas hemoglobin was lower in donors compared to controls. Limitations Possible bias resulting from an inability to select controls screened to be as healthy as donors, short follow-up duration, and drop-outs. Conclusions Kidney donors manifest several of the findings of mild chronic kidney disease. However, at 36 months after

  2. Can the rat donor liver tolerate prolonged warm ischemia ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Qi Yan; Hong Wei Li; Wei Yao Cai; Ming Jun Zhang; Wei Ping Yang


    The last two decades of the twentieth century have witnessed increasingly successful rates of liver transplantation. The number of liver transplantations has increased steadily while the number of organ donors has remained relatively constant. Thus a great disparity has developed between the demand and supply of donor organs and remains a major limiting factor for further expansion of liver transplantation. Although many procedures, such as split liver[1] , living-related transplantation[2] , and xenotransplantation[3], have been attempted clinically to overcome the shortage, it is hoped that livers harvested from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) would alleviatethe problem of organ shortage, which again becomes the focus of attention[4-9]. However, sensitivity of the liver to warm ischemia remains a major worry for use of theNHBDs. The aim of this animal study was to assess if murine liver could tolerate prolonged period of warm ischemia and to determine the optimum timing of intervention in the cadaver donor in order to preserve liver viability.

  3. Economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors: a Canadian multi-center prospective study. (United States)

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X


    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th-75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th-75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs.

  4. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warle, M.C.; Berkers, A.W.; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Dooper, P.M.M.; Kloke, H.J.; Pilzecker, D.; Renes, S.H.; Wever, K.E.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; D'Ancona, F.C.H.


    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been s

  5. 蓬莱酿酒葡萄产区土壤肥力特征及适宜性评价%Assessment on soil fertility characteristics and suitability of viticulture in Penglai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成士; 魏彦峰; 王福成; 胡文效; 杨阳; 尹向田


    Field samples from 23 vineyards were collected to analyze soil physical and chemical properties and its spatial variation at Penglai. Soil quality was evaluated from the aspects of soil nutrition chemical properties and texture, according to the relevant soil standard, apply to the weighted sum model and expert scoring method, established the wine-grape comprehensive classification standard of soil of Penglai region. The results showed that soil pH was slightly low in Penglai region, north of G206 was suitable, the middle and south were acid slightly; Soil organic matter was medium-low level, but the north was higher slightly than the middle and south; the content of alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, effective phosphorus, exchangeable magnesium were higher, rapidly-available potassium was medium, exchangeable calcium was higher suitable level in the north and middle, but the south is little low; A decline trend indicated from north to south, there were a lttle difference on upper and lower layers. Soil fertility level was given priority to with second and third grade in Penglai area, reached at medium-high suitable levels for wine-grape planting, but among every small area were different in soil characteristics and soil fertility levels. Average soil fertility level was second grade in north of G206, The area of south of S302 and between G206 and S302 belonged in third grade. Overall soil fertility level presented the tendency of higher in the north than the south, soil fertility variation degree (3.65) in north is less than in central (5.21) and south (4.10).%通过全面多点采样分析研究了蓬莱全市23个主要酿酒葡萄基地的土壤理化性质及其空间变异特征.从土壤营养化学指标和质地方面分析评价该基地的土壤质量.依据相关土壤标准,应用加权求和模型和专家打分法,建立了蓬莱产区酿酒葡萄土壤综合分级标准.结果表明,蓬莱产区土壤pH为稍偏酸水平,总体上G206以北为适宜水

  6. Suitability Assessment for Winter Tragopan caboti’s Habitat in Jinggangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province%江西井冈山国家级自然保护区黄腹角雉冬季栖息地适宜性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩梦阳; 詹黎明; 承勇; 王卫军; 刘桃睦; 邢韶华


    In order to make the assessment of Tragopan caboti’s habitat suitability in Jinggangshan Na-ture Reserve in Jiangxi Province,we investigate the distribution situation in winter period.Through four aspects of vegetation type,altitude,slope and aspect,we make a summary analysis on Tragopan caboti’s suitable habitat characteristics.And based on the results of field survey and vegetation type map,forest distribution map,topographic map and so on,we use the method of rank assignment and make the use of GIS software to analyze data,and make the comprehensive assessment of Tragopan caboti’s suitable dis-tribution area.The area of the first grade suitable for distribution is 4 731.76hm2 ,accounting for 16.7%of the total area;the area of the second grade suitable for distribution is 11 298.43hm2 accounting for 39.9% of the total area;and the area of the third grade suitable for distribution is 12 293.31hm2.%以江西井冈山国家级自然保护区内分布的黄腹角雉为研究对象,调查了其越冬期的分布状况,从植被类型、海拔高度、坡度和坡向四个方面对黄腹角雉适宜性的栖息地特征进行了分析。根据井冈山保护区的植被类型图、林相分布图、地形图等,采用等级赋值的方法,综合评定了黄腹角雉适宜分布区域。评定出黄腹角雉适宜分布区域中一级适宜分布区域总面积为4731.76 hm2,占总面积的16.7%,二级适宜分布区域总面积为11298.43hm2,占总面积的39.9%,三级适宜分布区域面积为12293.31hm2。

  7. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: Recipient′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukaram E Jamale


    Full Text Available Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson′s chi square test, Student′s t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027 was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335 and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275 was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014. Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002. LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 李江风; 匡华


    在旅游开发建设压力下,湖泊生态环境面临巨大挑战.湖泊旅游开发适宜性评价鲜少从湖泊形态入手,而湖泊形态参数所揭示的湖泊水文特征会在一定程度上对旅游开发造成影响.以GIS技术为工具,选取大梁子湖分形几何维数和欧式几何形态指标(岸线发育系数、形状率、近圆率、紧凑度、空间包容面积)作为湖泊形态参数,通过Mapgis软件分析,获得大梁子湖湖泊形态分形维数为1.549,同时进一步计算出构成大梁子湖的6大湖泊的欧式几何形态指标,以此构建基于湖泊形态的旅游开发适宜性评价指标体系,建立湖泊形态和旅游开发适宜性关系模型,揭示湖泊水文特征与景观吸引力、生态脆弱程度、旅游环境安全性以及游客环境容量等旅游开发适宜性指标的内在联系,为湖泊旅游开发决策提供科学依据.%Ecological environment of lake, which is the basis of the development of lake tourism, has been threatened by urban sprawl. Under the pressure of tourism development and construction, lake ecological environment is facing enormous challenges. Suitability assessment of lake tourism development rarely starts from the lake morphology. Academic-related research on lake tourism development potential and suitability assessment is less. Usually the quality of lake resources,development conditions and the limiting factor are selected as suitability assessment indicators of tourism development,while lake morphology parameters are usually excluded. The lake hydrological characteristics that revealed by lake morphology parameters will impact on tourism development to some extent. In this study,GIS was applied as a tool,fractal geometry dimension and Euclidean geometry index (shoreline development index,form ratio,circularity ratio,compactness ratio,space inclusive area) were selected to build index system of suitability assessment and to reveal the correlation of the lake hydrology and

  9. Fecal microbiota transplantation and donor standardization. (United States)

    Owens, Casey; Broussard, Elizabeth; Surawicz, Christina


    Clostridium difficile diarrhea is a common and severe infectious disease. Antibiotics, which are standard initial treatment, are less effective for treating refractory or recurrent infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation, where healthy donor stool is transplanted into a patient, is an alternative to antibiotic therapy that requires standardization for donors and patients.

  10. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons. (United States)

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L


    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  11. Expanding the donor pool: regional variation in pediatric organ donation rates. (United States)

    Godown, Justin; McKane, Meghann; Wujcik, Kari; Mettler, Bret A; Dodd, Debra A


    There are limited published data on pediatric organ donation rates. The aim of this study was to describe the trends in pediatric organ donation over time and to assess the regional variation in pediatric deceased organ donation. OPTN data were utilized to assess the trends in pediatric organ donation over time. The number of deceased pediatric organ donors was indexed using regional mortality data obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and compared across UNOS regions and two different eras. The number of pediatric deceased organ donors has declined in the recent era, largely driven by fewer adolescent donors. For all age groups, there is significant regional variation in organ donation rates, with identifiable high- and low-performing regions. Expansion of the donor pool may be possible by optimizing organ donation in regions demonstrating lower recruitment of pediatric donors. Using the region with the highest donation rate for each age group as the gold standard, we estimate a potential 24% increase in the number of donors if all regions performed comparably, equating to 215 new pediatric donors annually.

  12. Electrical properties of donors in gallium phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poedoer, B. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Research Lab. for Inorganic Chemistry); Pfeiffer, J.; Csontos, L.; Nador, N. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Research Inst. for Technical Physics); Deak, F. (Eoetvoes Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Atomfizikai Tanszek)


    The thermal ionization energies of S, Te, and Si donors in GaP and their dependences on impurity concentration are determined from an anlysis of Hall effect data. An ellipsoidal six-valley model is used incorporating the effects of valley-orbit splitting of the ground state of the P-site donors. A careful characterization of the samples ensures that results are obtained on samples containing only one type of dominant donor. The thermal ionization energies of the above donors extrapolated to infinite dilution are (105.0 +- 5.7), (94.1 +- 2.6), and (83.5 +- 1.7) meV, respectively. The valley-orbit splitting energies of S and Te donors are also obtained, amounting to (34 +- 9) and (23.5 +- 9) meV, respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev


    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  14. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M


    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  15. Donor polymer design enables efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells (United States)

    Li, Zhengke; Jiang, Kui; Yang, Guofang; Lai, Joshua Yuk Lin; Ma, Tingxuan; Zhao, Jingbo; Ma, Wei; Yan, He


    To achieve efficient organic solar cells, the design of suitable donor-acceptor couples is crucially important. State-of-the-art donor polymers used in fullerene cells may not perform well when they are combined with non-fullerene acceptors, thus new donor polymers need to be developed. Here we report non-fullerene organic solar cells with efficiencies up to 10.9%, enabled by a novel donor polymer that exhibits strong temperature-dependent aggregation but with intentionally reduced polymer crystallinity due to the introduction of a less symmetric monomer unit. Our comparative study shows that an analogue polymer with a C2 symmetric monomer unit yields highly crystalline polymer films but less efficient non-fullerene cells. Based on a monomer with a mirror symmetry, our best donor polymer exhibits reduced crystallinity, yet such a polymer matches better with small molecular acceptors. This study provides important insights to the design of donor polymers for non-fullerene organic solar cells.

  16. Donor polymer design enables efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells. (United States)

    Li, Zhengke; Jiang, Kui; Yang, Guofang; Lai, Joshua Yuk Lin; Ma, Tingxuan; Zhao, Jingbo; Ma, Wei; Yan, He


    To achieve efficient organic solar cells, the design of suitable donor-acceptor couples is crucially important. State-of-the-art donor polymers used in fullerene cells may not perform well when they are combined with non-fullerene acceptors, thus new donor polymers need to be developed. Here we report non-fullerene organic solar cells with efficiencies up to 10.9%, enabled by a novel donor polymer that exhibits strong temperature-dependent aggregation but with intentionally reduced polymer crystallinity due to the introduction of a less symmetric monomer unit. Our comparative study shows that an analogue polymer with a C2 symmetric monomer unit yields highly crystalline polymer films but less efficient non-fullerene cells. Based on a monomer with a mirror symmetry, our best donor polymer exhibits reduced crystallinity, yet such a polymer matches better with small molecular acceptors. This study provides important insights to the design of donor polymers for non-fullerene organic solar cells.

  17. Donor Conception and "Passing," or; Why Australian Parents of Donor-Conceived Children Want Donors Who Look Like Them. (United States)

    Wong, Karen-Anne


    This article explores the processes through which Australian recipients select unknown donors for use in assisted reproductive technologies and speculates on how those processes may affect the future life of the donor-conceived person. I will suggest that trust is an integral part of the exchange between donors, recipients, and gamete agencies in donor conception and heavily informs concepts of relatedness, race, ethnicity, kinship, class, and visibility. The decision to be transparent (or not) about a child's genetic parentage affects recipient parents' choices of donor, about who is allowed to "know" children's genetic backgrounds, and how important it is to be able to "pass" as an unassisted conception. In this way, recipients must trust the process, institutions, and individuals involved in their treatment, as well as place trust in the future they imagine for their child. The current market for donor gametes reproduces normative conceptions of the nuclear family, kinship, and relatedness by facilitating "matching" donors to recipients by phenotype and cultural affinities. Recipient parents who choose not to prioritize "matching," and actively disclose the process of children's conceptions, may embark on a project of queering heteronormative family structures and place great trust in both their own children and changing social attitudes to reduce stigma and generate acceptance for non-traditional families.

  18. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anhorn


    Full Text Available In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC. According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5% are fairly suitable (Category C.

  19. Decision making around living and deceased donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study exploring the importance of expected relationship changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Ingrid B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data exist on the impact of living kidney donation on the donor-recipient relationship. Purpose of this study was to explore motivations to donate or accept a (living donor kidney, whether expected relationship changes influence decision making and whether relationship changes are actually experienced. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups in 47 of 114 invited individuals (41%, asking retrospectively about motivations and decision making around transplantation. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the focus group transcripts. Results Most deceased donor kidney recipients had a potential living donor available which they refused or did not want. They mostly waited for a deceased donor because of concern for the donor’s health (75%. They more often expected negative relationship changes than living donor kidney recipients (75% vs. 27%, p = 0.01 who also expected positive changes. Living donor kidney recipients mostly accepted the kidney to improve their own quality of life (47%. Donors mostly donated a kidney because transplantation would make the recipient less dependent (25%. After transplantation both positive and negative relationship changes are experienced. Conclusion Expected relationship changes and concerns about the donor’s health lead some kidney patients to wait for a deceased donor, despite having a potential living donor available. Further research is needed to assess whether this concerns a selected group.

  20. Printed health information materials: evaluation of readability and suitability. (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Hosei, Barbara


    This study examined readability and suitability of printed health information materials colleted from multiple sources. In phase I, nursing students used Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG; McLaughlin, 1969) to assess the readability of 21 materials collected from the community. In phases II and III, nursing students and registered nurses used SMOG and the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM; Doak, Doak, & Root, 1996) to evaluate 15 prenatal materials from a Healthy Start program. SMOG assigns a reading grade level based on the number of words with 3 or more syllables. SAM has 22 items in 6 evaluation areas: content, literacy demand, graphics, layout and typography, learning stimulation and motivation, and cultural appropriateness. Major findings included that 53% to 86% of the printed materials had a reading level at or higher than 9th grade; materials lacked summary, interaction, and modeled behaviors, and registered nurses rated more materials as not suitable and fewer as superior for suitability qualities than students. Improving printed materials to have lower reading levels and better suitability qualities are indicated.

  1. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Slot

    Full Text Available Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands.Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC, having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March through September 2013, risk factor questions were asked to all donors who volunteered to donate blood or blood components. Serum samples were collected from donors reporting one or more risk factors, and screened for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi by EIA.Risk factors for T. cruzi infection were reported by 1,426 of 227,278 donors (0.6%. Testing 1,333 at-risk donors, none (0.0%; 95%, CI 0.0-0.4% was seroreactive for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. A total of 472 donors were born in a CEC; 553 donors reported their mother being born in a CEC; and 1,121 donors reported a long-term stay in a CEC. The vast majority of reported risk factors were related to Suriname and Brazil. Overall, the participants resided for 7,694 years in CECs, which equals 2.8 million overnight stays. Of those, 1.9 million nights were spent in Suriname.Asymptomatic T. cruzi infection appears to be extremely rare among Dutch blood donors. Blood safety interventions to mitigate the risk of T. cruzi transmission by transfusion would be highly cost-ineffective in the Netherlands, and are thus not required.

  2. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking. (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter


    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  3. Hemochromatosis: the new blood donor. (United States)

    Leitman, Susan F


    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) due to homozygosity for the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene is a common inherited iron overload disorder in whites of northern European descent. Hepcidin deficiency, the hallmark of the disorder, leads to dysregulated intestinal iron absorption and progressive iron deposition in the liver, heart, skin, endocrine glands, and joints. Survival is normal if organ damage is prevented by early institution of phlebotomy therapy. HH arthropathy is the symptom most affecting quality of life and can be debilitating. Genotype screening in large population studies has shown that the clinical penetrance of C282Y homozygosity is highly variable and can be very low, with up to 50% of women and 20% of men showing a silent phenotype. Targeted population screening for the HFE C282Y mutation is not recommended at present, but might be reconsidered as a cost-effective approach to management if counseling and care were better organized and standardized. Referral of patients to the blood center for phlebotomy therapy and use of HH donor blood for transfusion standardizes treatment, minimizes treatment costs, and may benefit society as a whole. Physician practices should be amended such that HH subjects are more frequently referred to the blood center for therapy.

  4. Donor deactivation in silicon nanostructures (United States)

    Björk, Mikael T.; Schmid, Heinz; Knoch, Joachim; Riel, Heike; Riess, Walter


    The operation of electronic devices relies on the density of free charge carriers available in the semiconductor; in most semiconductor devices this density is controlled by the addition of doping atoms. As dimensions are scaled down to achieve economic and performance benefits, the presence of interfaces and materials adjacent to the semiconductor will become more important and will eventually completely determine the electronic properties of the device. To sustain further improvements in performance, novel field-effect transistor architectures, such as FinFETs and nanowire field-effect transistors, have been proposed as replacements for the planar devices used today, and also for applications in biosensing and power generation. The successful operation of such devices will depend on our ability to precisely control the location and number of active impurity atoms in the host semiconductor during the fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate that the free carrier density in semiconductor nanowires is dependent on the size of the nanowires. By measuring the electrical conduction of doped silicon nanowires as a function of nanowire radius, temperature and dielectric surrounding, we show that the donor ionization energy increases with decreasing nanowire radius, and that it profoundly modifies the attainable free carrier density at values of the radius much larger than those at which quantum and dopant surface segregation effects set in. At a nanowire radius of 15 nm the carrier density is already 50% lower than in bulk silicon due to the dielectric mismatch between the conducting channel and its surroundings.

  5. Hand-assisted right laparoscopic nephrectomy in living donor

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    Fernando Meyer


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess results obtained with the authors' technique of right hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy in living kidney donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 16 kidney donors who underwent hand-assisted right laparoscopic nephrectomy from February 2001 to July 2004. Among these patients, 7 were male and 9 were female, with mean age ranging between 22 and 58 years (mean 35.75. RESULTS: Surgical time ranged from 55 to 210 minutes (mean 127.81 min and warm ischemia time from 2 to 6 minutes (mean 3.78 min with mean intra-operative blood loss estimated at 90.62 mL. There was no need for conversion in any case. Discharge from hospital occurred between the 3rd and 6th days (mean 3.81. On the graft assessment, immediate diuresis was seen in 15 cases (93.75% and serum creatinine on the 7th post-operative day was 1.60 mg/dL on average. Renal vein thrombosis occurred in 1 patient (6.25% who required graft removal, and lymphocele was seen in 1 recipient (6.25%. CONCLUSION: Hand-assisted right laparoscopic nephrectomy in living donors is a safe and effective alternative to open nephrectomy. Despite a greater technical difficulty, the procedure presented low postoperative morbidity providing good morphological and functional quality of the graft on the recipient.

  6. Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Meena


    Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

  7. Knowledge and awareness about Iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors: a study at rural based tertiary care hospital

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    Amar R. Shah


    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary blood donation is promoted in order to make the blood banking safe and successful. Research in the area of blood donation has found that, iron stores are influenced by regular blood donation if dietary intake of iron is inadequate. Awareness and knowledge among blood donors regarding iron and B12 deficiency and its prevention is very much required. Objective: To assess the knowledge and awareness about iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the 500 voluntary blood donors during the span of 1 year at one of the blood bank of tertiary care hospital using prestructured questionnaire on the various aspect of iron and B12 deficiency/folate deficiency anemia. The data was analysed with the help of Microsoft excel and SPSS. Results: Out of 500 blood donors, 15.6% donors were regular blood donor. It was observed 60% blood donors were having knowledge of anemia in general. Iron deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency were known to 42% and 31.6% donors, respectively. Only 20% donors could able to answer the acceptable level of hemoglobin require for donating the blood. About 42% donors were aware about importance of iron, folate and vitamin B12 in maintaining normal hemoglobin level. Majority (82.7% of regular blood donors were willing to get information regarding iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Conclusion: Significant lack of awareness regarding iron and vitamin B12 deficiency was observed in regular voluntary blood donors. The present study recommends the provision of health education on iron and vitamin B12 deficiency as well as Iron, folate and vitamin B12 rich foods to regular blood donor to prevent anaemia among them. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 708-710

  8. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars


    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  9. Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimul A Shah


    Full Text Available The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of deceased donor transplantation.

  10. How to Evaluate the Rice Cultivation Suitability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxi; LI; Yueping; ZHANG; Changsong; WANG; Wei; MAO; Tianwen; HANG; Ming; CHEN; Bingning; ZHANG


    To rationally allocate farmland resources,and scientifically make farming industrial planning,we take Yizheng City in Jiangsu Province as the research object,and select 13 indicators.Based on Farmland Resources Management Information System in Yizheng City,we establish AHP model,and membership function model,for the evaluation of farmland suitability of rice.The results show that the farmland area in the highly suitable areas accounts for 10.2%of the total farmland area;the farmland area in the suitable areas accounts for 56.08%of the total farmland area;the farmland area in the marginally suitable areas accounts for 25.50%of the total farmland area;the farmland area in the unsuitable areas accounts for 8.22%of the total farmland area.There is significant positive correlation between the actual yield of rice surveyed and suitability index obtained through evaluation(R2=0.1964,319 samples);the actual yield of rice in the highly suitable areas is higher than in the marginally suitable areas and suitable areas,and the rice yield is the lowest in the unsuitable areas.

  11. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure


    Online crowdfunding platforms like and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  12. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.


    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor.

  13. Population-based screening for anemia using first-time blood donors (United States)

    Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J.; Cable, Ritchard G.; Carey, Patricia; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Simon, Toby L.; Murphy, Edward L.


    Background Anemia is an important public health concern. Data from population-based surveys such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are the gold standard, but are obtained infrequently and include only small samples from certain minority groups. Objectives We assessed whether readily available databases of blood donor hemoglobin values could be used as a surrogate for population hemoglobin values from NHANES. Design Blood donor venous and fingerstick hemoglobin values were compared to 10,254 NHANES 2005-2008 venous hemoglobin values using demographically stratified analyses and ANOVA. Fingerstick hemoglobins or hematocrits were converted to venous hemoglobin estimates using regression analysis. Results Venous hemoglobin values from 1,609 first time donors correlated extremely well with NHANES data across different age, gender and demographic groups. Cigarette smoking increased hemoglobin by 0.26 to 0.59 g/dL depending on intensity. Converted fingerstick hemoglobin from 36,793 first time donors agreed well with NHANES hemoglobin (weighted mean hemoglobin of 15.53 g/dL for donors and 15.73 g/dL for NHANES) with similar variation in mean hemoglobin by age. However, compared to NHANES, the larger donor dataset showed reduced differences in mean hemoglobin between Blacks and other races/ethnicities. Conclusions Overall, first-time donor fingerstick hemoglobins approximate U.S. population data and represent a readily available public health resource for ongoing anemia surveillance. PMID:22460662

  14. Liver grafts for transplantation from donors with diabetes: an analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    Full Text Available Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus (DM have worse survival than those without DM after liver transplantation. However, the effect of liver grafts from DM donors on the post-transplantation survival of recipients is unclear. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database (2004-2008, 25,413 patients were assessed. Among them, 2,469 recipients received grafts from donors with DM. The demographics and outcome of patients were assessed. Patient survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression analyses. Recipients from DM donors experienced worse graft survival than recipients from non-DM donors (one-year survival: 81% versus 85%, and five-year survival: 67% versus 74%, P5 years (P<0.001 compared with those with DM duration <5 years. Cox regression analyses showed that DM donors were independently associated with worse graft survival (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.19. The effect of DM donors was more pronounced on certain underlying liver diseases of recipients. Increases in the risk of graft loss were noted among recipients from DM donors with hepatitis-C virus (HCV infection, whereas those without HCV experienced similar outcomes compared with recipients from non-DM donors. These data suggest that recipients from DM donors experience significantly worse patient survival after liver transplantation. However, in patients without HCV infection, using DM donors was not independently associated with worse post-transplantation graft survival. Matching these DM donors to recipients without HCV may be safe.

  15. Optimal pig donor selection in islet xenotransplantation: current status and future perspectives. (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-tao; Yu, Liang; Lyu, Yi; Wang, Bo


    Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Xenotransplantation, using the pig as a donor, offers the possibility of an unlimited supply of islet grafts. Published studies demonstrated that pig islets could function in diabetic primates for a long time (>6 months). However, pig-islet xenotransplantation must overcome the selection of an optimal pig donor to obtain an adequate supply of islets with high-quality, to reduce xeno-antigenicity of islet and prolong xenograft survival, and to translate experimental findings into clinical application. This review discusses the suitable pig donor for islet xenotransplantation in terms of pig age, strain, structure/function of islet, and genetically modified pig.

  16. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial. (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H


    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation.

  17. Blood donor notification and counseling: Our experience from a tertiary care hospital in India

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    Urvershi Kotwal


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the response rate of transfusion-transmissible infection (TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results for the year 2012. Materials and Methods: This study is an observational descriptive study performed in our department over a period of 1 year. We evaluated the response rate of TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results over 1 year as per the existing strategy (three telephonic and two postal communications. Results: During the study period, among the annual donation of 15,322 units, 464 blood donors were found to be seroreactive. Of these 464 seroreactive cases, 47 were HIV positive, 284 were reactive for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, 49 were Hepatitis C (HCV positive and 84 were VDRL reactive. The TTI-reactive donors (464 for various markers were contacted: 229 (49.4% telephonically and the remaining 235 (50.6% not contacted on phone were informed by post. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2% as only 225 donors reported (221 on the first, three on second and one on the third call for one to one counseling. The remaining four non-responders were - one HIV and three HBsAg reactive. The remaining 235 (50.6% reactive donors did not respond to any communication. Conclusion: Donor notification and post-donation counseling are an essential aspect of the blood bank that entails provision of information on serological status, assess the impact of test results on the donor and finally referral for medical care. As in our data only 49.4% of the blood donors could be contacted successfully, incomplete demographic details was the major limiting factor in communicating with rest. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2%. A large majority (94.75% of the notified donors in our study contacted their health care provider when given clear instructions to do so. These results are encouraging because they indicate that a major element of the


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  20. A Time for Flexible Donor Agreements. (United States)

    Fischer, Gerald B.


    Discusses why volatile markets and new donor expectations make now a good time to rework payout rates and gift agreements to bolster financial and strategic performance. Suggests seven options for action. (EV)

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... be donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License ... - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 33,509 views 49:19 Stem Cell Fraud: ...

  4. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy


    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  5. Donor Transmission of Melanoma Following Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn T. Chen


    Full Text Available Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  6. Donor transmission of melanoma following renal transplant. (United States)

    Chen, Kathryn T; Olszanski, Anthony; Farma, Jeffrey M


    Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  7. Increasing demands on today's blood donors


    McClelland, W. M.


    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  8. TT virus and hepatitis G virus infections in Korean blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mee Juhng Jeon; Jong Hee Shin; Soon Pal Suh; Yong Chai Lim; Dong Wook Ryang


    AIM: To determine the prevalences of TTV and HGV infections among blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease in Korea, to investigate the association of TTV and HGV infections with blood transfusion, and to assess the correlation between TTV and HGV viremia and hepatic damage.METHODS: A total of 391 serum samples were examined in this study. Samples were obtained from healthy blood donors (n= 110), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive donors (n=112), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive donors (n=69), patients with type B chronic liver disease (n=81), and patients with type C chronic liver disease (n= 19).TTV DNA was detected using the hemi-nested PCR. HGV RNA was tested using RT-PCR. A history of blood transfusion and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also determined.RESULTS: TTV DNA was detected in 8.2 % of healthy blood donors, 16.1% of HBsAg-positive donors, 20.3 % of antiHCV-positive donors, 21.0 % of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 21.1% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. HGV RNA was detected in 1.8 % of healthy blood donors, 1.8 % of HBsAg-positive donors, 17.4 % of anti-HCV-positive donors, 13.6% of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 10.5% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. The prevalence of TTV and HGV infections in HBV- or HCV-positive donors and patients was significantly higher than in healthy blood donors (P<0.05),except for the detection rate of HGV in HBsAg-positive donors which was the same as for healthy donors. There was a history of transfusion in 66.7% of TTV DNA-positive patients and 76.9% of HGV RNA-positive patients (P<0.05). No significant increase in serum ALT and AST was detected in the TTV- or HGV-positive donors and patients.CONCLUSION: TTV and HGV infections are more frequently found in donors and patients infected with HBV or HCV than in healthy blood donors. However, there is no significant

  9. Effects of nephrectomy on respiratory function and quality of life of living donors: a longitudinal study (United States)

    Moraes, Karen; Paisani, Denise M.; Pacheco, Nathália C. T.; Chiavegato, Luciana D.


    BACKGROUND: A living donor transplant improves the survival and quality of life of a transplant patient. However, the impact of transplantation on postoperative lung function and respiratory muscular strength in kidney donors remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, quality of life and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. METHOD: This prospective cohort enrolled 110 consecutive kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. Subjects underwent pulmonary function (using spirometry) and respiratory muscular strength (using manovacuometry) assessments on the day prior to surgery and 1, 2, 3 and 5 days postoperatively. Quality of life (measured by the SF-36) was evaluated preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively. PPCs were assessed daily by a blinded assessor. RESULTS: Donors exhibited a decrease of 27% in forced vital capacity, 58% in maximum inspiratory capacity and 51% in maximum expiratory pressure on the 1stpostoperative day (p<0.001) but this improved over days 2, 3 and 5 but had not returned to preoperative levels. Patient quality of life was still impaired at 30 days with regards to functional capacity, physical role, pain, vitality and social functioning (p<0.05) but these parameters improved slowly. None of the patients developed PPCs. CONCLUSION: Kidney donors submitted to nephrectomy exhibited a reduction in pulmonary function, respiratory muscular strength and quality of life, most of which were improving toward pre-surgical levels. PMID:26443973

  10. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants. (United States)

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L


    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  11. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs. (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios


    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  12. Living donor liver transplantation for pediatric patients with metabolic disorders: the Japanese multicenter registry. (United States)

    Kasahara, Mureo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Horikawa, Reiko; Koji, Umeshita; Mizuta, Koichi; Shinkai, Masato; Takahito, Yagi; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Inomata, Yukihiro; Uemoto, Shinji; Tatsuo, Kuroda; Kato, Shunichi


    LDLT is indicated for a variety of metabolic disorders, primarily in Asian countries due to the absolute scarcity of deceased donor LT. We analyzed data for all pediatric LDLTs performed between November 1989 and December 2010, during which 2224 pediatric patients underwent LDLT in Japan. Of these patients, 194 (8.7%) underwent LDLT for metabolic disorders. Wilson's disease (n = 59; 30.4%) was the most common indication in the patients with metabolic disorders, followed by OTCD (n = 40; 20.6%), MMA (n = 20; 10.3%), and GSD (n = 15; 7.7%). The one-, five-, 10-, and 15-yr patient and graft survival rates were 91.2%, 87.9%, 87.0%, and 79.3%, and 91.2%, 87.9%, 86.1%, and 74.4%, respectively. Wilson's disease and urea cycle deficiency were associated with better patient survival. The use of heterozygous donors demonstrated no negative impact on either the donors or recipients. With regard to X-linked OTCD, symptomatic heterozygote maternal donors should not be considered potential donor candidates. Improving the understanding of the long-term suitability of this treatment modality will require the registration and ongoing evaluation of all patients with inherited metabolic disease considered for LT.

  13. Therapeutic Delivery of H2S via COS: Small Molecule and Polymeric Donors with Benign Byproducts. (United States)

    Powell, Chadwick R; Foster, Jeffrey C; Okyere, Benjamin; Theus, Michelle H; Matson, John B


    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a gas that may play important roles in mammalian and bacterial biology, but its study is limited by a lack of suitable donor molecules. We report here the use of N-thiocarboxyanhydrides (NTAs) as COS donors that release the gas in a sustained manner under biologically relevant conditions with innocuous peptide byproducts. Carbonic anhydrase converts COS into H2S, allowing NTAs to serve as either COS or H2S donors, depending on the availability of the enzyme. Analysis of the pseudo-first-order H2S release rate under biologically relevant conditions revealed a release half-life of 75 min for the small molecule NTA under investigation. A polynorbornene bearing pendant NTAs made by ring-opening metathesis polymerization was also synthesized to generate a polymeric COS/H2S donor. A half-life of 280 min was measured for the polymeric donor. Endothelial cell proliferation studies revealed an enhanced rate of proliferation for cells treated with the NTA over untreated controls.

  14. Early experiences on living donor liver transplantation in China: multicenter report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-hao; SUN Bei-cheng; GE Wen-gang; YAN Lü-nan; ZHANG Feng; LI Xiang-cheng; ZHU Ji-ye; PENG Zhi-hai; LIU Jin-hui; LI Guo-qiang; CHENG Feng


    Background Because of the lack of brain death laws in China, the proportion of cadaveric organ donation is low. Many patients with end-stage liver disease die waiting for a suitable donor. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) would reduce the current discrepancy between the number of patients on the transplant waiting list and the number of available organ donors. We describe the early experience of LDLT in the mainland of China based on data from five liver transplant centers.Methods Between January 2001 and October 2003, 45 patients with end-stage liver disease received LDLT at five centers in China. The indication and timing, surgical techniques and complications, nonsurgical issues including rejection, infection, and advantages of LDLT in the series were reviewed. Actuarial patient and graft survival rates were calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimate. Statistical analysis was completed by using SPSS 10.0.Results All LDLT recipients were cirrhotic patients, except for one man with fulminant hepatic failure. Among the 45 cases of LDLT, 35 (77.8%) were performed in one center (the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University). The overall 1 and 3 year survival rate of the recipients was 93.1% and 92.0%, respectively. Of the 45 LDLT donors, there were 3 cases of biliary leakage, 2 subphrenic collections, 1 fat liquefaction around the incision and 1 biliary peritonitis after T tube removal. All donors recovered completely.Conclusions LDLT provides an excellent approach to addressing the problem of donor shortage in China even though the operation is complicated, uncompromising and difficult with respect to the safety of the donors and receptors. Despite early technical hurdles having been overcome, perfection of technique is still necessarily. At present, LDLT is a good choice for the patients with irreversible liver disease.

  15. Research on the Suitability Assessment Method for Harbor Shoreline Resource Based on GIS——A Case Study for Wuhan New port%基于GIS的港口岸线资源适宜性评价方法研究——以武汉新港为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓雪; 徐碧华; 郑志华; 寇英卫; 曹德友


    综合当前港口岸线资源适宜性评价的研究进展,侧重于岸线的生态、生活服务功能,将岸线资源分为生态岸线、生活岸线、宜港岸线、其他岸线四类。本着合理利用岸线资源、减少岸线恶性竞争的原则,基于GIS,以武汉新港为例,探索图形叠置法在港口规划环评中岸线资源适宜性评价的定量化研究。从区域宏观层面分析岸线资源的特征,对港口规划岸线的合理性和适宜性进行评价,对港口规划的下一步岸线利用和港区建设提出建议和对策。%The progress in research of the suitability assessment of harbor shoreline resources is summarized with the focus on the ecological and daily life functions of the shorelines. The shorelines are classified into 4 categories: the ecological shoreline, the shoreline for daily life, the shoreline suitable for port and shoreline for miscellaneous purposes. In line with the principle of the rational utilization of shoreline resources and reducing vicious competition in shorelines, the quantitative study of the suita- bility assessment for harbor shoreline resources is conducted in course of the Wuhan New Port plan EIA using the graphics o-verlay method based on GIS. The character of the shoreline resources is analyzed at the regional macro-level, and the rationality and suitability of the port planning shoreline is assessed. The suggestions on future utilization of the shoreline and the port con-struction are presented.

  16. Report of the clinical donor case workshop of the European Association of Tissue Banks annual meeting 2012. (United States)

    Beele, Hilde; van Wijk, Marja J; Parker, Robert; Sánchez-Ibáňez, Jacinto; Brubaker, Scott A; Wulff, Birgit; Richters, Cornelia D; Cox, Mike; Warwick, Ruth M; Eastlund, Ted


    The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) donor case workshop is a forum held within the program of the EATB annual congress. The workshop offers an opportunity to discuss and evaluate approaches taken to challenging situations regarding donor selection, it promotes consensus development in deciding tissue donor acceptability when donor health issues are not addressed in standards and regulations, and serves to strengthen the professional tissue banking networks across Europe and beyond. This report reflects some of the discussion at the workshop during the annual congress in Vienna in 2012. The cases presented dealt with problems encountered by tissue bank facilities concerning idiopathic thrombocytopenia and auto-immune disorders, hemodilution and blood sample identification, premalignant and malignant lesions, and Huntington's disease. The discussions during the workshop demonstrate that the implications on the safety of tissue transplantation of various tissue donor illnesses, physical findings and behaviours, and the preventive measures taken by tissue facilities, may not always be agreed by tissue facility medical directors and other professionals. Moreover, they reveal that operating procedures, regulations and standards cannot comprehensively cover all tissue donor findings, medical histories and circumstances surrounding the cause of death. For many of the issues raised, there is a need for scientific research to provide a better evidence base for future deliberations about the suitability and eligibility of tissue allograft donors.

  17. Better Assessment of Operational Suitability. Volume 2. Case Studies (United States)


    improved bolts Salt-water fording No changes required, waterproof system Cold starting Additional grounding straps, rerouting of preheate exhaust Front...window, but the impact is primarily cosmetic . Video degradation requires prolonged operation in the sand environment and is gradual. In SWA, 24 windows

  18. Site Suitability and Hazard Assessment Guide for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe


    Commercial nuclear reactor projects in the U.S. have traditionally employed large light water reactors (LWR) to generate regional supplies of electricity. Although large LWRs have consistently dominated commercial nuclear markets both domestically and abroad, the concept of small modular reactors (SMRs) capable of producing between 30 MW(t) and 900 MW(t) to generating steam for electricity is not new. Nor is the idea of locating small nuclear reactors in close proximity to and in physical connection with industrial processes to provide a long-term source of thermal energy. Growing problems associated continued use of fossil fuels and enhancements in efficiency and safety because of recent advancements in reactor technology suggest that the likelihood of near-term SMR technology(s) deployment at multiple locations within the United States is growing. Many different types of SMR technology are viable for siting in the domestic commercial energy market. However, the potential application of a particular proprietary SMR design will vary according to the target heat end-use application and the site upon which it is proposed to be located. Reactor heat applications most commonly referenced in connection with the SMR market include electric power production, district heating, desalinization, and the supply of thermal energy to various processes that require high temperature over long time periods, or a combination thereof. Indeed, the modular construction, reliability and long operational life purported to be associated with some SMR concepts now being discussed may offer flexibility and benefits no other technology can offer. Effective siting is one of the many early challenges that face a proposed SMR installation project. Site-specific factors dealing with support to facility construction and operation, risks to the plant and the surrounding area, and the consequences subsequent to those risks must be fully identified, analyzed, and possibly mitigated before a license will be granted to construct and operate a nuclear facility. Examples of significant site-related concerns include area geotechnical and geological hazard properties, local climatology and meteorology, water resource availability, the vulnerability of surrounding populations and the environmental to adverse effects in the unlikely event of radionuclide release, the socioeconomic impacts of SMR plant installation and the effects it has on aesthetics, proximity to energy use customers, the topography and area infrastructure that affect plant constructability and security, and concerns related to the transport, installation, operation and decommissioning of major plant components.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk JAFERNIK


    Full Text Available The article characterises/describes the radionavigation devices recommended for and used in contemporary aviation taking into account the requirements of the legal regulations concerning CNS/ATM systems as determined by international aviation organisations. The latest achievements in the field of satelite techniques connected with the development in electronic and information engineering as well as in the area of computing machines have resulted in the higher precision of determining the parameters of technical devices, therefore the article focuses especially on the issues of the application of satelite navigation for aviation and the possibility of its improvement.

  20. Assessing Excel VBA Suitability for Monte Carlo Simulation



    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation includes a wide range of stochastic techniques used to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of complex systems or processes. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) software is, arguably, the most commonly employed general purpose tool for MC simulation. Despite the popularity of the Excel in many industries and educational institutions, it has been repeatedly criticized for its flaws and often described as questionable, if not complet...

  1. The Application of BP Networks to Land Suitability Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The back propagation (BP) model of artificial neural networks (ANN) has many good qualities comparing with ordinary methods in land suitability evaluation.Through analyzing ordinary methods' limitations,some sticking points of BP model used in land evaluation,such as network structure,learning algorithm,etc.,are discussed in detail,The land evaluation of Qionghai city is used as a case study.Fuzzy comprehensive assessment method was also employed in this evaluation for validating and comparing.

  2. Comparison of mesenchymal stromal cells from young healthy donors and patients with severe chronic coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tina; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Hansen, Susanne Kofoed;


    It has been questioned whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from patients with ischemic heart disease are suitable for use in regenerative stem cell therapy. We compared MSCs from patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and MSCs from young healthy donors...

  3. Donor-to-Donor vs Donor-to-Acceptor Interfacial Charge Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine-Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System. (United States)

    Lee, Myeong H; Dunietz, Barry D; Geva, Eitan


    Charge transfer (CT) states formed at the donor/acceptor heterointerface are key for photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaics (OPV). Our calculations show that interfacial donor-to-donor CT states in the phthalocyanine-fullerene OPV system may be more stable than donor-to-acceptor CT states and that they may rapidly recombine, thereby constituting a potentially critical and thus far overlooked loss mechanism. Our results provide new insight into processes that may compete with charge separation, and suggest that the efficiency for charge separation may be improved by destabilizing donor-to-donor CT states or decoupling them from other states.

  4. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonwane B


    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  5. Fear, fascination and the sperm donor as 'abjection' in interviews with heterosexual recipients of donor insemination. (United States)

    Burr, Jennifer


    The background to this article is the medical regulation of sperm donation in the UK and the recent policy change so that children born from sperm, eggs or embryos donated after April 2005 have the right to know their donor's identity. I draw upon data from interviews with ten women and seven joint interviews with couples who received donor insemination from an anonymous sperm donor and were the parents of donor insemination children. I explore the symbolic presence of the donor and his potential to disrupt social and physical boundaries using the theoretical conceptions of boundaries and pollution as articulated by Mary Douglas and Julia Kristeva. I present data to argue that the anonymous donor manifests in various figures; the shadowy and ambiguous figure of 'another man'; the intelligent medical student; the donor as a family man, with children of his own who wants to help infertile men father children. In addition participants perceive the donor's physical characteristics, but also see their husband's physical characteristics, in their children. In conclusion I argue that anonymisation preserves features of conventional family life, maintains the idea of exclusivity within the heterosexual relationship and affirms the legal father's insecurity about his infertility.

  6. Donor-transmitted, donor-derived, and de novo cancer after liver transplant. (United States)

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Lynch, Stephen V


    Cancer is the third most common cause of death (after cardiovascular disease and infection) for patients who have a functioning kidney allograft. Kidney and liver transplant recipients have similar cancer risks because of immunosuppression but different risks because of differences in primary diseases that cause renal and hepatic failure and the inherent behavior of cancers in the liver. There are 4 types of cancer that may develop in liver allograft recipients: (1) recurrent cancer, (2) donor-transmitted cancer, (3) donor-derived cancer, and (4) de novo cancer. Identification of potential donor cancer transmission may occur at postmortem examination of a deceased donor or when a probable donor-transmitted cancer is identified in another recipient. Donor-transmitted cancer after liver transplant is rare in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Aging of the donor pool may increase the risk of subclinical cancer in donors. Liver transplant recipients have a greater risk of de novo cancer than the general population, and risk factors for de novo cancer in liver transplant recipients include primary sclerosing cholangitis, alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and increased age. Liver transplant recipients may benefit from cancer screening because they have a high risk, are clearly identifiable, and are under continuous medical supervision.

  7. Reimbursement for Living Kidney Donor Follow-Up Care: How Often Does Donor Insurance Pay? (United States)

    Kher, Ajay; Rodrigue, James; Ajaimy, Maria; Wasilewski, Marcy; Ladin, Keren; Mandelbrot, Didier


    Background Currently, many transplantation centers do not follow former living kidney donors on a long-term basis. Several potential barriers have been identified to provide this follow-up of former living kidney donors, including concerns that donor insurance will not reimburse transplantation centers or primary care physicians for this care. Here, we report the rates at which different insurance companies reimbursed our transplantation center for follow-up visits of living donors. Methods We collected data on all yearly follow-up visits of living donors billed from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010, representing 82 different donors. Concurrent visits of their recipients were available for 47 recipients and were used as a control group. Results We find that most bills for follow-up visits of living kidney donors were paid by insurance companies, at a rate similar to the reimbursement for recipient follow-up care. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, for former donors with insurance, inadequate reimbursement should not be a barrier in providing follow-up care. PMID:23060280

  8. [Surgical complications of nephrectomy in living donors]. (United States)

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S; Khaleq, K; Idali, B; Harti, A; Barrou, L; Fatihi, M; Benghanem, M; Hachim, J; Ramdani, B; Zaid, D


    Renal transplantation from a living donor is now considered the best treatment for chronic renal failure. We reviewed the operative complications in 38 living related donor nephrectomies performed at our institution over the past 14 years. The mean age of our donors was 30 years old with age range between 18 and 58 years old and female predominance (55.2%). These swabs were realized by a posterolateral lumbar lombotomy with resection of the 11 third. The left kidney was removed in 34 donors (90%), surgical complications were noted in 39.4% of the cases: one case of wound of inferior vena cava (2.6%), one case of release of the renal artery clamp (2.6%), four cases of pleural grap (10.5%), one case of pneumothorax (2.6%), one case of pleurisy (2.6%), three cases of urinary infection (7.8%), three cases of parietal infection (7.8%) and one case of patient pain at the level of the wound (2.6%). There were no mortalities. We conclude that the morbidity of living donor nephrectomy is negligible compared with the advantages for the recipient.

  9. Ex-vivo partial nephrectomy after living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique for expanding kidney donor pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A Nyame


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature.

  10. CT volumetry is superior to nuclear renography for prediction of residual kidney function in living donors. (United States)

    Barbas, Andrew S; Li, Yanhong; Zair, Murtuza; Van, Julie A; Famure, Olusegun; Dib, Martin J; Laurence, Jerome M; Kim, S Joseph; Ghanekar, Anand


    Living kidney donor evaluation commonly includes nuclear renography to assess split kidney function and computed tomography (CT) scan to evaluate anatomy. To streamline donor workup and minimize exposure to radioisotopes, we sought to assess the feasibility of using proportional kidney volume from CT volumetry in lieu of nuclear renography. We examined the correlation between techniques and assessed their ability to predict residual postoperative kidney function following live donor nephrectomy. In a cohort of 224 live kidney donors, we compared proportional kidney volume derived by CT volumetry with split kidney function derived from nuclear renography and found only modest correlation (left kidney R(2) =26.2%, right kidney R(2) =26.7%). In a subset of 88 live kidney donors with serum creatinine measured 6 months postoperatively, we compared observed estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 6 months with predicted eGFR from preoperative imaging. Compared to nuclear renography, CT volumetry more closely approximated actual observed postoperative eGFR for Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (J-test: P=.02, Cox-Pesaran test: P=.01) and Mayo formulas (J-test: P=.004, Cox-Pesaran test: Pvolumetry for estimation of split kidney function in healthy individuals with normal kidney function and morphology.

  11. Measures for increasing the safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation using right lobe grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Fu Wen; Ming-Qing Xu; Jiang-Wen Liu; Zhi-Gang Deng; Hong Wu; Zhe-Yu Chen; Lu-Nan Yan; Bo Li; Yong Zeng; Ji-Chun Zhao; Wen-Tao Wang; Jia-Yin Yang; Yu-Kui Ma


    BACKGROUND:The safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) should be the primary consideration. The aim of this study was to report our experience in increasing the safety of donors in LDLTs using right lobe grafts. METHODS:We retrospectively studied 37 living donors of right lobe grafts from January 2002 to March 2006. The measures for increasing the safety of donors in LDLT included carefully selected donors, preoperative evaluation by ultrasonography, angiography and computed tomography; and necessary intraoperative cholangiography and ultrasonography. Right lobe grafts were obtained using an ultrasonic dissector without inlfow vascular occlusion on the right side of the middle hepatic vein. The standard liver volume and the ratio of left lobe volume to standard liver volume were calculated. RESULTS:There was no donor mortality in our group. Postoperative complications only included bile leakage (1 donor), biliary stricture (1) and portal vein thrombosis (1). All donors recovered well and resumed their previous occupations. In recipients, complications included acute rejection (2 patients), hepatic artery thrombosis (1), bile leakage (1), intestinal bleeding (1), left subphrenic abscess (1) and pulmonary infection (1). The mortality rate of recipients was 5.4% (2/37); one recipient with pulmonary infection died from multiple organ failure and another from occurrence of primary disease. CONCLUSIONS:The ifrst consideration in adult-to-adult LDLT is the safety of donors. The donation of a right lobe graft is safe for adults if the remnant hepatic vasculature and bile duct are ensured, and the volume of the remnant liver exceeds 35% of the total liver volume.

  12. Deceased Donor Intervention Research: A Survey of Transplant Surgeons, Organ Procurement Professionals, and Institutional Review Board Members. (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Feng, S; Johansson, A C; Glazier, A K; Abt, P L


    Innovative deceased donor intervention strategies have the potential to increase the number and quality of transplantable organs. Yet there is confusion over regulatory and legal requirements, as well as ethical considerations. We surveyed transplant surgeons (n = 294), organ procurement organization (OPO) professionals (n = 83), and institutional review board (IRB) members (n = 317) and found wide variations in their perceptions about research classification, risk assessment for donors and organ transplant recipients, regulatory oversight requirements, and informed consent in the context of deceased donor intervention research. For instance, when presented with different research scenarios, IRB members were more likely than transplant surgeons and OPO professionals to feel that study review and oversight were necessary by the IRBs at the investigator, donor, and transplant center hospitals. Survey findings underscore the need to clarify ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements and their application to deceased donor intervention research to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and facilitate more transplants.

  13. Oxidative stress in follicular fluid of young women with low response compared with fertile oocyte donors. (United States)

    Nuñez-Calonge, Rocío; Cortés, Susana; Gutierrez Gonzalez, Luis Miguel; Kireev, Roman; Vara, Elena; Ortega, Leonor; Caballero, Pedro; Rancan, Lisa; Tresguerres, Jesús


    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes and cytokines in the follicular fluid of young women with low response in ovarian stimulation cycles compared with high responders and fertile oocyte donors of the same age, to assess the impact of oxidative stress on ovarian reserve. The activity of follicular fluid antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was significantly lower in young women with reduced ovarian reserve compared with that in high responders and oocyte donors. Follicular fluid concentrations of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde combined with 4-hydroxyalkenals and nitric oxide were higher in low responders than in high responders and oocyte donors. Significant differences between low responders and donors in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor were observed, with higher concentrations in low responders. However, IL-10 concentration was lower in low responders than in high responders and donors. No significant differences were found in follicular fluid concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha between the three groups. These results demonstrate that different concentrations of oxidative stress markers, oxidant enzymes and cytokines in low responders compared with high responders and oocyte donors may negatively impact ovarian response.

  14. Aromatic fumaronitrile core-based donor-linker-acceptor-linker-donor (D-pi-A-pi-D) compounds: synthesis and photophysical properties. (United States)

    Panthi, Krishna; Adhikari, Ravi M; Kinstle, Thomas H


    A new class of aromatic fumaronitrile core-based compounds with different donors and linkers has been synthesized and well characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 have indole and 2-phenylindole groups as electron donors, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 have a diphenylamino group as the electron donor, and compound 5 has a 3,6-di-tert-butylcarbazole group as an electron donor. These compounds absorb in the blue-to-green region and emit in the blue-to-red region depending on the electron donor, linker, and solvents. The quantum yields of fluorescence of these compounds in solution are measured and found to be moderate, but in solid states, they are high. These compounds display strong emission solvatochromism that is reflected by a large shift in their fluorescence emission maxima on changing the solvents. This change is accompanied by a successive decrease in fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence lifetimes of these compounds are measured in different solvent and found to vary from compounds with solvents, concentration, and excitation energy have been studied. The correlation between the functional group and optical properties has been established to some extent. The ability of these compounds to function as colorimetric and luminescence pH sensors is demonstrated with color changes and luminescence switching upon the addition of trifluoroacetic acid. The potentiality of these compounds for application in optoelectronics has been optically assessed.

  15. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes. (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck


    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  16. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc


    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. RNA cell typing and DNA profiling of mixed samples: can cell types and donors be associated? (United States)

    Harteveld, Joyce; Lindenbergh, Alexander; Sijen, Titia


    Forensic samples regularly involve mixtures, which are readily recognised in forensic analyses. Combined DNA and mRNA profiling is an upcoming forensic practice to examine donors and cell types from the exact same sample. From DNA profiles individual genotypes may be deconvoluted, but to date no studies have established whether the cell types identified in corresponding RNA profiles can be associated with individual donors. Although RNA expression levels hold many variables from which an association may not be expected, proof of concept is important to forensic experts who may be cross examined about this possible correlation in court settings. Clearly, the gender-specificity of certain body fluids (semen, vaginal mucosa, menstrual secretion) can be instructive. However, when donors of the same gender or gender-neutral cell types are involved, alternatives are needed. Here we analyse basic two-component mixtures (two cell types provided by different donors) composed of six different cell types, and assess whether the heights of DNA and RNA peaks may guide association of donor and cell type. Divergent results were obtained; for some mixtures RNA peak heights followed the DNA results, but for others the major DNA component did not present higher RNA peaks. Also, variation in mixture ratios was observed for RNA profiling replicates and when different donor couples gave the same two body fluids. As sample degradation may affect the two nucleic acids and/or distinct cell types differently (and thus influence donor and cell type association), mixtures were subjected to elevated temperature or UV-light. Variation in DNA and RNA stability was observed both between and within cell types and depended on the method inducing degradation. Taken together, we discourage to associate cell types and donors from peak heights when performing RNA and DNA profiling.

  18. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study. (United States)

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E


    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676 ± 251 g (mean ± SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80% ± 13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3% ± 0.4% (8 Graft weight was 60% ± 13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549 ± 267 g, and percentage reconstitution was 93% ± 18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P = 0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR = 4.50, P = 0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P > 0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor

  19. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation. (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke


    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus.

  20. Calcium alginate dressings promote healing of split skin graft donor sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M


    A prospective controlled trial was carried out to assess the healing efficacy of calcium alginate and paraffin gauze on split skin graft donor sites. Thirty patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 21 to the paraffin gauze group. The donor sites were assessed at 10 days post harvesting to determine if they were completely healed (100%) or not. Twenty one of the 30 patients dressed with calcium alginate were completely healed at day 10, while only 7\\/21 in the paraffin gauze group were healed (p < 0.05). There were two infections in the study, both occurring in the alginate group while there was no difference in dressing slippage between the two groups. Calcium alginate dressings provide a significant improvement in healing split skin graft donor sites.

  1. Spring Season Habitat Suitability Index raster (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster represents a continuous surface of sage-grouse habitat suitability index (HSI, created using ArcGIS 10.2.2) values for Nevada during spring, which is a...

  2. Web page classification on child suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eickhoff, C.; Serdyukov, P.; Vries, A.P. de


    Children spend significant amounts of time on the Internet. Recent studies showed, that during these periods they are often not under adult supervision. This work presents an automatic approach to identifying suitable web pages for children based on topical and non-topical web page aspects. We discu

  3. Donor exclusion in the National Blood Service Tissue Services living bone donor programme. (United States)

    Pink, F; Warwick, R M; Purkis, J; Pearson, J


    National Blood Service (NBS) Tissue Services (TS) operates living donor and deceased donor tissue banking programmes. The living bone donor programme operates in collaboration with 91 orthopaedic departments across the country and collects bone donations, in the form of surgically removed femoral heads (FHs), from over 5,000 patients per annum undergoing total hip replacement. Bone donated via the living programme constitutes approximately 55% of the total bone donated to NBS. Non-NBS tissue banks, primarily in hospital orthopaedic departments, also bank donated bone for the UK. A survey of information received from 16 collaborating orthopaedic centres, between April 2003 and August 2004, identified 709 excluded donors. The total number of donations banked from these sites was 1,538. Donations can be excluded before collection if there are contraindications noted in a potential donor's medical history before their operation. Donors may also be excluded after collection of the FH, for instance because of reactive microbiology tests for blood borne viruses, or if the donation storage conditions or related documentation have not met stringent quality requirements. In this survey, bone or joint conditions were the major reasons for excluding potential donors before donation (154 of 709 exclusions, 22%), followed by a current or a past history of malignancy (139 of 709 exclusions, 20%). Local staffing and operational difficulties sometimes resulted in potential donors being missed, or specific reasons for exclusion not being reported (117 exclusions). These out numbered exclusions due to patient refusal (80 exclusions). A small number (quality. Training to ensure that standards are complied with and a firm evidence base for exclusion criteria, applied uniformly, will help focus donor identification efforts on individuals meeting rational criteria so that fewer potential donations are lost.

  4. Transplantation of a 2-year-old deceased-donor liver to a 61-year-old male recipient. (United States)

    Dai, Wing Chiu; Sharr, William W; Chok, Kenneth S H; Cheung, Tan To; Fung, James Y Y; Chan, Albert C Y; Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau


    The suitable size of a graft is a key element in the success of liver transplantation. A small-for-size liver graft is very likely to sustain a significant degree of injury as a result of ischemia, preservation, reperfusion, and rejection. Usually, small-for-size grafts are a concern in living-donor liver transplantation rather than in deceased-donor liver transplantation. Here, we describe the successful transplantation of a liver from a 2-year-old deceased donor to a 61-year-old male recipient who suffered from liver failure related to hepatitis B. No report of successful deceased-donor liver transplantation with discrepancies between donor and recipient age and size to such an extent has been found in the literature. Despite unusually large discrepancies, with effort in minimizing the ischemic time, revised surgical techniques, and strong regenerative power of the "young" graft, the old patient's liver function gradually returned to normal. This again proves that the definition of a "suitable graft" evolves with time and experience.

  5. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borra V


    Full Text Available Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary principle protecting safety and quality, and on supply and expense considerations. This review therefore provides an overview of the available evidence on donor exclusion criteria, as well as on their cost-effectiveness, for the most frequent reasons of donor deferral in our region. PubMed was queried to retrieve primary research studies, systematic reviews, and health technology assessments (HTAs concerning donor exclusion criteria. With a similar approach, HTAs about the different blood-banking safety interventions were included. Reasons for donor deferral were recorded via the blood bank information system of the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. Seven systematic reviews were identified: four on donor safety (hypotension, hypertension/type 2 diabetes, epilepsy, and higher age and three on recipient safety (hemochromatosis, men who have sex with men, and endoscopy. Forty-three low-quality observational studies were included, as well as 16 HTAs: three about donor exclusion criteria and 13 cost-utility analyses about blood-banking safety interventions. In general, the available evidence for deferral reasons was of low quality, and for 60% of the top 30 reasons for excluding donors, no evidence was found. Blood banking shows its unique position as many safety measures far exceed the normally accepted cost of €50,000/quality-adjusted life-years. The historical model based on the precautionary principle and on supply and expense considerations provides adequate supplies of

  6. Suitable scale of Weigan River plain oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShunJun; SONG YuDong; TIAN ChangYan; LI YueTan; LI XiuCang; CHEN XiaoBing


    Desert coexists with oasis in long time, and the existence and development of oasis system demand better oasis vegetation ecological system. Oasis scale of arid zone plain encircling water should be determined in case of desertification caused by land over-reclamation under the circumstance of water resources shortage. Steady oasis with virtuous circle must have appropriate land use structure for agriculture, forestry and graziery. The study on the suitable scale and developmental space of oasis will provide theoretical and applicable foundation for effective construction of oases. By analyzing the hydrothermal, water and soil balance, an optimal mathematical model has been established. Based on hydrometeorology data collected for years in Weigan River plain, and by the principle of water balance,a calculation has been made of the water resources for evapotranspiration and the optimal acreage of oasis and cultivated land, which shows that the water resources for evapotranspiration in the Weigan River plain oasis is 22.32×108 m3 and the optimal oasis acreage under the condition of conventional irrigation mode is 3716.06 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 1564.79 km2. Under the condition of water-saving irrigation, the suitable oasis acreage is 5515.49 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 2322.31 km2. The oasis area had reached 4123 km2, and the cultivated land acreage had reached 1507 km2 after the Agriculture Irrigation Drainage Water Project of World Bank Loan in Weigan River basin was finished in 1997. The oasis and cultivated land acreage will be more suitable, and the oasis scale can be enlarged moderately by means of water saving irrigation.

  7. Evaluation methods for ceramic suitability of raw clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjaji M.


    Full Text Available Ceramic suitability of kaolinitic-illitic and chloritic-illitic raw clays was assessed by methods involving microstructure investigation and ceramic properties measurements, some reported diagrams and response surface methodology (RSM. Results of the former method showed that all clays are suitable for red stoneware tiles. The stoneware manufacturing is facilitated by the marked reduction of porosity due to the flow of melt, mainly originated from the breakdowns of illite. This result was partially supported by the use of a diagram involving the chemical composition of clays as well as by the RSM results. According to the later method, bricks may be manufactured under restricted firing conditions and stoneware tiles could be prepared at temperatures as low as 950°C.

  8. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena K Parikh


    Full Text Available Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for lower abdominal surgeries. Blind TAP block has many complications and uncertainty of its effects. Use of ultrasonography increases the safety and efficacy. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound (USG-guided TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN. Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups by closed envelope method. At the end of surgery, USG-guided TAP block was given to the patients of both the groups. Study group (group S received inj. Bupivacaine (0.375%, whereas control group (group C received normal saline. Inj. Tramadol (1 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analog scale (VAS more than 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS both at rest and on movement, time to first dose of rescue analgesic, cumulative dose of tramadol, sedation score, and nausea score, which were also noted at 30 min, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively. Total tramadol consumption at 24 h was also assessed. Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score, longer time to first dose of rescue analgesic (547.13±266.96 min vs. 49.17±24.95 min and lower tramadol consumption (103.8±32.18 mg vs. 235.8±47.5 mg in 24 h. Conclusion: The USG-guided TAP block is easy to perform and effective as a postoperative analgesic regimen in RDN, with opioids-sparing effect and without any complications.

  9. Organ Donor Recognition: Practical and Ethical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick)


    textabstractThe brain dead patient is the ideal multiorgan donor. Conditions that can lead to the state of brain death are limited. A subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury precede in 83% of the cases the state of brain death. Because of better prevention and t

  10. Laparoscopic versus open living donor nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.Y. Smits-Lind (May)


    textabstractRenal transplantation was fi rst performed in 1936 by Voronoy 1. The kidney was harvested in a patient who had died from a head injury 6 hours earlier. The blood group of the donor was incompatible with that of the recipient. The renal graft did not function and the recipient died two

  11. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors]. (United States)

    Gota, F


    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  12. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin


    South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea...

  13. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido


    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge a...

  14. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.


    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...

  15. Criteria for selecting organ donors and recipients. (United States)

    Michielsen, P


    As there is a world-wide shortage of organs for transplantation, the selection of the patients is more defined by the availability of transplantable organs than by the medical condition of the potential recipient. This shortage of cadaveric organs is mainly responsible for the use of living donors. With HLA identical sibling donors the results are better than with cadaveric organs, but the ethical problems are usually underestimated. For the parent-to-child donation, the HLA compatibility is less than what could be achieved with well-matched cadaveric donors. The use of genetically unrelated donors is unacceptable from the ethical as well as from the medical point of view. The short- and long-term risk of donation has been insufficiently documented. The experience with the introduction of an opting-out legislation in Belgium in 1987 demonstrates that the shortage of cadaveric organs can be overcome. Harmonization of the legislation is, however, necessary so as to achieve comparable organ retrieval rates between countries participating in organ-exchange organisations.

  16. Syntheses of donor-acceptor-functionalized dihydroazulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Jevric, Martyn; Bond, Andrew


    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine-tuning of opt...

  17. The Dutch Living Donor Kidney Exchange Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Klerk (Marry)


    textabstractKidney transplantation is the optimal option for patients with an end-stage renal disease. The first successful transplantation with a living genetically related donor has been performed since 26 October 1954, when an identical twin transplant was performed in Boston. In the years that f

  18. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  19. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail:; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)


    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  20. 广西能源作物木薯种植的可能规模:自然适宜性与社会限制性评价%Potential Capacity of Cassava Planting in Guangxi:Assessment of Natural Suitability and Socio-Economic Restrictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王露; 杨海龙; 封志明; 吕耀


    木薯是我国的非粮作物,是生产生物乙醇的主要原料之一。广西是木薯的传统种植区域,随着木薯需求量持续增长,其种植潜力问题越来越受到研究机构与政府部门重视。本文从广西木薯种植的气候适宜性、土壤适宜性、地形适宜性和土地利用的社会经济限制性出发,较为系统地评估了广西木薯种植的自然适宜性和社会限制性,定量揭示了广西木薯种植的土地潜力、可能规模及其地域格局。研究结果表明,广西木薯种植的主要限制因素是地形条件,其次是土壤因素;若不考虑土地利用的社会经济限制性,广西3/5的土地适宜木薯种植;但考虑到土地利用的社会限制性,广西适宜木薯种植的土地则只有115.5万hm2;与目前已种植木薯22.3万hm2相比,尚有约4倍的土地种植潜力;从地域格局看,广西未来木薯发展的重点将在柳州和来宾地区。%Because of the fast consumption of fossil energy and associated environmental problems,governments have paid increasing attention to the development of the bio-energy industry.The Chinese government has formulated a series of policies to improve the bio-energy industry.In order to ensure the food security,the Chinese government has claimed that bio-ethanol could only be produced by non-food crops such as sweet sorghum and cassava.Cassava is a type of non-food crops and one of main materials of bio-ethanol production.With the increasing demands for cassava in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,which is the most important traditional cassava planting area,relevant institutions and government departments are paying increasing attention to the cultivation potential of cassava.In this paper,based on climate suitability,soil suitability,terrain suitability,and socio-economic restrictions of land use,we used the AHP method to evaluate the suitability of each index.Then,the suitability of comprehensive indexes was evaluated.At last,an assessment


    Field applications of three alternate technologies for assessing the suitability of underground storage tanks for upgrading by the addition of cathodic protection were observed and documented. The technologies were applied to five existing underground storage tanks that were slat...

  2. Effects of Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields on Shallow Donor Impurity Binding Energy in a Parabolic Quantum Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Kasapoglu; H. Sari; I. S(o)kmen


    @@ We have calculated variationally the ground state binding energy of a hydrogenic donor impurity in a parabolic quantum well in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields. These homogeneous crossed fields are such that the magnetic field is parallel to the heterostructure layers and the electric field is applied perpendicular to the magnetic field. The dependence of the donor impurity binding energy to the well width and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields are discussed. We hope that the obtained results will provide important improvements in device applications, especially for a suitable choice of both fields in the narrow well widths.

  3. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;


    and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect.......BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation...

  4. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors. (United States)

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy


    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  5. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus. (United States)

    Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher Jl; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I


    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas.

  6. A semiotic approach to suitability for psychotherapy. (United States)

    Meltzer, J D


    At the beginning of my career as a psychotherapist I interviewed a number of patients in an effort to find one who seemed to be a good prospect for long-term psychotherapy. While interviewing with this purpose in mind, I was struck by the fact that a number of the people I spoke with gave me a sense of being extremely suitable for this sort of therapy, but that others seemed quite unsuitable. An informal survey among my peers as well as among more senior therapists revealed that they were not unfamiliar with the phenomenon. The present empirical study of the semiotic aspects of suitability for psychotherapy grew out of this early experience.

  7. Donor safety and remnant liver volume in living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Rong Shi; Lu-Nan Yan; Cheng-You Du


    AIM:To evaluate the relationship between donor safety and remnant liver volume in right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).METHODS:From July 2001 to January 2009,our liver transplant centers carried out 197 LDLTs.The clinical data from 151 cases of adult right lobe living donors (not including the middle hepatic vein) were analyzed.The conditions of the three groups of donors were well matched in terms of the studied parameters.The donors' preoperative data,intraoperative and postoperative data were calculated for the three groups:Group 1 remnant liver volume (RLV) < 35%,group 2 RLV 36%-40%,and group 3 RLV > 40%.Comparisons included the different remnant liver volumes on postoperative liver function recovery and the impact of systemic conditions.Correlations between remnant liver volume and post-operative complications were also analyzed.RESULTS:The donors' anthroposomatology data,operation time,and preoperative donor blood test indicators were calculated for the three groups.No significant differences were observed between the donors' gender,age,height,weight,and operation time.According to the Chengdu standard liver volume formula,the total liver volume of group 1 was 1072.88 ± 131.06 mL,group 2 was 1043.84 ± 97.11 mL,and group 3 was 1065.33 ± 136.02 mL.The three groups showed no statistically significant differences.When the volume of the remnant liver was less than 35% of the total liver volume,the volume of the remnant had a significant effect on the recovery of liver function and intensive care unit time.In addition,the occurrence of complications was closely related to the remnant liver volume.When the volume of the remnant liver was more than 35% of the total liver volume,the remnant volume change had no significant effect on donor recovery.CONCLUSION:To ensure donor safety,the remnant liver volume should be greater than the standard liver volume (35%) in right lobe living donor liver transplantation.

  8. Noncontrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Versus Computed Tomography Angiography in Preoperative Evaluation of Potential Living Renal Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blankholm, Anne Dorte; Pedersen, Bodil G; Østrat, Ernst Ø


    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Living renal donors undergo an extensive examination program. These examinations should be as safe, gentle, and patient friendly as possible. To compare computed tomography angiography (CTA) and an extensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol without contrast agents...... to observations from nephrectomy in living renal donors and to evaluate whether noncontrast-enhanced MRI can replace CTA for vessel assessment in living renal donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CTA and MRI results were compared to observations from nephrectomy, which served as the reference standard. Fifty......-one potential kidney donors underwent imaging, and 31 donated a kidney. Comparisons in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were made with respect to the number of arteries, early branching, and the number of veins. Agreement was assessed using Cohen's kappa. The exact McNemar's test was used to test...

  9. Preoperative CT-Angiography Predicts Ex Vivo Vein Length for Right Kidneys After Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özdemir-van Brunschot, D.M.D.; Rottier, S.J.; Ouden, J.E. den; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; D'Ancona, F.C.H.; Kloke, H.J.; Vliet, D. van der; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Warle, M.C.


    BACKGROUND Implantation of a kidney with a short renal vein is technically more challenging and therefore prone for technique-related complications. It remains unclear whether pre-operative computed tomography angiography (CTA), to assess vascular anatomy of the donor kidney, can be used to predict

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern wild turkey (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.


    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp rabbit (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.


    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. Research on Items Suitable for Online Auction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhanghua; LIU Lu; WU Lihua


    Based on the classification to the attribute information of auctioned commodity, the valuation signal of auctioned commodity is categorized into two groups: codable valuation signal and un-codable valuation signal. A valuation signal model is developed and used to reason under the environment of common valuation auction. The results show that the value of commodity auctioned online tends to be lower and the commodity with bigger factor that can be described online is more suitable for online auction.

  13. ِAnalysis of donor motivations in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham eAbdeldayem


    Full Text Available Objectives: The introduction of the living donor liver transplantation (LDLT in Egypt as in elsewhere, has raised important psychological conflicts and ethical questions. The objective of this study was to get better understanding of the potential donors’ motives towards LDLT.Methods:This study was conducted on consecutive 193 living –liver donors who underwent partial hepatectomy as donors for LDLT during the period between April 2003 and January 2013, at the National Liver Institute Menoufeyia University, Egypt. Potential donors were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively through a screening questionnaire and interviews as regard their demographic data, relationship to the potential recipient and motives towards proceeding to surgery. They were assured that the information shared between them and the transplant centre is confidential. Results.The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations.Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is

  14. Factors that influence Greeks' decision to register as potential bone marrow donors. (United States)

    Galanis, P A; Sparos, L D; Katostaras, T; Velonakis, E; Kalokerinou, A


    Hemopoietic stem cells can be used from bone marrow or blood or umbilical cord blood of matched siblings or appropriately matched unrelated volunteers. Today, large bone marrow registries have been established to help identify volunteer unrelated bone marrow donors for patients lacking a family donor. Despite there being almost 10 million registered potential bone marrow donors (PBMD) worldwide, only 50% of white patients have a suitable bone marrow match. Growth in the number of PBMD increases the likelihood of finding a compatible donor for a patient. The attitudes and knowledge of 250 registered PBMD and 315 not registered PBMD toward bone marrow donation, tissues and organs donation, and blood donation were surveyed, using a questionnaire with 27 items. Multivariate logistic regression identified gender (females more often than males), regular blood donation, having a relative or a friend who has already been registered as PBMD, having a relative or a friend who needs bone marrow transplantation, family discussion about tissue and organ donation, knowledge about bone marrow transplantation, information about bone marrow transplantation, and trust in health professionals were independent predictive factors influencing people's decision to register as PBMD. Knowledge of these factors is important to target recruitment efforts.

  15. QFD Based Benchmarking Logic Using TOPSIS and Suitability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho


    Full Text Available Users’ satisfaction on quality is a key that leads successful completion of the project in relation to decision-making issues in building design solutions. This study proposed QFD (quality function deployment based benchmarking logic of market products for building envelope solutions. Benchmarking logic is composed of QFD-TOPSIS and QFD-SI. QFD-TOPSIS assessment model is able to evaluate users’ preferences on building envelope solutions that are distributed in the market and may allow quick achievement of knowledge. TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution provides performance improvement criteria that help defining users’ target performance criteria. SI (Suitability Index allows analysis on suitability of the building envelope solution based on users’ required performance criteria. In Stage 1 of the case study, QFD-TOPSIS was used to benchmark the performance criteria of market envelope products. In Stage 2, a QFD-SI assessment was performed after setting user performance targets. The results of this study contribute to confirming the feasibility of QFD based benchmarking in the field of Building Envelope Performance Assessment (BEPA.

  16. Magnetic resonance angiography in potential live renal donors: a joint radiological and surgical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, M.; Mizzi, A.; Roditi, G. E-mail:


    AIM: To assess the impact of a joint surgical and radiological audit on the accuracy of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) reports in the evaluation of potential renal donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the records of live renal donors who underwent gadolinium-enhanced MRA as part of the pre-operative evaluation to assess renal vasculature between August 1999 and July 2002 when feedback from surgical findings to radiology had been available. In cases of discrepancy between MRA reports and surgical findings, studies were retrieved from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) workstation and subjected to detailed joint clinical and radiological review. Scan quality was assessed and sources of discrepancy were identified. RESULTS: There were 45 donors, 23 men and 22 women with a mean age of 41 years. Reported MRA findings were fully confirmed at surgery in 38 of 45 cases. These images were not analysed further. In seven donors the findings at surgery were discrepant with the radiological reports: there were four cases of 'missed' early branches and three cases of 'missed' accessory arteries. In the first year of the audit there were four discrepant cases out of 18 (22%), all of which were radiological reporting errors. The number of discrepant cases in the second year was two out of 19 cases (11%). Neither of these was a radiological reporting error. There was one 'missed' early renal artery branch in the third year of audit, which was identified on MRA review. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the importance of detecting and clearly reporting not only accessory renal arteries, but also early renal arterial branches in the pre-operative evaluation of renal donors. The accuracy of pre-operative MRA in potential renal donors is high, but radiological reporting of MRA examinations is improved through careful clinical feedback, audit and interdisciplinary co-operation.

  17. Utilization of organs from donors after circulatory death for vascularized pancreas and islet of Langerhans transplantation : recommendations from an expert group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berney, Thierry; Boffa, Catherine; Augustine, Titus; Badet, Lionel; de Koning, Eelco; Pratschke, Johann; Socci, Carlo; Friend, Peter


    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are increasingly being used as a source of pancreas allografts for vascularized organ and islet transplantation. We provide practice guidelines aiming to increase DCD pancreas utilization. We review risk assessment and donor selection criteria. We report

  18. Eligibility and Exclusion of Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Levstik


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis patients are excluded in many countries as voluntary blood donors. In 1991, changes in the Canadian Red Cross policy allowed healthy hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary donors.

  19. Roller coaster marathon: being a live liver donor. (United States)

    Cabello, Charlotte C; Smolowitz, Janice


    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the meaning of being a live liver donor. Six people between ages 27 and 53 years participated. A qualitative, in-depth, semistructured interview format was used to explore donors' thoughts and feelings about being an organ donor. Five themes were identified: (1) no turning back--how do I live without you? (2) roller coaster marathon, (3) donor network, (4) the scar, and (5) reflections--time to think. At the center of the experience was the donor's commitment to the recipient. Once donors began the process, they were determined to see it through. The process was complex, and donors received various levels of support from family, friends, health care professionals, and others. After donation, as donors recovered and were able to resume their usual daily responsibilities, they reflected on the impact of the experience and how it changed their view of life.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; Rosman, C; Kooi, K; Wubbels, GH; Bleichrodt, RP


    Objective: To determine if bacterial translocation and endotoxin absorption occur in organ donors with an anatomically intact gastrointestinal tract. Design: Case series. Setting: Intensive care units in general and university hospitals. Patients: Twenty-one (multiple) organ donors. Intervention: No

  1. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death underwent a transesophageal (TE Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia. The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV. Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For

  2. Analysis of complications in hepatic right lobe living donors


    Azzam, Ayman; Uryuhara, Kinji; Taka, Ito; Takada, Yasutsugu; Egawa, Hiroto; TANAKA, Koichi


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been expanding to adult recipients by using right lobe grafts. However, the incidence of complications is more frequent than that involving left lobe grafts. Hence, we aimed to analyze postoperative complications in right lobe liver donors as a step to improve the results in the donors. METHODS: Three hundred and eleven right lobe liver donors were retrospectively reviewed between February 1998 and December 2003. RESULTS...

  3. Imaging in Lung Transplantation: Surgical Considerations of Donor and Recipient. (United States)

    Backhus, Leah M; Mulligan, Michael S; Ha, Richard; Shriki, Jabi E; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H


    Modifications in recipient and donor criteria and innovations in donor management hold promise for increasing rates of lung transplantation, yet availability of donors remains a limiting resource. Imaging is critical in the work-up of donor and recipient including identification of conditions that may portend to poor posttransplant outcomes or necessitate modifications in surgical technique. This article describes the radiologic principles that guide selection of patients and surgical procedures in lung transplantation.

  4. Quality of life and psychological outcome of donors after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Guang Jin; Bo Xiang; Lu-Nan Yan; Zhe-Yu Chen; Jia-Ying Yang; Ming-Qing Xu; Wen-Tao Wang


    AIM: To investigate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological outcome of donors after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Participants were 92 consecutive liver transplant donors who underwent hepatectomy without middle hepatic vein at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2007 and September 2010. HRQoL was measured using the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and psychological symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Data collected from donors were compared to previously published data from the general population. Clinical and demographic data were collected from medical records and questionnaires. RESULTS: The general health score of the SF-36 was significantly lower in females (59.78 ± 12.25) than in males (75.83 ± 22.09). Donors more than 40 years old scored higher in social functioning (85.71 ± 14.59) and mental health (82.61 ± 20.00) than those younger than 40 (75.00 ± 12.13, 68.89 ± 12.98; social functioning and mental health, respectively). Donors who had surgery more than two years prior to the study scored highest in physical functioning (P = 0.001) and bodily pain (P = 0.042) while those less than one year from surgery scored lowest. The health of the liver recipient significantly influenced the general health (P = 0.042), social functioning (P = 0.010), and roleemotional (P = 0.028) of donors. Donors with full-time employment scored highest in role-physical (P = 0.005), vitality (P = 0.001), social functioning (P = 0.016), mental health (P < 0.001), the physical component summary scale (P < 0.001), and the mental component summary scale (MCS) (P < 0.001). Psychological measures indicated that donors were healthier than the general population in obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation. The MCS of the SF-36 was significantly correlated with most symptom scores of the SCL-90-R

  5. The evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Khoza, S.; Van Hulst, M.; Postma, M.J.; Mvere, D.A.


    Background: Donor selection is one of the first steps in blood donation aimed at improving the safety of blood and blood products. It is the only line of protection for donors and against certain infections for which testing is not performed. There is paucity of published data on reasons for donor d

  6. When disaster strikes: death of a living organ donor. (United States)

    Ratner, L E; Sandoval, P R


    Donor safety is of paramount importance in living donor transplantation. Yet, living donor deaths occur. We believe that problems exist in our system of live donor transplantation that can be summarized in a series of simple statements: (1) Donor mortality can never be completely eliminated; (2) Live donor risk has not been mitigated so that it is as low as possible; (3) After a donor death, systematic reviews are not routinely performed to identify correctable causes; (4) The lessons learned from any donor death are not adequately communicated to other programs and (5) The administrative mechanisms and resources are not universally available at all transplant centers to implement lessons learned. To rectify these problems, we propose the following: (1) A national living donor death task force be established with the purpose of performing systematic reviews of any donor death. (2) Findings of these reviews be disseminated to all institutions performing live donor transplants on a secure, password-protected website. (3) A no-fault donor death indemnity fund be established to provide a financial imperative for institutions to cooperate with this external peer-review. These measures will serve the best interests of the involved institutions, the transplant community, and most importantly, the patients and their families.

  7. Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors in Benin City Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde


    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia among blood donors in a private medical laboratory in Benin City, Nigeria.Venous blood was collected from a total of 247 blood donors. Malaria status, ABO, Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration of all participants were determined using standard methods.The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was higher among commercial blood donors than volunteer group (commercial vs volunteer donor: 27.5 %vs. 13.8%; OR = 2.373, 95% CI = 0.793, 7.107, P = 0.174. Asymptomatic malaria was not significantly affected by gender (P = 0.733, age (P = 0.581, ABO (P = 0.433 and rhesus blood groups (P = 0.806 of blood donors. Age was observed to significantly (P = 0.015 affect malaria parasite density with donors within the age group of 21-26 years having the highest risk. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among commercial donors (commercial vs volunteer donors: 23.4% vs 3.4%: OR = 8.551, 95% CI = 1.135, 64.437, P = 0.013 and donors of blood group O type (P = < 0.0001.Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia was higher among commercial donors than voluntary donors. Mandatory screening of blood donors for malaria parasite is advocated to curb transfusion transmitted malaria and associated sequelae.

  8. Donors and archives a guidebook for successful programs

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, Aaron D


    Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.

  9. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.


    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even thoug

  10. Living Donor Hepatectomy: Is it Safe? (United States)

    Weiss, Anna; Tapia, Viridiana; Parina, Ralitza; Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan; Mekeel, Kristin


    Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) is high risk to a healthy donor and remains controversial. Living donor nephrectomy (LDN), conversely, is a common practice. The objective is to examine the outcomes of LDH and compare this risk profile to LDN. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for hepatectomies and nephrectomies from 1998 to 2011. LDH or LDN were identified by donor ICD-9 codes. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and complications. Bivariate analysis compared nondonor hepatectomy or nondonor nephrectomy (NDN). Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline organ disease, malignancy, or benign lesions. There were 430 LDH and 9211 nondonor hepatectomy. In-hospital mortality was 0 and 6 per cent, respectively (P < 0.001); complications 4 and 33 per cent (P < 0.001). LDH had fewer complications [odds ratio (OR) 0.15 (0.08-0.26)]. There were 15,631 LDN and 117,966 NDN. Mortality rates were 0.8 per cent LDN and 1.8 per cent NDN (P < 0.001). Complications were 1 and 21 per cent (P < 0.001). LDN had fewer complications [OR 0.06 (0.05-0.08)] and better survival [OR 0.32 (0.18-0.58)]. Complication rates were higher in LDH than LDN (4% vs 1%, P < 0.001), but survival was similar (0% vs 0.8% mortality, P = 0.06). In conclusion, morbidity and mortality rates of LDH are significantly lower than hepatectomy for other disease. This study suggests that the risk profile of LDH is comparable with the widely accepted LDN.

  11. Risk of cancer after blood transfusion from donors with subclinical cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Reilly, Marie


    BACKGROUND: Although mechanisms for detection of short-term complications after blood transfusions are well developed, complications with delayed onset, notably transmission of chronic diseases such as cancer, have been difficult to assess. Our aim was to investigate the possible risk of cancer...... transmission from blood donors to recipients through blood transfusion. METHODS: We did a register-based retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence among patients who received blood from donors deemed to have a subclinical cancer at the time of donation. These precancerous donors were diagnosed...... with a cancer within 5 years of the donation. Data from all computerised blood bank registers in Sweden and Denmark gathered between 1968 and 2002 were merged into a common database. Demographic and medical data, including mortality and cancer incidence, were ascertained through linkages with nationwide...

  12. Importance of donor history of restless leg syndrome and pica to asses iron deficiency. (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh; Chaudhary, Rajendra; Sonker, Atul; Pandey, Hem Chandra


    Iron deficiency is associated with neuropsychological changes such as restless leg syndrome (RLS), pica, hair loss, etc. Our objective was to assess usefulness of history of RLS and pica in relation with iron stores in blood donors. During medical examination, apart from routine questionnaires specific history of RLS and pica was elicited. Along with hemoglobin markers of iron deficiency such as s. iron, s. ferritin and mean corpuscular volume were analyzed. Out of 400 blood donors 41 had h/o pica/RLS/pagophagia. Positive and negative predictive value of above history is 73.17% and 80.5% respectively. We recommend the use of a screening question for pica and/or RLS in blood donor questionnaire.

  13. The challenges of being an emerging donor: Brazil’s South-South cooperation with Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mattheis


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the features of the emerging donors in Africa and the challenges they face. The case study explores how Brazil positioned itself as a development partner in Africa by focusing on Ghana, a country often described as a “donor darling”. Based on qualitative research on the bilateral relationship since the turn of century, the study describes a range of difficulties Brazil encounters in the competition with other aid providers. Faced with the financial advantages of both China and Western donors, Brazil established its cooperation within the niche of agricultural programmes. However, the normative and technical stance of this approach was unable to bridge divergent expectations and Brazil ultimately refocused its Africa engagement to its competitive advantage in Portuguese-speaking Africa.

  14. Three-dimensional print of a liver for preoperative planning in living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Zein, Nizar N; Hanouneh, Ibrahim A; Bishop, Paul D; Samaan, Maggie; Eghtesad, Bijan; Quintini, Cristiano; Miller, Charles; Yerian, Lisa; Klatte, Ryan


    The growing demand for liver transplantation and the concomitant scarcity of cadaveric livers have increased the need for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Ensuring the safety of donors and recipients is critical. The preoperative identification of the vascular and biliary tract anatomy with 3-dimensional (3D) printing may allow better preoperative surgical planning, avert unnecessary surgery in patients with potentially unsuitable anatomy, and thereby decrease the complications of liver transplant surgery. We developed a protocol and successfully 3D-printed synthetic livers (along with their complex networks of vascular and biliary structures) replicating the native livers of 6 patients: 3 living donors and 3 respective recipients who underwent LDLT. To our knowledge, these are the first complete 3D-printed livers. Using standardized preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative assessments, we demonstrated identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks in the 3D-printed models and native livers.

  15. Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate adducted with nitrogen donor ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis (United States)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Shivashankar, S. A.


    We report synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis of zinc acetylacetonate complex adducted by nitrogen donor ligands, such as pyridine, bipyridine, and phenanthroline. The pyridine adducted complex crystallizes to monoclinic crystal structure, whereas other two adducted complexes have orthorhombic structure. Addition of nitrogen donor ligands enhances the thermal property of these complexes as that with parent metal-organic complex. Zinc acetylacetonate adducted with pyridine shows much higher volatility (106 °C), decomposition temperature (202 °C) as that with zinc acetylacetonate (136 °C, 220 °C), and other adducted complexes. All the adducted complexes are thermally stable, highly volatile and are considered to be suitable precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The formation of these complexes is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complexes are widely used as starting precursor materials for the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by microwave irradiation assisted coating process.

  16. Resonance enhancement by suitably chosen frequency detuning

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys


    In this Letter we report new effects of resonance detuning on various dynamical parameters of a generic 3-wave system. Namely, for suitably chosen values of detuning the variation range of amplitudes can be significantly wider than for exact resonance. Moreover, the range of energy variation is not symmetric with respect to the sign of the detuning. Finally, the period of the energy oscillation exhibits non-monotonic dependency on the magnitude of detuning. These results have important theoretical implications where nonlinear resonance analysis is involved, such as geophysics, plasma physics, fluid dynamics. Numerous practical applications are envisageable e.g. in energy harvesting systems.

  17. Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui


    The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red king crab (United States)

    Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.


    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort. (United States)

    Warlé, M C; Berkers, A W; Langenhuijsen, J F; van der Jagt, M F; Dooper, Ph M; Kloke, H J; Pilzecker, D; Renes, S H; Wever, K E; Hoitsma, A J; van der Vliet, J A; D'Ancona, F C H


    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been shown to reduce pain scores after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Live kidney donors may also benefit from the use of low pressure during LDN. To evaluate feasibility and efficacy to reduce post-operative pain, we performed a randomized blinded study. Twenty donors were randomly assigned to standard (14 mmHg) or low (7 mmHg) pressure during LDN. One conversion from low to standard pressure was indicated by protocol due to lack of progression. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that low pressure resulted in a significantly longer skin-to-skin time (149 ± 86 vs. 111 ± 19 min), higher urine output during pneumoperitoneum (23 ± 35 vs. 11 ± 20 mL/h), lower cumulative overall pain score after 72 h (9.4 ± 3.2 vs. 13.5 ± 4.5), lower deep intra-abdominal pain score (11 ± 3.3 vs. 7.5 ± 3.1), and a lower cumulative overall referred pain score (1.8 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 3). Donor serum creatinine levels, complications, and quality of life dimensions were not significantly different. Our data show that low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during LDN is feasible and may contribute to increase live donors' comfort during the early post-operative phase.

  20. [The protocol for multi organ donor management]. (United States)

    Kucewicz, Ewa; Wojarski, Jacek; Zegleń, Sławomir; Saucha, Wojciech; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Przybylski, Roman; Knapik, Piotr; Zembala, Marian


    Identification and preparation of a potential organ donor requires careful and meticulous intensive care, so that the organs may be harvested in the best possible condition for transplantation. The protocol consists of three key elements: (1) monitoring and haemodynamicstabilisation, (2) hormonal therapy, and (3) adequate mechanical ventilation and nosocomial pneumonia prophylaxis. Standard haemodynamic monitoring should consist of a 12 lead EGG, and direct monitoring of arterial and central venous pressures. Pulmonary artery catheterisation is indicated in donors with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below 45%. PCWP should be kept at around 12 mm Hg, Cl at greater than 2.4 L m(-2), and SVR between 800 and 1200 dyn s(-1) cm(-5). When a vasopressor is necessary, vasopressin should be used as the drug of choice. If vasopressin is not available, noradrenaline or adrenaline may be used. Haemoglobin concentration should be maintained between 5.5-6.2 mmol L(-1). In a potential heart donor, troponin concentration should be checked daily. Neutral thermal conditions should be maintained using a warm air blower. A brain dead patient cannot maintain adequate pituitary function, therefore hormone replacement therapy with methylprednisolone, thyroxin and desmopressin is indicated. Glucose concentrations should be kept within the normal range, using insulin if necessary. The lung harvesting protocol should be similarto ARDS treatment guidelines (optimal PEEP, low tidal volumes). Lung recruitment manoeuvres, and aggressive prevention and treatment of nosocomial infection are essential.

  1. Suitability of virtual prototypes to support human factors/ergonomics evaluation during the design. (United States)

    Aromaa, Susanna; Väänänen, Kaisa


    In recent years, the use of virtual prototyping has increased in product development processes, especially in the assessment of complex systems targeted at end-users. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of virtual prototyping to support human factors/ergonomics evaluation (HFE) during the design phase. Two different virtual prototypes were used: augmented reality (AR) and virtual environment (VE) prototypes of a maintenance platform of a rock crushing machine. Nineteen designers and other stakeholders were asked to assess the suitability of the prototype for HFE evaluation. Results indicate that the system model characteristics and user interface affect the experienced suitability. The VE system was valued as being more suitable to support the assessment of visibility, reach, and the use of tools than the AR system. The findings of this study can be used as a guidance for the implementing virtual prototypes in the product development process.

  2. Effects of donor cells on in vitro development of cloned bovine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Fu; Pengfei Guan; Leiwen Zhao; Hua Li; Shuzhen Huang; Fanyi Zeng; Yitao Zeng


    The donor cells from different individuals and with different foreign genes introduced were investigated to determine their effects on the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The bovine ear fibroblast from different individuals was isolated, cultured, and then transfected with foreign genes to establish the stable cell lines, which were used as donor cells for nuclear transfer. The ooeytes were obtained through ovum pick up operation. After in vitro maturation, the M II phase oocytes were selected as receptors for nuclear transfer.The reconstructed embryos were cultured in vitro and observed at 2 h, 48 h, and 7 days after transfer to assess the rate of fusion using cleaved and blastoeyst as the parameters of SCNT efficiency. The donor cells from different individuals (04036, 06081, 06088, and 06129)had no obvious effect on the fusion and cleaved rate, whereas there was significant difference in the blastocyst rate (P0.05). It was concluded that the genetic background of the donor cells could affect the effi-ciency of SCNT, while the introduction of foreign genes into the donor cells had no obvious effect on the efficiency. This study provides useful information for the SCNT and would benefit in promoting the efficiency.

  3. In vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ashish


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Platelets are routinely isolated from whole blood and stored in plasma for 5 days. The present study was done to assess the in vitro function of random donor platelets stored for 7 days in composol platelet additive solution at 22°C. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 30 blood donors of both sex in State Blood Bank, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Random donor platelets were prepared by platelet rich plasma method. Whole blood (350 ml was collected in anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine triple blood bags. Random donor platelets were stored for 7 days at 22°C in platelet incubators and agitators, with and without additive solution. Results: Platelet swirling was present in all the units at 22°C on day 7, with no evidence of bacterial contamination. Comparison of the mean values of platelet count, platelet factor 3, lactate dehydrogenase, pH, glucose and platelet aggregation showed no significant difference in additive solution, whereas platelet factor 3, glucose and platelet aggregation showed significant difference (P < 0.001 on day 7 without additive solution at 22°C. Conclusion: Our study infers that platelet viability and aggregation were best maintained within normal levels on day 7 of storage in platelet additive solution at 22°C. Thus, we may conclude that in vitro storage of random donor platelets with an extended shelf life of 7 days using platelet additive solution may be advocated to improve the inventory of platelets.

  4. Mechanisms of differential pollen donor performance in wild radish, Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae). (United States)

    Marshall, D L; Diggle, P K


    In order to understand the characters on which sexual selection might operate in plants, it is critical to assess the mechanisms by which pollen competition and mate choice occur. To address this issue we measured a number of postpollination characters, ranging from pollen germination and pollen tube growth to final seed paternity, in wild radish. Crosses were performed using four pollen donors on a total of 16 maternal plants (four each from four families). Maternal plants were grown under two watering treatments to evaluate the effects of maternal tissue on the process of mating. The four pollen donors differed significantly in number of seeds sired and differed overall in the mating characters measured. However, it was difficult to associate particular mechanistic characters with ability to sire seeds, perhaps because of interactions among pollen donors within styles or among pollen donors and maternal plants. The process of pollen tube growth and fertilization differed substantially among maternal watering treatments, with many early events occurring more quickly in stressed plants. Seed paternity, however, was somewhat more even among pollen donors used on stressed maternal plants, suggesting that when maternal tissue is more competent, mating is slowed and is more selective.

  5. Surgical issues in lung transplantation: options, donor selection, graft preservation, and airway healing. (United States)

    Daly, R C; McGregor, C G


    To present an overview of the surgical issues in lung transplantation, including the historical context and the rationale for choosing a particular procedure for a specific patient, we reviewed and summarized the current medical literature and our personal experience. Several surgical options are available, including single lung transplantation; double lung transplantation; heart-lung transplantation; bilateral, sequential single lung transplantation; and (recently) single lobe transplantation. Although single lung transplantation is preferred for maximal use of the available organs, bilateral lung transplantation is necessary for septic lung diseases and may be appropriate for pulmonary hypertension and bullous emphysema. Heart-lung transplantation is performed for Eisenmenger's syndrome and for primary pulmonary hypertension with severe right ventricular failure. General factors for consideration in assessment of compatibility of the donor and potential recipient include ABO blood group, height (the donor should be within +/- 20% of the recipient's height), and length of the lungs (determined on an anteroposterior chest roentgenogram). Graft preservation and minimal duration of ischemia are important. Complications associated with airway healing are related to ischemia of the donor bronchus. We have addressed the issue of donor bronchial ischemia by direct revascularization of the donor bronchial arteries with use of the recipient's internal thoracic artery. Currently, lung transplantation offers a realistic therapeutic option to patients with end-stage pulmonary parenchymal or vascular disease.

  6. Living donor liver hilar variations:surgical approaches and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onur Yaprak; Tolga Demirbas; Cihan Duran; Murat Dayangac; Murat Akyildiz; Yaman Tokat; Yildiray Yuzer


    BACKGROUND: Varied vascular and biliary anatomies are common in the liver. Living donor hepatectomy requires precise recognition of the hilar anatomy. This study was undertaken to study donor vascular and biliary tract variations, surgical approaches and implications in living liver transplant patients. METHODS: Two hundred living donor liver transplantations were performed at our institution between 2004 and 2009. All donors were evaluated by volumetric computerized tomography (CT), CT angiography and magnetic resonance cholangiography in the preoperative period. Intraoperative ultrasonography and cholangiography were carried out. Arterial, portal and biliary anatomies were classified according to the Michels, Cheng and Huang criteria. RESULTS: Classical hepatic arterial anatomy was observed in 129 (64.5%) of the 200 donors. Fifteen percent of the donors had variation in the portal vein. Normal biliary anatomy was found in 126 (63%) donors, and biliary tract variation in 70% of donors with portal vein variations. In recipients with single duct biliary anastomosis, 16 (14.4%) developed biliary leak, and 9 (8.1%) developed biliary stricture; however more than one biliary anastomosis increased recipient biliary complications. Donor vascular variations did not increase recipient vascular complications. Variant anatomy was not associated with an increase in donor morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Living donor liver transplantation provides information about variant hilar anatomy. The success of the procedure depends on a careful approach to anatomical variations. When the deceased donor supply is inadequate, living donor transplantation is a life-saving alternative and is safe for the donor and recipient, even if the donor has variant hilar anatomy.

  7. Therapeutic genome mutagenesis using synthetic donor DNA and triplex-forming molecules. (United States)

    Reza, Faisal; Glazer, Peter M


    Genome mutagenesis can be achieved in a variety of ways, though a select few are suitable for therapeutic settings. Among them, the harnessing of intracellular homologous recombination affords the safety and efficacy profile suitable for such settings. Recombinagenic donor DNA and mutagenic triplex-forming molecules co-opt this natural recombination phenomenon to enable the specific, heritable editing and targeting of the genome. Editing the genome is achieved by designing the sequence-specific recombinagenic donor DNA to have base mismatches, insertions, and deletions that will be incorporated into the genome when it is used as a template for recombination. Targeting the genome is similarly achieved by designing the sequence-specific mutagenic triplex-forming molecules to further recruit the recombination machinery thereby upregulating its activity with the recombinagenic donor DNA. This combination of extracellularly introduced, designed synthetic molecules and intercellularly ubiquitous, evolved natural machinery enables the mutagenesis of chromosomes and engineering of whole genomes with great fidelity while limiting nonspecific interactions. Herein, we demonstrate the harnessing of recombinagenic donor DNA and mutagenic triplex-forming molecular technology for potential therapeutic applications. These demonstrations involve, among others, utilizing this technology to correct genes so that they become physiologically functional, to induce dormant yet functional genes in place of non-functional counterparts, to place induced genes under regulatory elements, and to disrupt genes to abrogate a cellular vulnerability. Ancillary demonstrations of the design and synthesis of this recombinagenic and mutagenic molecular technology as well as their delivery and assayed interaction with duplex DNA reveal a potent technological platform for engineering specific changes into the living genome.

  8. Clinical outcomes of and patient satisfaction with different incision methods for donor hepatectomy in living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Suh, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk


    With the decrease in the average donor age and the increase in the proportion of female donors, both donor safety and cosmetic appearance are major concerns for some living donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) because a large abdominal incision is needed that may influence the donor's quality of life. In all, 429 donors who underwent donor hepatectomy for LDLT from April 2010 to February 2013 were included in the study. Donors were divided into 3 groups based on the type of incision: conventional inverted L incision (n = 268; the C group), upper midline incision (n = 147; the M group), and transverse incision with laparoscopy (n = 14; the T group). Demographics, perioperative outcomes, postoperative complications for donors and recipients, and questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction with cosmetic appearance were compared. The mean age was lower (P self-confidence were noted in the M and T groups versus the C group. In conclusion, the use of a minimal incision is technically feasible for some donor hepatectomy cases with a favorable safety profile. The patient satisfaction levels were greater with improved cosmetic outcomes in cases of minimal incision versus cases of conventional incision.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu P .


    Full Text Available A 3 Years retrospective study conducted on “Donor Deferral Pattern among Blood Donors in Blood Bank’’ of a Medical College Hospital of Chhattisgarh. This study shows the major possible causes of deferrals for donation of blood in northern Chhattisgarh. Donor’s detail information on the donor deferral including the cause of deferral was recorded in deferral register. Donors deferred were analyzed and computed for study on the bas ic of medical examination. In the study done f ro m A ugust 2012 to July 2015 a total of 18773 donors were registered and the screened. Out of these 18153 were male and 620 were female. Among the male, 1486 were deferred which makes 8.18% of the total registe red. Among female, 339 were deferred which makes 54.67% of the total registered. The maximum numbers of deferrals were due to low Hb (17.97% the second most important cause for deferral in this region happens to be alcohol/ganja intake (11.61%. The third leading cause is skin puncture or ear piercing (10.57%. This figure is mainly due to professional donors who frequent around the hospital very often. Interestingly forth cause is deferral is medication (7.39% mostly over the counter drugs. Other major c ause for deferrals in descending order are low BP (6.68%, fever and cold (6.30%, hypertension (5.64%, underweight (4.54%, Typhoid (4.05%, menstrual cycle (3.39% and donated <3 month (2.41%. The least percentage of cause of deferral was due to breast feeding (0.10%. It is because of very low percentage of female donation. Strict screening of donor is compulsory to achieve safe blood equally important is to increase the number of voluntary donations with minimum deferral. To achieve this it is necessa ry to study and analyze various causes for donor deferral & categorize them under temporary & Permanent, so that temporary deferral can be converted to donations. Proper medical examination and Strict deferral system of the blood donors in blood banks redu ces the

  10. Agriculture land suitability analysis evaluation based multi criteria and GIS approach (United States)

    Bedawi Ahmed, Goma; Shariff, Abdul Rashid M.; Balasundram, Siva Kumar; Abdullah, Ahmad Fikri bin


    Land suitability evaluation (LSE) is a valuable tool for land use planning in major countries of the world as well as in Malaysia. However, previous LSE studies have been conducted with the use of biophysical and ecological datasets for the design of equally important socio-economic variables. Therefore, this research has been conducted at the sub national level to estimate suitable agricultural land for rubber crops in Seremban, Malaysia by application of physical variables in combination with widely employed biophysical and ecological variables. The objective of this study has been to provide an up-to date GIS-based agricultural land suitability evaluation (ALSE) for determining suitable agricultural land for Rubber crops in Malaysia. Biophysical and ecological factors were assumed to influence agricultural land use were assembled and the weights of their respective contributions to land suitability for agricultural uses were assessed using an analytic hierarchical process. The result of this study found Senawang, Mambau, Sandakan and Rantau as the most suitable areas for cultivating Rubber; whereas, Nilai and Labu are moderately suitable for growing rubber. Lenggeng, Mantin and Pantai are not suitable for growing rubber as the study foresaw potential environmental degradation of these locations from agricultural intensification. While this study could be useful in assessing the potential agricultural yields and potential environmental degradation in the study area, it could also help to estimate the potential conversion of agricultural land to non-agricultural uses.

  11. Guidelines for establishing a donor human milk depot. (United States)

    Geraghty, Sheela R; List, Betsy A; Morrow, Georgia B


    Human milk is the preferred choice for infant feeding. When a sick or premature infant's own mother's milk is unavailable, donor human milk is becoming more widely used. Many potential milk donors do not live within close proximity to the 10 North American not-for-profit milk banks. Transporting milk via commercial carriers can be inconvenient and costly for recipient banks. A network of donor human milk depots is one practical way to increase the quantity of available donor human milk. This article provides guidelines and practical suggestions for establishing a donor human milk depot.

  12. 60例游离股前外侧皮瓣术后供区功能恢复及并发症的研究%Study of the complications and functional assessment of 60 free anterolateral myocutaneous flaps donor-site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡传宇; 陈卫民; 李文强; 黄平; 邵乐南


    Objective:To investigate the complications and functional assessment of donor-site for free anterolateral myocutaneous flaps applicated in the reconstruction of oral-maxillofacial defects. In order to find a better method to redue the complieations in donor-site. Method:analysing the complications and functional assessment through evaluation sheet and questionnairs. Result:The long term complieations in cluded musele weakness(n=7),sensory disturbance(n=50),in an-terolateral thigh upper region Sensory hypoesthesia(n=10),in anterolateral thigh middle region sensory hypoesthesia(n=39) and sensory deprivation(n=l),in anterolateral thigh lower region sensory hypoesthesia(n=40) and sensory deprivation(n=5). Two patients had intolerance of cold. Conclusion: ①.Sensory disturbance occurred in anterolateral thigh region especially concentrated in middle and lower area.It was related to the damage of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. ②. The risk of sen-sory disturbance was highly related of big size and higher position. 3. Muscle weakness were not significantly related to sac-rifice of the size of vastus lateralis muscle.%目的:评估游离股前外侧肌皮瓣修复口腔颌面部缺损,术后皮瓣供区并发症及功能恢复情况。方法:通过评估表测量加问卷调查的方式描述性分析60例患者术后供区功能恢复情况及相关并发症。结果:远期并发症中患侧股四头肌肌力减弱者7例,皮肤感觉异常者50例。其中供区外上份感觉减退者10例,外中份感觉减退者39例,感觉消失者1例;外下份感觉减退者40例,感觉消失者5例;出现供区寒冷耐受不良者2例。患者认为疤痕严重影响外观者3例。结论:①术后供区的感觉障碍分布于股前外侧区,主要集中在股前外侧的中下区,其主要原因与损伤股外侧皮神经有关;②皮瓣的面积越大,皮瓣位置越靠近股外侧上份,供区出现感觉障碍的概率越大;③股前

  13. A Prospective Controlled Study of Kidney Donors: Baseline and 6-Month Follow-up (United States)

    Kasiske, Bertram L.; Anderson-Haag, Teresa; Ibrahim, Hassan N.; Pesavento, Todd E.; Weir, Matthew R.; Nogueira, Joseph M.; Cosio, Fernando G.; Kraus, Edward S.; Rabb, Hamid H.; Kalil, Roberto S.; Posselt, Andrew A.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Steffes, Michael W.


    Background Most previous studies of living kidney donors have been retrospective and have lacked suitable healthy controls. Needed are prospective controlled studies to better understand the effects of a mild reduction in kidney function from kidney donation in otherwise normal individuals. Study Design Prospective, controlled, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants Consecutive patients approved for donation at 8 transplant centers in the US were asked to participate. For every donor enrolled, an equally healthy control with 2 kidneys who theoretically would have been suitable to donate a kidney was also enrolled. Predictor Kidney donation. Measurements At baseline pre-donation and at 6 months after donation, a medical history, vital signs, measured (iohexol) glomerular filtration rate and other measurements were collected. There were 201 donors and 198 controls that completed both baseline and 6 month visits and form the basis of this report. Results Compared to controls, donors had 28% lower glomerular filtration rate at 6 months (94.6±15.1 [SD] v. 67.6±10.1 mL/min/1.73m2; P<0.001), associated with a 23% greater parathyroid hormone (42.8±15.6 v. 52.7±20.9 pg/mL; P<0.001), 5.4% lower serum phosphate (3.5±0.5 v. 3.3±0.5 mg/dL; P<0.001), 3.7% lower hemoglobin (13.6±1.4 v. 13.1±1.2 g/dL; P<0.001), 8.2% greater uric acid (4.9±1.2 v. 5.3±1.1 mg/dL; P<0.001), 24% greater homocysteine (1.20±0.34 v. 1.49±0.43 mg/L; P<0.001), and 1.5% lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (54.9±16.4 v. 54.1±13.9 mg/dL; P=0.03) level. There were no differences in albumin-creatinine ratios (5.0 [IQR, 4.0-6.6] v. 5.0 [IQR, 3.3-5.4] mg/g; P=0.5), office blood pressure, or glucose homeostasis. Limitations Short duration of follow-up and possible bias resulting from an inability to screen controls with kidney and vascular imaging performed in donors. Conclusions Kidney donors have some, but not all, abnormalities typically associated with mild chronic kidney

  14. Transplanting Kidneys from Deceased Donors With Severe Acute Kidney Injury. (United States)

    Heilman, R L; Smith, M L; Kurian, S M; Huskey, J; Batra, R K; Chakkera, H A; Katariya, N N; Khamash, H; Moss, A; Salomon, D R; Reddy, K S


    Our aim was to determine outcomes with transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury, defined as a donor with terminal serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL, or a donor requiring acute renal replacement therapy. We included all patients who received deceased donor kidney transplant from June 2004 to October 2013. There were 162 AKI donor transplant recipients (21% of deceased donor transplants): 139 in the standard criteria donor (SCD) and 23 in the expanded criteria donor (ECD) cohort. 71% of the AKI donors had stage 3 (severe AKI), based on acute kidney injury network (AKIN) staging. Protocol biopsies were done at 1, 4, and 12 months posttransplant. One and four month formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 48 patients (24 AKI donors, 24 non-AKI) underwent global gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays (96 arrays). DGF was more common in the AKI group but eGFR, graft survival at 1 year and proportion with IF/TA>2 at 1 year were similar for the two groups. At 1 month, there were 898 differentially expressed genes in the AKI group (p-value kidneys from deceased donors with AKI is safe and has excellent outcomes.

  15. [Evaluation and follow-up of living kidney donors]. (United States)

    Giessing, M; Schönberger, B; Fritsche, L; Budde, K


    An increase in waiting time for a cadaveric organs and a better graft-function, graft- and patient-survival with kidneys from a living donors have lead to an increase in living-donor renal transplantation in the therapy of end-stage renal disease. In Germany, with the implementation of a transplantation law in 1997 and due to improved surgical techniques (laparoscopy) the proportion of living renal donors has almost tripled during the last five years. The transplantation law also names the potential donors, including not only genetically related but also emotionally related donors. Inclusion criteria for living donation are age > 18 years, mental ability to give consent and an altruistic motivation (exclusion of financial benefits for the donor). If ABO blood group compatibility between donor and recipient is given and a cross match does not reveal immunologic obstacles a thorough medical and psychological examination must be performed with the potential donor. All risk factors for the donor beyond the actual operation must be excluded. Therefore all organ-systems have to be evaluated and risks for the donor as well as transferable pathologies and infections must be ruled out. International guidelines help to perform an efficient evaluation. Following organ donation the donor should be medically controlled as requested by law. Also, psychological counselling should be offered. The aim is to minimize risks for the single kidney and to recognize early potentially kidney damaging affections.

  16. Insurability of living organ donors: a systematic review. (United States)

    Yang, R C; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Klarenbach, S; Vlaicu, S; Garg, A X


    Being an organ donor may affect one's ability to obtain life, disability and health insurance. We conducted a systematic review to determine if insurability is affected by living organ donation, and if concern about insurability affects donor decision making. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCI, EconLit and Cochrane databases for articles in any language, and reviewed reference lists from 1966 until June 2006. All studies discussing the insurability of living organ donors or its impact on donor decision making were included. Data were independently abstracted by two authors, and the methodological quality appraised. Twenty-three studies, from 1972 to 2006, provided data on 2067 living organ donors, 385 potential donors and 239 responses from insurance companies. Almost all companies would provide life and health insurance to living organ donors, usually with no higher premiums. However, concern about insurability was still expressed by 2%-14% of living organ donors in follow-up studies, and 3%-11% of donors actually encountered difficulties with their insurance. In one study, donors whose insurance premiums increased were less likely to reaffirm their decision to donate. Based on available evidence, some living organ donors had difficulties with insurance despite companies reporting otherwise. If better understood, this potential barrier to donation could be corrected through fair health and underwriting policies.

  17. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David


    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  18. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masao Hashimoto; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Kaneko; Yuichi Matsui; Junichi Togashi; Masatoshi Makuuchi


    AIM: To assess the incidence and analyze the risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in adult.METHODS: The micobiological data and medical records of 242 adult recipients that underwent LDLT at the Tokyo University Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The independent risk factors for postoperative CDAD were identified.RESULTS: Postoperative CDAD occurred in 11 (5%)patients. Median onset of CDAD was postoperative d 19(range, 5-54). In the multivariate analyses, male gender (odds ratio, 4.56) and serum creatinine (≥ 1.5 mg/dL,odds ratio, 16.0) independently predicted postoperative CDAD.CONCLUSION: CDAD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with postoperative diarrhea after LDLT.

  19. Overextended Criteria Donors: Experience of an Italian Transplantation Center. (United States)

    Nure, E; Lirosi, M C; Frongillo, F; Bianco, G; Silvestrini, N; Fiorillo, C; Sganga, G; Agnes, S


    The increasing gap between the number of patients who could benefit from liver transplantation and the number of available donors has fueled efforts to maximize the donor pool using marginal grafts that usually were discarded for transplantation. This study included data of all patients who received decreased donor liver grafts between January 2004 and January 2013 (n = 218) with the use of a prospectively collected database. Patients with acute liver failure, retransplantation, pediatric transplantation, and split liver transplantation were excluded. Donors were classified as standard donor (SD), extended criteria donor (ECD), and overextended criteria donor (OECD). The primary endpoints of the study were early allograft primary dysfunction (PDF), primary nonfunction (PNF), and patient survival (PS), whereas incidence of major postoperative complications was the secondary endpoint. In our series we demonstrated that OECD have similar outcome in terms of survival and incidence of complication after liver transplantation as ideal grafts.

  20. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide. (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji


    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  1. The suitability of internal versus external successors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne


    of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue...... that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed to enhance the long-term perspective for family businesses.......Understanding knowledge transfer in family firm succession is important for the survival of family firms. Previous research has begun to explore the suitability of internal versus external successor in family firms with regard to relevant knowledge types. This paper builds on the contingency model...

  2. Monazite as a suitable actinide waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenz, Hartmut; Heuser, Julia; Schmitz, Stephan; Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); Neumann, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Crystallography


    The conditioning of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and in some countries even of weapons plutonium is an important issue for science and society. Therefore the research on appropriate matrices for the immobilization of fission products and actinides is of great interest. Beyond the widely used borosilicate glasses, ceramics are promising materials for the conditioning of actinides like U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm. Monazite-type ceramics with general composition LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = La to Gd) and solid solutions of monazite with cheralite or huttonite represent important materials in this field. Monazite appears to be a promising candidate material, especially because of its outstanding properties regarding radiation resistance and chemical durability. This article summarizes the most recent results concerning the characterization of monazite and respective solid solutions and the study of their chemical, thermal, physical and structural properties. The aim is to demonstrate the suitability of monazite as a secure and reliable waste form for actinides. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kumbhar


    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Blood transfusion services form an integral part of health care; but simultaneously carries the risk of transmission of transfusion transmissible infections. We conducted a 5yr retrospective cross sectional study to estimate the prevalence of various infectious markers in the blood donors which was found to be 2.04%. INTRODUCTION : Blood safety is a major concern among health care personnel. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI's namely - HIV, Hepatitis C, Syphilis and Malaria among blood donors from blood bank of a tertiary care hospital, in Western Maharashtra, India. METHODS : A total of 21,293 blood units were collected from donors. All blood units were screened for HIV, HBs Ag and HCV using ELISA. Test for syphilis was done by Rapid Plasma Reagin card test and peripheral smear examination was done to detect malarial parasite. RESULTS : A total of 21,293 blood donors were tested, of which 19,940 (93.65% were voluntary donors and 1,353 (6.35% were replacement donors. The highest seroprevalence observed was for HBs Ag (1.55% followed by HIV (0.38%, HCV (0.08% and Syphilis (0.02%. No donor was found to be positive for malaria parasite. CONCLUSION : Strategies need to be implemented to improve donor selection, using highly sensitive and specific screening tests and a better structured voluntary donation system. Nucleic acid amplification test would help to detect donors in window period for HIV infection. In view of high prevalence, effective community based programs and health education with emphasis on sexually transmitted diseases may prove helpful to decrease the seroprevalence.

  4. Donor HLA-specific Abs: to BMT or not to BMT? (United States)

    Leffell, M S; Jones, R J; Gladstone, D E


    The engraftment failure associated with Abs to donor-specific HLA (DSA) limits options for sensitized BMT candidates. Fourteen of fifteen patients with no other viable donor options were desensitized and transplanted using a regimen of plasmapheresis and low-dose i.v. Ig modified to accommodate pre-BMT conditioning. DSA levels were assessed by solid-phase immunoassays and cell-based crossmatch tests. DSA levels were monitored throughout desensitization and on day -1 to determine if there was any DSA rebound that would require additional treatment. A mean reduction in DSA level of 64.4% was achieved at the end of desensitization, with a subsequent reduction of 85.5% after transplantation. DSA in 11 patients was reduced to levels considered negative post-BMT, whereas DSA in three patients remained at low levels. All 14 patients achieved donor engraftment by day +60; however, seven patients suffered disease relapses. Four patients experienced mild, grade 1 GVHD. Factors influencing the response to desensitization include initial DSA strength, number, specificity, DSA rebound and a mismatch repeated from a prior transplant. While desensitization should be reserved for patients with limited donor options, careful DSA assessment and monitoring can facilitate successful engraftment after BMT.

  5. Comparison of hepatitis B, core, HBc, and hepatitis B antibody, anti HBs, in a presumed low risk donor population. (United States)

    Heck, Ellen; Cavanagh, H Dwight


    Donors screened by medical social history interview negative for high risk behavior or communicable disease history, but subsequently exhibiting reactive serological markers, emphasize importance of duel safe guarding factors for determining donor suitability. This report examines a relationship between two immunoabsorption assay tests, hepatitis B core (HBc) antibody, a required food and drug administration (FDA) test, and hepatitis B antibody (anti HBs), non-required test. Reactive serology results, 129 cases, 3,581 donors (2008-2012) for HBc as the only initially positive serological marker were subjected to anti HBs testing in this history pre-screened donor population. Enzyme linked immunoabsorption assay kits hepatitis B, core and antibody, were used in this study. All samples were initially tested for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, utilizing nucleic acid testing and antigen antibody immunoabsorption assay. Testing was performed by a FDA-registered CLEA-certified reference laboratory. Samples were deceased donor blood samples and a limited number of pre-mortem samples, separated, stored and analyzed according to manufacturer recommendation and FDA regulations. 129 reactive HBc only samples, were subsequently tested for anti HBs. Of these 129, 94 were found to be reactive for anti HBs. This represented 72 % of samples tested for antibody, a higher percentage than anticipated for a medical history negative, low risk population.

  6. The reliability of the “Iberic graft” for covering of the radial forearm free lfap donor site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel Moreno-Snchez; Ral Gonzlez-Garca


    Aim: Traditional donor site closure from radial forearm free flap (RFFF) has been associated with esthetic and functional morbidity. To avoid complications, such as color mismatch and secondary donor site morbidity, a new technique named ‘‘Iberic graft’’ for covering the RFFF donor site was described previously by our team.Methods:A study of patients who underwent reconstruction of head and neck defects using a RFFF was conducted to assess postoperative complications of the RFFF donor site and also to evaluate the morbidity in terms of aesthetics and function following the use of the “Iberic graft”. The donor site was covered by the use of a combined local triangular full-thickness skin graft. Color match, quality of the scar, presence of necrosis, dehiscence of the suture or tendon exposure were recorded and analyzed.Results: One hundred and twenty-five consecutive patients undergoing RFFF harvesting were included. RFFF donor site defects ranged from 15 cm2 to 70 cm2; 9 patients (7%) had small dehiscences of the forearm skin graft, whereas 2 cases (1.6%) presented tendon exposure. Otherwise, partial skin graft loss occurred in a few patients. In all cases, these sites healed secondarily by conservative management, with no final impairment of function. Assessment of the forearm donor site at 1 to 3 months after the primary surgical procedure showed complete defect coverage, good color match, and no scarring along the graft line.Conclusion: The “Iberic graft” is a reliable method for closing most of RFFF donor site defects as it provides excellent color match and pliability, while obviates the need for a second surgical site.

  7. Effect of donor age on graft function and long-term survival of recipients undergoing living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Wang; Wen-Tao Jiang; Yong-Lin Deng; Cheng Pan; Zhong-Yang Shen


    BACKGROUND: Donor shortage is the biggest obstacle in organ transplantation. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been considered as a valuable approach to short-ening waiting time. The objectives of this study were to inves-tigate the feasibility of utilizing donors older than 50 years in LDLT and to evaluate the graft function and recipient survival. METHODS: All LDLT cases (n=159) were divided into the older (donor age ≥50 years, n=10) and younger (donor age RESULTS: The median donor age was 58.5 (52.5-60.0) years in the older donor group and 25.0 (23.0-32.0) in the younger do-nor group. There was no significant difference in cold ischemic time, anhepatic phase and operation time between the older and younger donor groups (P>0.05). However, the volume of red blood cell transfused in operation was greater in the older donor group than in the younger donor group (1900 vs 1200 mL, P=0.023). The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates were 90%, 80% and 80% for the older donor group, and 92%, 87%and 87% for the younger donor group, respectively (P=0.459). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 100%, 90% and 90%for recipients with older grafts, and 93%, 87% and 87% for those with younger grafts, respectively (P=0.811). CONCLUSION: It is safe for a LDLT recipient to receive liver from donors older than 50 years, and there is no significant adverse effect on graft function and long-term patients' survival.

  8. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley


    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  9. Liver transplantation in children using organs from young paediatric donors. (United States)

    Herden, Uta; Ganschow, Rainer; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Helmke, Knut; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz


    Nowadays, most paediatric liver transplant recipients receive a split or other technical variant graft from adult deceased or live donors, because of a lack of available age- and size matched paediatric donors. Few data are available, especially for liver grafts obtained from very young children (transplantations between 1989 and 2009. Recipients were divided into five groups (1-5) depending on donor age (transplantations from deceased donors were performed; 1- and 5-year graft survival rates were 75%, 80%, 78%, 81%, 74% and 75%, 64%, 70%, 67%, 46%, and 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 88%, 91%, 90%, 89%, 78% and 88%, 84%, 84%, 83%, 63% for groups 1-5, respectively, without significant difference. Eight children received organs from donors younger than 1 year and 45 children received organs from donors between 1 and 6 years of age. Overall, vascular complications occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving organs from donors younger than 6 years. Analysis of our data revealed that the usage of liver grafts from donors younger than 6 years is a safe procedure. The outcome was comparable with grafts from older donors with excellent graft and patient survival, even for donors younger than 1 year.

  10. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia De Luca Maccarini


    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  11. Donor NK cell licensing in control of malignancy in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. (United States)

    Nowak, Jacek; Kościńska, Katarzyna; Mika-Witkowska, Renata; Rogatko-Koroś, Marta; Mizia, Sylwia; Jaskuła, Emilia; Polak, Małgorzata; Mordak-Domagała, Monika; Lange, Janusz; Gronkowska, Anna; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław Wiktor; Kyrcz-Krzemień, Sławomira; Markiewicz, Mirosław; Dzierżak-Mietła, Monika; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Nasiłowska-Adamska, Barbara; Szczepiński, Andrzej; Hałaburda, Kazimierz; Hellmann, Andrzej; Komarnicki, Mieczysław; Gil, Lidia; Czyż, Anna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Barańska, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk, Jerzy; Drabko, Katarzyna; Goździk, Jolanta; Wysoczańska, Barbara; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Graczyk-Pol, Elżbieta; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Marosz-Rudnicka, Anna; Nestorowicz, Klaudia; Dziopa, Joanna; Szlendak, Urszula; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lange, And Andrzej


    Among cancers treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), some are sensitive to natural killer (NK) cell reactivity, described as the "missing self" recognition effect. However, this model disregarded the NK cell licensing effect, which highly increases the NK cell reactivity against tumor and is dependent on the coexpression of inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (iKIR) and its corresponding HLA Class I ligand. We assessed clinical data, HLA and donor iKIR genotyping in 283 patients with myelo- and lymphoproliferative malignancies who underwent HSCT from unrelated donors. We found dramatically reduced overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), and time to progression (TTP) among patients with malignant diseases with the lack of HLA ligand cognate with this iKIR involved in NK cell licensing in corresponding donor (events 83.3% vs. 39.8%, P = 0.0010; 91.6% vs. 47.7%, P = 0.00010; and 30.0% vs. 17.3%, P = 0.013, for OS, PFS, and TTP, respectively). The extremely adverse PFS have withstand the correction when patient group was restricted to HLA mismatched donor-recipient pairs. The incidence of aGvHD was comparable in two groups of patients. In malignant patients after HSCT the missing HLA ligand for iKIR involved in NK cell licensing in corresponding donor ("missing licensing proof") induced extremely adverse survival of the patients due to the progression of malignancy and not to the aGvHD. Avoiding the selection of HSCT donors with the "missing licensing proof" in the malignant patient is strongly advisable.

  12. Quantitative validation of a habitat suitability index for oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eTheuerkauf


    Full Text Available Habitat suitability index (HSI models provide spatially explicit information on the capacity of a given habitat to support a species of interest, and their prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite caution that the reliability of HSIs must be validated using independent, quantitative data, most HSIs intended to inform terrestrial and marine species management remain unvalidated. Furthermore, of the eight HSI models developed for eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica restoration and fishery production, none has been validated. Consequently, we developed, calibrated, and validated an HSI for the eastern oyster to identify optimal habitat for restoration in a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, the Great Wicomico River (GWR. The GWR harbors a high density, restored oyster population, and therefore serves as an excellent model system for assessing the validity of the HSI. The HSI was derived from GIS layers of bottom type, salinity, and water depth (surrogate for dissolved oxygen, and was tested using live adult oyster density data from a survey of high vertical relief reefs (HRR and low vertical relief reefs (LRR in the sanctuary network. Live adult oyster density was a statistically-significant sigmoid function of the HSI, which validates the HSI as a robust predictor of suitable oyster reef habitat for rehabilitation or restoration. In addition, HRR had on average 103-116 more adults m^−2 than LRR at a given level of the HSI. For HRR, HSI values ≥0.3 exceeded the accepted restoration target of 50 live adult oysters m^−2. For LRR, the HSI was generally able to predict live adult oyster densities that meet or exceed the target at HSI values ≥0.3. The HSI indicated that there remain large areas of suitable habitat for restoration in the GWR. This study provides a robust framework for HSI model development and validation, which can be refined and applied to other systems and previously developed HSIs to improve the efficacy of

  13. Habitat suitability index models: Black-shouldered kite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faanes, C.A.; Howard, R.J.


    The black-shouldered kite inhabits a disjunct range extending from California, Texas, and south intermittently to Chile and Argentina (American Ornithologists' Union 1983). Prior to the 1960's, this species occurred in low numbers across much of its range. Populations of black-shouldered kite have changed considerably within the limited area of its US range. Although considered common and widespread in California in the late 1800's, the species was largely extirpated from much of the state by the early 1900's. Since 1960, the population status and range of this raptor in North America have improved markedly. Today the black-shouldered kite in California is a common species of open and cultivated bottomland. The black-shouldered kite habitat suitability index (HSI) model is intended for use with the habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (1980) for impact assessment and habitat management. The model was developed from a review and synthesis of existing information, and includes unpublished information that reflects the opinions of persons familiar with black-shouldered kite ecology. It is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimally suitable habitat). Assumptions used to develop the HSI model and guidelines for model application, including techniques for measuring model variables, are described. Model documentation is provided. This model is a hypothesis of species-habitat relations, not a statement of proven cause and effect. The model has not been field tested. 33 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Similar liver transplantation survival with selected cardiac death donors and brain death donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Farid, W.; Ringers, J.; Porte, R. J.; Metselaar, H. J.; Baranski, A. G.; Kazemier, G.; van den Bere, A. P.; van Hoek, B.


    Background: The outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with controlled graft donation after cardiac death (DCD) is usually inferior to that with graft donation after brain death (DBD). This study compared outcomes from OLT with DBD versus controlled DCD donors with predefined restrictive

  15. Tuning the Rainbow: Systematic Modulation of Donor-Acceptor Systems through Donor Substituents and Solvent. (United States)

    Larsen, Christopher B; van der Salm, Holly; Shillito, Georgina E; Lucas, Nigel T; Gordon, Keith C


    A series of donor-acceptor compounds is reported in which the energy of the triarylamine donor is systematically tuned through para substitution with electron-donating methoxy and electron-withdrawing cyano groups. The acceptor units investigated are benzothiadiazole (btd), dipyridophenazine (dppz), and its [ReCl(CO)3(dppz)] complex. The effect of modulating donor energy on the electronic and photophysical properties is investigated using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, DFT calculations, electrochemistry, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, ground state and resonance Raman spectroscopy, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Qualitative correlations between the donor energy and the properties of interest are obtained using Hammett σ(+) constants. Methoxy and cyano groups are shown to destabilize and stabilize, respectively, the frontier molecular orbitals, with the HOMO affected more significantly than the LUMO, narrowing the HOMO-LUMO band gap as the substituent becomes more electron-donating-observable as a bathochromic shift in low-energy charge-transfer absorption bands. Charge-transfer emission bands are also dependent on the electron-donating/withdrawing nature of the substituent, and in combination with the highly solvatochromic nature of charge-transfer states, emission can be tuned to span the entire visible region.

  16. Hydrogeochemical quality and suitability studies of groundwater in northern Bangladesh. (United States)

    Islam, M J; Hakim, M A; Hanafi, M M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Aktar, Sharmin; Siddiqa, Aysha; Rahman, A K M Shajedur; Islam, M Atikul; Halim, M A


    Agriculture, rapid urbanization and geochemical processes have direct or indirect effects on the chemical composition of groundwater and aquifer geochemistry. Hydro-chemical investigations, which are significant for assessment of water quality, were carried out to study the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater of Dinajpur district, northern Bangladesh. The groundwater samplish were analyzed for physico-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductance, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl- ions, respectively. Based on the analyses, certain parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The results showed that the groundwater of study area was fresh, slightly acidic (pH 5.3-6.4) and low in TDS (35-275 mg I(-1)). Ground water of the study area was found suitable for irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes, since most of the parameters analyzed were within the WHO recommended values for drinking water. High concentration of NO3- and Cl- was reported in areas with extensive agriculture and rapid urbanization. Ion-exchange, weathering, oxidation and dissolution of minerals were major geochemical processes governing the groundwater evolution in study area. Gibb's diagram showed that all the samples fell in the rock dominance field. Based on evaluation, it is clear that groundwater quality of the study area was suitable for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

  17. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

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    Youichi Kawano

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT, the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH. The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r = 0.765, p = 0.0038, demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p = 0.001. Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled.

  18. Adequacy of the ELISA test for screening corneal transplant donors. (United States)

    Goode, S M; Hertzmark, E; Steinert, R F


    Using a simple mathematical model, we calculated the risk for a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty to receive a cornea from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected donor despite negative results on serologic testing of donor serum. This error in serologic testing occurred when false-negative results were obtained from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to screen donor corneas for human immunodeficiency virus exposure. The average risk of transplanting an infected cornea was low, 0.03%, but increased by a factor of ten when donor tissue from donors at high risk for AIDS was used. Current screening procedures are probably adequate to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, but increased vigilance for high-risk donor populations may be appropriate.

  19. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Guleria


    Full Text Available Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excellent alternative, has no learning curve and is ideally suited for donors in India who have a low BMI. The procedure is also relatively inexpensive. We are in need of a donor registry rather than reports from single institutions to fully evaluate the risks and benefits of both procedures.

  20. Renal transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients justified. (United States)

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir


    HIV infection was previously an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal transplantation using HIV-negative donor kidneys has successfully been employed for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal failure. In resource-limited countries, places on dialysis programmes are severely restricted; HIV-infected patients, like many others with co-morbidity, are often denied treatment. Kidneys (and other organs) from HIV-infected deceased donors are discarded. The transplantation of HIV-positive donor kidneys to HIV-infected recipients is now a viable alternative to chronic dialysis or transplantation of HIV-negative donor kidneys. This significantly increases the pool of donor kidneys to the advantage of HIV-positive and -negative patients. Arguments are presented that led to our initiation of renal transplantation from HIV-positive deceased donors to HIV-positive recipients at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.

  1. Improving Photoconductance of Fluorinated Donors with Fluorinated Acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Logan E.; Larson, Bryon; Oosterhout, Stefan; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw; Olson, Dana C.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Braunecker, Wade A.


    This work investigates the influence of fluorination of both donor and acceptor materials on the generation of free charge carriers in small molecule donor/fullerene acceptor BHJ OPV active layers. A fluorinated and non-fluorinated small molecule analogue were synthesized and their optoelectronic properties characterized. The intrinsic photoconductance of blends of these small molecule donors was investigated using time-resolved microwave conductivity. Blends of the two donor molecules with a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene (PC70BM) as well as a fluorinated fullerene (C60(CF3)2-1) were investigated using 5% and 50% fullerene loading. We demonstrate for the first time that photoconductance in a 50:50 donor:acceptor BHJ blend using a fluorinated fullerene can actually be improved relative to a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene by fluorinating the donor molecule as well.

  2. Suitable Conditions of Reservoir Simulation for Searching Rule Curves (United States)

    Kangrang, Anongrit; Chaleeraktrakoon, Chavalit

    The objective of this study is to carry out a suitable length of inflow record using in the simulation model. The second objective is to find an effect of initial reservoir capacity of reservoir simulation for searching the optimal rule curves. The reservoir simulation model was connected with genetic algorithms to search the optimal rule curves quickly. The model has been appli