WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing donor suitability

  1. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS...; and (7) Freedom of the arms and forearms from skin punctures or scars indicative of addiction to...

  2. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.63 Section 640.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... arms and forearms from skin punctures or scars indicative of addiction to self-injected narcotics;...

  3. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making. PMID:24919733

  4. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D.; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K.; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an...

  5. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  6. Radiation cytogenetic in vitro studies on human donors in the development of a suitable biological dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report is on the work carried out under the Agency research contract 3173/RB entitled ''Radiation cytogenetic in vitro studies on human donors in the development of a suitable biological dosimeter'', at the Clinical Hospital Centre ''Zvezdara'' in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In co-operation and co-ordination dissemination with an international team of cytogeneticists under the IAEA CRP, the development of a suitable biological dosimetry system has been accomplished at the national institute to assist reliably in the absorbed radiation-dose assessment of accidentally-over-exposed personnel. The quantitative yield of asymmetrical chromosomal aberrations, such as dicentrics, rings and fragments consequent to exposure(s) to radiation overdose, help in such estimation of vital prognostic and radiation protection significance. This biological dosimeter system is particularly essential where the exposed person was not wearing any physical dosemeter during the accident. Prerequisite for implementation of an effective biological dosimetry is the availability of a reliable standard dose-response curve and an adherence to a protocol for lymphocytic chromosome analysis in first division phase of lymphocytes. The validation of the reported biological dosimeter is established through its successful analysis of a simulated over-exposure incident, with the associated error of less than 10%. Analytical cytogenetic methods for whole- and part-body acute exposures have been discussed. Part of the results have been reported in the publications under the CRP concerned

  7. Improving donor lung suitability: from protective strategies to ex-vivo reconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidoro, Paolo; Schreiber, Annia; Boffini, Massimo; Braido, Fulvio; DI Marco, Fabiano

    2016-06-01

    Lung transplant is a therapeutic option for end stage lung diseases, but only a limited number of lung grafts is considered suitable for transplantation. It has been recently suggested an approach to improve and maximize donor lung suitability, namely ventilation strategies to prevent lung damage and preserve function before transplantation. In potential lung donor patients, the use of lung-protective ventilatory strategies may protect against and at least partially reverse some conditions, such as ventilator-induced lung injury, atelectasis and neurogenic pulmonary edema, resulting in improved donor organ procurement. The novelty recently proposed lies in the integration of ventilatory strategies of previous studies, using an algorithmic approach for the management of potential donors, based on their clinical response and PaO2/FiO2 ratio. This approach could be further improved by using lung ultrasound (LUS) which demonstrated to be more accurate than bedside chest radiography in detecting and distinguishing different degrees of aeration loss, and could be useful in the evaluation of alveolar recruitment following the application of PEEP or after performing any recruitment maneuver. Finally, the close future is the exploration of ex-vivo reconditioning which introduces the exciting concept of both a protective ventilation and a protective perfusion, reducing the risk of ventilation associated damage, and, on the other hand, washing out potential inflammatory cytokines by low volume high oncotic pressure perfusion, managing the risk of edema by capillary leakage. Addressing these challenges will allow more patients with end-stage lung disease access to a lung transplant. PMID:27424500

  8. Identification of suitable reference genes in bone marrow stromal cells from osteoarthritic donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildberg, Theresa; Rauh, Juliane; Bretschneider, Henriette; Stiehler, Maik

    2013-11-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are key cellular components for musculoskeletal tissue engineering strategies. Furthermore, recent data suggest that BMSCs are involved in the development of Osteoarthritis (OA) being a frequently occurring degenerative joint disease. Reliable reference genes for the molecular evaluation of BMSCs derived from donors exhibiting OA as a primary co-morbidity have not been reported on yet. Hence, the aim of the study was to identify reference genes suitable for comparative gene expression analyses using OA-BMSCs. Passage 1 bone marrow derived BMSCs were isolated from n=13 patients with advanced stage idiopathic hip osteoarthritis and n=15 age-matched healthy donors. The expression of 31 putative reference genes was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using a commercially available TaqMan(®) assay. Calculating the coefficient of variation (CV), mRNA expression stability was determined and afterwards validated using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Importin 8 (IPO8), TATA box binding protein (TBP), and cancer susceptibility candidate 3 (CASC3) were identified as the most stable reference genes. Notably, commonly used reference genes, e.g. beta-actin (ACTB) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) were among the most unstable genes. For normalization of gene expression data of OA-BMSCs the combined use of IPO8, TBP, and CASC3 gene is recommended.

  9. Being Sherlock Holmes: the Internet as a tool for assessing live organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A; Katznelson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Donor advocacy is a critical feature of live donor transplantation. Donor Advocates and Donor Advocate Teams (DAT) are now routine to the practice of live donor evaluation in the USA. Multidisciplinary in nature, DATs gather both medical and psychosocial information about potential live organ donors and then render a decision as to whether or not these individuals are suitable to participate. Because of the critical ethical and psychosocial concerns about live donation, thorough donor evaluations are essential. Additionally, the information gathered must be accurate, and this requires honest disclosure by the donor candidate. In this paper, we describe how DATs can use various forms of free, public content available on the Internet to aid live donor assessments. In this way, the DAT assumes somewhat of an investigative role; however, this is ethically justified in light of the DAT duty to protect the donor. The protective effect can also spread to the transplant program, in general, when inappropriate donors are excluded from the donation process.

  10. Being Sherlock Holmes: the Internet as a tool for assessing live organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A; Katznelson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Donor advocacy is a critical feature of live donor transplantation. Donor Advocates and Donor Advocate Teams (DAT) are now routine to the practice of live donor evaluation in the USA. Multidisciplinary in nature, DATs gather both medical and psychosocial information about potential live organ donors and then render a decision as to whether or not these individuals are suitable to participate. Because of the critical ethical and psychosocial concerns about live donation, thorough donor evaluations are essential. Additionally, the information gathered must be accurate, and this requires honest disclosure by the donor candidate. In this paper, we describe how DATs can use various forms of free, public content available on the Internet to aid live donor assessments. In this way, the DAT assumes somewhat of an investigative role; however, this is ethically justified in light of the DAT duty to protect the donor. The protective effect can also spread to the transplant program, in general, when inappropriate donors are excluded from the donation process. PMID:19210684

  11. Identifying the most suitable endogenous control for determining gene expression in hearts from organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Enrique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a useful tool for assessing gene expression in different tissues, but the choice of adequate controls is critical to normalise the results, thereby avoiding differences and maximizing sensitivity and accuracy. So far, many genes have been used as a single reference gene, without having previously verified their value as controls. This practice can lead to incorrect conclusions and recent evidence indicates a need to use the geometric mean of data from several control genes. Here, we identified an appropriate set of genes to be used as an endogenous reference for quantifying gene expression in human heart tissue. Results Our findings indicate that out of ten commonly used reference genes (GADPH, PPIA, ACTB, YWHAZ, RRN18S, B2M, UBC, TBP, RPLP and HPRT, PPIA, RPLP and GADPH show the most stable gene transcription levels in left ventricle specimens obtained from organ donors, as assessed using geNorm and Normfinder software. The expression of TBP was found to be highly regulated. Conclusion We propose the use of PPIA, RPLP and GADPH as reference genes for the accurate normalisation of qRT-PCR performed on heart tissue. TBP should not be used as a control in this type of tissue.

  12. 21 CFR 1270.21 - Determination of donor suitability for human tissue intended for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... infectious disease testing; or (ii) An algorithm is utilized that evaluates the volumes administered in the... from the tissue donor is available for infectious disease testing; or (ii) An algorithm is...

  13. The Importance of Biologically Relevant Microclimates in Habitat Suitability Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Varner; M Denise Dearing

    2014-01-01

    Predicting habitat suitability under climate change is vital to conserving biodiversity. However, current species distribution models rely on coarse scale climate data, whereas fine scale microclimate data may be necessary to assess habitat suitability and generate predictive models. Here, we evaluate disparities between temperature data at the coarse scale from weather stations versus fine-scale data measured in microhabitats required for a climate-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochoto...

  14. Donor conversion rates depend on the assessment tools used in the evaluation of potential organ donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick); E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco); M. van der Jagt (Mathieu); J. Bakker (Jan); B. Roozenbeek (Bob); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: It is desirable to identify a potential organ donor (POD) as early as possible to achieve a donor conversion rate (DCR) as high as possible which is defined as the actual number of organ donors divided by the number of patients who are regarded as a potential organ donor. The DC

  15. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  16. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  17. EXPERT MODEL OF LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đurđević

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 17404 soil samples (2003rd-2009th year were analysed in the eastern Croatia. The largest number of soil samples belongs to the Osijek-Baranya county, which together with both Eastern sugar beet Factories (Osijek and Županja, conduct the soil fertility control (~4200 samples/yr.. Computer model suitability assessment for crops, supported by GIS, proved to be fast, efficient enough reliable in terms of the number of analyzed soil samples. It allows the visualization of the agricultural area and prediction of its production properties for the purposes of analysis, planning and rationalization of agricultural production. With more precise data about the soil (soil, climate and reliable Digital Soil Map of Croatia, the model could be an acceptable, not only to evaluate the suitability for growing different crops but also their need for fertilizer, necessary machinery, repairs (liming, and other measures of organic matter input. The abovementioned aims to eliminate or reduce effects of limiting factors in primary agricultural production. Assessment of the relative benefits of soil presented by computer model for the crops production and geostatistical method kriging in the Osijek-Baranya county showed: 1 Average soil suitability being 60.06 percent. 2 Kriging predicted that 51751 ha (17.16% are of limited resources (N1 for growing crops whereas a 86142 ha (28.57% of land is limited suitably (S3, b 132789 ha (44.04% are moderately suitable (S2 and c 30772 ha (10.28% are of excellent fertility (S1. A large number of eastern Croatian land data showed that the computer-geostatistical model for determination of soil benefits for growing crops was automated, fast and simple to use and suitable for the implementation of GIS and automatically downloading the necessary benefit indicators from the input base (land, analytical and climate as well as data from the digital soil maps able to: a visualize the suitability for soil tillage, b predict the

  18. Criteria for viability assessment of discarded human donor livers during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Sutton

    Full Text Available Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate viable from non-viable livers we have studied functional performance as well as biochemical and histological evidence of hepatobiliary injury during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion of human donor livers. After a median duration of cold storage of 6.5 h, twelve extended criteria human donor livers that were declined for transplantation were ex vivo perfused for 6 h at 37 °C with an oxygenated solution based on red blood cells and plasma, using pressure controlled pulsatile perfusion of the hepatic artery and continuous portal perfusion. During perfusion, two patterns of bile flow were identified: (1 steadily increasing bile production, resulting in a cumulative output of ≥ 30 g after 6 h (high bile output group, and (2 a cumulative bile production <20 g in 6 h (low bile output group. Concentrations of transaminases and potassium in the perfusion fluid were significantly higher in the low bile output group, compared to the high bile output group. Biliary concentrations of bilirubin and bicarbonate were respectively 4 times and 2 times higher in the high bile output group. Livers in the low bile output group displayed more signs of hepatic necrosis and venous congestion, compared to the high bile output group. In conclusion, bile production could be an easily assessable biomarker of hepatic viability during ex vivo machine perfusion of human donor livers. It could potentially be used to identify extended criteria livers that are suitable for transplantation. These ex vivo findings need to be confirmed in a transplant experiment or a clinical trial.

  19. Update on donor assessment, resuscitation, and acceptance criteria, including novel techniques--non-heart-beating donor lung retrieval and ex vivo donor lung perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jonathan C; Cypel, Marcelo; Waddell, Thomas K; van Raemdonck, Dirk; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2009-05-01

    The shortage of adequate organ donors remains a great challenge in clinical lung transplantation. With increasing experience in the medical management and surgical technique of lung transplantation, gradual expansion of the criteria for lung donor selection has occurred with beneficial effects on the donor pool. Interest in donation after cardiac death also is increasing as the gap increases between donors and the needs of listed patients. Successful use of these new sources of lungs depends on the accurate assessment and prediction of transplanted lung function. Promising techniques for lung assessment and diagnostics include investigating key genes associated with graft failure or good graft performance using molecular approaches, and ex vivo evaluation. Further studies are needed to answer remaining questions about the best technique and solution to reperfuse human lungs for several hours without edema formation. As the predictive ability to discern good from injured donor lungs improves, strategies to repair donor lungs become increasingly important. Prolonged normothermic EVLP seems to be a platform on which many reparative strategies can be realized. With these new methods for assessing and resuscitating lungs accurately, it is hoped that inroads will be made toward providing every listed patient a chance for successful lung transplantation. PMID:19662970

  20. Investigation of Suitability of Cascading Outage Assessment Methods for Real-Time Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pauli Fríðheim; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    This paper investigates the suitability of assessment methods for cascading outages for real-time assessment. A total of ten assessment methods for cascading outages are investigated, and for all of the investigated methods a complexity assessment is performed to assess the suitability...... of the method to real-time assessment. The investigation revealed that two of the methods are of special interest for further study on real-time assessment of cascading outages. These are the betweenness centrality model, based on network topology, and the manchester model, based on AC power flow....

  1. Assessment of donor heart viability during ex vivo heart perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher W; Ambrose, Emma; Müller, Alison; Li, Yun; Le, Hoa; Hiebert, Brett; Arora, Rakesh; Lee, Trevor W; Dixon, Ian; Tian, Ganghong; Nagendran, Jayan; Hryshko, Larry; Freed, Darren

    2015-10-01

    Ex vivo heart perfusion (EVHP) may facilitate resuscitation of discarded donor hearts and expand the donor pool; however, a reliable means of demonstrating organ viability prior to transplantation is required. Therefore, we sought to identify metabolic and functional parameters that predict myocardial performance during EVHP. To evaluate the parameters over a broad spectrum of organ function, we obtained hearts from 9 normal pigs and 37 donation after circulatory death pigs and perfused them ex vivo. Functional parameters obtained from a left ventricular conductance catheter, oxygen consumption, coronary vascular resistance, and lactate concentration were measured, and linear regression analyses were performed to identify which parameters best correlated with myocardial performance (cardiac index: mL·min(-1)·g(-1)). Functional parameters exhibited excellent correlation with myocardial performance and demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for identifying hearts at risk of poor post-transplant function (ejection fraction: R(2) = 0.80, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.85; stroke work: R(2) = 0.76, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.77; minimum dP/dt: R(2) = 0.74, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.54; tau: R(2) = 0.51, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.92), whereas metabolic parameters were limited in their ability to predict myocardial performance (oxygen consumption: R(2) = 0.28; coronary vascular resistance: R(2) = 0.20; lactate concentration: R(2) = 0.02). We concluded that evaluation of functional parameters provides the best assessment of myocardial performance during EVHP, which highlights the need for an EVHP device capable of assessing the donor heart in a physiologic working mode.

  2. Concrete with carpet recyclates: suitability assessment by surface energy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Cieślak, M

    2008-01-01

    Worn out textile floor coverings are burdensome wastes that are degraded in landfill sites after a very long period of time. One of the ways to manage this kind of waste may be the use of carpet recyclate (CR) as an additive for concrete reinforcement. Therefore, an attempt was made to predict the effects of recyclate additives on the durability a concrete-carpet mixture by employing the method of assessing surface properties of components in the concrete-carpet recyclates composite. Testing was performed on carpet wastes, containing polyamide (PA) and polypropylene (PP) piles and butadiene-styrene resin with chalk filler (BSC) as back coating, to assess the suitability of CR additive for concrete reinforcement by surface energy evaluation. Based on the measurements of contact angles, the free surface energy of recyclate components was determined. The reversible work of adhesion at the interface between these components in dry and wet states was also calculated. The results show that CR with both PA and PP fibers form a strong and water-resistant bond with concrete. PMID:17611097

  3. Concrete with carpet recyclates: suitability assessment by surface energy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Cieślak, M

    2008-01-01

    Worn out textile floor coverings are burdensome wastes that are degraded in landfill sites after a very long period of time. One of the ways to manage this kind of waste may be the use of carpet recyclate (CR) as an additive for concrete reinforcement. Therefore, an attempt was made to predict the effects of recyclate additives on the durability a concrete-carpet mixture by employing the method of assessing surface properties of components in the concrete-carpet recyclates composite. Testing was performed on carpet wastes, containing polyamide (PA) and polypropylene (PP) piles and butadiene-styrene resin with chalk filler (BSC) as back coating, to assess the suitability of CR additive for concrete reinforcement by surface energy evaluation. Based on the measurements of contact angles, the free surface energy of recyclate components was determined. The reversible work of adhesion at the interface between these components in dry and wet states was also calculated. The results show that CR with both PA and PP fibers form a strong and water-resistant bond with concrete.

  4. Living kidney donor assessment: challenges, uncertainties and controversies among transplant nephrologists and surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, A; Chapman, J R; Wong, G; Craig, J C

    2013-11-01

    The assessment of living kidney donors presents unique ethical challenges and complex psychosocial implications. This study aimed to ascertain the perspectives of transplant nephrologists and surgeons on living kidney donor assessment. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 110 transplant nephrologists and surgeons from 43 transplant units in 12 countries from Europe, Australasia and North America. The challenge of defining acceptable risk to the donor was central to five themes identified: burden of responsibility (personal accountability, policing morality, democratic decision making, meeting legal obligations, optimizing outcomes and innovation, relinquished control); medical protectiveness (prognostic uncertainty, skepticism of donor risk perception, avoidance of undue coercion, concerns for dubious motivations and coercion, safeguard donor well-being, ethical information disclosure); respecting donor autonomy (facilitate informed-decision making, concede to donor risk acceptance, benefit of the doubt, donor mandate to maintain health, acceptable altruism); driving ideologies (preserving equity, championing living donation, cognizance of anti-paternalism) and contextual pressures (evolving donor demographic, resource limitations). Living kidney donor assessment involves complex interactions between safeguarding the donors' welfare and respecting their autonomy. In our opinion, authoritative and well-described transplant unit, hospital and public policy positions that make explicit the considerations that are often implicit may reduce the uncertainty within which living donors are assessed today. PMID:24020905

  5. Is the red-yellow-black scheme suitable to classify donor site wounds? An inter-observer analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Eskes; L.A.A. Gerbens; C.M.A.M. van der Horst; H. Vermeulen; D.T. Ubbink

    2011-01-01

    The red-yellow-black-scheme (RYB) is a well-known and validated scheme to classify chronic and acute wounds, based on wound color and moistness. We investigated whether this RYB-scheme is also useful to classify donor site wounds uniformly (DSW). Twenty-three digital photographs of DSWs in various s

  6. Assessing groundwater stoichiometric composition and its suitability in Northwestern Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahidul Islam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality analyses included pH, EC, cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ and As3+, anions (CO32-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43- and Cl- and TDS of northwestern Bangladesh. The samples contained Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ as the dominant cations and HCO3- and Cl- were the dominant anions. Ratios of major cations and anions of water samples suggest the predominance of Ca and Mg-containing minerals over Na-containing minerals. According to TDS and SAR values, all samples were classed as 'freshwater' and 'excellent' categories. The SSP of all waters was under 'excellent' and 'good' classes. All samples were within 'soft' class regarding hardness with 'suitable' RSC. Based on As3+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, SO42-, NO3- and Cl- all groundwater samples were within the 'safe' limit for drinking but unsuitable for some industries for specific ions.

  7. Design of Acceptors with Suitable Frontier Molecular Orbitals to Match Donors via Substitutions on Perylene Diimide for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoli; Li, Zhuoxin; Li, Songyang; Luan, Guoyou; Liang, Dadong; Tang, Shanshan; Jin, Ruifa

    2016-05-13

    A series of perylene diimide (PDI) derivatives have been investigated at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G(d) and the TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) levels to design solar cell acceptors with high performance in areas such as suitable frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energies to match oligo(thienylenevinylene) derivatives and improved charge transfer properties. The calculated results reveal that the substituents slightly affect the distribution patterns of FMOs for PDI-BI. The electron withdrawing group substituents decrease the FMO energies of PDI-BI, and the electron donating group substituents slightly affect the FMO energies of PDI-BI. The di-electron withdrawing group substituents can tune the FMOs of PDI-BI to be more suitable for the oligo(thienylenevinylene) derivatives. The electron withdrawing group substituents result in red shifts of absorption spectra and electron donating group substituents result in blue shifts for PDI-BI. The -CN substituent can improve the electron transport properties of PDI-BI. The -CH₃ group in different positions slightly affects the electron transport properties of PDI-BI.

  8. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  9. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Process models, such as the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications, seem to be suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers. However, they must be thoroughly tested in practice.

  10. Characteristics of meat packaging materials and their environmental suitability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After functional phase, packaging becomes waste that is recycled or disposed of in landfills. Recently, numerus packages have been developed for assessing the packaging risk on the environment. We applied Gabi 4 Education software on polymer product packaging for meat products. The objective of first part of the paper was characterization of materials used for meat and meat products packaging in terms of mechanical and barrier properties. Results show that tested materials are able to keep protective atmosphere and contribute to the quality and sustainability of the product. Air permeability was 3.60 and 26.60 ml/m224h, and water vapor was 6.90 and 9.50 ml/m224h, respectively, for foils 1 and 2, as a result of different film composition. In second part, based on real data, Gabi 4 Education software is applied. The obtained results showed that organic compounds emissions have the highest impact on human health and the most damaging environmental impact observed was the emission of CO2.

  11. Laboratory and Genetic Assessment of Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Over 9 million individuals donate blood annually in the US. Between 200 to 250 mg of iron is removed with each whole blood donation, reflecting losses from the hemoglobin in red blood cells. This amount represents approximately 25% of the average iron stores in men and almost 75% of the iron stores in women. Replenishment of iron stores takes many months, leading to a high rate of iron depletion, especially in frequent blood donors (e. g., more than 2 times per year). In large epidemiologic s...

  12. Assessment of cryopreserved donor skin viability: the experience of the regional tissue bank of Siena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianigiani, E; Tognetti, L; Ierardi, F; Mariotti, G; Rubegni, P; Cevenini, G; Perotti, R; Fimiani, M

    2016-06-01

    Skin allografts from cadaver donors are an important resource for treating extensive burns, slow-healing wounds and chronic ulcers. A high level of cell viability of cryopreserved allografts is often required, especially in burn surgery, in Italy. Thus, we aimed to determine which conditions enable procurement of highly viable skin in our Regional Skin Bank of Siena. For this purpose, we assessed cell viability of cryopreserved skin allografts procured between 2011 and 2013 from 127 consecutive skin donors, before and after freezing (at day 15, 180, and 365). For each skin donor, we collected data concerning clinical history (age, sex, smoking, phototype, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cause of death), donation process (multi-tissue or multi-organ) and timing of skin procurement (assessment of intervals such as death-harvesting, harvesting-banking, death-banking). All these variables were analysed in the whole case study (127 donors) and in different groups (e.g. multi-organ donors, non refrigerated multi-tissue donors, refrigerated multi-tissue donors) for correlations with cell viability. Our results indicated that cryopreserved skin allografts with higher cell viability were obtained from female, non smoker, heartbeating donors died of cerebral haemorrhage, and were harvested within 2 h of aortic clamping and banked within 12 h of harvesting (13-14 h from clamping). Age, cause of death and dyslipidaemia or diabetes did not appear to influence cell viability. To maintain acceptable cell viability, our skin bank needs to reduce the time interval between harvesting and banking, especially for refrigerated donors. PMID:26939692

  13. Donor disc attachment assessment with intraoperative spectral optical coherence tomography during descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wylegala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography has already been proven to be useful for pre- and post-surgical anterior eye segment assessment, especially in lamellar keratoplasty procedures. There is no evidence for intraoperative usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT. We present a case report of the intraoperative donor disc attachment assessment with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in case of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK surgery combined with corneal incisions. The effectiveness of the performed corneal stab incisions was visualized directly by OCT scan analysis. OCT assisted DSAEK allows the assessment of the accuracy of the Descemet stripping and donor disc attachment.

  14. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Bibliographic Information to Assess Pet Suitability of Mammal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; de Mol, Rudi M; Ipema, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health, and/or human-animal interaction, resulting, for example, in stereotypies, disease, and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human-animal relationship of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g., birds, reptiles, and amphibians. PMID:27243023

  15. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using bibliographic information to assess pet suitability of mammal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eKoene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health and/or human-animal interaction, resulting for example in stereotypies, disease and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human-animal relationship (HAR of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g. birds, reptiles and amphibians.

  16. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Bibliographic Information to Assess Pet Suitability of Mammal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; de Mol, Rudi M.; Ipema, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Which mammal species are suitable to be kept as pet? For answering this question many factors have to be considered. Animals have many adaptations to their natural environment in which they have evolved that may cause adaptation problems and/or risks in captivity. Problems may be visible in behavior, welfare, health, and/or human–animal interaction, resulting, for example, in stereotypies, disease, and fear. A framework is developed in which bibliographic information of mammal species from the wild and captive environment is collected and assessed by three teams of animal scientists. Oneliners from literature about behavioral ecology, health, and welfare and human–animal relationship of 90 mammal species are collected by team 1 in a database and strength of behavioral needs and risks is assessed by team 2. Based on summaries of those strengths the suitability of the mammal species is assessed by team 3. Involvement of stakeholders for supplying bibliographic information and assessments was propagated. Combining the individual and subjective assessments of the scientists using statistical methods makes the final assessment of a rank order of suitability as pet of those species less biased and more objective. The framework is dynamic and produces an initial rank ordered list of the pet suitability of 90 mammal species, methods to add new mammal species to the list or remove animals from the list and a method to incorporate stakeholder assessments. A model is developed that allows for provisional classification of pet suitability. Periodical update of the pet suitability framework is expected to produce an updated list with increased reliability and accuracy. Furthermore, the framework could be further developed to assess the pet suitability of additional species of other animal groups, e.g., birds, reptiles, and amphibians. PMID:27243023

  17. Components of pain assessment after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ergun, M.; Berkers, A.W.; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Ozdemir-Brunschot, D. van; Vliet, J.A. van der; D'Ancona, F.C.H.; Warle, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain after laparoscopic surgery can be divided into three components: incisional or superficial wound pain, deep intra-abdominal pain and referred shoulder pain. Better understanding and adequate assessment of post-operative pain may be an important clue to the optimisation of recovery a

  18. Combining Data to Assess of the Habitat Suitability of Patches of Streambed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, C. M.; Aley, T.; Ashley, D.; Noltie, D.

    2011-12-01

    Many of the aquatic animals that live in cave streams are threatened, endangered, or endemic. Management plans needed to conserve the aquatic ecosystems within which these animals live must be based on an understanding of the food webs, life histories, and habitat suitability. However, for many of these ecosystems, there is very little information about the food webs, life histories, or habitat suitability. If information is available, that information is frequently incomplete. One aspect of habitat suitability is the stability of the streambed sediment. Sediment that can be scoured over a wide range of hydrologic conditions is not suitable habitat as scour events disrupt the streambed sediment resulting in dispersal or possibly death of the animals; whereas, sediment that cannot be scoured would be suitable habitat. Assessing sediment stability requires hydrologic and sedimentologic data and assessing habitat suitability requires population consensus data. Rarely are the three disparate sets of data collected. Our objective was to develop a method that can be used to assess streambed stability using disparate data sets. At locations along the cave streams for which we have conducted population consensuses and particle-size distribution data, we used the flow competence method to assess streambed stability. At each location, the depth of water that would result in scour of the sediment was calculated (a constant) and was compared to the measured or calculated depth of the water (a function of time). In absence of measured depth of water data, we used a numerical model of unsteady state flow along the two main stream channels to calculate the depth of water at each consensus location in each ecosystem. Habitat suitability was evaluated by comparing the presence or absence of animals at each consensus location with our understanding of the stability of the streambed at the same location. With a calibrated numerical model and water depth and sedimentologic data, this

  19. Suitability of voltage stability study methods for real-time assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Angel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Vancraeyveld, Pieter;

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the suitability of existing methods for long-term voltage stability assessment for real-time operation. An overview of the relevant methods is followed with a comparison that takes into account the accuracy, computational efficiency and characteristics when used for security...

  20. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied...

  1. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques

  2. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail: timgy@yahoo.com; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

  3. A Proposed Model to Assess and Map Irrigation Water Well Suitability Using Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed E. Omran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the vulnerability of groundwater is the first step toward careful management of water resources to avoid or, at least, to minimize impacts on agriculture. The objective of this study was to propose a simple method to assess the groundwater quality and to map its spatial variation in terms of suitability for irrigation in the Darb El-Arbaein area, Southwestern Desert, Egypt. Thirty-six surveyed wells were used to assess and map the groundwater quality. For calculating the Water Quality Index (WQI, a total of 20 (13 chemical, two physical, and five calculated parameters were considered e.g., EC, pH, Cl, SAR, B, Zn, iron, Mn, Pb and Cd. The results of analyses were used to propose a water quality model. The different water quality maps were produced using GIS software. The results show that three water samples fall into the moderate WQI. Most of the samples (26 fall into the unsuitable WQI category. Seven samples fall into the suitable WQI category. Groundwater samples that fall into the low salinity hazard class and high WQI can be used for irrigation of most crops and the majority of soils. The WQI for the samples ranges from 47.9 to 88.6. The WQI distribution maps delineating an area of 266.66 ha are suitable for irrigation in villages (3,4 and areas of 382.35 ha are moderately suitability for villages (1,2. Since the final map shows the spatial distribution of irrigation water quality in the area, it is now much easier for a decision maker to assess the water quality for irrigation and to locate the most suitable site for drilling wells. The present study demonstrates high efficiency for GIS to analyze complex spatial data and groundwater quality mapping.

  4. GIS-Based Assessment of Land Suitability for Optimal Allocation in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jie-Yong; GUO Li-Ying

    2006-01-01

    A GIS-based method was used to assess land suitability in the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province of China through simultaneous consideration of physical features and current land use. Through interpretation of Landsat TM images and extensive field visits the area was modeled into 40 land types in five altitudinal zones (valleys and gullies, hillsides and terraces, foothills, mid-mountain, and sub-alpine mountain). Then, a suitability score was assigned to five physical factors (climate, hydrology, topography, soil, and vegetation). Next, their integrated overall suitability value scores were compared with the observed land cover to determine whether it should be reallocated a new use. Results showed that the five suitability classes of agriculture, forest, grassland, farmland-woodland, and scrub-pasture had altitudinal stratification and a total of 1 151 km2 (8.89%) of lands on the northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains had to be reallocated. To achieve this reallocation, 657 km2 of arable land should be reduced, and forest, grassland and scrub-pasture increased by 615 km2, 131 km2 and 405 km2, respectively. Implementation of these recommended land reallocations should help achieve suitable use of land resources and prevent land degradation.

  5. Assessment of brown trout habitat suitability in the Jucar River Basin (SPAIN): comparison of data-driven approaches with fuzzy-logic models and univariate suitability curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Schneider, Matthias; Mouton, Ans M

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the Water Framework Directive implies the determination of an environmental flow (E-flow) in each running water body. In Spain, many of the minimum flow assessments were determined with the physical habitat simulation system based on univariate habitat suitability curves. Multivariate habitat suitability models, widely applied in habitat assessment, are potentially more accurate than univariate suitability models. This article analyses the microhabitat selection by medium-sized (10-20 cm) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in three streams of the Jucar River Basin District (eastern Iberian Peninsula). The data were collected with an equal effort sampling approach. Univariate habitat suitability curves were built with a data-driven process for depth, mean velocity and substrate classes; three types of data-driven fuzzy models were generated with the FISH software: two models of presence-absence and a model of abundance. FISH applies a hill-climbing algorithm to optimize the fuzzy rules. A hydraulic model was calibrated with the tool River-2D in a segment of the Cabriel River (Jucar River Basin). The fuzzy-logic models and three methods to produce a suitability index from the three univariate curves were applied to evaluate the river habitat in the tool CASiMiR©. The comparison of results was based on the spatial arrangement of habitat suitability and the curves of weighted usable area versus discharge. The differences were relevant in different aspects, e.g. in the estimated minimum environmental flow according to the Spanish legal norm for hydrological planning. This work demonstrates the impact of the model's selection on the habitat suitability modelling and the assessment of environmental flows, based on an objective data-driven procedure; the conclusions are important for the water management in the Jucar River Basin and other river systems in Europe, where the environmental flows are a keystone for the achievement of the goals established

  6. Assessing the Application of a Geographic Presence-Only Model for Land Suitability Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Heumann, Benjamin W.; Walsh, Stephen J.; McDaniel, Phillip M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in ecological modeling have focused on novel methods for characterizing the environment that use presence-only data and machine-learning algorithms to predict the likelihood of species occurrence. These novel methods may have great potential for land suitability applications in the developing world where detailed land cover information is often unavailable or incomplete. This paper assesses the adaptation and application of the presence-only geographic species distribution mod...

  7. Guidance for Large-scale Implementation of Alternate Wetting and Drying: A Biophysical Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, B. O.; Wassmann, R.; Nelson, A.; Palao, L.; Wollenberg, E.; Ishitani, M.

    2014-12-01

    The alternate wetting and drying (AWD) technology for rice production does not only save 15-30% of irrigation water, it also reduces methane emissions by up to 70%. AWD is defined by periodic drying and re-flooding of a rice field. Due to its high mitigation potential and its simplicity to execute this practice AWD has gained a lot of attention in recent years. The Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) has put AWD high on its agenda and funds a project to guide implementation of this technology in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Colombia. One crucial activity is a biophysical suitability assessment for AWD in the three countries. For this, we analyzed rainfall and soil data as well as potential evapotranspiration to assess if the water balance allows practicing AWD or if precipitation is too high for rice fields to fall dry. In my talk I will outline key factors for a successful large-scale implementation of AWD with a focus on the biophysical suitability assessment. The seasonal suitability maps that we generated highlight priority areas for AWD implementation and guide policy makers to informed decisions about meaningful investments in infrastructure and extension work.

  8. Fractal circuit sensors enable rapid quantification of biomarkers for donor lung assessment for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Andrew T; Besant, Justin D; Mahmoudian, Laili; Poudineh, Mahla; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Hsin, Michael; Sargent, Edward H; Cypel, Marcelo; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf; Kelley, Shana O

    2015-08-01

    Biomarker profiling is being rapidly incorporated in many areas of modern medical practice to improve the precision of clinical decision-making. This potential improvement, however, has not been transferred to the practice of organ assessment and transplantation because previously developed gene-profiling techniques require an extended period of time to perform, making them unsuitable in the time-sensitive organ assessment process. We sought to develop a novel class of chip-based sensors that would enable rapid analysis of tissue levels of preimplantation mRNA markers that correlate with the development of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) in recipients after transplant. Using fractal circuit sensors (FraCS), three-dimensional metal structures with large surface areas, we were able to rapidly (<20 min) and reproducibly quantify small differences in the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and ATP11B mRNA in donor lung biopsies. A proof-of-concept study using 52 human donor lungs was performed to develop a model that was used to predict, with excellent sensitivity (74%) and specificity (91%), the incidence of PGD for a donor lung. Thus, the FraCS-based approach delivers a key predictive value test that could be applied to enhance transplant patient outcomes. This work provides an important step toward bringing rapid diagnostic mRNA profiling to clinical application in lung transplantation. PMID:26601233

  9. The value of multi-slice spiral CT in the preoperative assessment of living renal donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the value of multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) in the preoperative evaluation of living renal donor as a all in one modality. Methods: Thirty-six potential living renal donors underwent the examination using a GE light VCT scanner. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. The plain scan, early arterial phase, late arterial phase and excretory phase scans are performed in the former 25 donors (injection rate 5 rolls, total volume 100 mi, tube tension 120 kV). While in the later 11 donors (2 ml/s 40 ml +4 ml/s 60 ml), the scanning protocol included the plain scan ( 100 kV), vascular phase and excretory phase scans (100 kV). The excretory phase data were used in the reconstruction of CT urography in both groups. All images were reviewed by one radiologist and one urologist, and the findings of MSCT were compared with intraoperative findings for 33 donors, to investigate the utilities of MSCT in assessing renal vascularity, urinary tract and lesions of renal parenchyma. When discrepancies are found between the two reviewers, consensus was obtained via discussion. Au data was statiscally processed with SPSS for Windows. Results: MSCT angiography is in accordance with intraoperative findings in demonstrating the anatomy of renal arteries and renal vein trunk, accesary arteries, early branching of renal artery. The findings from CTA are highly in accordance with the intraoperative findings, which facilitate intraoperative ligation and reduce relevant complications. CTU demonstrates the anatomy of urinary, tract in good agreement with the intraoperative findings. The image quality of 3D vascularity and CTU between the two groups, scored 4.4 ± 1.2 vs 4.2 ± 1.3 and 4.6 ± 0.8 vs 4.4 ± 0.9 respectively, no statistical between-groups difference was found (Z=-0.89, -0.47, P>0.05). Conclusion: MSCT multiphase scanning combined with CTA and CTU play a important role in the evaluation of living renal donor, which

  10. [Ecological suitability assessment and optimization of urban land expansion space in Guiyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Cong-hao; Li, Yang-bing; Feng, Yuan-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the case study of Guiyang City, the minimum cumulative resistance model integrating construction land source, ecological rigid constraints and ecological function type resistance factor, was built by use of cost-distance analysis of urban spatial expansion resistance value through ArcGIS 9.3 software in this paper. Then, the ecological resistance of city spatial expansion of Guiyang from 2010 was simulated dynamically and the ecological suitability classification of city spatial expansion was assessed. According to the conflict between the newly increased city construction land in 2014 and its ecological suitability, the unreasonable city land spatial allocation was discussed also. The results showed that the ecological suitability zonation and the city expansion in the study area were basically consistent during 2010-2014, but the conflict between the new city construction and its land ecological suitability was more serious. The ecological conflict area accounted for 58.2% of the new city construction sites, 35.4% of which happened in the ecological control area, 13.9% in the limited development area and 8.9% in the prohibition development area. The intensification of ecological land use conflict would impair the ecological service function and ecological safety, so this paper put forward the city spatial expansion optimal path to preserve the ecological land and improve the construction land space pattern of Guiyang City so as to ensure its ecological safety.

  11. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  12. Children as donors: a national study to assess procurement of organs and tissues in pediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelink, Marion J; Albers, Marcel J I J; Roodbol, Petrie F; Van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2012-12-01

    A shortage of size-matched organs and tissues is the key factor limiting transplantation in children. Empirical data on procurement from pediatric donors is sparse. This study investigated donor identification, parental consent, and effectuation rates, as well as adherence to the national protocol. A national retrospective cohort study was conducted in all eight Dutch pediatric intensive care units. Records of deceased children were analyzed by an independent donation officer. Seventy-four (11%) of 683 deceased children were found to be suitable for organ donation and 132 (19%) for tissue donation. Sixty-two (84%) potential organ donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 42%. Sixty-three (48%) potential tissue donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 27%. Correct identification increased with age (logistic regression, organs: P = .024; tissues: P = .011). Although an overall identification rate of 84% of potential organ donors may seem acceptable, the variation observed suggests room for improvement, as does the overall low rate of identification of pediatric tissue donors. Efforts to address the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation in children should focus on identifying potential donors and on the reasons why parents do not consent.

  13. Suitability assessment of health education brochures in Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulat Jahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health education is the cornerstone of primary health care. Health education materials distributed to the community should, therefore, be suitable and effective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health education brochures, designed and disseminated by Ministry of Health institutions in the Qassim province. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional review of health education brochures. We used a structured evaluation form, comprising general information on the brochures and a modified Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM score sheet. The SAM consisting of 22 criteria in six groups, includes content, literacy demands, graphics, layout/typography, learning stimulation/motivation, and cultural appropriateness. SAM criteria categorize written material into "superior," "adequate" and "not suitable." Two qualified consultant family physicians evaluated the brochures. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.4 statistical package. Results: We evaluated 110 brochures, the majority of which addressed chronic health conditions such as mental health, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Seventy-four (67.3% brochures were evaluated as "adequate," 34 (30.9% as "not suitable" and 2 (1.8% as "superior." "Cultural appropriateness" was the highest scoring factor, with 92 (83.6% brochures falling into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. With regard to "content," 88 (80.0% brochures fell into either the "superior" or "adequate" category. This was the second highest scoring factor. Graphics was the factor that scored the least. Seventy-five (68.2% brochures were rated in this factor as "not suitable." Conclusions: Although two-thirds of our brochures were considered "adequate," the majority needed improvement to their graphics and learning stimulation factors. We recommend that guidelines for designing health education brochures should be formulated to improve the quality of health education brochures.

  14. Optimizing informed consent in living liver donors: Evaluation of a comprehension assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elisa J; Mullee, Jack; Butt, Zeeshan; Kang, Joseph; Baker, Talia

    2015-10-01

    Adult-to-adult living liver donation is associated with considerable risks with no direct medical benefit to liver donors (LDs). Ensuring that potential LDs comprehend the risks of donation is essential to medically and ethically justify the procedure. We developed and prospectively evaluated the initial psychometrics of an "Evaluation of Donor Informed Consent Tool" (EDICT) designed to assess LDs' comprehension about the living donation process. EDICT includes 49 true/false/unsure items related to LD informed consent. Consecutive LDs undergoing evaluation at 1 academic medical center from October 2012 to September 2014 were eligible for participation in pretest/posttest interviews. Medical records were reviewed for postdonation complications. Twenty-seven LDs participated (96% participation rate). EDICT demonstrated good internal consistency reliability at pretest, 2 days before donating (Cronbach's α = 0.78), and posttest, 1 week after donating (α = 0.70). EDICT scores significantly increased over time (P = 0.01) and demonstrated good test-retest reliability (r = 0.68; P < 0.001). EDICT was associated with race/ethnicity (P = 0.02) and relationship to the recipient (P = 0.01; pretest), and income (P = 0.01) and insurance (P = 0.01; posttest), but not with decisional conflict, preoperative preparedness, satisfaction, or decisional regret (pretest and posttest). Donor complications did not impact postdonation EDICT scores. In conclusion, EDICT has promising measurement properties and may be useful in the evaluation of informed consent for potential LDs. PMID:25990592

  15. Assessment of Irrigation Land Suitability and Development of Map for the Fogera Catchment Using GIS, South Gondar

    OpenAIRE

    Dagnenet Sultan

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation land suitability assessment and mapping play an imperative role for sustainable utilization of scarce physical land resources. The objectives of this study were to prepare spatial data base of physical land resources for irrigated agriculture and to assess land suitability for irrigation and developing suitable area map for the study area. The study was conducted at Fogera catchment, South Gondar. Soil and water sampling spots were selected based on free and grid survey techniques ...

  16. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics. PMID:25900004

  17. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics.

  18. Assessment of 82 Live Potential Renal Donors with Multi Detector Row Helical CT Angiography (MDCTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Javadrashid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: To retrospectively review the authors' experience with multi-detector row helical computed tomography (CT in assessing 82 consecu-tive alive potential renal donors."nPatients and Methods: Eighty-two potential renal donors underwent multi-detector row CT assess-ment, using a 64-slice scanner (Somatom Sensation, Siemens with 0.6-mm slice thickness followed by maximum intensity projection and volume rendering techniques post-processing algorithms. Arterial phase and venous phase examinations were performed. De-layed tomograms were acquired to visualize the col-lecting system anatomy. Two vascular radiologists prospectively interpreted the multi-detector row CT images. Forty candidates subsequently underwent donor nephrectomy. Surgical findings served as the reference standard for 40 kidneys. The imaging find-ings in all 82 candidates (164 kidneys were reviewed, although these findings were considered observa-tional data only because there was no reference stan-dard for 124 kidneys."nResults: Identification of vascular anomalies was best on direct viewing of the axial images using interactive scrolling through the images and cine-loop paging. In 164 kidneys evaluated, a single renal artery was pre-sent in 74.5% and a single renal vein in 87.5%. Mul-tiple renal arteries were more common on the right side (37.8% vs. the left side (20.7%. Early branching of the arteries was seen with equal frequency (10% on either side. Multiple renal veins were more often on the right side (20% vs. the left side (5%. CT an-giographic findings were concordant with the intra-operative findings in 100% of the cases that under-went nephrectomy. CT also revealed cortical cysts (four cases, duplex collecting system (two cases, hy-dronephrosis (one case, renal stone (one case, and liver hemangiomas (two cases. There was no signifi-cant interobserver disagreement between the vascular radiologists."nConclusion: CT angiography is highly accurate for

  19. Use of a Three Dimensional Printed Cardiac Model to Assess Suitability for Biventricular Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Gonzalez-Lengua, Carlos; Shenoy, Rajesh; Sanz, Javier; Nguyen, Khanh

    2016-05-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is rapidly gaining interest in the medical field for use in presurgical planning. We present the case of a seven-year-old boy with double outlet right ventricle who underwent a bidirectional Glenn anastomosis. We used a 3D cardiac model to assess his suitability for a biventricular repair. He underwent a left ventricle-to-aorta baffle with a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit placement. He did well postoperatively and was discharged home with no evidence of baffle obstruction and good biventricular function. A 3D printed model can provide invaluable intracardiac spatial information in these complex patients.

  20. Assessing the suitability of GIS as an aid for Location Scouting in Low-Budget Filmmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Callum

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess the suitability of GIS as an aid for location scouting in low-budget filmmaking, with Edinburgh serving as the target area. The main aspect of the project was to create a web based map service to act as a guide for the service user, rather than be a definitive resource. The key to satisfying the target audience of low-budget filmmakers was to gather their input to inform user requirements. Similar services within Edinburgh were researched and no s...

  1. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Stephen; Armstrong, Sarah; McGregor, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04–June 08. Of those, 65 (40%) proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5%) did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88%) were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P = 0.00004). Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out. PMID:27034659

  2. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Alsulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04–June 08. Of those, 65 (40% proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5% did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88% were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P=0.00004. Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out.

  3. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaiman, Thamer; Mark, Stephen; Armstrong, Sarah; McGregor, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04-June 08. Of those, 65 (40%) proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5%) did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88%) were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P = 0.00004). Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out.

  4. Suitability assessment of groundwater for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in some North Indian villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritash, A K; Kaushik, C P; Kaushik, A; Kansal, Ankur; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The study comprised suitability assessment of groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and industrial use. A total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from Rewari town and its perimeter from the land chiefly used for agriculture. Physico-chemical characterization of the samples revealed that groundwater from most of the sources was not fit for drinking owing to a high concentration of calcium, magnesium, hardness and fluoride. Suitability for irrigation, too, was low since most of the sources had high value of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), soluble sodium percentage (SSP) and magnesium hazard which can render salinity and alkali hazard to soils on long term use in irrigation. No source of water was found to be suitable for industrial application since it had high concentration of calcium carbonate which can precipitate very easily. It was observed that sodium, sulphate, and chloride were the chief ions present in water and based on the abundance of ions and their correlation type, most of the groundwater samples are of sodium sulphate and/or sodium chloride type. The high concentration of the chemical constituents is attributed to the lithologic composition of the area. It was observed that the water of deep meteoric percolation type was of sodium sulphate type and the shallow of sodium chloride type. PMID:18202899

  5. Win percentage: a novel measure for assessing the suitability of machine classifiers for biological problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Selecting an appropriate classifier for a particular biological application poses a difficult problem for researchers and practitioners alike. In particular, choosing a classifier depends heavily on the features selected. For high-throughput biomedical datasets, feature selection is often a preprocessing step that gives an unfair advantage to the classifiers built with the same modeling assumptions. In this paper, we seek classifiers that are suitable to a particular problem independent of feature selection. We propose a novel measure, called "win percentage", for assessing the suitability of machine classifiers to a particular problem. We define win percentage as the probability a classifier will perform better than its peers on a finite random sample of feature sets, giving each classifier equal opportunity to find suitable features. Results First, we illustrate the difficulty in evaluating classifiers after feature selection. We show that several classifiers can each perform statistically significantly better than their peers given the right feature set among the top 0.001% of all feature sets. We illustrate the utility of win percentage using synthetic data, and evaluate six classifiers in analyzing eight microarray datasets representing three diseases: breast cancer, multiple myeloma, and neuroblastoma. After initially using all Gaussian gene-pairs, we show that precise estimates of win percentage (within 1%) can be achieved using a smaller random sample of all feature pairs. We show that for these data no single classifier can be considered the best without knowing the feature set. Instead, win percentage captures the non-zero probability that each classifier will outperform its peers based on an empirical estimate of performance. Conclusions Fundamentally, we illustrate that the selection of the most suitable classifier (i.e., one that is more likely to perform better than its peers) not only depends on the dataset and application but also on the

  6. Win percentage: a novel measure for assessing the suitability of machine classifiers for biological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parry R Mitchell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selecting an appropriate classifier for a particular biological application poses a difficult problem for researchers and practitioners alike. In particular, choosing a classifier depends heavily on the features selected. For high-throughput biomedical datasets, feature selection is often a preprocessing step that gives an unfair advantage to the classifiers built with the same modeling assumptions. In this paper, we seek classifiers that are suitable to a particular problem independent of feature selection. We propose a novel measure, called "win percentage", for assessing the suitability of machine classifiers to a particular problem. We define win percentage as the probability a classifier will perform better than its peers on a finite random sample of feature sets, giving each classifier equal opportunity to find suitable features. Results First, we illustrate the difficulty in evaluating classifiers after feature selection. We show that several classifiers can each perform statistically significantly better than their peers given the right feature set among the top 0.001% of all feature sets. We illustrate the utility of win percentage using synthetic data, and evaluate six classifiers in analyzing eight microarray datasets representing three diseases: breast cancer, multiple myeloma, and neuroblastoma. After initially using all Gaussian gene-pairs, we show that precise estimates of win percentage (within 1% can be achieved using a smaller random sample of all feature pairs. We show that for these data no single classifier can be considered the best without knowing the feature set. Instead, win percentage captures the non-zero probability that each classifier will outperform its peers based on an empirical estimate of performance. Conclusions Fundamentally, we illustrate that the selection of the most suitable classifier (i.e., one that is more likely to perform better than its peers not only depends on the dataset and

  7. Integrated and holistic suitability assessment of recycling options for masonry rubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, T.; Rübner, K.; Meng, B.

    2012-04-01

    Our industrial society depends on continuous mining and consumption of raw materials and energy. Besides, the building sector causes one of the largest material streams in Germany. On the one hand, the building sector is connected with a high need in material and energetic resources as well as financial expenditures. On the other hand, nearly 50 % of the volume of waste arises from the building industry. During the last years, the limitation of natural resources, increasing negative environmental consequences as well as rising prices and shortages of dump space have led to a change in thinking in the building and waste industry to a closed substance cycle waste management. In consideration of the production figures of the main kinds of masonry units (clay bricks, sand-lime bricks, autoclaved aerated concrete brick, concrete blocks), a not unimportant quantity of masonry rubble (including gypsum plaster boards, renders, mortars and mineral insulating materials) of more than 20 million tons per year is generated in the medium term. With regard to a sustainable closed substance cycle waste management, these rest masses have to be recycled if possible. Processed aggregates made from masonry rubble can be recycled in the production of new masonry units under certain conditions. Even carefully deconstructed masonry units can once more re-used as masonry units, particularly in the area of the preservation of monuments and historical buildings. In addition, masonry rubble in different processing qualities is applied in earth and road construction, horticulture and scenery construction as well as concrete production. The choice of the most suitable recycling option causes technical, economical and ecological questions. At present, a methodology for a comprehensive suitability assessment with a passable scope of work does not exist. Basic structured and structuring information on the recycling of masonry rubble is absent up to now. This as well as the economic and technical

  8. Assessment of Geological Security and Integrated Assessment Geo-environmental Suitability in Worst-hit Areas in Wenchuan Quake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenpeng; WEN Dongguang; ZHOU Aiguo; SUN Xiaoming; MENG Hui; SHI Jusong; CHEN Zongyu; XHANG Liqin; FENG Xiaoming; LIU Changli; ZHOU Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and geo-hazards triggered by the earthquake caused large injuries and deaths as well as destructive damage for infrastructures like construction, traffic and electricity. It is urgent to select relatively secure areas for townships and cities constructed in high mountainous regions with high magnitude earthquakes. This paper presents the basic thoughts, evaluation indices and evaluation methods of geological security evaluation, water and land resources security demonstration and integrated assessments of geo-environmental suitability for reconstruction in alp and ravine with high magnitude earthquakes, which are applied in the worst-hit areas (12 counties). The integrated assessment shows that: (1) located in the Longmenshan fault zone, the evaluated area is of poor regional crust stability, in which the unstable and second unstable areas account for 79% of the total; (2) the geo-hazards susceptibility is high in the evaluation area. The spots of geo-hazards triggered by earthquake are mainly distributed along the active fault zone with higher distribution in the moderate and high mountains area, in which the areas of high and moderate susceptibility zoning accounts for 40.1% of the total; (3) geological security is poor in the evaluated area, in which the area of the unsuitable construction occupies 73.1%, whereas in the suitable construction area, the areas of geological security, second security and insecurity zoning account for 8.3%, 9.3% and 9.3% of the evaluated area respectively; (4) geo-environmental suitability is poor in the evaluated area, in which the areas of suitability and basic suitability zoning account for 3.5% and 7.3% of the whole evaluation area.

  9. Development and management of a radon assessment strategy suitable for underground railway tunnelling projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of underground tunnels through radon-bearing rock poses a radiation health risk to tunnelling workers from exposure to radon gas and its radioactive decay products. This paper presents the development and practical application of a radon assessment strategy suitable for the measurement of radon in tunnelling work environments in Hong Kong. The assessment strategy was successfully evaluated on a number of underground railway tunnelling projects over a 3 y period. Radon measurements were undertaken using a combination of portable radon measurement equipment and track etch detectors (TEDs) deployed throughout the tunnels. The radon gas monitoring results were used to confirm that ventilation rates were adequate or identified, at an early stage, when further action to reduce radon levels was required. Exposure dose estimates based on the TED results showed that the exposure of tunnel workers to radon did not exceed 3 mSv per annum for the duration of each project. (authors)

  10. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess Site Suitability for Managed Aquifer Recharge using Stormwater Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, E. K.; Harmon, R. E.; Beganskas, S.; Young, K. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Weir, W. B.; Lozano, S.

    2015-12-01

    We are completing a regional analysis of Santa Cruz and northern Monterey Counties, CA, to assess the conditions amenable to managed aquifer recharge using stormwater runoff. Communities and water supply agencies across CA are struggling to mitigate the ongoing drought and to develop secure and sustainable water supplies to support long-term municipal, agricultural, environmental and other needs. Enhanced storage of groundwater is an important part of this effort in many basins. This work is especially timely because of the recently enacted "Sustainable Groundwater Management Act" (SGMA), which requires the development of groundwater sustainability agencies and implementation of basin management plans in coming decades. Our analysis focuses specifically on the distributed collection of stormwater runoff, a water source that has typically been treated as a nuisance or waste, from drainages having an area on the order of 40-160 hectares. The first part of this project is a geographic information system (GIS) analysis using surface and subsurface data sets. Developing complete and accurate datasets across the study region required considerable effort to locate, assemble, co-register, patch, and reconcile information from many sources and scales. We have complete spatial coverage for surface data, but subsurface data is more limited in lateral extent. Sites that are most suitable for distributed stormwater capture supporting MAR have high soil infiltration capacity, are well-connected to an underlying aquifer with good transmissive and storage properties, and have space to receive MAR. Additional considerations include method of infiltration, slope, and land use and access. Based on initial consideration of surface data and slope, 7% of the complete study region appears to be "suitable or highly suitable" for MAR (in the top third of the rating system), but there is considerable spatial heterogeneity based on the distribution of shallow soils and bedrock geology.

  11. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: gklobuca@zg.biol.pmf.hr [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-04-15

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  12. Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schermeyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data.

  13. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  14. Nutrition assessment and counseling of the medically complex live kidney donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Carol R; Reese, Peter P; Collins, Donna

    2014-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred option for patients with end-stage renal disease facing the need for dialysis because it provides maximum survival benefit. The number of people seeking kidney transplantation greatly exceeds available deceased donor organs. Organs from live donors provide a survival advantage over organs from deceased donors while also broadening the pool of available organs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical guidelines that pertain to live kidney organ donation and to describe the nutrition evaluation and care of live kidney donors. The process for living kidney donation is dictated by policies centered on protecting the donor. In a perfect world, the living donor would present with a flawless medical examination and a benign family health history. The obesity epidemic has emerged as a major health concern. Live donor programs are faced with evaluating increasing numbers of obese candidates. These "medically complex donors" may present with obesity and its associated comorbid conditions, including hypertension, impaired glycemic control, and kidney stone disease. The dietitian's role in the live donor program is not well defined. Participation in the living donor selection meeting, where details of the evaluation are summarized, provides a platform for risk stratification and identification of donors who are at increased lifetime risk for poor personal health outcomes. Guiding the donor toward maintenance of a healthy weight through diet and lifestyle choices is a legitimate goal to minimize future health risks. PMID:24523133

  15. Assessment of Irrigation Land Suitability and Development of Map for the Fogera Catchment Using GIS, South Gondar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnenet Sultan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation land suitability assessment and mapping play an imperative role for sustainable utilization of scarce physical land resources. The objectives of this study were to prepare spatial data base of physical land resources for irrigated agriculture and to assess land suitability for irrigation and developing suitable area map for the study area. The study was conducted at Fogera catchment, South Gondar. Soil and water sampling spots were selected based on free and grid survey techniques and their locations were taken using Global Positioning System (GPS. Geographical Information System (GIS techniques were used to develop irrigation land suitability map of the study area. Attributes of parameters were collected and used for suitability assessment. Attributes used as criteria for irrigation suitability analysis were ECe, ESP, soil depth, texture, pH, top and sub soil stoniness, water table depth, flood hazard, ground water quality (SAR and EC and slope. Point data with their attribute were arranged and proximity analysis of Arc-GIS was made this resulted into twelve mapping units. The final irrigation suitability map of the project area was derived after overlay analysis. On the basis of stoniness, soil salinity, soil alkalinity, soil depth and groundwater quality it was concluded that 72 percent of the study area is potentially suitable for irrigation and 28 percent was classified as unsuitable (N due to drainage limitation, flood hazard, texture and slope factors. Of the potentially suitable land, 1 percent was highly suitable (S1, 28 percent was moderately suitable (S2, and 43 percent is marginally suitable (S3.

  16. Italian national survey of blood donors: external quality assessment (EQA) of syphilis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Francesca; Milazzo, Luisa; Volpi, Sabrina; Battista, Mara Maria; Barca, Alessandra; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Giampaolo, Adele

    2010-03-01

    The detection of syphilis among blood donors may reveal high-risk sexual behavior, which can go unreported at the time of donor selection and compromise the safety of the donated blood. In Italy, blood is collected, tested, and distributed by transfusion services (TSs), which also perform outpatient transfusions. Although the TSs must screen for syphilis by law, there are no indications of the specific type of method to be used, generating discrepancies in the results obtained by the different TSs. To determine the proficiency of the TSs in screening for syphilis, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA). The EQA was based on two shipments of serum panels; 133 and 118 of the 326 existing TSs participated in the first and second shipments, respectively. Each panel consisted of both positive and negative serum samples. The results confirmed that the use of a single nontreponemal test (the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL] and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] tests) is the least sensitive means of identifying samples that are positive for syphilis antibodies. We also found that the interpretation of the results of manual techniques, such as the RPR test, the VDRL test, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) assay, and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, can vary greatly among different TSs and operators. Total Ig enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the most sensitive. However, the determination of syphilis on the basis of the results of a single test is not sufficient for an accurate screening; and all blood units should thus be assessed by two distinct treponemal tests, that is, a total Ig EIA and the TPHA or the TPPA assay. PMID:20042617

  17. Land Use Suitability Assessment in Low-Slope Hilly Regions under the Impact of Urbanization in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the conflict between land development and land conservation has become increasingly serious in China. The plan called “town of mountain” is carried out in many nonplain areas to alleviate the conflict. To avoid geological disasters and ecological risks in those areas, land use suitability assessment is of great importance. In this paper, the fuzzy weight of evidence model is applied into land use suitability assessment in low-slope hilly regions in Yunnan, China. Fuzzy weight of evidences is calculated to determine 9 map layers. Finally, posterior probabilities are modified after synthesizing each map layer, which are used to generate a land use suitability map. The results show that 9.33%, 26.18%, 45.98%, and 18.51% of low-slope hilly regions are separately highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and unsuitable for development. Besides, highly and moderately suitable areas are mainly located in towns with excellent natural and socioeconomic conditions. The largest areas which are marginally suitable for development are most widely distributed. Unsuitable areas are mainly distributed far away from towns and water sources. The findings of the research will promote the rational use and scientific management of the land.

  18. Noninvasive assessment of macrovesicular liver steatosis in cadaveric donors based on computed tomography liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogier, Julien; Roullet, Stéphanie; Cornélis, François; Biais, Matthieu; Quinart, Alice; Revel, Philippe; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Le Bail, Brigitte

    2015-05-01

    Fatty liver disease, including liver steatosis, is a major health problem worldwide. In liver transplantation, macrovesicular steatosis in donor livers is a major cause of graft failure and remains difficult to assess. On one hand, several imaging modalities can be used for the assessment of liver fat, but liver biopsy, which is still considered the gold standard, may be difficult to perform in this context. On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) is commonly used by teams managing cadaveric donors to assess donors and to minimize the risk of complications in recipients. The purpose of our study was to validate the use of CT as a semiquantitative method for assessing macrovesicular steatosis in cadaveric donors with liver biopsy as a reference standard. A total of 109 consecutive cadaveric donors were included between October 2009 and May 2011. Brain death was diagnosed according to French legislation. Liver biopsy and then CT were performed on the same day to determine the degree of macrovesicular steatosis. All liver biopsies and CT scans were analyzed in a double-blinded fashion by a senior pathologist and a senior radiologist, respectively. For CT, we used the liver-to-spleen (L/S) attenuation ratio, which is a validated method for determining 30% or greater steatosis in living liver donors. Fourteen of 109 biopsies exhibited macrovesicular steatosis > 30% upon histologic analysis. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated for the L/S ratio to identify its ability to predict significant steatosis, which was defined as >30%. A cutoff value of 0.9 for the CT L/S ratio provided a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 97% to detect significant steatosis.

  19. Noninvasive assessment of macrovesicular liver steatosis in cadaveric donors based on computed tomography liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogier, Julien; Roullet, Stéphanie; Cornélis, François; Biais, Matthieu; Quinart, Alice; Revel, Philippe; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Le Bail, Brigitte

    2015-05-01

    Fatty liver disease, including liver steatosis, is a major health problem worldwide. In liver transplantation, macrovesicular steatosis in donor livers is a major cause of graft failure and remains difficult to assess. On one hand, several imaging modalities can be used for the assessment of liver fat, but liver biopsy, which is still considered the gold standard, may be difficult to perform in this context. On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) is commonly used by teams managing cadaveric donors to assess donors and to minimize the risk of complications in recipients. The purpose of our study was to validate the use of CT as a semiquantitative method for assessing macrovesicular steatosis in cadaveric donors with liver biopsy as a reference standard. A total of 109 consecutive cadaveric donors were included between October 2009 and May 2011. Brain death was diagnosed according to French legislation. Liver biopsy and then CT were performed on the same day to determine the degree of macrovesicular steatosis. All liver biopsies and CT scans were analyzed in a double-blinded fashion by a senior pathologist and a senior radiologist, respectively. For CT, we used the liver-to-spleen (L/S) attenuation ratio, which is a validated method for determining 30% or greater steatosis in living liver donors. Fourteen of 109 biopsies exhibited macrovesicular steatosis > 30% upon histologic analysis. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated for the L/S ratio to identify its ability to predict significant steatosis, which was defined as >30%. A cutoff value of 0.9 for the CT L/S ratio provided a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 97% to detect significant steatosis. PMID:25761371

  20. Assessing the Suitability of Various Physiological Traits to Screen Wheat Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah E. El-Hendawy; Yuncai Hu; Urs Schmidhalter

    2007-01-01

    Success of improving the salt tolerance of genotypes requires effective and reliable screening traits in breeding programs.The objective was to assess the suitability of various physiological traits to screen wheat genotypes for salt tolerance.Thirteen wheat genotypes from Egypt, Germany, Australia and India were grown in soil with two salinity levels (control and 150 mmol/L NaCl) in a greenhouse. The physiological traits (ion contents in leaves and stems, i.e. Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+), the ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca+/Na+ in the leaves and stems, net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate,chlorophyll content (SPAD value), and leaf water relations, were measured at different growth stages. The physiological traits except for Na+ and Cl- in stems and the leaf transpiration rate at 150 mmol/L NaCl showed a significant genotypic variation, indicating that the traits that have a significant genotypic variation may be possibly used as screening criteria.According to the analysis of linear regression of the scores of the physiological traits against those of grain yield, however,the physiological traits of Ca2+ and Ca2+/Na+ at 45 d and final harvest with the greatest genotypic variation were ranked at the top. From a practical and economic point of view, SPAD value should be considered to be used as screening criteria and/or there is a need to develop a quick and practical approach to determine Ca2+ in plant tissues.

  1. The suitability of EBC-Pb as a new biomarker to assess occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Pedro M; Almeida, Susana Marta; Franco, Cristiana; Almeida, António Bugalho; Lopes, Carlos; Claro, Maria Inês; Fragoso, Elsa; Teles, Catarina; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead (Pb) requires continuous surveillance to assure, as much as possible, safe and healthful working conditions. This study addresses the suitability of assessing Pb exposure in relevant workers using their exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study enrolled workers of two different Pb processing industries characterized by moderate and high Pb exposure levels in the work environment, and a group of non-exposed individuals working in offices who served as baseline for Pb exposure. The EBC-Pb of workers reflected the Pb levels in the work environment of all three settings, although the relationship with B-Pb was not clear. The lack of correlation between EBC-Pb and B-Pb most probably indicates the time lag for Pb to enter in the two body pools. The EBC-Pb seems to reflect immediate exposure, providing a prompt signature of Pb in the environmental that may interact directly with the organ. By delivering short-term evaluation of exposure, EBC-Pb represents a clear advantage in biomonitoring and may become an interesting tool for estimating organ burden.

  2. Site Suitability Assessment with Dynamic Wake Meandering Model. A Certification Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas Bayo, Ricard; Parro, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of large wind farms requires enormous investments putting steadily greater emphasis on optimal topology design and control of these. This requires not only an optimization of the power output, but also the development of strategies to cope with the higher loading expected. The cornerstone of such strategies is a realistic characterization and modelling of the wake flow field inside the wind farm, beyond Frandsen's equivalent turbulence method. Whereas Frandsen model has been mostly considered in the industry so far, it has not proved completely satisfactory when facing current problems such as wake effects on turbines placed at short distances or consequences of half wake for turbine loading. The objective of the present work is to address these questions from a certification point of view within the framework of Risoe's Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model. The DWM model is based on the combination of three parts: modeling of quasi-steady wake deficits, a stochastic model of the downwind wake meandering and an added or self-generated wake turbulence. The analysis carried out is two-fold: First, a comparative study of the wake effects generated in Frandsen model as well as in various realizations of the DWM model is performed. For this purpose wake-induced loads are calculated using two different aeroelastic codes: HAWC2 and Bladed. Second, the applicability of DWM for the assessment of wind turbines under site-specific conditions is discussed and the conclusions summarized in a Recommended Practice. Clear prescriptions are thereby provided for the use of DWMM for site suitability assessments, including the aforementioned extreme situations, along with the interpretation of the future version of the IEC 61400-1 standards.

  3. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits.

  4. Assessment of Hydroponically Grown Macrophytes for Their Suitability as Fish Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot's feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly in the hydroponics system and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot's feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO43--P reductions ranged from 21.4 to 48.0%, from 71.1 to 89.5%, from 55.9 to 76.0%, from 49.6 to 90.6%, from 34.5 to 54.4% and from 64.5 to 76.8%, respectively. Generally, the reductions increased with longer retention times and were highest in compartments containing water hyacinth followed by compartments containing water lettuce and parrot's feather. The nutritive value of the three wastewater grown plants was assessed to determine the suitability of using the plants as a component in fish feed. The three wastewater grown plants did not contain sufficient amounts of protein and fat to meet the dietary requirements of fish and shellfish. They also contained high concentrations of K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn, which can lead to reduced feed intake, weight gain and growth rates in fish and shellfish.

  5. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits. PMID:27536316

  6. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2016-07-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  7. Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Saleem; Anum Wasim; Sidra Sabih; Ayisha Farooq Khan; Madiha Hasan Rizvi; Umaima Ayesha Jillani; Mujtaba Jamal Syed; Madiha Mumtaz; Yasmeen Mumtaz; Abdul Moid Shehzad; Om Dawani; Saima Khan; Sheheryar Munir; Nava Asad; Abdul Nafey Kazi

    2014-01-01

    All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data c...

  8. Italian National Survey of Blood Donors: External Quality Assessment (EQA) of Syphilis Testing▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vulcano, Francesca; Milazzo, Luisa; Volpi, Sabrina; Battista, Mara Maria; Barca, Alessandra; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Giampaolo, Adele

    2009-01-01

    The detection of syphilis among blood donors may reveal high-risk sexual behavior, which can go unreported at the time of donor selection and compromise the safety of the donated blood. In Italy, blood is collected, tested, and distributed by transfusion services (TSs), which also perform outpatient transfusions. Although the TSs must screen for syphilis by law, there are no indications of the specific type of method to be used, generating discrepancies in the results obtained by the differen...

  9. Application of computer-assisted three-dimensional quantitative assessment and a surgical planning tool for living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Lin; ZHU Zhi-jun; L(U) Yi; JIANG Wen-tao; GAO Wei; ZENG Zhi-gui; SHEN Zhong-yang

    2013-01-01

    Background Precise evaluation of the live donor's liver is the most important factor for the donor's safety and the recipient's prognosis in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).Our study assessed the clinical value of computer-assisted three-dimensional quantitative assessment and a surgical planning tool for donor evaluation in LDLT.Methods Computer-assisted three-dimensional (3D) quantitative assessment was used to prospectively provide quantitative assessment of the graft volume for 123 consecutive donors of LDLT and its accuracy and efficiency were compared with that of the standard manual-traced method.A case of reduced monosegmental LDLT was also assessed and a surgical planning tool displayed the precise surgical plan to avoid large-for-size syndrome.Results There was no statistically significant difference between the detected graft volumes with computer-assisted 3D quantitative assessment and manual-traced approaches ((856.76±162.18) cm3 vs.(870.64±172.54) cm3,P=0.796).Estimated volumes by either method had good correlation with the actual graft weight (r-manual-traced method:0.921,r-3D quantitative assessment method:0.896,both P <0.001).However,the computer-assisted 3D quantitative assessment approach was significantly more efficient taking half the time of the manual-traced method ((16.91±1.375) minutes vs.(39.27±2.102) minutes,P <0.01) to estimate graft volume.We performed the reduced monosegmental LDLT,a pediatric case,with the surgical planning tool (188 g graft in the operation,which was estimated at 208 cm3 pre-operation).The recipient recovered without large-for-size syndrome.Conclusions Computer-assisted 3D quantitative assessment provided precise evaluation of the graft volume.It also assisted surgeons with a better understanding of the hepatic 3D anatomy and was useful for the individual surgical planning tool.

  10. Use of Ex Vivo Normothermic Perfusion for Quality Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Pancreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A D; Hamed, M O; Mallon, D H; Brais, R J; Gribble, F M; Scott, M A; Howat, W J; Bradley, J A; Bolton, E M; Pettigrew, G J; Hosgood, S A; Nicholson, M L; Saeb-Parsy, K

    2015-09-01

    A significant number of pancreases procured for transplantation are deemed unsuitable due to concerns about graft quality and the associated risk of complications. However, this decision is subjective and some declined grafts may be suitable for transplantation. Ex vivo normothermic perfusion (EVNP) prior to transplantation may allow a more objective assessment of graft quality and reduce discard rates. We report ex vivo normothermic perfusion of human pancreases procured but declined for transplantation, with ABO-compatible warm oxygenated packed red blood cells for 1-2 h. Five declined human pancreases were assessed using this technique after a median cold ischemia time of 13 h 19 min. One pancreas, with cold ischemia over 30 h, did not appear viable and was excluded. In the remaining pancreases, blood flow and pH were maintained throughout perfusion. Insulin secretion was observed in all four pancreases, but was lowest in an older donation after cardiac death pancreas. Amylase levels were highest in a gland with significant fat infiltration. This is the first study to assess the perfusion, injury, as measured by amylase, and exocrine function of human pancreases using EVNP and demonstrates the feasibility of the approach, although further refinements are required.

  11. Assessing the Suitability and Availability of Land for Agriculture in Tuban Regency, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian food production depends highly on Java Island, which holds the most fertile soils in the country but had limited area. The objective of the research was to analyse the availability of suitable land for agriculture in Tuban Regency, an agricultural regency in Java Island. Land suitability was evaluated with spatial multicriteria analysis, integrating soil order, land capability, elevation, slope, slope direction, land use/land cover, accessibility, and climate. Land availability was analysed, integrating the forest area status designation and the spatial pattern of regional official land use plan. The results indicated that suitable land for agriculture corresponds to 91% of the total study area, confirming the high soil fertility. Analysis of land availability then indicated that 18% of the area was both suitable and available for agriculture. Considering the actual land utilization, the future development of agriculture in the region has less than 7% of the land area left for agricultural expansion. The overall results showed the importance of looking for land allocated for agriculture outside Java Island to anticipate the need for food of a country with a high population growth rate and also developing planning for food production.

  12. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  13. Properties of Technogenous Substrates and Assessment of their Suitability for Recultivation – Technosol Development Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnija Resulović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil damage comes as a result of various types of soil utilization in regard to its technical functions, and during that, huge quantities of various waste materials form (industrial, communal, mines, etc.. Such materials cover up vast land areas, which lead to a significant reduction of land fund. It is essential to identify the ways and appropriate measures for transforming such areas into the areas suitable for any environmental functions. While executing these measures, various materials are identified as technogenous substrates. When it comes to conducting the rehabilitation measures, it is important to have a good knowledge of the substrate properties, both general and specific. The general ones include: pH reaction, content of CaCO3, physiologically active calcium (CaO, organic matter, texture, content of skeleton. The specific properties encompass: heavy metals content, biological infection and radioactivity of the soil.This paper identifies seven basic groups of technogenous substrates: suitable, medium suitable, less suitable, unsuitable, very unsuitable - toxic, infectious and radioactive. The actions for the application of direct or indirect recultivation are developed by the subject groups. Direct recultivation includes the actions of immediate execution of rehabilitation measures, while indirect recultivation includes the application of a special layer of soil (suitable geological material or natural soil. It also provides the appropriate depths of such materials for the corresponding technical substrate. The paper’s attention is focused on the follow-up of the impact of pedo-technogenous factors on the processes within the established disposal sites. Therefore, further elaboration and classification of technogenous soils continues to be important.The paper also provides a projection of development of technogenous soils that encompasses three different substrates: natural geological substrate, industrial waste, and communal waste

  14. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  15. Assessment of the suitability of food colouring materials as indicators of bacterial contamination of enteral feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, A

    1988-04-01

    The suitability of using food colouring materials in enteral feeds as indicators of bacterial contamination was examined. Experiments using Triosorbon, Clinifeed ISO or Vivonex Standard plus amaranth, carmoisine, ponceau 4R, sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine or erythrosine demonstrated that although the change in appearance of coloured feed could be linked with the presence of high numbers of bacteria in the feed, the converse was not always true. PMID:2899111

  16. Assessing Pearl Quality Using Reflectance UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Does the Same Donor Produce Consistent Pearl Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Southgate

    2010-09-01

    with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Nevertheless, this technique could have a role to play in developing less subjective methods of assessing pearl quality and in further studies of the relationships between pearl quality and that of the donor and recipient oysters.

  17. Cadaveric donor selection and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Sean M; Orens, Jonathan B

    2006-10-01

    While there is little doubt that proper donor selection is extremely important to achieve good outcomes from transplantation, there are only limited data regarding the current criteria utilized to select the "ideal donor". Importantly, there are not enough donor lungs available for all of those in need. Until an adequate supply of donor organs exists, lives will be lost on the transplant waiting list. While efforts have been made to increase donor awareness, additional transplants can be realized by improving donor utilization. This can be achieved by active participation of transplant teams in donor management and by utilizing "extended criteria" organs. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of using "extended criteria" donors, as this practice could result in increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the approach to identification of potential lung donors, optimal donor management, and the clinical importance of various donor factors upon recipient outcomes.

  18. The suitability of using death certificates as a data source for cancer mortality assessement in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ulus, Tumer; Yurtseven, Eray; Cavdar, Sabanur; Erginoz, Ethem; Erdogan, M. Sarper

    2012-01-01

    Aim To compare the quality of the 2008 cancer mortality data of the Istanbul Directorate of Cemeteries (IDC) with the 2008 data of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK), and discuss the suitability of using this databank for estimations of cancer mortality in the future. Methods We used 2008 and 2010 death records of the IDC and compared it to TUIK and IARC data. Results According to the WHO statistics, in Turkey in 2008 there were 67 255 ...

  19. Use of body and beard donor hair in surgical treatment of androgenic alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Poswal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Follicular unit transplant is a widely used surgical treatment for androgenic alopecia. However, for patients with extensive hair loss (Norwood 5 and above), scalp donor hair are not sufficient to cover all areas of baldness. This study aims to assess suitability of beard and body donor hair when transplanted to the scalp. Materials and Methods: In 35 male patients having varying degrees of androgenic alopecia, body and beard donor hair were extracted by follicular unit extraction...

  20. Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data collectors administered a self-made questionnaire to each participant using an interview based format. All data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS 16. Results. 350 participants, having a mean age of 21.47 ± 1.36, were included in our study with 30.6% (107/350 being males and 69.4% (243/350 being females. 93.4% (327/350 of participants agreed that donating blood was healthy, but only 26% had donated blood in the past with 79.1% donating voluntarily. 65.7% (230/350 of the participants agreed to take part in Short Message Service based behavioral interventions to become voluntary blood donors with 69.7% (244/350 also agreeing that Short Message Service reminders will promote them to donate blood more often. Conclusion. With university students willing to become voluntary blood donors, Pakistani blood banks can carry out Short Message Service based interventions to encourage them to donate blood.

  1. Data base manipulation for assessment of multiresource suitability and land change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, J.; Sanders, P.; Davis, G.; Thomson, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in three tasks which support the overall objectives of renewable resources inventory task of the AgRISTARS program. In the first task, the geometric correction algorithms of the Master Data Processor were investigated to determine the utility of data corrected by this processor for U.S. Forest Service uses. The second task involved investigation of logic to form blobs as a precursor step to automatic change detection involving two dates of LANDSAT data. Some routine procedures for selecting BLOB (spatial averaging) parameters were developed. In the third task, a major effort was made to develop land suitability modeling approches for timber, grazing, and wildlife habitat in support of resource planning efforts on the San Juan National Forest.

  2. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    The transfusion efficacy of ATK, which contain fully functional platelets, is beyond all doubt. The equivalence of ATK and PTK has been subject of many studies. Some of those studies show the superiority of ATK's, while others do not, but there have been no studies that demonstrated a superiority of PTK's. The superiority of platelets stored in plasma and in third generation additive solution was demonstrated in clinical studies; therefore, it cannot be said that all the platelet concentrates on the German market are equivalent in efficacy. Of decisive importance, above all, is the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections with known pathogens, or those not yet discovered. This risk is different for ATK compared to PTK. Taking this difference in risk and the difference in donor exposure of transfused patients into account, it can definitely be said that ATK and PTK are not equivalent. In 2012, the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) published a mathematical risk model for different platelet concentrates and assessed the risk of transmitting known pathogens such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. The risk was higher for PTK compared to ATK. The relative risks for PTK derived from 4BCs were 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.1-2.4) for HIV, 2.7 (95%--CI: 2.5-3.0) for HCV, and 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.8-3.7) for HBV. At the present time, these are the relative risks of transfusion-transmitted infections with the traditional pathogens for PTK compared to ATK. In addition to the RKI assessed risks, there is the theoretical risk of a new, unknown agent, transmitted through blood exposure. The magnitude of this risk is hardly predictable for PTK. The experience gathered so far, especially in the last three decades, with the emergence of HIV, prions, and West Nil virus, shows that the biological nature of a next transfusion-transmissible infectious agent cannot be predictable. This agent, if we think at a conventional sexually transmissible agent with nucleic acid and long latent period, would spread first in areas with

  3. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    The transfusion efficacy of ATK, which contain fully functional platelets, is beyond all doubt. The equivalence of ATK and PTK has been subject of many studies. Some of those studies show the superiority of ATK's, while others do not, but there have been no studies that demonstrated a superiority of PTK's. The superiority of platelets stored in plasma and in third generation additive solution was demonstrated in clinical studies; therefore, it cannot be said that all the platelet concentrates on the German market are equivalent in efficacy. Of decisive importance, above all, is the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections with known pathogens, or those not yet discovered. This risk is different for ATK compared to PTK. Taking this difference in risk and the difference in donor exposure of transfused patients into account, it can definitely be said that ATK and PTK are not equivalent. In 2012, the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) published a mathematical risk model for different platelet concentrates and assessed the risk of transmitting known pathogens such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. The risk was higher for PTK compared to ATK. The relative risks for PTK derived from 4BCs were 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.1-2.4) for HIV, 2.7 (95%--CI: 2.5-3.0) for HCV, and 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.8-3.7) for HBV. At the present time, these are the relative risks of transfusion-transmitted infections with the traditional pathogens for PTK compared to ATK. In addition to the RKI assessed risks, there is the theoretical risk of a new, unknown agent, transmitted through blood exposure. The magnitude of this risk is hardly predictable for PTK. The experience gathered so far, especially in the last three decades, with the emergence of HIV, prions, and West Nil virus, shows that the biological nature of a next transfusion-transmissible infectious agent cannot be predictable. This agent, if we think at a conventional sexually transmissible agent with nucleic acid and long latent period, would spread first in areas with

  4. Suitability of texture features to assess changes in trabecular bone architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veenland, JF; Grashuis, JL; Weinans, H;

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of texture features to assess changes in trabecular bone architecture as projected in radiographs. Micro-CT datasets of trabecular bone were processed to simulate different changes in architecture. Radiographs were simulated by projecting the 3...

  5. Development and suitability of in vitro digestion models in assessing bioaccessibility of lead from toy matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Twillert K van; Hofhuis MFA; Rompelberg CJM; Versantvoort CHM; SIR; ARO

    2003-01-01

    Children can be orally exposed to compounds by chewing, sucking and ingestion of toy (parts). Only the fraction of contaminant that is released from the toy can reach the blood stream (internal exposure) and can contribute to toxicity. In present risk assessment the release of contaminants from toy

  6. Assessing the suitability of planned garden-plot areas in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bole

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines garden plots in Ljubljana to present the planning of this self-sufficient vegetable production activity, which developed mostly spontaneously in all urban environments in and around Ljubljana. Some residents of Ljubljana, the Slovenian capital, are involved in this activity not so much because of economic necessity but because it provides recreation and relaxation, meets their need for direct contact with nature, and offers them an opportunity to produce healthy food. Typically, older people are involved in this activity, among which the number of highly educated people is unexpectedly high. The majority are happy with the plot-gardening situation. The city government has begun systematically removing garden plots in unsuitable locations, and has drafted a proposal to organize gardening areas in a way that does not pollute the environment, and at the same time provide them with suitable infrastructure. We evaluated the appropriateness of the planned locations in the draft City Municipality of Ljubljana Zoning Implementation Plan on the basis of the fulfillment of key exclusion and attraction criteria that were established based on survey answers included in support of the decision-making with the help of GIS tools. Decision-making by consensus, inclusion of public stakeholders, and establishing dialog between the city government and garden-plot users will need to be ensured in carrying out this plan.

  7. Assessment of suitability of vine shoots for hemicellulosic oligosaccharides production through aqueous processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Izaskun; Gordobil, Oihana; Labidi, Jalel; Gullón, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    Vine shoots were subjected to non-isothermal aqueous processing. A range of severities (S0) from 3.20 to 4.65 was assayed and their effects in terms of solubilization, composition, molar mass distribution, structural characterization and thermal stability of the liquors were studied using HPLC, HPSEC, TGA and FTIR. The spent solids were characterized by HPLC and FTIR. When autohydrolysis was carried out at S0=4.01, the substrate solubilization achieved a 38.7% of the raw material and 83.1% of the initial xylan was converted into xylooligosaccharides (XOS). The amount of TOS (total oligosaccharides) in the hydrolysates was 28.4g/L while the other non volatile compounds (ONVC) were 0.08g/g NVC. The spent solid from the treatment at S0=4.01 was composed about 90% of cellulose and lignin. Therefore, it can be concluded that autohydrolysis is a suitable pretreatment of vine shoots such as a first stage of a biomass refinery. PMID:27054881

  8. An Evaluation of a Behaviour Assessment to Determine the Suitability of Shelter Dogs for Rehoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Poulsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a scheme for assessing shelter dog behaviour, which used 28 tests and rated responses from 0 (positive response to 5 (fear, tonic immobility, or escape attempts. The assessment was evaluated for 236 dogs, and was repeated by a different assessor for 39 dogs approximately 80 days after rehoming to determine relevance of individual test components. A new owner survey evaluated satisfaction with the dog. A total of 130 of 236 dogs passed (score ≤ 70, 24 scored 71–80 (referred for behavioural modification, and 82 (score > 80 failed. Scores were mainly unaffected by dog type and environmental variables, but decreased if dog faeces from a previous test was present in the arena during a test. Shelter tests only correlated with repeat tests if there was no direct contact with assessors. Adopters were satisfied with their dogs, despite reporting some behaviour problems. The shelter assessment was therefore robust against most outside influences but did not predict responses to people well.

  9. Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety. PMID:20505995

  10. Exclusion of deceased donors post-procurement of tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Akila; Warwick, Ruth M; Clarkson, Anthony

    2011-08-01

    The EU Tissues and Cells Directive (2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC, 2006/86/EC) (EUTCD) provides standards for quality and safety for all aspects of banking of tissues and cells for clinical applications. Commission Directive 2006/17/EC stipulates that the complete donor record with all the medical information is assessed for suitability before releasing tissues for clinical use. The aim of this study was to investigate the medical reasons for post-procurement donor exclusion, to identify the various potential sources for gathering information about donors' medical and behavioural history and to evaluate their contribution to maximising the safety of donations. Information was collected from the Tissue Services (TS) records of 1000 consecutive deceased donors submitted to National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) medical officers for authorisation for release for subsequent tissue processing and then for transplantation. Of the 1000 donors 60 (6%) were excluded because they did not fulfil the donor selection requirements of the EUTCD and NHSBT donor selection guidelines. The main reasons for medical exclusion were the presence of significant local or systemic infection in 32 donors (53% of those excluded for medical reasons) and a history of past or occult malignancy in 9 donors (15% of those excluded for medical reasons) which was not identified prior to procurement. The information leading to post-procurement exclusion was obtained from autopsy reports in 35 of the 60 excluded donors for medical reasons (58%) and from the general practitioner for 10 donors (17% of those excluded for medical reasons). In summary, careful evaluation of complete donor records reduces the potential risk of disease transmission by tissue allografts and ensures compliance with regulations and guidelines. The findings may lead to changes in donor selection policies with the aim of improving efficiency without compromising safety.

  11. Methodology for assessing suitable systems for management of reactor decommissioning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report demonstrates a methodology for comparing quantitatively the options open to decision-makers at various stages of the decommissioning process, taking into account radiological protection and other factors considered to be relevant. In order to compare different decommissioning options, various impacts associated with decommissioning operations and waste disposal were assessed, namely, costs and radiological, environmental and socio-political impact. The post-disposal radiological impact was calculated for four generic concepts (near surface, deep geological, coastal tunnel and deep ocean bed)

  12. Mitochondrial membrane potential is a suitable candidate for assessing pollution toxicity in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish inhabiting polluted estuaries are highly exposed to severe stress characterized by an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance. The aim of the study was to explore the use of stress parameters such as adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and total protein expression patterns as biomarkers against oxidant exposures in hepatocytes of Mugil cephalus living in either a contaminated (Test; Ennore) or uncontaminated (Control; Kovalam) estuary. Earlier, the pollutant stress impact was determined through light and electron microscopy studies. The ATP/ADP ratio was measured using high performance liquid chromatography; Δψm by fluorescent probe 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethyl benzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) dye and total protein expression patterns by protein profiling. The preponderance of stress impact was confirmed through microscopy studies that featured cytological alterations, disturbances in the surface morphology and in the cell organelles at the ultrastructural levels. Hepatocytes of test fish demonstrated a decrease in ATP and an increase in ADP and thereby alteration in ATP/ADP ratio (p < 0.05; 20.75%). A significant disturbance (p < 0.05; 26.57%) in Δψm with a ratio of J-aggregates/JC-1 monomer of 1 was observed for test fish hepatocytes compared to control group with a J-aggregates/JC-1 monomer ratio of 1.5. Quantitative assessment of protein expression levels also revealed enhanced induction of both low and high molecular weight proteins in test fish hepatocytes. The findings highlight the use of these parameters as the highly sensitive biomarkers in response to contaminant exposure compared to the routinely used antioxidant and oxidant stress parameters in biomonitoring programs. Among the measured parameters, the determination of Δψm may be suggested as a novel candidate as a biomarker because of its greater specificity and rapid quantitative risk assessment of pollutant

  13. Critical assessment of suitable methods used for determination of antibacterial properties at photocatalytic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysa, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Krysa@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Musilova, Eva [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Zita, Jiri [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Inorganic Technology, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Methods for antibacterial activity of irradiated TiO{sub 2} films were critically assessed. {yields} As test bacteria gram negative E. coli and gram positive E. faecalis were employed. {yields} The ISO glass adhesion method is more appropriate than method with bacteria suspension. {yields} Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested. - Abstract: This work describes the development of methods necessary for antibacterial effect evaluation on irradiated TiO{sub 2} layers. Two methods using bacteria suspensions and the glass adhesion method (based on ISO 27447:2009(E)) were critically assessed and compared. As test bacteria gram negative Escherichia coli and gram positive Enterococcus faecalis were employed. The method using 50 cm{sup 3} of bacteria suspension is convenient for testing layers with strong antibacterial effect (prepared from powder photocatalysts). For the evaluation of the antibacterial effect of sol gel layers, the glass adhesion method based on the ISO is more appropriate than the method with 3 cm{sup 3} of bacteria suspension. The reason is that the later does not allow a distinction between the inhibition effect of TiO{sub 2} and UV light itself. Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested, namely the use of gelatinous pills (CCM) of bacteria, using saline solution instead of nutrient broth for bacteria suspension preparation and the application of selective media for bacteria cultivation. Decreasing the light intensity from 0.6 mW cm{sup -2} to 0.2 mW cm{sup -2} (fulfilling the requirements of the ISO) results in almost negligible effect of UV light itself, thus enabling proper testing of the antibacterial properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films.

  14. Conventional deep pressure algometry is not suitable for clinical assessment of nociception in painless diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst A. Chantelau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In diabetic persons with painless neuropathic foot ulceration, foot skin was found to be insensate to noxious pinprick stimulation (stimulation area less than 0.05 mm2, while compression of deep subcutaneous foot tissues by Algometer II® (stimulation area 1 cm2 could evoke a deep dull aching. To elucidate this discrepancy, the Algometer II stimulation technique was critically reviewed by varying probe sizes and anatomical sites in the same study population 3 years later. Methods: Ten control subjects without neuropathy and 11 persons with painless diabetic neuropathy (PLDN, seven of whom with diabetic foot syndrome, i.e., past painless foot ulcer, or inactive Charcot arthropathy were re-examined using Algometer II. Deep pressure pain perception threshold (DPPPT was measured in random sequence with stimulation areas of 0.5 cm2, 1 cm2, and 2 cm2 (separated by 5 min intervals, at the plantar forefoot, the instep, and the hindfoot of both legs. Results: In the control and PLDN groups, median DPPPTs differed significantly between stimulation areas (highest with 0.5 cm2, intermediate with 1 cm2, lowest with 2 cm2; p<0.001, and varied moderately by anatomical site. Between-group differences were relatively small. Results of the 1 cm2 assessments repeated 3 years apart were similar. Conclusions: Algometer II readings represent spatial summation of low-threshold pressure-receptor rather than of high-threshold nociceptor stimulation and are, thus, unhelpful for assessing PLDN. Reproducibility of the measurements is good.

  15. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansa Jan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.

  16. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) in development cooperation. A presentation of development challenges and research issues in developing countries and donor agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Harald

    1997-12-31

    This document discusses some development challenges and research needs related to environmental impact assessment (EIA) in development cooperation. After a general introduction to basic principles of EIA, the document deals with some general conditions for EIA in developing countries and in donor agencies. Through a presentation of experiences with EIA from selected donor agencies (with emphasis on NORAD) the report ends up with focusing on some research issues that may come up with recommendations for improving EIA practices in developing countries and donor agencies. 37 refs., 6 figs., 3 refs.

  17. Can surgeons assess CT suitability for endovascular repair (EVAR) in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm? Implications for a ruptured EVAR trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayt, Harjeet; Lambert, Kelly; Bown, Matthew; Fishwick, Guy; Morgan, Robert; McCarthy, Mark; London, Nick; Sayers, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgeons without formal radiological training are able to assess suitability of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) for EVAR. The CT scans of 20 patients with AAA were reviewed under timed conditions by six vascular surgeons. Twenty minutes was allocated per scan. They were asked to determine if each aneurysm would be treatable by EVAR in the emergency setting and, if so, to measure for device selection. The results were then compared with those of a vascular radiologist. Six surgeons agreed on the suitability of endovascular repair in 45% of cases (95% CI, 23.1-68.5%; 9/20 scans; kappa = 0.41 [p = 0.01]) and concurred with the radiologist in eight of these. Individually, agreement ranged from 13 to 16 of the 20 scans, 65-80% between surgeons. The kappa value for agreement between all the surgeons and the radiologist was 0.47 (p = 0.01, moderate agreement). For the individual surgeons, this ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 (p = 0.01). In conclusion, while overall agreement was moderate between the surgeons and the radiologist, it is clear that if surgeons are to assess patients for ruptured EVAR in the future, focused training of surgical trainees is required.

  18. Determining the Suitability of Two Different Statistical Techniques in Shallow Landslide (Debris Flow Initiation Susceptibility Assessment in the Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ninu Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Information Value (InfoVal and the Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR methods based on bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis have been applied for shallow landslide initiation susceptibility assessment in a selected subwatershed in the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, to determine the suitability of geographical information systems (GIS assisted statistical landslide susceptibility assessment methods in the data constrained regions. The different landslide conditioning terrain variables considered in the analysis are geomorphology, land use/land cover, soil thickness, slope, aspect, relative relief, plan curvature, profile curvature, drainage density, the distance from drainages, lineament density and distance from lineaments. Landslide Susceptibility Index (LSI maps were produced by integrating the weighted themes and divided into five landslide susceptibility zones (LSZ by correlating the LSI with general terrain conditions. The predictive performances of the models were evaluated through success and prediction rate curves. The area under success rate curves (AUC for InfoVal and MLR generated susceptibility maps shows 84.11% and 68.65%, respectively. The prediction rate curves show good to moderate correlation between the distribution of the validation group of landslides and LSZ maps with AUC values of 0.648 and 0.826 respectively for MLR and InfoVal produced LSZ maps. Considering the best fit and suitability of the models in the study area by quantitative prediction accuracy, LSZ map produced by the InfoVal technique shows higher accuracy, i.e. 82.60%, than the MLR model and is more realistic while compared in the field and is considered as the best suited model for the assessment of landslide susceptibility in areas similar to the study area. The LSZ map produced for the area can be utilised for regional planning and assessment process, by incorporating the generalised rainfall conditions in the area. DOI

  19. Prediction of time of death after withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in potential donors after cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jentina; Snoeijs, Maarten G. J.; Brugman, Cees A.; Vervelde, Janneke; Zwaveling, Janharm; van Mook, Walther N.; van Heurn, Ernest L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Organ donation after cardiac death increases the number of donor organs. In controlled donation after cardiac death donors, the period between withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and cardiac arrest is one of the parameters used to assess whether organs are suitable for transplantation

  20. A resource-based modelling framework to assess habitat suitability for steppe birds in semiarid Mediterranean agricultural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cardador

    Full Text Available European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species' key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site, and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species' distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species' occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models.

  1. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. PMID:25649406

  2. Assessment of apixaban plasma levels by laboratory tests: suitability of three anti-Xa assays. A multicentre French GEHT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Flaujac, Claire; Delavenne, Xavier; Quenet, Sara; Horellou, Marie-Hélenè; Laporte, Silvy; Siguret, V; Lecompte, T

    2014-02-01

    While laboratory monitoring is not required in patients treated with apixaban, a direct factor-Xa inhibitor, assessment of its concentration is useful in some critical situations. However, few data are available on its effect on coagulation tests and on the suitability of anti-Xa assays for its quantification. It was the objective of this study to identify laboratory tests suitable for apixaban concentration assessment. Coagulation tests - PT and aPTT- and anti-Xa assays were performed in apixaban-spiked plasma samples. To evaluate the sensitivity of PT and aPTT to apixaban, we conducted a first monocenter part, with a wide range of concentrations (50-1,000 ng/ml), a large panel of reagents (20 reagents), and two coagulometers (STAR®, Stago and ACL TOP®, IL), and a second multicenter part involving 13 laboratories using either a common PT reagent (RecombiPlastin2G®) or the local PT and aPTT reagents. In the multicentre part, five blinded apixaban-spiked plasma samples (0/100/200/400/800 ng/ml - checked by HPLC-MS/MS) were used; apixaban concentrations were measured with three anti-Xa assays, apixaban calibrators and controls (Stago). PT and aPTT tests using a large panel of reagents displayed a low sensitivity to a wide range of apixaban concentrations. The concentrations to double PT ranged from 400 to >1,000 ng/ml with the 10 reagents. With the three anti-Xa assays, inter-laboratory precision and accuracy were below 11% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, whereas PT and aPTT tests were not sensitive enough to detect apixaban, the three anti-Xa assays tested using lyophilised apixaban calibrators and controls allowed to reliably quantify a wide range of apixaban concentrations.

  3. Suitability of 239+240Pu and 137Cs as tracers for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been distributed globally due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. While the negative consequences of this radioactive contamination are self-evident, the ubiquitous fallout radionuclides (FRNs) distribution form the basis for the use as tracers in ecological studies, namely for soil erosion assessment. Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. We compare the suitability of the anthropogenic FRNs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracers in two alpine valleys of Switzerland (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri, Central Swiss Alps and Val Piora, Ticino, Southern Alps). We sampled reference and potentially erosive sites in transects along both valleys. 137Cs measurements of soil samples were performed with a Li-drifted Germanium detector and 239+240Pu with ICP-MS. Our data indicates a heterogeneous deposition of the 137Cs, since most of the fallout origins from the Chernobyl April/May 1986 accident, when large parts of the European Alps were still snow-covered. In contrast, 239+240Pu fallout originated mainly from 1950s to 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, resulting in a more homogenous distribution and thus seems to be a more suitable tracer in mountainous grasslands. Soil erosion assessment using 239+240Pu as a tracer pointed to a huge dynamic and high heterogeneity of erosive processes (between sedimentation of 1.9 and 7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.2-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the Urseren Valley and sedimentation of 0.4-20.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.1-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) at Val Piora). Our study represents a novel and successful application of 239+240Pu as a tracer of soil erosion in a mountain environment. PMID:24374184

  4. Assessment of ocular surface toxicity after topical instillation of nitric oxide donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelino Julio Cariello

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the ocular surface toxicity of two nitric oxide donors in ex vivo and in vivo animal models: S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC matrix at final concentrations 1.0 and 10.0 mM. METHODS: Ex vivo GSNO and SNAC toxicities were clinically and histologically analyzed using freshly excised pig eyeballs. In vivo experiments were performed with 20 albino rabbits which were randomized into 4 groups (5 animals each: Groups 1 and 2 received instillations of 150 µL of aqueous HPMC solution containing GSNO 1.0 and 10.0 mM, respectively, in one of the eyes; Groups 3 and 4 received instillations of 150 µL of aqueous HPMC solution-containing SNAC 1.0 and 10.0 mM, respectively, in one of the eyes. The contralateral eyes in each group received aqueous HPMC as a control. All animals underwent clinical evaluation on a slit lamp and the eyes were scored according to a modified Draize eye test and were histologically analyzed. RESULTS: Pig eyeballs showed no signs of perforation, erosion, corneal opacity or other gross damage. These findings were confirmed by histological analysis. There was no difference between control and treated rabbit eyes according to the Draize eye test score in all groups (p>0.05. All formulations showed a mean score under 1 and were classified as "non-irritating". There was no evidence of tissue toxicity in the histological analysis in all animals. CONCLUSION: Aqueous HPMC solutions containing GSNO and SNAC at concentrations up to 10.0 mM do not induce ocular irritation.

  5. New strategies for evaluating the quality of kidney grafts from elderly donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrtova, Mariana; Viklicky, Ondrej

    2015-10-01

    The increased demand for kidney transplantation and organ shortage resulted in the increased use of kidneys from suboptimal donors. Therefore, identification of kidneys that can be accepted without significantly compromising the outcome of allograft or recipient has become critical. A robust assessment of organ quality is of particular importance especially in kidneys from elderly donors in whom morphological and functional changes associated with aging and diseases are obvious. A number of predictive tools have been developed to help with evaluating the suitability of a deceased-donor kidney for transplantation. Among those, Kidney Donor Profile Index and zero hour graft biopsy in elderly donors have been already implemented in several transplant programs. This review captures the recent literature on this subject and discusses approaches for evaluating the quality of kidney grafts from elderly donors.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF SEROPREVALANCE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN AND AROUND BELLARY, KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huggi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the blood among healthy voluntary blood donors in and around Bellary. SAMPLE SIZE: 51,144 blood donors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. DURATION OF THE STUDY: Jan-2006 to Dec-2013. RESULTS: In the 8-year study period, 51,144 units of blood were collected. The Seroprevalence of HIV was found to be 0.38%. Also, the Seroprevalence of HIV in Voluntary Blood Donors and Replacement Blood Donors was found to be 0.35% and 0.81%. In males and female blood donors, the Seroprevalence was fond to be 0.38% and 0.39%. CONCLUSION: The 8 year study reveals that the Seroprevalence of HIV in replacement donors is nearly twice as that of voluntary donors and nearly equal in male and female donors. Screening the blood donors for IV infection has to be made mandatory and the tests should be of the highest quality. Education and awareness among people should be encouraged and imparted.

  7. Assessment of thickness of palatal mucosal donor site and its association with age and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriakose, Anu; Raju, Saranyan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to determine the thickness of the palatal mucosa by a direct clinical method, and the association of age and gender with the thickness of the palatal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Forty systemically and periodontally healthy Indian subjects participated in the study. The subjects were categorized according to age and gender. The thickness of the palatal mucosa was assessed by bone sounding. Acrylic stents provided 15 consistent locations for the measurement, ...

  8. GIS-based assessment of land suitability for alfalfa cultivation: a case study in the dry continental steppes of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the most valuable perennial forage grass in northern China. We selected 12 ecological criteria and 4 socioeconomic criteria to calculate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation in the Xilingol League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We combined ecological suitability assessment with fuzzy analysis to standardize the criteria. We used the analytical hierarchy process to determine the weight of these criteria, and used multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA to aggregate the criteria. We then calculated the suitability score for each evaluation unit. The suitability was divided into highly, moderately, and marginally suitable, or unsuitable, using the geoprocessing module of ArcGIS 9.3 according to the FAO land suitability classification. We found that highly suitable areas covered 10,799.84 km2, accounting for 5.3% of the total area, and unsuitable areas covered 99,235.87 km2, accounting for 48.9% of the total area. Combining the fuzzy analysis method with the theory of ecological suitability and the MCDA method to evaluate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation provided insights that can guide decisionmakers and farmers to make more practical and scientific decisions.

  9. Screening and assessment of solidification/stabilization amendments suitable for soils of lead-acid battery contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Rhee, Jae Seong; Wang, Sen; Li, Fasheng

    2015-05-15

    Lead exposure via ingestion of soil and dust generally occurs at lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling sites. Screening solidification/stabilization (S/S) amendments suitable for lead contaminated soil in an abandoned lead-acid battery factory site was conducted based on its chemical forms and environmental risks. Twelve amendments were used to immobilize the Pb in soil and assess the solidification/stabilization efficiency by toxicity leaching tests. The results indicated that three amendments, KH₂PO₄ (KP), KH₂PO₄:oyster shell power=1:1 (by mass ratio; SPP), and KH₂PO₄:sintered magnesia=1:1 (by mass ratio; KPM) had higher remediation efficiencies that led to a 92% reduction in leachable Pb with the addition of 5% amendments, while the acid soluble fraction of Pb (AS-Pb) decreased by 41-46% and the residual fraction (RS-Pb) increased by 16-25%. The S/S costs of the three selected amendments KP, SPP, and KPM could be controlled to $22.3 per ton of soil when the Pb concentration in soil ranged from 2000 to 3000 mg/kg. The results of this study demonstrated that KP, SPP, and KPM can effectively decrease bioavailability of Pb. These findings could provide basis for decision-making of S/S remediation of lead-acid battery contaminated sites.

  10. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon for stocking in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Christopher; Vinci, Brian; Summerfelt, Steven; Snekvik, Kevin; Adams, Ian; Dilly, Samuel

    2011-06-01

    To assess the suitability of water reuse technology for raising Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. for stocking purposes, fish health and welfare were compared between two groups of juvenile Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from the same spawn: one group was reared in a pilot partial water reuse system (circular tanks), and the other group was reared in a flow-through raceway. This observational study was carried out over a 21-week period in Washington State. Reuse and raceway fish were sampled repeatedly for pathogen screening and histopathology; fin erosion and whole-blood characteristics were also evaluated. By the study's end, no listed pathogens were isolated from either cohort, and survival was 99.3% and 99.0% in the reuse and raceway groups, respectively. Condition factor was 1.28 in raceway fish and 1.14 in reuse fish; this difference may have been attributable to occasional differences in feeding rates between the cohorts. Fin indices (i.e., length of the longest dorsal or caudal fin ray, standardized by fork length) were lower in reuse fish than in raceway fish, but fin erosion was not grossly apparent in either cohort. The most consistent histological lesion was gill epithelial hypertrophy in reuse fish; however, blood analyses did not suggest any corresponding physiological imbalances. Overall, results suggest that water reuse technology can be employed in rearing juvenile anadromous salmonids for stocking purposes. PMID:21834328

  11. Children as donors : a national study to assess procurement of organs and tissues in pediatric intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, Marion J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2012-01-01

    A shortage of size-matched organs and tissues is the key factor limiting transplantation in children. Empirical data on procurement from pediatric donors is sparse. This study investigated donor identification, parental consent, and effectuation rates, as well as adherence to the national protocol.

  12. Developmental assessment in cases of PIMD : The opinion of support staff and psychologists about the suitability of the GTI and Bayley-III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Linda; Oldenburger, M.N.C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Developmental assessment is important to be able to adjust the support that is offered to a person with PIMD to his/her possibilities and needs. The focus of this poster is the suitability of two developmental assessment instruments: the Bayley-III and the GTI (GedragsTaxatie-Instrumen

  13. Assessing the Suitability of Future Multi- and Hyperspectral Satellite Systems for Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Norway Spruce Timber Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accurate and timely information on timber volume is important for supporting operational forest management. One option is to combine statistical concepts (e.g., small area estimates with specifically designed terrestrial sampling strategies to provide estimations also on the level of administrative units such as forest districts. This may suffice for economic assessments, but still fails to provide spatially explicit information on the distribution of timber volume within these management units. This type of information, however, is needed for decision-makers to design and implement appropriate management operations. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is currently implementing an object-oriented database that will also allow the direct integration of Earth observation data products. This work analyzes the suitability of forthcoming multi- and hyperspectral satellite imaging systems for producing local distribution maps for timber volume of Norway spruce, one of the most economically important tree species. In combination with site-specific inventory data, fully processed hyperspectral data sets (HyMap were used to simulate datasets of the forthcoming EnMAP and Sentinel-2 systems to establish adequate models for estimating timber volume maps. The analysis included PLS regression and the k-NN method. Root Mean Square Errors between 21.6% and 26.5% were obtained, where k-NN performed slightly better than PLSR. It was concluded that the datasets of both simulated sensor systems fulfill accuracy requirements to support local forest management operations and could be used in synergy. Sentinel-2 can provide meaningful volume distribution maps in higher geometric resolution, while EnMAP, due to its hyperspectral coverage, can contribute complementary information, e.g., on biophysical conditions.

  14. Assessing the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing piggery under tropical conditions using the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out worldwide for evaluating different types of floor systems for growing-finishing pigs, specifically for assessing their effectiveness on pig performance, health and behaviour, leaving the opportunity for using multi-criteria analysis in decisionmaking towards the selection of flooring type. This study aimed to select the most suitable floor system for growing-finishing pigs under tropical conditions, considering performance traits and farmers management aspects. The analytic hierarchy process was applied for seeking the best solution considering both the farmers’ goals and the pigs’ welfare. Aspects considered in the analysis were: economic feasibility, rearing thermal and aerial ambient, animal behaviour, performance, and health status. The input used in the calculation was based on the results of a field trial using three treatments: whole concrete floor, coffee and rice husk bedding, and wood shavings deepbedding. Rearing conditions and pigs’ physiological parameters, performance, behaviour, and health status were analysed. When the floor system was considered, the most significant criteria were economic feasibility (0.31 and overall pig performance (0.31 leading to a final deep-bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, concrete floor (2nd, and wood shavings (3rd. Conversely, when the animal welfare was considered, the most decisive criterion was health status (0.32, followed by physiological parameters (0.25, and behaviour (0.23 leading to a final bedding selection ranking of coffee and rice husks (1st, wood shavings (2nd, and concrete floor (3rd. Results indicate that the deep-bedding of coffee and rice husks provided the best choice for both the farmer and the growing-finishing pigs.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENT OF THE POPULATION IN THE ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION, THE DONOR RESOURCE AND PLANNING OF THE EFFECTIVE NETWORK OF THE MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS (THE CENTERS OF TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the requirement of the population of the Russian Federation for an organ transplantation and donor resource, to offer approach to planning of an effective network of the medical organizations (the centers of transplantation. Materials and methods. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the patients receiving a dialysis, data about medical care on an organ transplantation in Russia and foreign countries is made. Results. On the basis of what the assessment of requirement of the population of the Russian Federation in an organ transplantation and donor resource is carried out, approach to planning of an effective network of the medical organizations (the centers of transplantation and scenarios of development of organ do- nation and transplantation in Russia is offered. Conclusion. To provide the population of the Russian Federation with medical care on an organ transplantation according to real requirement and donor resource, in each region of the Russian Federation have to be organized deceased organ donation and transplantation of a cadaveric kidney. But the transplantation of extrarenal organs is better to develop in the federal centers of hi-tech medical care with donor providing from territories of adjacent regions. 

  16. Biodiesel production process optimization and characterization to assess the suitability of the product for varied environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eevera, T.; Rajendran, K.; Saradha, S. [Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Periyar Nagar, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu 613 403 (India)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, both edible (coconut oil, palm oil, groundnut oil, and rice bran oil) and non-edible oils (pongamia, neem and cotton seed oil) were used to optimize the biodiesel production process variables like catalyst concentration, amount of methanol required for reaction, reaction time and reaction temperature. The fuel properties like specific gravity, moisture content, refractive index, acid value, iodine number, saponification value and peroxide value were estimated. Based on the cetane number and iodine value, the methyl esters obtained from palm and coconut oils were not suitable to use as biodiesel in cold weather conditions, but for hot climate condition biodiesel obtained from the remaining oil sources is suitable. (author)

  17. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection.

  18. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  19. lociNGS: A Lightweight Alternative for Assessing Suitability of Next-Generation Loci for Evolutionary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hird, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic enrichment methods and next-generation sequencing produce uneven coverage for the portions of the genome (the loci) they target; this information is essential for ascertaining the suitability of each locus for further analysis. lociNGS is a user-friendly accessory program that takes multi-FASTA formatted loci, next-generation sequence alignments and demographic data as input and collates, displays and outputs information about the data. Summary information includes the parameters cove...

  20. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, Megan K; Serra, Kayla; Joyner, T Andrew; Humphries, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed) and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y(-1). Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects.

  1. Solid Waste Management in Greater Shillong Planning Area (GSPA) Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Site Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipun, B. S.; Hazarika, R.; Mondal, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2015-04-01

    In Shillong city the existing solid waste management system is mobile waste bins (72%). About 12 percent burn the waste generated by them. Door to door collection is about 5 percent. Over 2 percent households throw the wastes in the open space. Another 9 percent households throw their wastes into the waste bins located in the neighbourhood. The local headman takes care about half of the household's wastes, while Municipality takes care about 34 percent households. About 10 percent households are ignorant about the collection and disposal of wastes. Some NGO's takes care about 5 percent household's wastes. Awareness about segregation of waste into organic and non-bio degradable waste is 64 percent and a significant numbers do the segregation. In Shillong Municipality Board (SMB) area collects 45.91% (78.42 MT) waste, outside SMB area collection is 32.61% (45.99 MT) and entire GSPA the percentage of garbage collected is 41percent. The only dumping ground in GSPA is Marten, Mawiong, and the capacity to hold garbage is decreasing due to limited landfill. The sanitary landfill site is 5.0 acres that it is not enough to meet the demand. Out of he total area 170.69 sq. km. (GSPA) only 25.67% is most suitable and 18.58% is unsuitable to set up a new landfill area. Eastern part of the GSPA, is most suitable, which fulfils the entire criterion adopted in this study. In this the best-stated criterion are land cover (vacant space), slope (2000m) and elevation (1300-1500m). The eastern part of the GSPA is most suitable landfill location.

  2. On the suitability of ultrathin detectors for absorbed dose assessment in the presence of high-density heterogeneities

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Vizcarra, Marta; Carrasco, P. (Paula); Jornet, N.; Muñoz Montplet, C.; Duch Guillen, María Amor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of several detectors for the determination of absorbed dose in bone.; Methods: Three types of ultrathin LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) two LiF:Mg,Cu,P-based (MCP-Ns and TLD-2000F) and a Li-7-enriched LiF:Mg,Ti-based (MTS-7s)-as well as EBT2 Gafchromic films were used to measure percentage depth-dose distributions (PDDs) in a water-equivalent phantom with a bone-equivalent heterogeneity for 6 and 18 MV and a set of f...

  3. Suitability of the Literacy and Numeracy Screening (LINUS) 2.0 Programme in Assessing Children's Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyee, Eunice Ong; Roselan, Fauzan Izzati; Anwardeen, Nor Hafizah; Mustapa, Fatin Hazirah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Early literacy skills are crucial in a child's learning process and awareness should be raised in order to ensure the quality of early literacy assessments. In this paper, the writers discuss the quality of early literacy assessment in Malaysia, LINUS 2.0 by looking at its validity and reliability. An established early literacy program is compared…

  4. An assessment of the long term suitability of present and proposed methods for the management of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposals for safe, long-term containment of conventional tailings include 1) storage under water, 2) storage in active, abandoned or specially created underground mines and, 3) storage in open pits, with subsequent flooding or covering with overburden. The underwater proposal can meet most of the requirements of long term containment; however, extensive study of existing tailings deposits in deep water locations will be needed. Underground mines cannot provide sufficient storage capacity, since the tailings bulk during mill operation can occupy twice the volume of the original ore. It is possible to reduce the hazard by reducing the radium and thorium content of the tailings. Proposals for such an undertaking include ore beneficiation with rejection of the relatively innocuous fraction, radium-thorium removal in the mill, and significant changes in both ore processing and treatment of tailings. It is concluded that surface-stored tailings are vulnerable over the long term to dispersion by leaching and water erosion, and that access to a tailings site cannot be prevented, while only a major climatic or seismic event could disturb tailings stored in suitable underwater or underground mine sites. The criteria for determining suitability for each method, however, will need to be identified, tested, and accepted through the normal process of modeling, pilot plant evaluation, monitoring and evaluation. (author)

  5. The identification of potential cadaveric organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J F; McCosker, C J; Hibberd, A D; Chapman, J R; Compton, J S; Mahony, J F; Mohacsi, P J; MacDonald, G J; Spratt, P M

    1995-02-01

    Most Australian transplantation programs are severely restricted in their activities by a limited availability of cadaveric donor organs. To investigate possible reasons for this problem, an audit was undertaken over three 12-month periods of all deaths in 13 hospitals in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. From 7406 deaths, 271 patients were classified as having been realistic, medically suitable potential donors. Of these, only 60 (22%) became actual donors. In the other 211 patients, donation did not occur because of unsuccessful resuscitation (30%), permission refusal by relatives (34%), and failure to identify or support the potential donors (36%). If the impediments to organ donation which were identified in this study could be overcome, allowing a greater number of potential donors to become actual donors, the chronic shortage of cadaveric donor organs for transplantation could be at least partly relieved.

  6. 城市土地生态适宜性评价研究综述%Study on Urban Land Ecological Suitability Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨轶; 赵楠琦; 李贵才

    2015-01-01

    As a response to urban land use expansion, urban sprawl, and ecological and environmental quality declines, urban land ecological suitability assessment is becoming increasingly significant not only for rational and effective urban land use, but for urban and regional ecological planning. The current literature has paid attention to the study of urban land ecological suitability assessment. This paper, from the perspective of literature review, mainly focuses on the concepts, evaluation index systems, and estimation method of urban land ecological suitability assessment, and its potential planning implications. This research ifnds that there are still certain problems and dififculty for further land ecological suitability assessment research.%城市土地生态适宜性评价是城市生态规划的核心内容,是应对城市建设用地无序扩张,实现土地资源合理利用的有效方法。本文从城市土地生态适宜性评价的内涵入手,针对不同地域类型的特征,从评价指标体系、评价方法和实践应用三个方面,对国内外研究进行了系统回顾。研究认为,国内外现有研究成果已十分丰富,但仍存在一些问题和研究难点。

  7. Management of the multiple organ donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenik, C R; Hinds, C J

    1987-07-01

    The need for cadaveric organs for transplantation is increasing. This article provides guidelines for the identification of potential organ donors and suggests suitable principles of management. The physiological changes after brain death are briefly reviewed.

  8. In vitro and in vivo assessment of cellular permeability and pharmacodynamics of S-nitrosylated Captopril, a nitric oxide donor

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Lee; Wong, Hong

    2001-01-01

    The present studies were aimed at testing the hypothesis that S-nitrosylated captopril (CapNO), a novel crystalline nitric oxide (NO) donor, readily permeates both in vitro and in vivo endothelial monolayers, resulting in its pharmacodynamic effects.CapNO and Captopril (Cap) were added to apical side of endothelial monolayers formed on microporous membranes, and the permeated drugs were collected from basolateral side and detected by a HPLC method. The permeability coefficient (Papp; cm sec−1...

  9. Radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin to assess the suitability of gluten free foods for patients with coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (United Medical School of Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Lennox, E.S. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

    1985-03-01

    Coeliac disease is a clinical condition characterised by malabsorption secondary to abnormalities of the small intestine. The condition is known to be exacerbated by wheat gliadin, rye, barley and possibly oats. The only assays that are available for testing for the presence of wheat gluten in foods are double diffusion against rabbit anti-gliadin antiserum and measurement of Kjeldahl nitrogen in products derived from wheat flour. We have developed a radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin with a detection limit of 1 ng. Nominally gluten free foods based on wheat starch have been shown to contain up to 1.9 x 10/sup -2/% wheat gliadin. Bread made from Nutregen wheat starch which has now been withdrawn contains 6.4 mg gliadin per standard 30 g slice. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin could be used to define standards for the suitability of gluten free products based on wheat starch for patients with coeliac disease.

  10. On the suitability of ultrathin detectors for absorbed dose assessment in the presence of high-density heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, M., E-mail: marta.bueno@upc.edu; Duch, M. A. [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Carrasco, P.; Jornet, N. [Servei de Radiofísica i Radioprotecció, Hospital de la Santa Creu i de Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Muñoz-Montplet, C. [Servei de Física Mèdica i Protecció Radiològica, Institut Català d’Oncologia—Girona, 17007 Girona (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of several detectors for the determination of absorbed dose in bone. Methods: Three types of ultrathin LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs)—two LiF:Mg,Cu,P-based (MCP-Ns and TLD-2000F) and a{sup 7}Li-enriched LiF:Mg,Ti-based (MTS-7s)—as well as EBT2 Gafchromic films were used to measure percentage depth-dose distributions (PDDs) in a water-equivalent phantom with a bone-equivalent heterogeneity for 6 and 18 MV and a set of field sizes ranging from 5×5 cm{sup 2} to 20×20 cm{sup 2}. MCP-Ns, TLD-2000F, MTS-7s, and EBT2 have active layers of 50, 20, 50, and 30 μm, respectively. Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations (PENELOPE code) were used as the reference and helped to understand the experimental results and to evaluate the potential perturbation of the fluence in bone caused by the presence of the detectors. The energy dependence and linearity of the TLDs’ response was evaluated. Results: TLDs exhibited flat energy responses (within 2.5%) and linearity with dose (within 1.1%) within the range of interest for the selected beams. The results revealed that all considered detectors perturb the electron fluence with respect to the energy inside the bone-equivalent material. MCP-Ns and MTS-7s underestimated the absorbed dose in bone by 4%–5%. EBT2 exhibited comparable accuracy to MTS-7s and MCP-Ns. TLD-2000F was able to determine the dose within 2% accuracy. No dependence on the beam energy or field size was observed. The MC calculations showed that a50 μm thick detector can provide reliable dose estimations in bone regardless of whether it is made of LiF, water or EBT’s active layer material. Conclusions: TLD-2000F was found to be suitable for providing reliable absorbed dose measurements in the presence of bone for high-energy x-ray beams.

  11. Suitability Assessment of Deep Groundwater for Drinking and Irrigation Use in the Parts of Hoskote and Malur Taluks, Karnataka (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravikumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples from thirty four bore wells used for drinking and irrigation in parts of Hoskote and Malur taluks, Karnataka State (India, were collected and geochemically analysed during December 2014. The hydrochemical characteristics was dominated by Ca2+-Mg2+ -Cl--SO42- (58.82% and Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3- (38.24%, with alkaline earth (Ca+Mg exceeding alkalies (Na+K and strong acidic anions dominating weak acidic anions. Weathering of rock-forming minerals regulated chemistry of the groundwater in the study area as indicated by Gibbs plot. The groundwater chemistry in the study area is influenced by silicate dissolution of host rock with contribution from weathering of carbonate rocks while positive CAI values indicated exchange of Na and K from the water with Mg and Ca of the rocks in the study area. The Ca2+/Mg2+ molar ratio plot further supported the fact that dissolution of calcite with effect of silicate minerals contributes calcium and magnesium to 97.06% of the groundwater. SAR, percent sodium, WQI and permeability index values demonstrated the suitability of a majority of the samples for irrigation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.1.9809

  12. lociNGS: a lightweight alternative for assessing suitability of next-generation loci for evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Hird

    Full Text Available Genomic enrichment methods and next-generation sequencing produce uneven coverage for the portions of the genome (the loci they target; this information is essential for ascertaining the suitability of each locus for further analysis. lociNGS is a user-friendly accessory program that takes multi-FASTA formatted loci, next-generation sequence alignments and demographic data as input and collates, displays and outputs information about the data. Summary information includes the parameters coverage per locus, coverage per individual and number of polymorphic sites, among others. The program can output the raw sequences used to call loci from next-generation sequencing data. lociNGS also reformats subsets of loci in three commonly used formats for multi-locus phylogeographic and population genetics analyses - NEXUS, IMa2 and Migrate. lociNGS is available at https://github.com/SHird/lociNGS and is dependent on installation of MongoDB (freely available at http://www.mongodb.org/downloads. lociNGS is written in Python and is supported on MacOSX and Unix; it is distributed under a GNU General Public License.

  13. Development and Assessment of a Geographic Knowledge-Based Model for Mapping Suitable Areas for Rift Valley Fever Transmission in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annelise; Trevennec, Carlène; Lutwama, Julius; Sserugga, Joseph; Gély, Marie; Pittiglio, Claudia; Pinto, Julio; Chevalier, Véronique

    2016-09-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans, is one of the most important viral zoonoses in Africa. The objective of the present study was to develop a geographic knowledge-based method to map the areas suitable for RVF amplification and RVF spread in four East African countries, namely, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia, and to assess the predictive accuracy of the model using livestock outbreak data from Kenya and Tanzania. Risk factors and their relative importance regarding RVF amplification and spread were identified from a literature review. A numerical weight was calculated for each risk factor using an analytical hierarchy process. The corresponding geographic data were collected, standardized and combined based on a weighted linear combination to produce maps of the suitability for RVF transmission. The accuracy of the resulting maps was assessed using RVF outbreak locations in livestock reported in Kenya and Tanzania between 1998 and 2012 and the ROC curve analysis. Our results confirmed the capacity of the geographic information system-based multi-criteria evaluation method to synthesize available scientific knowledge and to accurately map (AUC = 0.786; 95% CI [0.730-0.842]) the spatial heterogeneity of RVF suitability in East Africa. This approach provides users with a straightforward and easy update of the maps according to data availability or the further development of scientific knowledge. PMID:27631374

  14. Development and Assessment of a Geographic Knowledge-Based Model for Mapping Suitable Areas for Rift Valley Fever Transmission in Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annelise; Trevennec, Carlène; Lutwama, Julius; Sserugga, Joseph; Gély, Marie; Pittiglio, Claudia; Pinto, Julio; Chevalier, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans, is one of the most important viral zoonoses in Africa. The objective of the present study was to develop a geographic knowledge-based method to map the areas suitable for RVF amplification and RVF spread in four East African countries, namely, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia, and to assess the predictive accuracy of the model using livestock outbreak data from Kenya and Tanzania. Risk factors and their relative importance regarding RVF amplification and spread were identified from a literature review. A numerical weight was calculated for each risk factor using an analytical hierarchy process. The corresponding geographic data were collected, standardized and combined based on a weighted linear combination to produce maps of the suitability for RVF transmission. The accuracy of the resulting maps was assessed using RVF outbreak locations in livestock reported in Kenya and Tanzania between 1998 and 2012 and the ROC curve analysis. Our results confirmed the capacity of the geographic information system-based multi-criteria evaluation method to synthesize available scientific knowledge and to accurately map (AUC = 0.786; 95% CI [0.730–0.842]) the spatial heterogeneity of RVF suitability in East Africa. This approach provides users with a straightforward and easy update of the maps according to data availability or the further development of scientific knowledge. PMID:27631374

  15. Are bovine teeth a suitable substitute for human teeth in in vitro studies to assess endotoxin load in root canals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago André Fontoura de MELO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of using bovine teeth as a suitable alternative for human teeth, in experiments involving in vitro endotoxin contamination. Twenty bovine central incisors and 20 human single-root premolars had their dental crowns removed and root lengths set at 16 mm. Root canals were prepared up to #60 K-file size and sterilized with cobalt-60 gamma irradiation (20 kGy, 6 h. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups: G1-bovine teeth (bovine negative control, n = 10, G2-human teeth (human negative control, n = 10, G3-bovine teeth, inoculated withEscherichia coli (055:B55 LPS, and G4-human teeth inoculated with E. coli LPS. The G1 and G2 groups were exposed to apyrogenic water. After the teeth had been incubated at 37 °C and atmospheric humidity for 24 h, the samples of solutions in the main canals were collected with apyrogenic absorbent paper tips. LPS levels were quantified using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, with a significance level of 5%. A high amount of endotoxin was detected in the inoculated human teeth (G4 when compared to the sterilized teeth (G2, as well as in the inoculated bovine teeth (G3 when compared to the inoculated human teeth (G4. However, there was no statistical difference between bovine teeth before and after the E. coli endotoxin inoculation. Therefore, under the mentioned experimental conditions, the use of bovine teeth should not be a choice for laboratory research on endotoxin contamination.

  16. Assessment of land suitability for olive mill wastewater disposal site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP, and WLC in a GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek; Nasr, Imen Hamdi; Louati, Mourad; Zairi, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information system-based multi-criteria site selection tool of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) disposal site in Sidi Bouzid Region, Tunisia. The multi-criteria decision framework integrates ten constraints and six factors that relate to environmental and economic concerns, and builds a hierarchy model for OMW disposal site suitability. The methodology is used for preliminary assessment of the most suitable OMW disposal sites by combining fuzzy set theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The fuzzy set theory is used to standardize factors using different fuzzy membership functions while the AHP is used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by both environmental and economic decision criteria. The OMW disposal site suitability is achieved by applying a weighted linear combination that uses a comparison matrix to aggregate different importance scenarios associated with environmental and economic objectives. Three different scenarios generated by different weights applied to the two objectives. The scenario (a) assigns a weight of 0.75 to the environmental and 0.25 to the economic objective, scenario (b) has equal weights, and scenario (c) features weights of 0.25 and 0.75 for environmental and economic objectives, respectively. The results from this study assign the least suitable OMW disposal site of 2.5 % when environmental and economic objectives are rated equally, while a more suitable OMW disposal site of 1.0 % is generated when the economic objective is rated higher.

  17. Suitability of Transportable EDXRF for the On-site Assessment of Ancient Silver Coins and Other Silver Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Damian B; Davis, Gillan

    2016-05-01

    Transportable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers allow the elemental composition of coins to be measured at collections, enhancing security while maximizing access to historically important material. We assessed 10 silver coins, using five XRF spectrometers. We found no systematic differences between analyses using Mo- and Rh-anode tubes, and no substantial advantage using He flush over air for elements heavier than Ti. Higher voltage X-ray tubes enhanced analytical precision. Understanding patina composition made a numerical correction possible, allowing an approximation of the underlying coin metal with good results for metals including Cu, Ag, Au, Pb, and Bi. PMID:27044848

  18. Assessing water quality suitability for shortnose sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA with an in situ bioassay approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Oakley, N.C.; Lazaro, P.R.; Shea, D.; Augspurger, T.; Law, J.M.; Henne, J.P.; Ware, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of water quality in the Roanoke River of North Carolina for supporting shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, an endangered species in the United States. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were also evaluated alongside the sturgeon as a comparative species to measure potential differences in fish survival, growth, contaminant accumulation, and histopathology in a 28-day in situ toxicity test. Captively propagated juvenile shortnose sturgeon (total length 49??8mm, mean??SD) and fathead minnows (total length 39??3mm, mean??SD) were used in the test and their outcomes were compared to simultaneous measurements of water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total ammonia nitrogen, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity) and contaminant chemistry (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, current use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) in river water and sediment. In the in situ test, there were three non-riverine control sites and eight riverine test sites with three replicate cages (25??15-cm (OD) clear plexiglass with 200-??m tear-resistant Nitex?? screen over each end) of 20 shortnose sturgeon per cage at each site. There was a single cage of fathead minnows also deployed at each site alongside the sturgeon cages. Survival of caged shortnose sturgeon among the riverine sites averaged 9% (range 1.7-25%) on day 22 of the 28-day study, whereas sturgeon survival at the non-riverine control sites averaged 64% (range 33-98%). In contrast to sturgeon, only one riverine deployed fathead minnow died (average 99.4% survival) over the 28-day test period and none of the control fathead minnows died. Although chemical analyses revealed the presence of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a pulp and paper mill derived compound with known dioxin-like toxicity to early life stages of fish, in significant quantities in the water (251-603ngL-1) and sediment (up to 5000ngg-1

  19. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesn´t present contradictions for transplant (possible donor and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  20. ELEVATED ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT IN BLOOD DONORS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE MAIN ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lopes GONÇALES Jr.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of aminotranferases levels is very useful in the diagnosis of hepatopathies. In recent years, an elevated serum ALT level in blood donors has been associated with an increased risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH. The purpose of the study was to research the factors associated with elevated ALT levels in a cohort of voluntary blood donors and to evaluate the relationship between increased ALT levels and the development of hepatitis C (HCV infection. 166 volunteer blood donors with elevated ALT at the time of their first donation were studied. All of the donors were questioned about previous hepatopathies, exposure to hepatitis, exposure to chemicals, use of medication or drugs, sexual behaviour, contact with blood or secretions and their intake of alcohol. Every three months, the serum levels of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, cholesterol, triglyceride and glycemia are assessed over a two year follow-up. The serum thyroid hormone levels as well as the presence of auto-antibodies were also measured. Abdominal ultrasound was performed in all patients with persistently elevated ALT or AST levels. A needle biopsy of liver was performed in 9 donors without definite diagnostic after medical investigation. The presence of anti-HCV antibodies in 116 donors were assayed again the first clinical evaluation. At the end of follow-up period (2 years later 71 donors were tested again for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. None of donors resulted positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C markers during the follow-up. Of the 116 donors, 101 (87% had persistently elevated ALT serum levels during the follow-up. Obesity and alcoholism were the principal conditions related to elevated ALT serum levels in 91/101 (90.1% donors. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus also were associated with increased ALT levels. Only 1/101 (0.9% had mild chronic active non A-G viral

  1. Assessing glomerular filtration rate in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh: a comparison of various prediction equations with measured glomerular filtration rate by diethylentriamine pentaacetic acid renogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, F; Chowdhury, M N U; Mahbub, T; Arafat, S M; Jahan, S; Hossain, M; Khan, M F

    2013-08-01

    To ensure that potential kidney donors in Bangladesh have no renal impairment, it is extremely important to have accurate methods for evaluating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We evaluated the performance of serum creatinine based GFR in healthy adult potential kidney donors in Bangladesh to compare GFR determined by DTPA with that determined by various prediction equations. In this study GFR in 61 healthy adult potential kidney donors were measured with 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) renogram. We also estimated GFR using a four variable equation modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (CGCrCl), Cockcroft-Gault glomerular filtration rate (CG-GFR). The mean age of study population was 34.31 +/- 9.46 years and out of them 65.6% was male. In this study mean mGFR was 85.4 +/- 14.8. Correlation of estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR and MDRD were done with measured GFR DTPA using quartile. Kappa values were also estimated which was found to be 0.104 for (p = 0.151), 0.336 for (p = 0.001) and 0.125 for (p = 0.091) respectively. This indicates there is no association between estimated GFR calculated by CG-CrCl, CG-GFR, MDRD with measured GFR DTPA. These results show poor performance of these equations in evaluation of renal function among healthy population and also raise question regarding validity of these equations for assessment of renal function in chronic kidney disease in our population.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY OF THE JIU-CORABIA ENCLOSURE FOR LAKE USAGE USING GIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Mariana DAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the three strategic objectives of the Europe 2020 Agenda is to ensure the sustainable management of the natural resources and to fight against climate changes. Considering water to be not only a valuable natural resource for any type of landscape, but also the vital environmental component that ensured a minimum of productivity for the people working the unproductive salinization and gleyzation affected soils in the Jiu-Corabia enclosure, using embankment dams to breake the link between the Danube and the flood organism it created over a timespan of millenia has proven in the last 50 years to be an economic and ecological failure. Since the December 1989 events in Romania, after most of the socialist institutions have proven to be too resource consuming, thus unprofitable or maladaptive, the Jiu-Corabia locals have individually experimented with various land cultivation patterns, all of them based on draught-resistant crops, such as peanuts. In spite of it being the original natural landuse, lake usage has only been scarcely mentioned as a project after the 2006 flood, but after being institutionally rejected, its benefits in terms of ecological restoration, financial productivity have not been further looked into. The current article aims to identify different height level scenarios of lake usage in the Jiu-Corabia enclosure, using GIS technique. Lake volumes are calculated for each scenario with the aim of assessing the volume of water this enclose can absorb during flooding periods, as well as of estimating fish production for when the waters are low and it is not needed as a controlled flood chamber. Other benefits, such as providing a source of humidity for precipitations which will aid the crops nearby, have not been monetized, but contribute to the regional development efforts.

  3. Suitability of Isotope Kinetic Approach to Assess Phos—phorus Status and Bioavailability of Major Acidic Soils in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONGLIMING; J.C.FARDEAU

    1997-01-01

    A 32P isotope kinetic approach was used to describe the chemical status and bioavailability of phosphorus in 32 acidic soils from subtropical China.By determining the residual radoactivity,rt,in soil solution at different time,t,after introduction of the isotope in an amount of R into the steady soil-water system,a well-defined isotope kinetic model was established,and upon this model the decrease rate ,n,of log(rt/R) with respect to logt,the mean sojourn time of phosphate ions in solution,the mean exchange rate and the mean flux of phosphate ions between soil solid and solution phases were calculated.Other parameters,such as the exchangeable P within the first minute of isotope exchange(E1),and P in various compartments that could be exchanged with solution phosphte ions at different perods of time,were also obtained.For these acidic soils,the r1/R had a significant correlation with the contents of clay and free Al2O3 where r1 is the radioactivity in solution 1 minute after introduction of the isotope into the system.Parameter n also had a significant correlation with clay content and a neagtive correlation with soil pH,E1 values and Cp,the P concentration in soil solution,also Significantly correlated with clay and sesquioxide contents of the soils.these indicated that these isotope kinetic parameters were largely influenced by P-fixing components of the soils.For the soils with strong P-fixing ability,the E1 values overestimated labile P pools and hence their correlations with A values and plant P uptake were not significant .The other iostope kinetic parameters also had no significant correlation with plant P uptak.On the other hand,the convetional chemical-extracted p correlated better with plant P uptake .It was concluded that the iostope kinetic method could assess the p chemical status yet it would inappropriate in predicting plant available P for soils with a high P-fixing ability as the problem of an overestimation of soil lable P in these soils was

  4. Assessing Cumulative Impacts of Coal Bed Methane Development on Surface Water Quality and its Suitability for Irrigation in the Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, H. E.

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a mass balance approach to assessing the cumulative impacts of discharge from Coal Bed Methane (CBM) wells on surface water quality and its suitability for irrigation in the Powder River Basin. Key water quality parameters for predicting potential effects of CBM development on irrigated agriculture are sodicity, expressed as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity, expressed as electrical conductivity (EC). The assessment was performed with the aid of a spreadsheet model, which was designed to estimate steady-state SAR and EC at gauged stream locations after mixing with CBM produced water. Model input included ambient stream water quality and flow, CBM produced water quality and discharge rates, conveyance loss (quantity of water loss that may occur between the discharge point and the receiving streams), beneficial uses, regulatory thresholds, and discharge allocation at state-line boundaries. Historical USGS data were used to establish ambient stream water quality and flow conditions. The resultant water quality predicted for each stream station included the cumulative discharge of CBM produced water in all reaches upstream of the station. Model output was presented in both tabular and graphical formats, and indicated the suitability of pre- and post-mixing water quality for irrigation. Advantages and disadvantages of the spreadsheet model are discussed. This approach was used by federal agencies to support the development of the January 2003 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) for the Wyoming and Montana portions of the Powder River Basin.

  5. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

  6. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  7. Niche Suitability Assessment for Human Settlement in Hengyang Based on GIS%基于GIS的衡阳人居适宜度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡最; 邓美容; 刘沛林; 王金国; 田亚平

    2011-01-01

    Consulting the present methods and indices used in assessment of the environment of human settlement, combining the principles of niche suitability, the authors bring forward a new method for the assessment, in which 25 indices that can reflect the coupling degree between actual niche and robust niche are selected from those of economy, society and environment to construct a model of quantitative evaluation of niche suitability. In the paper Hengyang City, Hunan, is taken as an example to be studied. With the new model GIS technique and SuperMap Deskpro software are used to assess the city's niche suitability of human settlement and a thematic map is made. The results show that: (1) the economy niche indices are the most important factors that influence the assessment. ( 2 ) Zhengxiang District is the best area for human settlement environment, and its score is the highest, for it is the youngest one in the city and set up in 2001, the infrastructural facilities are more complete relatively. The results have proved to be in accordance with the actual development and construction of the city. Moreover, the authors put forward some proposals for improvement of the environmental quality of human settlement of Hengyang.%参考当前人居环境评价方法和指标体系,结合生态位适宜度的基本原理与方法,从经济、社会、环境生态位三类独立指标出发,选取25项反映现实生态位与最适宜生态位之间耦合度的单项指标,构建了一种新的多指标城市人居环境质量定量评价的生态位适宜度模型.以湖南省衡阳市主城区为例,运用GIs技术和superMan Deskpro软件进行了衡阳城区的人居环境适宜度定量评价.结果显示衡阳城市内部人居适宜度差异明显,在此基础上提出了相应的改进措施.评价结果说明本文所提出的生态位适宜度模型和评价方法具有一定的实践性.

  8. Assessment of 188Re marked anti MHC class Ⅱ antibody by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by donor alloantigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guo-ping; CAO Li-ping; LIU Jie; LIU Da-ren; QUE Ri-sheng; ZHU Lin-hua; ZHOU Yi-ming; MAO Ke-jie; HU Jun-an

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that anti MHC-Ⅱ monoclone antibody (MAb) only had partial inhibiting effect of alloreactive mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in vitro and it was unsteady and non-persistent. The aim of this research was to determine whether radioactive isotope 188Re marked MHC-Ⅱ antibody could benefit the allograft acceptance in transplantation as compared to normal MHC-Ⅱ antibody.Methods 188Re was incorporated to 2E9/13F(ab')2 which is against swine MHC class Ⅱ antigen (MAb-188Re). Porcine peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells were examined for proliferation and cytokine mRNA expression after stimulation with MHC-Ⅱ MAb or MAb-188Re.Results The proliferative response of recipient PBMCs in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) to donor alloantigen showed that the stimulation index of MAb-188Re group was significantly lower than the MHC-Ⅱ MAb group and control (P<0.05). mRNA expression of interleukin 2, interferon Y and tumor necrosis factor α (type 1 cytokines) was lower in MAb-188Re group than the MHC-Ⅱ MAb group, while interleukin 10 (type 2 cytokines) was higher in MAb-188Re group in the first 24 hours.Conclusion MAb-188Re could help the graft acceptance by inhibiting T cell proliferation, lowering the expression of type 1 cytokines and elevating the type 2 cytokines produced by PBMC.

  9. Global oil palm suitability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pirker, J.; Mosnier, A

    2015-01-01

    The palm oil boom of recent years has brought about both positive - economic development - and negative impacts - deforestation, habitat losses and increased GHG emissions - in the main producer countries in South-East Asia. As global demand for palm oil is still increasing, governments of developing and emerging countries increasingly promote oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to economic development, but there are concerns about the potential negative impacts of oil palm expansion ...

  10. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include

  11. Evaluation of donor kidney using multidetector spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and location of the renal arteries and any accessory arteries. This information was used to facilitate accurate 3D reconstruction. The distance from the origin of each renal artery was measured to the first bifurcation. The length of the right renal vein was also assessed to identify suitability for laparoscopic removal of the right donor kidney. These measurements were obtained from 2D coronal MIP images. The lumbar vein numbers and anatomy were also assessed as they need to be clamped during surgery. Anatomical variants (including duplex systems) and incidental findings were also noted. There was 100% concordance of multidetector spiral CT results with the surgical findings. The number of renal arteries, and their configuration, the position of the renal and lumbar veins were all confirmed to be accurate at surgery. Supplementation with conventional angiography or IVP was not needed. The use of multidetector spiral CT for assessment of the donor kidney is non-invasive and highly accurate, and has superseded conventional angiography and IVP for assessing the suitability of the kidneys for donation in our institution. The accuracy of donor assessment is particularly pertinent now that laparoscopic harvesting is being performed. This reduces donor morbidity and the prospect of avoiding open surgery and invasive diagnostic procedures may increase the attractiveness of the procedure for donors. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associate...... in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients....

  13. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Akoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.

  14. Assessing Factors Controlling the Hydrochemistry and Suitability for Irrigation Purposes of Aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire, South-West Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tathy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater of AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire (south-west town of Congo-Brazzaville was assessed for factors controlling the hydrochemistry and its irrigation suitability. Thirty three groundwater samples collected from 11 piezometers were analyzed for physical parameters such as: pH, temperature (T, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS; major cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and anions Cl- , SO42- , HCO3-. Factor analysis revealed four factors associated with the mineralization, alkalinity, temperature and pH of the groundwater. Some indexes which can influence the groundwater quality for irrigation were determined: Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, percent of sodium (%Na, Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC, Permeability Index (PI and Potential Salinity (PS. These indexes for water irrigation were compared with standard limits. They have been found within the safe limit suitable for irrigation. The total dissolved solids in the groundwater were lower than 1500 mg/L, this denotes that irrigation using groundwater of aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire would not cause salinity hazards.

  15. Correlation between donor age and organs transplanted per donor: our experience in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikari, J; Omiya, K; Konaka, S; Nomoto, K

    2014-05-01

    The shortage of available organs for transplantation is a worldwide issue. To maximize the number of transplantations, increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) is widely recognized as an important factor for improving the shortage. In Japan, we have had 211 donors, 1112 organs transplanted, and 924 recipients receiving the transplants, resulting in 4.4 ± 1.4 recipients receiving transplants per donor and 5.3 ± 1.6 OTPD as of February 2013. Because donor age is a well-recognized factor of donor suitability, we analyzed the correlation between donor age group and OTPD. Only the age group 60 to 69 years and the age group 70 to 79 years were significantly different (P organs.

  16. Computer Algorithms in the Search for Unrelated Stem Cell Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Steiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a “donor search process” by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU. Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  17. 基于AHP的浅层地热能适宜性分区评价%Assessment of suitability of shallow geothermal energy based on AHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金婧; 席文娟; 陈宇飞; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a quantitative and measurable method and also a multi - target decision - making analyzsis method and has been widely applied to many fields. In this paper AHP was used to confirm the weight of every evaluated factor in the process of assessing the suitability of developing the shallow geothermal energy in Yinchuan city. On the basis of that, the suitability of zoning based on the weight system and marking system was evaluated. The conclusion indicates that Yinchuan city is fit for adopting water - source heat pump of groundwater to exploit shallow geothermal energy. The result is consistent with the reality, the zoning result is reasonable and reliable can provides basis and references for the development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy in Yinchuan city.%层次分析法是一种定性和定量分析相结合的多目标决策分析方法,在很多领域都得到广泛的应用.本文运用层次分析法进行银川市地下水水源热泵适宜性分区评价,确定浅层地热能适宜性分区评价体系中的各评价指标的权重.在此基础上,利用权重系统和评分系统进行适宜性分区评价,评价结果显示银川市除局部地区外,大部分地区适宜采用地下水水源热泵开采浅层地热能,评价结果与客观情况基本吻合,分区结果合理可靠,为银川市浅层地热能的合理开发利用提供借鉴和参考.

  18. Report of the clinical donor case workshop of the European Association of Tissue Banks annual meeting 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beele, Hilde; van Wijk, Marja J; Wulff, Birgit; Holsboer, Noor; de Bruijn, Marieke; Segerström, Camilla; Trias, Esteve

    2016-09-01

    The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) donor case workshop is a forum held within the program of the EATB annual congress. The workshop offers an opportunity to discuss and evaluate possible approaches taken to challenging situations regarding donor selection. Donor case workshops actively engage participants with diverging background and experience in an informal, secure and enjoyable setting. The resulting discussion with peers promotes consensus development in deciding tissue donor acceptability, especially when donor health issues are not conclusively addressed in standards and regulations. Finally the workshop serves to strengthen the professional tissue banking networks across Europe and beyond. This report reflects some of the discussion at the workshop during the annual congress in Lund, Sweden, in 2014. The cases presented demonstrate that the implications of various donor illnesses, physical findings and behaviours on the safety of tissue transplantation, may be interpreted in a different way by medical directors and other professionals of different tissue facilities. This will also result in diverging preventive measures and decisions taken by the tissue facilities. Some of the donor cases illustrate varied responses from participants and demonstrate that operating procedures, regulations and standards cannot comprehensively cover all tissue donor illnesses, medical histories and circumstances surrounding the cause of death. For many of the issues raised, there is a lack of published scientific evidence. In those cases, tissue bank medical director judgement is critical to guarantee transplantation safety. This judgement should be based on a proper and documented risk assessment case by case. Conditions or parameters taken into account for risk assessment are amongst others, the type of tissue, the type of processing, the characteristics of the final product, and the availability of an adequate sterilisation methodology. By publishing these

  19. Report of the clinical donor case workshop of the European Association of Tissue Banks annual meeting 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beele, Hilde; van Wijk, Marja J; Wulff, Birgit; Holsboer, Noor; de Bruijn, Marieke; Segerström, Camilla; Trias, Esteve

    2016-09-01

    The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) donor case workshop is a forum held within the program of the EATB annual congress. The workshop offers an opportunity to discuss and evaluate possible approaches taken to challenging situations regarding donor selection. Donor case workshops actively engage participants with diverging background and experience in an informal, secure and enjoyable setting. The resulting discussion with peers promotes consensus development in deciding tissue donor acceptability, especially when donor health issues are not conclusively addressed in standards and regulations. Finally the workshop serves to strengthen the professional tissue banking networks across Europe and beyond. This report reflects some of the discussion at the workshop during the annual congress in Lund, Sweden, in 2014. The cases presented demonstrate that the implications of various donor illnesses, physical findings and behaviours on the safety of tissue transplantation, may be interpreted in a different way by medical directors and other professionals of different tissue facilities. This will also result in diverging preventive measures and decisions taken by the tissue facilities. Some of the donor cases illustrate varied responses from participants and demonstrate that operating procedures, regulations and standards cannot comprehensively cover all tissue donor illnesses, medical histories and circumstances surrounding the cause of death. For many of the issues raised, there is a lack of published scientific evidence. In those cases, tissue bank medical director judgement is critical to guarantee transplantation safety. This judgement should be based on a proper and documented risk assessment case by case. Conditions or parameters taken into account for risk assessment are amongst others, the type of tissue, the type of processing, the characteristics of the final product, and the availability of an adequate sterilisation methodology. By publishing these

  20. Behavior assessment of blood donors facing the risk of HIV infection, Abidjan, Cotê D'Ivoire, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minga, Albert K; Huët, Charlotte; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Bonard, Dominique; Gourvellec, G; Coulibaly, Ali; Konaté, Seidou; Dabis, Francois; Salamon, Roger

    2005-04-15

    Despite precautions taken to guarantee blood safety, in the National Blood Transfusion Center (CNTS) of Abidjan, about 30 regular blood donors are detected with HIV seroconversion each year, two-thirds of them men. A survey through face-to-face interviews was carried out at the CNTS of Abidjan from September 2001 to March 2002 among HIV-positive and HIV-negative regular blood donors, informed about their serologic status. HIV-negative regular blood donors informed about their serologic status since a median time of 67 months (n = 50) disclosed more risky behaviors such as multiple sexual partners (68%) than HIV-positive blood donors informed about their status (n = 112) since a median time of 35 months (41%) (P < 0.001). Condoms were systematically used by 17% of HIV-negative blood donors and 55% of HIV-positive blood donors (P < 0.001). Enhanced counseling and awareness could reduce in the future the number of cases of seroconversion among regular blood donors and improve their subsequent behavior. Blood donors who have unprotected sex with partners of unknown HIV serologic status and especially with casual partners are strongly exposed to HIV transmission and should be discouraged to continue giving blood, after adequate counseling.

  1. Assessment of the abdominal wall function after pedicled TRAM flap surgery for breast reconstruction: Use of modified mesh repair for the donor defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyriac Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pedicled TRAM flap has been a workhorse of autologous breast reconstruction for decades. However, there has been a rising concern about the abdominal wall donor site morbidity with the use of conventional TRAM flap. This has generally been cited as one of the main reasons for resorting to "abdominal wall friendly" techniques. This study has been undertaken to assess the abdominal wall function in patients with pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. The entire width of the muscle and the overlying wide disk of anterior rectus sheath were harvested with the TRAM flap in all our patients and the anterior rectus sheath defect was repaired by a Proline mesh. Materials and Methods: Abdominal wall function was studied in 21 patients who underwent simultaneous primary unipedicled TRAM flap reconstruction after mastectomy for cancer. In all the patients, the abdominal wall defect was repaired using wide sheet of Proline mesh both as inlay and onlay. The assessment tools included straight and rotational curl ups and a subjective questionnaire. The abdominal wall was also examined for any asymmetry, bulge, or hernia. The minimal follow-up was 6 months postoperative. The objective results were compared with normal unoperated volunteers. Results and Conclusions: The harvesting the TRAM flap certainly results in changes to the anterior abdominal wall that can express themselves to a variable degree. A relatively high incidence of asymptomatic asymmetry of the abdomen was seen. There was total absence of hernia in our series even after a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. A few patients were only able to partially initiate the sit up movement and suffered an important loss of strength. In most patients, synergists took over the functional movement but as the load increased, flexion and rotation performances decreased. The lack of correlation between exercise tests and the results of the questionnaire suggests that this statistically

  2. A new approach for the assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation: a case study of the Korba Coastal Aquifer (Tunisia, Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayni, Foued; Cherif, Semia; Jrad, Amel; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water in Mediterranean, water-scarce, semiarid regions of Tunisia, Africa. In this study of the Korba coastal aquifer, 17 water wells were studied to assess their suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes. Assessment parameters include pH, salinity, specific ion toxicity, sodium adsorption ratio, nutrients, trace metals pollutants, and fecal indicators and pathogens. Results indicate that salinity of groundwater varied between 0.36 dS/m and 17.4 dS/m; in addition, its degree of restriction is defined as "none", "slight to moderate", and "severe" for 18, 23, and 59% of the studied wells, respectively. To control salts brought in by irrigation waters, the question arises as to how much water should be used to reach crop and soil requirements. To answer this question, a new approach that calculates the optimum amount of irrigation water considering the electrical conductivity of well water (ECw), field crops, and the semiarid meteorological local conditions for evapotranspiration and rainfall is developed. This is applied to the authors' case study area; barley and lettuce were selected among the commonly grown crops because they are high- and low-salinity tolerant, respectively. Leaching requirements were found to be independent of the crop selected, and depend only on the season, that is, 250 to 260 mm/month in the driest season, with a minimum of 47 mm/month though all seasons. A high bacteriological contamination appears in almost all samples. However, if disinfected and corrected for pH, all the well waters can be used for animal farming (including livestock and poultry), although only 29% could be used for human consumption.

  3. 75 FR 68222 - Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR PART 731 RIN 3206-AL90 Suitability AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... possible, of security and suitability standards. Public Trust Positions Public trust positions are those...) for a new public trust reinvestigation. Likewise, a suitability investigation based on a change...

  4. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Waleed A; Al-Akraa, Mahmoud M

    2005-07-01

    With the number of patients presently awaiting renal transplantation exceeding the number of cadaveric organs available, there is an increasing reliance on live renal donation. Of the 11,869 renal transplants performed in 2002 in the US, 52.6% were living donors from the United Network for Organ Sharing Registry. Renal allografts from living donors provide: superior immediate long-term function; require less waiting time and are more cost-effective than those from cadaveric donors. However, anticipation of postoperative pain and temporary occupational disability may dissuade many potential donors. Additionally, some recipients hesitate to accept a living donor kidney due to suffering that would be endured by the donor. It is a unique medical situation when a young, completely healthy donor undergoes a major surgical procedure to provide an organ for transplantation. It is mandatory to offer a surgical technique, which is safe and with minimal complications. It is also obvious for any organ transplantation, that the integrity of the organ remain intact, thus, enabling its successful transplantation into the recipient. An acceptably short ischemia time and adequate lengths of ureter and renal vasculature are favored. Many centers are performing laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy in an effort to ease convalescence of renal donors. This may encourage the consideration of live donation by recipients and potential donors. PMID:16047050

  5. Lung donor selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  6. Characterization of the Lower Cambrian sandstone aquifer in the Swedish Baltic Sea area - assessment regarding its potential suitability for storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlström, M.; Sivhed, U.

    2012-04-01

    In the Baltic region the Cambrian sandstone is considered to have great economic value concerning its aquifer and reservoir properties. Its potential as petroleum reservoir is well known, especially from the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian sectors of the Baltic Sea where oil and gas has been found in anticline traps in the sandstone sequence. Offshore exploration in the Swedish sector has so far not encountered any significant findings of oil and gas. However, the extensive exploration has generated data, which is now being used for assessing the overall properties regarding suitability for storage of CO2. The Swedish primary industry has a great interest in finding potential sites for storage of CO2. A suitable site in the Baltic Sea would be a most favourable alternative in comparison to more remote alternatives such as deep saline aquifers in the North Sea. The Lower Cambrian is in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea composed of three main sandstone units varying in thickness between 5 and 50 m occurring within an up to 250 m thick Cambrian sequence dominated by fine-grained terriclastic sediments. The limit of Lower Palaeozoic sequence in the Baltic area is today defined by erosional truncation because of the gently dipping Lower Palaeozoic sequence. To the north and northwest, the limit is found in the Pre-Quaternary, whereas the erosional limit is deeply buried beneath Permian and Mesozoic sediments to the south. Here the Lower Palaeozoic limit is buried to depths reaching more than 2 km. The Cambrian sequence in the distal parts of the Swedish sector occurs at depths of c. 1300 m while it constitutes the bedrock surface in a narrow zone trending from Öland to the north of of Gotland. Sandstone beds constitute 40-60% of the total Cambrian sequence. The main sandstone units have a regional distribution of several thousands of square kilometres. The up to 50 m thick Faludden sandstone member exhibits the best reservoir properties including porosities in the

  7. Blood Test May Rule Out Too Many Donor Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finding ways to sign up more people as organ donors, but there is also a problem in that ... based solely on elevated troponin I if the organ is otherwise suitable. At our institution it has already changed how we evaluate donors, and I think this data will lead to ...

  8. Factors influencing donor return.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlumpf, KS; Glynn, SA; Schreiber, GB; Wright, DJ; Randolph Steele, W; Tu, Y.; Hermansen, S; Higgins, MJ; Garratty, G; Murphy, EL

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To predict future blood donation behavior and improve donor retention, it is important to understand the determinants of donor return. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed in 2003 by 7905 current donors. With data mining methods, all factors measured by the survey were ranked as possible predictors of actual return within 12 months. Significant factors were analyzed with logistic regression to determine predictors of intention and of actual ret...

  9. Systems of donor transfer

    OpenAIRE

    de Charro, Frank; Akveld, Hans; Hessing, Ellen

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in which market forces are relied on, is not acceptable from an ethical and legal point of view in most western European countries. Especially at the demand side of the exchange of donor organs, commerc...

  10. Preoperative CT evaluation of potential donors in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vohra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Living donor liver transplantation is an effective, life sustaining surgical treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease and a successful liver transplant requires a close working relationship between the radiologist and the transplant surgeon. There is extreme variability in hepatic vascular anatomy; therefore, preoperative imaging of potential liver donors is crucial not only in donor selection but also helps the surgeons in planning their surgical approach. In this article, we elaborate important aspects in evaluation of potential liver donors on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT and the utility of MDCT in presurgical assessment of the hepatic parenchyma, relevant hepatic vascular anatomy and segmental liver volumes.

  11. Shorebird Habitat Suitability Indicies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset consists of predicted habitat suitability indices and species richness for eight shorebird species (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola],...

  12. Evaluation of 100 patients for living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, J F; Wachs, M; Trouillot, T; Steinberg, T; Bak, T; Everson, G T; Kam, I

    2000-05-01

    The initial success of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the United States has resulted in a growing interest in this procedure. The impact of LDLT on liver transplantation will depend in part on the proportion of patients considered medically suitable for LDLT and the identification of suitable donors. We report the outcome of our evaluation of the first 100 potential transplant recipients for LDLT at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (Denver, CO). All patients considered for LDLT had first been approved for conventional liver transplantation by the Liver Transplant Selection Committee and met the listing criteria of United Network for Organ Sharing status 1, 2A, or 2B. Once listed, those patients deemed suitable for LDLT were given the option to consider LDLT and approach potential donors. Donors were evaluated with a preliminary screening questionnaire, followed by formal evaluation. Of the 100 potential transplant recipients evaluated, 51 were initially rejected based on recipient characteristics that included imminent cadaveric transplantation (8 patients), refusal of evaluation (4 patients), lack of financial approval (6 patients), and medical, psychosocial, or surgical problems (33 patients). Of the remaining 49 patients, considered ideal candidates for LDLT, 24 patients were unable to identify a suitable donor for evaluation. Twenty-six donors were evaluated for the remaining 25 potential transplant recipients. Eleven donors were rejected: 9 donors for medical reasons and 2 donors who refused donation after being medically approved. The remaining 15 donor-recipient pairs underwent LDLT. Using our criteria for the selection of recipients and donors for LDLT gave the following results: (1) 51 of 100 potential transplant recipients (51%) were rejected for recipient issues, (2) only 15 of the remaining 49 potential transplant recipients (30%) were able to identify an acceptable donor, and (3) 15 of 100 potential living donor

  13. 76 FR 69601 - Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... RIN 3206-AL90 Suitability AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... reinvestigation) as determined by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, to ensure their suitability... public trust positions with a frequency as determined by the Director of the Office of...

  14. Availability and suitability of municipal wastewater information for use in a National Water-Quality Assessment; a case study of the upper Illinois River basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogorski, John S.; Blanchard, S.F.; Romack, R.D.; Fitzpatrick, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    The availability and suitability of existing information on municipal wastewater-treatment practices and effluent characteristics for use in a national water-quality assessment were evaluated. The information will be used to determine the effects of changes in wastewater-treatment practices on stream quality and ecosystem health. A large amount of information on treatment practices and effluent characteristics exists, and some of this information is available from Federal and State computer data bases. However, the suitability of existing information to accomplish the objectives of a national water-quality assessment is limited. The suitability of this information would be improved by (1) increasing the number of water-quality constituents routinely analyzed for in samples of municipal effluent, (2) increasing the frequency of effluent sampling at some facilities, (3) developing a quality-assurance plan for wastewater flow-rate determinates, and (4) increasing the amount of effluent water-quality data entered into Federal and State computer data bases.

  15. Use of body and beard donor hair in surgical treatment of androgenic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Poswal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Follicular unit transplant is a widely used surgical treatment for androgenic alopecia. However, for patients with extensive hair loss (Norwood 5 and above, scalp donor hair are not sufficient to cover all areas of baldness. This study aims to assess suitability of beard and body donor hair when transplanted to the scalp. Materials and Methods: In 35 male patients having varying degrees of androgenic alopecia, body and beard donor hair were extracted by follicular unit extraction method (under local anesthesia. They were transplanted in different locations of the scalp. Follow-up was carried out at various intervals (6 months to 2 years. The hairs were observed for colour, curl and calibre. Results: In all the patients, there was no change in the colour, curl or calibre of the transplanted body/beard hair. They maintained the same characteristics as in their original location. Conclusion: Body and beard hair can be used as additional donor resource for treating androgenic alopecia. These hairs, however, do not change their colour, curl, and shaft diameter (calibre. Thus, proper planning is a must when using the different types of donor hair for transplanting.

  16. Systems of donor transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. de Charro (Frank); J.E.M. Akveld (Hans); E. Hessing (Ellen)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in wh

  17. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  18. Dealing with Donor Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Techniques that reduce donors' resistance to college fund-raising requests, either direct mail or telephone solicitations, are offered. These include: respecting the prospects' concerns about privacy; offering nonintrusive giving options; honesty and clarity of communication; reinforcing donor sense of control; connecting with prospects'…

  19. The science of Stewardship: due diligence for kidney donors and kidney function in living kidney donation--evaluation, determinants, and implications for outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Emilio D; Braun, William E; Davis, Connie

    2009-10-01

    Living kidney donor transplantation is now a common treatment for ESRD because it provides excellent outcomes to transplant recipients and is considered a safe procedure for prospective donors. The short- and long-term safety of prospective donors is paramount to the continued success of this procedure. Whereas the initial experiences with living kidney donors mostly included the healthiest, the increase in the need for organs and the changing demographic characteristics of the general population have subtly reshaped the suitability for donation. Kidney function assessment is a critical component of the evaluation of prospective donors; therefore, special emphasis is usually placed on this aspect of the evaluation. At the same time, consideration of kidney function after donation is important because it assists with the determination of renal health in donors. This review summarizes the process of predonation kidney function assessment, determinants of pre- and postdonation renal function, and, importantly, the potential implications of kidney function to the long-term outcomes of kidney donors.

  20. Assessment of Chinese sturgeon habitat suitability in the Yangtze River (China): Comparison of generalized additive model, data-driven fuzzy logic model, and preference curve model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong; Yang, Zhifeng

    2016-05-01

    To date, a wide range of models have been applied to evaluate aquatic habitat suitability. In this study, three models, including the expert knowledge-based preference curve model (PCM), data-driven fuzzy logic model (DDFL), and generalized additive model (GAM), are used on a common data set to compare their effectiveness and accuracy. The true skill statistic (TSS) and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) are used to evaluate the accuracy of the three models. The results indicate that the two data-based methods (DDFL and GAM) yield better accuracy than the expert knowledge-based PCM, and the GAM yields the best accuracy. There are minor differences in the suitable ranges of the physical habitat variables obtained from the three models. The hydraulic habitat suitability index (HHSI) calculated by the PCM is the largest, followed by the DDFL and then the GAM. The results illustrate that data-based models can describe habitat suitability more objectively and accurately when there are sufficient data. When field data are lacking, combining expertise with data-based models is recommended. When field data are difficult to obtain, an expert knowledge-based model can be used as a replacement for the data-based methods.

  1. Approach to the Pretransplant Evaluation of the Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the potential kidney donor is a complex activity that differs substantially from other types of preoperative assessments. The well being of the donor, who derives no medical benefit from this surgery, must be assured in both the short term and long term, and the potential adverse consequences to the recipient must be determined as well. The criteria that must be met for a person to donate a kidney are rigorous and include medical, social, psychosocial, ethical, and legal issues. Donor evaluation can be divided into assessments to protect the health and safety of the donor and assessments to protect the health and safety of the recipient. This article provides an approach to evaluating a donor, focusing on the complex issues that an evaluator is faced with. A careful assessment of risks and benefits to both the donor and recipient can lead to favorable outcomes.

  2. Lung donor selection criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that me...

  3. Live-donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Juan P; Davis, Eric; Edye, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Six decades after its first implementation, kidney transplantation remains the optimal therapy for end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Despite the incontrovertible mortality reduction and cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation, the greatest remaining barrier to treatment of end-stage renal disease is organ availability. Although the waiting list of patients who stand to benefit from kidney transplantation grows at a rate proportional to the overall population and proliferation of diabetes and hypertension, the pool of deceased-donor organs available for transplantation experiences minimal to no growth. Because the kidney is uniquely suited as a paired organ, the transplant community's answer to this shortage is living donation of a healthy volunteer's kidney to a recipient with end-stage renal disease. This review details the history and evolution of living-donor kidney transplantation in the United States as well as advances the next decade promises. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has overcome many of the obstacles to living donation in terms of donor morbidity and volunteerism. Known donor risks in terms of surgical and medical morbidity are reviewed, as well as the ongoing efforts to delineate and mitigate donor risk in the context of accumulating recipient morbidity while on the waiting list. PMID:22678857

  4. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, S; Giessing, M; Roigas, J; Wille, A H; Lein, M; Schönberger, B; Loening, S A

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) has removed disincentives of potential donors and may bear the potential to increase kidney donation. Multiple modifications have been made to abbreviate the learning curve while at the same time guarantee the highest possible level of medical quality for donor and recipient. We reviewed the literature for the evolution of the different LDN techniques and their impact on donor, graft and operating surgeon, including the subtleties of different surgical accesses, vessel handling and organ extraction. We performed a literature search (PubMed, DIMDI, medline) to evaluate the development of the LDN techniques from 1995 to 2003. Today more than 200 centres worldwide perform LDN. Hand-assistance has led to a spread of LDN. Studies comparing open and hand-assisted LDN show a reduction of operating and warm ischaemia times for the hand-assisted LDN. Different surgical access sites (trans- or retroperitoneal), different vessel dissection approaches, donor organ delivery techniques, delivery sites and variations of hand-assistance techniques reflect the evolution of LDN. Proper techniques and their combination for the consecutive surgical steps minimize both warm ischaemia time and operating time while offering the donor a safe minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. LDN has breathed new life into the moribund field of living kidney donation. Within a few years LDN could become the standard approach in living kidney donation. Surgeons working in this field must be trained thoroughly and well acquainted with the subtleties of the different LDN techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:16754618

  5. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Tara E.; Paul C Adams

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120) and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000). Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 yea...

  6. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  7. Mapping large-area landscape suitability for honey bees to assess the influence of land-use change on sustainability of national pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L; Euliss, Ned H; Browning, Zac

    2014-01-01

    Pollination is a critical ecosystem service affected by various drivers of land-use change, such as policies and programs aimed at land resources, market values for crop commodities, local land-management decisions, and shifts in climate. The United States is the world's most active market for pollination services by honey bees, and the Northern Great Plains provide the majority of bee colonies used to meet the Nation's annual pollination needs. Legislation requiring increased production of biofuel crops, increasing commodity prices for crops of little nutritional value for bees in the Northern Great Plains, and reductions in government programs aimed at promoting land conservation are converging to alter the regional landscape in ways that challenge beekeepers to provide adequate numbers of hives for national pollination services. We developed a spatially explicit model that identifies sites with the potential to support large apiaries based on local-scale land-cover requirements for honey bees. We produced maps of potential apiary locations for North Dakota, a leading producer of honey, based on land-cover maps representing (1) an annual time series compiled from existing operational products and (2) a realistic scenario of land change. We found that existing land-cover products lack sufficient local accuracy to monitor actual changes in landscape suitability for honey bees, but our model proved informative for evaluating effects on suitability under scenarios of land change. The scenario we implemented was aligned with current drivers of land-use change in the Northern Great Plains and highlighted the importance of conservation lands in landscapes intensively and extensively managed for crops.

  8. Mapping large-area landscape suitability for honey bees to assess the influence of land-use change on sustainability of national pollination services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L Gallant

    Full Text Available Pollination is a critical ecosystem service affected by various drivers of land-use change, such as policies and programs aimed at land resources, market values for crop commodities, local land-management decisions, and shifts in climate. The United States is the world's most active market for pollination services by honey bees, and the Northern Great Plains provide the majority of bee colonies used to meet the Nation's annual pollination needs. Legislation requiring increased production of biofuel crops, increasing commodity prices for crops of little nutritional value for bees in the Northern Great Plains, and reductions in government programs aimed at promoting land conservation are converging to alter the regional landscape in ways that challenge beekeepers to provide adequate numbers of hives for national pollination services. We developed a spatially explicit model that identifies sites with the potential to support large apiaries based on local-scale land-cover requirements for honey bees. We produced maps of potential apiary locations for North Dakota, a leading producer of honey, based on land-cover maps representing (1 an annual time series compiled from existing operational products and (2 a realistic scenario of land change. We found that existing land-cover products lack sufficient local accuracy to monitor actual changes in landscape suitability for honey bees, but our model proved informative for evaluating effects on suitability under scenarios of land change. The scenario we implemented was aligned with current drivers of land-use change in the Northern Great Plains and highlighted the importance of conservation lands in landscapes intensively and extensively managed for crops.

  9. Suitability of measurements used to assess mental health outcomes in men and women trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, S; Oram, S; Siriwardhana, C; Abas, M

    2016-05-01

    Trafficking is a global human rights violation with multiple and complex mental health consequences. Valid and reliable mental health assessment tools are needed to inform health-care provision. We reviewed mental health assessment tools used in research with men and women trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation. We searched nine electronic databases (PsycINFO, Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase, Assia, the Web of Science, Global Health, Google Scholar, and Open Grey) and hand-searched the reference lists of relevant identified studies. Seven studies were included in this Review. Six of the studies screened for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety; one study screened for harmful use or abuse of alcohol and used a diagnostic tool to assess post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two studies included men in their sample population. Although the reported prevalence of mental health problems was high, little information was provided about the validity, reliability, and cultural appropriateness of assessment tools. Further research is needed to determine which assessment tools are culturally appropriate, valid, and reliable for trafficked people.

  10. Suitability of measurements used to assess mental health outcomes in men and women trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, S; Oram, S; Siriwardhana, C; Abas, M

    2016-05-01

    Trafficking is a global human rights violation with multiple and complex mental health consequences. Valid and reliable mental health assessment tools are needed to inform health-care provision. We reviewed mental health assessment tools used in research with men and women trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation. We searched nine electronic databases (PsycINFO, Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase, Assia, the Web of Science, Global Health, Google Scholar, and Open Grey) and hand-searched the reference lists of relevant identified studies. Seven studies were included in this Review. Six of the studies screened for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety; one study screened for harmful use or abuse of alcohol and used a diagnostic tool to assess post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two studies included men in their sample population. Although the reported prevalence of mental health problems was high, little information was provided about the validity, reliability, and cultural appropriateness of assessment tools. Further research is needed to determine which assessment tools are culturally appropriate, valid, and reliable for trafficked people. PMID:27155518

  11. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Futu...

  12. Neopterin and procalcitonin are suitable biomarkers for exclusion of severe Plasmodium falciparum disease at the initial clinical assessment of travellers with imported malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. te Witt (René); M.E. van Wolfswinkel (Marlies); P.L. Petit (Pieter); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); R. Koelewijn (Rob); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Most clinicians in developed, non-malaria endemic countries have limited or no experience in making clinical assessments of malaria disease severity and subsequent decisions regarding the need for parenteral therapy or high-level monitoring in febrile patients with imported m

  13. "Land Productivity and Economic Development: Caloric Suitability vs. Agricultural Suitability"

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Galor; Omer Ozak

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes that the Caloric Suitability Index (CSI) dominates the commonly used measure of agricultural suitability in the examination of the effect of land productivity on comparative economic development. The analysis demonstrates that the agricultural suitability index does not capture the large variation in the potential caloric yield across equally suitable land, reflecting the fact that land suitable for agriculture is not necessarily suitable for the most caloric-intensive ...

  14. Non-parametric methods – Tree and P-CFA – for the ecological evaluation and assessment of suitable aquatic habitats: A contribution to fish psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas H. Melcher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses multidimensional spawning habitat suitability of the fish species “Nase” (latin: Chondrostoma nasus. This is the first time non-parametric methods were used to better understand biotic habitat use in theory and practice. In particular, we tested (1 the Decision Tree technique, Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detectors (CHAID, to identify specific habitat types and (2 Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA to test for statistical significance. The combination of both non-parametric methods, CHAID and P-CFA, enabled the identification, prediction and interpretation of most typical significant spawning habitats, and we were also able to determine non-typical habitat types, e.g., types in contrast to antitypes. The gradual combination of these two methods underlined three significant habitat types: shaded habitat, fine and coarse substrate habitat depending on high flow velocity. The study affirmed the importance for fish species of shading and riparian vegetation along river banks. In addition, this method provides a weighting of interactions between specific habitat characteristics. The results demonstrate that efficient river restoration requires re-establishing riparian vegetation as well as the open river continuum and hydro-morphological improvements to habitats.

  15. Suitability of the marine prosobranch snail Hydrobia ulvae for sediment toxicity assessment: A case study with the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, M; Moreno-Garrido, I; González-Mazo, E; Blasco, J

    2009-05-01

    Individuals of the mudsnail Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) were exposed to sediments spiked with increasing concentrations (1.59-123.13mgkg(-1) dry weight) of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) which is employed in the formulation of laundry powders and liquids, as well as hand dishwashing products. The suitability of the selected organism, H. ulvae for routine sediment toxicity testing was evaluated by measuring acute toxicity recording survival. Sublethal toxicity was evaluated as total number of produced veliger larvae per treatment throughout the test (9d). Mortality has shown to be a reliable and reproducible indicator of acute toxicity. LC(50) values were comprised between 203.4 (48h) and 94.3mgkg(-1) (9d) dry weight. As sublethal endpoint, the total number of produced larvae showed to be a useful indicator of toxicity for this organism. The number of produced larvae increased at lower exposure concentrations, whereas at the highest LAS concentration, the number of produced larvae decreased. This is the first report of acute and sublethal toxicity of sediment associated LAS for this species.

  16. 工业场地重金属污染及其再利用适宜性评价的研究进展%Research Advances in Suitability Assessment of Heavy Metal Contaminated Industrial Sites for Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚云; 赵艳玲; 李建华; 付馨; 何厅厅; 曾纪勇

    2012-01-01

    随着我国社会经济的发展,已被重金属污染的工业场地数量不断增加,为了实现污染场地的再利用,亟需解决重金属污染场地再利用的适宜性评价技术体系.基于场地和污染场地的概念,总结重金属污染工业场地的内涵,针对场地的不同组成要素,系统介绍了工业重金属污染研究领域有关土壤、水环境的重金属污染评价、健康风险评价、生态风险评价及适宜性评价等的研究进展.%With the development of China ' s social economy, the number of industrial sites contaminated by heavy metals is increasing. It is urgent to solve the suitability problem of reusing the heavy metal contaminated sites. Based on the concept of sites and contaminated sites, the connotation of industrial heavy metal contaminated site was summarized; Aiming at the different components of sites, the research progress in assessment of soil and water environment's heavy metal pollution, health risk assessment, ecological risk assessment and suitable assessment were systematically described.

  17. A New Approximate Chimera Donor Cell Search Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop chimera-based full potential methodology which is compatible with overflow (Euler/Navier-Stokes) chimera flow solver and to develop a fast donor cell search algorithm that is compatible with the chimera full potential approach. Results of this work included presenting a new donor cell search algorithm suitable for use with a chimera-based full potential solver. This algorithm was found to be extremely fast and simple producing donor cells as fast as 60,000 per second.

  18. Determining the Suitability of Materials for Disposal at Sea under the London Convention 1972 and London Protocol 1996: A Radiological Assessment Procedure. 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides guidance on performing specific assessments of candidate materials for dumping at sea, to determine whether the materials are de minimis in the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 (the London Convention 1972) and the related Protocol 1996 (the London Protocol 1996). It presents a detailed radiological procedure to assess doses to workers and members of the public and doses to marine flora and fauna related to the dumping of materials at sea. The procedures in this publication follow the requirements to protect the environment in the IAEA Safety Standards and in the recommendations by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. It is expected to be used by national regulatory authorities responsible for authorizing disposal at sea of candidate materials as well as by those companies and individuals applying to obtain permission to dispose these materials at sea

  19. The new portfolio of global precipitation data products of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre suitable to assess and quantify the global water cycle and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Udo; Ziese, Markus; Meyer-Christoffer, Anja; Finger, Peter; Rustemeier, Elke; Becker, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation plays an important role in the global energy and water cycle. Accurate knowledge of precipitation amounts reaching the land surface is of special importance for fresh water assessment and management related to land use, agriculture and hydrology, incl. risk reduction of flood and drought. High interest in long-term precipitation analyses arises from the needs to assess climate change and its impacts on all spatial scales. In this framework, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) has been established in 1989 on request of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It is operated by Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, National Meteorological Service of Germany) as a German contribution to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). This paper provides information on the most recent update of GPCC's gridded data product portfolio including example use cases.

  20. Quality Index of Subtidal Macroalgae (QISubMac): A suitable tool for ecological quality status assessment under the scope of the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, A; Derrien-Courtel, S

    2015-12-15

    Despite their representativeness and importance in coastal waters, subtidal rocky bottom habitats have been under-studied. This has resulted in a lack of available indicators for subtidal hard substrate communities. However, a few indicators using subtidal macroalgae have been developed in recent years for the purpose of being implemented into the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Accordingly, a quality index of subtidal macroalgae has been defined as a French assessment tool for subtidal rocky bottom habitats in coastal waters. This approach is based on 14 metrics that consider the depth penetration, composition (sensitive, characteristic and opportunistic) and biodiversity of macroalgae assemblages and complies with WFD requirements. Three ecoregions have been defined to fit with the geographical distribution of macroalgae along the French coastline. As a test, QISubMac was used to assess the water quality of 20 water bodies. The results show that QISubMac may discriminate among different quality classes of water bodies. PMID:26555795

  1. Assessment of soil characteristics in the vicinity of open cast coal mine and its suitability for vegetative reclamation in Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathap, Amudala; Kujur, Vivek; Chakraborty, Sukalyaon; Bhattacharya, Tanushree

    2016-07-01

    Coal mining is inevitable for economic growth of a country, but at the same time deteriorates the quality of the environment. Open cast mine, especially affects the top soil most negatively. In the present study, soil samples from three representative areas of mining viz proposed, operational and abandoned sites from Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand were collected and analysed for physicochemical parameters and metals with an objective to determine their suitability for vegetative reclamation. Soil samples appeared to be slightly acidic (5.97 ± 0.66) with low EC values (101 ± 76 μScm(-1)), total organic carbon (0.71 ± 0.35 %), organic matter (1.34 ± 0.66%) and overall nutrient, especially nitrogen (167 ± 64 kg ha(-1)) contents than required for reclamation by revegetation. However, bulk density was found conducive for reclamation. Total Cr (317 ± 287 to 417 ± 393 mg kg(-1)), Cu (121 ± 72 to 344 ± 143 mg kg(-1)), Ni (171 ± 46 to 373 ± 134 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (114 ± 115 to 182 ± 145 mg kg(-1)) content were found to be higher in soil. Sitewise variation was also significant for Cu and Ni. Pearson's correlation suggested significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive inter elemental correlation between Cr-Fe, Cr-Mn, Cu-Ni, Fe-Mn and Mn-Ni. Positive geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values for all the metals except Fe, overall contamination degree of 31.10 and significant enrichment factor indicated considerable contamination. This baseline data could be utilized for vegetative reclamation planning of the study area in future. PMID:27498496

  2. Assessment of soil characteristics in the vicinity of open cast coal mine and its suitability for vegetative reclamation in Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathap, Amudala; Kujur, Vivek; Chakraborty, Sukalyaon; Bhattacharya, Tanushree

    2016-07-01

    Coal mining is inevitable for economic growth of a country, but at the same time deteriorates the quality of the environment. Open cast mine, especially affects the top soil most negatively. In the present study, soil samples from three representative areas of mining viz proposed, operational and abandoned sites from Charhi and Kuju of Jharkhand were collected and analysed for physicochemical parameters and metals with an objective to determine their suitability for vegetative reclamation. Soil samples appeared to be slightly acidic (5.97 ± 0.66) with low EC values (101 ± 76 μScm(-1)), total organic carbon (0.71 ± 0.35 %), organic matter (1.34 ± 0.66%) and overall nutrient, especially nitrogen (167 ± 64 kg ha(-1)) contents than required for reclamation by revegetation. However, bulk density was found conducive for reclamation. Total Cr (317 ± 287 to 417 ± 393 mg kg(-1)), Cu (121 ± 72 to 344 ± 143 mg kg(-1)), Ni (171 ± 46 to 373 ± 134 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (114 ± 115 to 182 ± 145 mg kg(-1)) content were found to be higher in soil. Sitewise variation was also significant for Cu and Ni. Pearson's correlation suggested significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive inter elemental correlation between Cr-Fe, Cr-Mn, Cu-Ni, Fe-Mn and Mn-Ni. Positive geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values for all the metals except Fe, overall contamination degree of 31.10 and significant enrichment factor indicated considerable contamination. This baseline data could be utilized for vegetative reclamation planning of the study area in future.

  3. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...

  4. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  5. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  6. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  7. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  8. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  9. Becoming a Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about donation.” > Read more about my story Organ, eye, and tissue donation and transplantation provide a second chance at life for thousands ... individuals whose lives could be enhanced through tissue transplants. Use the link ... as an organ, eye, and tissue donor. > Register in your state to ...

  10. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  11. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  12. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios

  13. Addressing the Donor Liver Shortage with EX VIVO Machine Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Louisa Izamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a critical shortage of viable donor livers for transplantation, only a fraction of the available organs are used. Donor organ defects, which in the majority of cases are caused by extensive exposure to ischemia, cannot be reversed by static cold storage, the current gold standard of organ preservation. In this review, the role of machine perfusion (MP in the recovery of non-transplantable ischemic donor organs is discussed. Though still in the experimental phase, various models of MP have consistently demonstrated that ischemic donor organs can be recovered to a transplantable state through continuous perfusion. MP can also provide dynamic quantitative assessments of the extent of ischemia, in addition to predicting the likelihood of organ recovery. Continued endeavors to translate MP into clinical use and eventually incorporate it into routine donor organ care will have a significant impact on the quality and availability of transplantable donor organs.

  14. Are combined AOPs effective for toxicity reduction in receiving marine environment? Suitability of battery of bioassays for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as an ecotoxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Rueda-Márquez, J J; Manzano, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2016-03-01

    Ecotoxicological assessment of three different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents D1, D2 and D3 was performed before and after tertiary treatment using combination of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). A multibarrier treatment (MBT) consisting of microfiltration (MF), hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) was applied for all effluents. Sparus aurata, Paracentrotus lividus, Isochrysis galbana and Vibrio fischeri, representing different trophic levels, constituted the battery of bioassays. Different acute toxicity effects were observed in each WWTP effluents tested. The percentage of sea urchin larval development and mortality fish larvae were the most sensitive endpoints. Significant reduction (p MBT process. Base on obtained results, tested battery of bioassays in pT-method framework can be recommended for acute toxicity preliminary evaluation of WWTP effluents for the marine environment. PMID:26741736

  15. Scientific advice on the suitability of data for the assessment of DNA integration into the fish genome of a genetically modified DNA plasmid-based veterinary vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreas disease caused by salmonid alphavirus in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar leads to high mortality rates post infection and histopathological lesions in several organs. As protection against pancreas disease, Novartis developed a prophylactic DNA plasmid-based vaccine to be administered to salmon as naked plasmid in a single intramuscular injection. In order to assess the legal status of the fish vaccinated with this new vaccine with regard to the legislation on genetically modified organisms, the European Commission suggested that the company carry out a scientific study on the integration/non-integration of the plasmid DNA into the fish genome. Subsequently, the European Commission requested EFSA to give scientific advice on the study design and the conclusions drawn by the company. PCR based analysis of genomic DNA from muscle samples, taken from at or around the injection site 436 days post vaccination, led the company to conclude that integration of plasmid DNA into the fish genome is extremely unlikely. After an assessment of the study, EFSA considers that the study presented by Novartis Animal Health on the integration/non-integration of DNA plasmid-based vaccine into the salmon genomic DNA provides insufficient information on the potential integration of plasmid DNA fragments into the fish genome due to a limited coverage of the plasmid DNA by the detection method provided, the limited number of samples analysed and an insufficient limit of detection and method validation. Therefore, EFSA is of the opinion that the results from the integration/non-integration study submitted by Novartis Animal Health are not sufficient to support the conclusion of non-integration of plasmid DNA into the fish genome drawn by the company.

  16. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgical risks and long term complications: Long-Term Organ Specific Donor Complications Kidney Hypertension Kidney failure Proteinuria Lung Intra- ... Vancouver Forum on the care of the live organ donor: lung, liver, pancreas, and intestine data and medical ...

  17. Donor commitment and patient needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, R; van Walraven, A-M; Egeland, T

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses views and recommendations of the World Marrow Donor Association concerning ethical issues related to the donation of hematopoietic stem cell products with respect to recruitment, evaluation, workup, and follow-up of unrelated donors. Particular emphasis is placed upon commitment of individual donors, in particular, with respect to the needs of patients to find HLA-matched donors, who may be asked to donate stem cell and other cell products more than once for given patients. PMID:14628078

  18. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save a Life Testing for Brain ...

  19. Using the inherent chemistry of the endothelin-1 peptide to develop a rapid assay for pre-transplant donor lung assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Andrew T; Bai, Xiaohui; Cypel, Marcelo; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf; Kelley, Shana O

    2015-12-21

    Endothelin-1 is a potent vasoconstrictive peptide that plays an important role in ex vivo lung perfusion. ET-1 expression levels are predictive of lung transplant outcomes and represent a valuable monitoring tool for surgeons; however, traditional techniques that measure [ET-1] are not suitable for the transplant setting. Herein, we demonstrate a new assay that rapidly measures ET-1 peptide levels in lung perfusate. PMID:26548776

  20. Soil health: looking for suitable indicators. What should be considered to assess the effects of use and management on soil health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil Health refers to the ecological equilibrium and the functionality of a soil and its capacity to maintain a well balanced ecosystem with high biodiversity above and below surface, and productivity. To understand and use soil health as a tool for sustainability, physical, chemical, and biological properties must be employed to verify which respond to the soil use and management within a desired timescale. Attributes with a rapid response to natural or anthropogenic actions are considered good indicators of soil health. Among the physical indicators, soil texture, aggregation, moisture, porosity, and bulk density have been used, while among chemical indicators total C and N, mineral nutrients, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, among others are well established. However, most of them generally have a slow response, when compared to the biological ones, such as microbial biomass C and N, biodiversity, soil enzymes, soil respiration, etc., in addition to macro and mesofauna. Thus, a systemic approach based on different kinds of indicators (physical, chemical and biological in assessing soil health would be safer than using only one kind of attribute. Many human activities have caused desertification, loss of biodiversity, disruption of aggregates, loss of organic matter and nutrients, among others. Today, it is imperious to maintain soil health and productivity with increasing emphasis on reforestation and recuperation of degraded areas through the use of organic amendments, reintroduction of plants, soil fauna and microorganisms. This review focused on an integrative view on indicators of soil health to be used as tools for prediction of sustainability in production systems.

  1. Organ assessment and repair centers: The future of transplantation is near

    OpenAIRE

    Whitson, Bryan A.; Black, Sylvester M.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation is limited by suitable donor organ availability and the geographic limitations that lead to prolonged ischemic times. Ex vivo organ perfusion is an evolving technology that enables assessment of organ function prior to transplantation. As a byproduct, overall out of body organ times are able to be extended. The future implications organ assessment and repair centers utilizing this technology are discussed.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  3. The impact of donor policies in Europe: a steady increase, but not everywhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blok Geke A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantable organs are scarce everywhere. Therefore, countries have developed policies to support the efficient use of potential donors. Nevertheless, the shortage of organs remains. Were these policies in vain? The aim of this study is to assess the impact of donor policies on donor procurement in 10 Western European countries from 1995 to 2005. Method To assess the impact of the donor policies we studied the conversion of potential donors into effectuated donors. 80% of the donors died from CVAs or a (traffic accident. We considered these mortality rates to be a good proxy for potential donors. Here we call the conversion of potential donors into actual donors 'the donor efficiency rate by proxy'. Results The mortality rates for CVA and (traffic accidents have decreased in the countries under study. At the same time, in most countries the donor efficiency rates have steadily increased. The variance in donor efficiency rates between countries has also increased from 1995 to 2005. Four countries introduced a new consent system or changed their existing system, without (visible long-term effects. Conclusion The overall increase in donor efficiency means that the efforts to improve donor policies have paid off. However, substantial differences between countries were found. The success of donor policies in terms of the number of absolute donors is blurred by the success of policies on traffic safety and CVA treatment. It remains unclear which specific policy measures are responsible for the increase in donor efficiency rates. This increase is not related to having a presumed consent system. Furthermore, an analysis of countries that introduced a new consent system or changed their system showed no effect on donor efficiency.

  4. Confidentiality and American semen donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, A M

    1993-01-01

    Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162

  5. A computational analysis and suitability assessment of cold-gas dynamic spraying of glass-fiber-reinforced poly-amide 6 for use in direct-adhesion polymer metal hybrid components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Pandurangan, B.; Bell, W. C.; Daqaq, M.; Ma, L.; Seyr, Norbert; Erdmann, Marc; Holzleitner, Jochen

    2008-01-01

    SummaryA transient non-linear dynamics computational analysis of cold-gas dynamic spraying (CGDS) of glass-fiber-reinforced poly-amide (nylon) 6 has been carried out using Ansys-Autodyn [Century Dynamics Inc., Ansys-Autodyn Version 11.0, User Documentation, Century Dynamics Inc. (a subsidiary of ANSYS Inc.), 2007] in order to assess the suitability of this spraying technology for coating of metal stampings used in polymer metal hybrid (PMH) load-bearing automotive component applications. In addition, the suitability of the CGDS is assessed with respect to a need for metal stamping surface preparation/treatment, the ability to deposit polymeric material without significant material degradation, the ability to selectively overcoat the metal stamping, the resulting magnitude of the polymer-to-metal adhesion strength, durability of the polymer/metal bond with respect to prolonged exposure to high-temperature/high-humidity and mechanical/thermal fatigue service conditions, and compatibility with the automotive body-in-white ( BIW) manufacturing process chain. The analysis revealed that CGDS can be considered as a viable technology for coating of metal stampings used in PMH load-bearing automotive component applications.

  6. 卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区蒙古野驴生境适宜性评价%Habitat suitability assessment of Equus hemionus hemionus in Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰; 徐文轩; 杨维康; 夏参军; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    为加强蒙古野驴(Equus hemionus hemionus)的生境保护及管理工作,作者以2005年以来在卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区的野外调查数据为基础,在地理信息系统(GIS)支持下,以距水源点距离、坡度、植被类型和人类活动为评价因子,采用生境评价模型,对蒙古野驴的生境进行了适宜性评价.不考虑人类活动影响下,春、夏、秋、冬四季潜在总适宜生境面积分别为9,784 km2、8,090 km2、9,379 km2和10,856 km2,分别占保护区总面积的54.4%、44.9%、52.1%和60.3%.由于受到国道、矿产开采、冬季放牧等人类活动的强烈影响,研究区内适宜生境大量丧失,冬季丧失面积最多,为6,629 km2,占冬季潜在总适宜面积的61.1%.基于评价结果作者提出了相应的蒙古野驴种群保护措施:(1)加强水源地的保护;(2)限制冬季进入保护区内家畜的数量,并为蒙古野驴划定预留适宜生境;(3)严格制定进入保护区的制度;(4)拆除迁移路线上的边境围栏或建设野生动物通道,以保障蒙古野驴正常的迁徙活动,恢复其种群基因交流.%To improve habitat conservation and management of the Khulan {Equus hemiomus hemionus), we assessed the habitat suitability of this species in the Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve. Distance from water point, slope, vegetation type and human activities were selected as factors for habitat suitability assessment, and the habitat evaluation model for the assessment was conducted with GIS. In the absence of human activities, the total area of potential suitable habitat was 9,784 km2, 8,090 km2, 9,379 km2 and 10,856 km2 during the four seasons, accounting for 54.4%, 44.9%, 52.1% and 60.3% of the total reserve area, respectively. However, the reserve was negatively affected by a national highway, mine exploration, and grazing livestock. As a result, a large amount of suitable habitats were lost in the reserve. Especially in winter, nearly 6,629 km2 of

  7. Evaluating the Performance of DFT Functionals in Assessing the Interaction Energy and Ground-State Charge Transfer of Donor/Acceptor Complexes: Tetrathiafulvalene−Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF−TCNQ) as a Model Case

    KAUST Repository

    Sini, Gjergji

    2011-03-08

    We have evaluated the performance of several density functional theory (DFT) functionals for the description of the ground-state electronic structure and charge transfer in donor/acceptor complexes. The tetrathiafulvalene- tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) complex has been considered as a model test case. Hybrid functionals have been chosen together with recently proposed long-range corrected functionals (ωB97X, ωB97X-D, LRC-ωPBEh, and LC-ωPBE) in order to assess the sensitivity of the results to the treatment and magnitude of exact exchange. The results show an approximately linear dependence of the ground-state charge transfer with the HOMO TTF-LUMOTCNQ energy gap, which in turn depends linearly on the percentage of exact exchange in the functional. The reliability of ground-state charge transfer values calculated in the framework of a monodeterminantal DFT approach was also examined. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Artificial electron donors for nitrate and nitrite reductases usable as mediators in amperometric biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlitz, B. (Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)); Gruendig, B. (Institut fuer Chemo- und Biosensorik, Muenster-Roxel (Germany)); Vorlop, K.D. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie); Bartholmes, P. (Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie); Kotte, H. (Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)); Stottmeister, U. (Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany))

    1994-07-01

    Various nitrate and nitrite reductases are capable of accepting electrons from artificial donors. Combining these redox active donors with an amperometric redox electrode which is covered with an immobilized layer of such a nitrate or nitrite reductase, new enzyme sensors can be created for the detection of nitrate or nitrite, respectively. A range of suitable electron donors for nitrate reductases and nitrite reductase from different sources have been selected and characterized by electrochemical methods. (orig.)

  9. Donor-acceptor electron transport mediated by solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizhik, L. S.; Piette, B. M. A. G.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2014-11-01

    We study the long-range electron and energy transfer mediated by solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional molecular chain (conjugated polymer, alpha-helical macromolecule, etc.) weakly bound to a donor and an acceptor. We show that for certain sets of parameter values in such systems an electron, initially located at the donor molecule, can tunnel to the molecular chain, where it becomes self-trapped in a soliton state, and propagates to the opposite end of the chain practically without energy dissipation. Upon reaching the end, the electron can either bounce back and move in the opposite direction or, for suitable parameter values of the system, tunnel to the acceptor. We estimate the energy efficiency of the donor-acceptor electron transport depending on the parameter values. Our calculations show that the soliton mechanism works for the parameter values of polypeptide macromolecules and conjugated polymers. We also investigate the donor-acceptor electron transport in thermalized molecular chains.

  10. Preclinical assessment of the distribution,metabolism, and excretion of S-propargyl-cysteine, a novel H2S donor, in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-ting ZHENG; Yi-zhun ZHU; Wei-min CAI; Jian-hua ZHU; Guo MA; Qing ZHU; Ping YANG; Bo TAN; Jin-lian ZHANG; Hai-xing SHEN; Jia-lin XU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To study the distribution,metabolism and excretion of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC),a novel hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor,after oral administration in rats.Methods:Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used.The tissue distribution of [35S] SPRC-derived radioactivity was measured using a liquid scintillation counter.The plasma protein binding of SPRC was examined using 96-well equilibrium dialysis.The excretion of SPRC in urine,bile and feces was analyzed using the LC-MS/MS method.The major metabolites in rat biomatrices were identified using MRM information-dependent,acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) scans on API 4000QTrap system.Results:After oral administration of [35S] SPRC at a dose of 75 mg/kg,[35S] SPRC-derived radioactivity displayed broad biological distribution in various tissues of rats,including its target organs (heart and brain) with the highest in kidney.On the other hand,the binding of SPRC to human,rat and dog plasma protein was low.Only 2.18%±0.61% and 0.77%±0.61% of the total SPRC administered was excreted unchanged in the bile and urine.However,neither intact SPRC nor its metabolites were detected in rat feces.The major metabolic pathway in vivo (rat bile,urine,and plasma) was N-acetylation.Conclusion:The preliminary results suggest that SPRC possesses acceptable pharmacokinetic properties in rats.

  11. The probability of finding HLA identical or partially matched unrelated donors in the population of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors are treatments of choice for patients lacking HLA identical siblings or family matched donors. Material and methods. Class I HLA typing was performed by using a standard micro-lymphocytotoxicyty test in 434 unrelated persons from Vojvodina, while, class II HLA typing was performed using a modified immunofluorescent technique. The estimated gene frequencies for the populations of Crete, Korea, China, Scotland, Romania, and North America, were used to calculate phenotype frequencies, the probability of finding HLA identical or partially (in 5/6 HLA antigens matched unrelated donors, the number of donors necessary for research, as well as genetic distances between populations. Results. The probability of finding HLA identical or partially matched unrelated donors for patients from Vojvodina is higher in closely related populations with low genetic distances, such as populations of Crete, Romania and Scotland. Discussion. The probability of finding HLA identical or partially matched unrelated donors is in inverse proportion with the number of unrelated donors necessary for research with aim of finding at least one HLA compatible donor. Conclusion. The probability of finding compatible unrelated donors depends on the degree of HLA matching between the donor and recipient, HLA phenotype frequencies and the donor pool size. These methodology may have a wider usage, because it can be applied in calculating the probability of finding suitable genotypically matched donors, by using HLA allele frequencies defined by molecular techniques. .

  12. Can egg donor selection be improved? - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weghofer Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessments of ovarian reserve (OR in egg donor candidates are crucial for maximal donor selection. This study assesses whether recently reported new methods of OR assessment by age-specific (as-, rather than non-as (nas- hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, and triple nucleotide (CGG repeats on the FMR1 (fragile X gene have the potential of improving egg donor selection. Methods Seventy-three consecutive egg donor candidates (candidates, amongst those 21 who reached egg retrieval (donors, were prospectively investigated for as-FSH, as-AMH and number of CGG repeats. Abnormal findings were assessed in candidates and donors and oocyte yields in the latter were statistically associated with abnormal FSH and AMH (>/ Results Amongst candidates mean as-AMH was 3.8 +/- 2.8 ng/mL (37.0% normal, 3.0 +/- 0.7 ng/mL; 26.6% low, 1.5 +/- 0.5 ng/mL; and 37.0% high, 5.8 +/- 2.2 ng/mL. AMH among donors was 4.2 +/- 1.7 ng/mL (33.3% normal, 14.3% low, and 52.4% high, yielding 17.8 +/- 7.2 oocytes, 42.9% in normal range (10-15, 9.5% in low (less than or equal to 9 and 47.6.% in high range (16-32. Candidates in 41.9% and donors in 38.1% demonstrated normal CGG counts; the remained were mostly heterozygous abnormal. Discussion Prospective assessment of even carefully prescreened candidates and donors still demonstrates shortcomings on both ends of the OR spectrum. Utilization of ovarian reserve testing methods, like as-hormones and CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene have potential of improving candidate selections.

  13. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  14. Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi Seropositive and Seronegative Former Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Sabino, Ester C; Marcolino, Milena S.; Salemi, Vera M. C.; Barbara M. Ianni; Fábio Fernandes; Luciano Nastari; André Antunes; Márcia Menezes; Cláudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira; Vandana Sachdev; Carrick, Danielle M.; Michael P Busch; Murphy, Eduard L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated w...

  15. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-03-01

    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  16. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-03-01

    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  17. In vitro donor-specific hyporesponsiveness and T cell subsets in renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J; Mestre, M; Griñó, J M; Massip, E; Castelao, A M; Romeu, A; González, L; Valls, A; Buendía, E

    1993-01-01

    In order to assess the immune mechanisms triggered by an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of prophylactic antilymphocyte globulin plus low-dose cyclosporine A and steroids, we studied the short-term evolution of both, anti donor in vitro alloresponse and peripheral blood T cell subsets in 21 recipients of a cadaveric kidney allograft. Spleen cells from cadaveric donors and peripheral blood lymphocytes from the respective recipients pretransplant (pre-Tx), at three and six months posttransplant (post-Tx) were obtained to perform one-way mixed lymphocyte cultures and flow cytometry analysis of lymphocyte subsets. The results indicated the development of donor-specific mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) hyporesponsiveness as early as three months post-Tx, paralleled by a decrease in CD4+CD29+ helper-inducer cells and by an increase in CD8+CD45RA+ suppressor lymphocytes in peripheral blood. These changes were reflected in a very good clinical outcome of the patients. The present results further suggest that suppression of the immune system just before transplantation is a suitable method to induce early specific hyporesponsiveness to the allograft.

  18. Retroperitoneoscopic right living donor nephrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen-li; WU Ji-tao; YANG Dian-dong; SHI Lei; MEN Chang-ping; WANG Lin

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the past, living donor nephrectomy required an open flank incision that results in postoperative morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. Since its introduction in 1995, laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy has been shown to decrease postoperative pain and hospital stay,reduce blood loss, and improve cosmesis while hastening recovery of normal activities of donors.1 With decreased morbidity and favorable graft function, this procedure as a novel approach has been used to address the increasing disparity between organ need and availability.2 Better graft function and survival are noted in living-donor kidney transplantation than in cadaveric kidney transplantation. 1,2

  19. Organic substrates as electron donors in permeable reactive barriers for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, P; Pakdeerattanamint, K; Lens, P N L; Annachhatre, A P

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to select suitable natural organic substrates as potential carbon sources for use as electron donors for biological sulphate reduction in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A number of organic substrates were assessed through batch and continuous column experiments under anaerobic conditions with acid mine drainage (AMD) obtained from an abandoned lignite coal mine. To keep the heavy metal concentration at a constant level, the AMD was supplemented with heavy metals whenever necessary. Under anaerobic conditions, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted sulphate into sulphide using the organic substrates as electron donors. The sulphide that was generated precipitated heavy metals as metal sulphides. Organic substrates, which yielded the highest sulphate reduction in batch tests, were selected for continuous column experiments which lasted over 200 days. A mixture of pig-farm wastewater treatment sludge, rice husk and coconut husk chips yielded the best heavy metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) removal efficiencies of over 90%. PMID:23437664

  20. Alternative donors: cord blood for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for patients with hematological diseases. The probability of finding a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)- identical donor among family members is around 25% and 30% that of having a full matched unrelated donor in the registry. Patients in need may also benefit of a HLA-mismatched HSCT either from an haploidentical donors or from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Much has been learned about UCB transplant (UCBT) since the first human UCBT was performed back in 1988. Cord blood banks have been established worldwide for the collection, cryopreservation, and distribution of UCB for HSCT. Today, a global network of cord blood banks and transplant centers has been established with a large common inventory of more than 650,000 UCB units available, allowing for more than 40,000 UCBT worldwide in children and adults with severe hematological diseases. Several studies have been published on UCBT, assessing risk factors such as cell dose and HLA mismatch. Outcomes of several retrospective comparative studies showed similar results using other stem cell sources both in pediatric and adult setting. New strategies are ongoing to facilitate engraftment and reduce transplant-related mortality. In this issue, we review the current results of UCBT in adults with hematological malignancies and the clinical studies comparing UCBT with other transplant strategies. We provide guidelines for donor algorithm selection in UCBT setting.

  1. Creatinine-Based Estimations of Kidney Function Are Unreliable in Obese Kidney Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of kidney function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR is essential to the risk assessment of prospective living kidney donors. We evaluated the performance of various estimating equations for creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault, GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, and 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance in obese potential kidney donors. We evaluated 164 potential kidney donors including 49 with a BMI of 30–35 and 32 with a BMI >35 that have completed a routine living donor evaluation with a measured GFR. All the estimating equations performed poorly in obese donors. While 24-hour urine collections performed better, only 15% had an adequate 24-hour urine collection. Since obese kidney donors may be at higher than average risk for kidney failure, accurate assessment of kidney function in these donors is crucial to ensure their long-term health postdonation.

  2. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  3. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  4. Adoptive T-cell Immunotherapy from third-party donors: Characterization of donors and set up of a T-cell donor registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta eEiz-Vesper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and adenovirus (ADV are frequent and severe complications in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT or solid organ transplantation (SOT. These serious adverse events are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs are often used to treat both viral infections and leukemia relapses after transplantation but are associated with potentially life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs derived from seropositive donors can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity after HSCT and organ transplantation. Therefore, it can effectively prevent the clinical manifestation of these viruses with no significant acute toxicity or increased risk of GvHD. In conditions, where patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients, allogeneic third party T-cell donors would offer an alternative option. Recent studies showed that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF mobilization, the functional activity of antiviral memory T cells is impaired for a long period. This finding suggests that even stem cell donors may not be the best source of T cells.Under these circumstances, partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched virus-specific CTLs from healthy seropositive individuals may be a promising option. Therefore frequency assessments of virus-specific memory T cells in HLA-typed healthy donors as well as in HSCT/SOT donors using a high throughput T-cell assay were performed over a period of 4 years at Hannover Medical School. This chapter will address the relevance and potential of a third-party T-cell donor registry and will discuss its clinical implication for adoptive T

  5. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  6. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  7. Living donor liver transplantation for patients with alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yo-Han; Hwang, Shin; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Kim, Ki-Hun; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Park, Hyung-Woo; Park, Chun-Soo; Kang, Sung-Hwa; Jung, Bo-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Since most transplantation studies for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) were performed on deceased donor liver transplantation, little was known following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Methods The clinical outcome of 18 ALD patients who underwent LDLT from Febraury 1997 to December 2004 in a large-volume liver transplantation center was assessed retrospectively. Results The model for end-stage liver disease score was 23±11, and mean pretransplant abstinence period w...

  8. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Allain; Cees Th Smit Sibinga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family bloo...

  9. A joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data to better assess the specific role of donor and recipient factors on long-term kidney transplantation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Marie-Cécile; Foucher, Yohann; Blanche, Paul; Buron, Fanny; Giral, Magali; Dantan, Etienne

    2016-05-01

    In renal transplantation, serum creatinine (SCr) is the main biomarker routinely measured to assess patient's health, with chronic increases being strongly associated with long-term graft failure risk (death with a functioning graft or return to dialysis). Joint modeling may be useful to identify the specific role of risk factors on chronic evolution of kidney transplant recipients: some can be related to the SCr evolution, finally leading to graft failure, whereas others can be associated with graft failure without any modification of SCr. Sample data for 2749 patients transplanted between 2000 and 2013 with a functioning kidney at 1-year post-transplantation were obtained from the DIVAT cohort. A shared random effect joint model for longitudinal SCr values and time to graft failure was performed. We show that graft failure risk depended on both the current value and slope of the SCr. Deceased donor graft patient seemed to have a higher SCr increase, similar to patient with diabetes history, while no significant association of these two features with graft failure risk was found. Patient with a second graft was at higher risk of graft failure, independent of changes in SCr values. Anti-HLA immunization was associated with both processes simultaneously. Joint models for repeated and time-to-event data bring new opportunities to improve the epidemiological knowledge of chronic diseases. For instance in renal transplantation, several features should receive additional attention as we demonstrated their correlation with graft failure risk was independent of the SCr evolution.

  10. Creatinine-Based Estimations of Kidney Function Are Unreliable in Obese Kidney Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Aggarwal; Porter, Anna C.; Tang, Ignatius Y. S.; Becker, Bryan N.; Sanjeev K. Akkina

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of kidney function by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential to the risk assessment of prospective living kidney donors. We evaluated the performance of various estimating equations for creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault), GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration), and 24-hour urine collections for creatinine clearance in obese potential kidney donors. We evaluated 164 potential kidney donors inc...

  11. Are the imaging findings used to assess the portal triad reliable to perform living-donor liver transplant?; Os achados de imagem para avaliacao da triade portal sao confiaveis para realizacao do transplante hepatico com doador vivo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazzi, Francisco Leoncio; Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; Mancero, Jorge Marcelo Padilla; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; D' Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro, E-mail: franciscodazzi@hotmail.com [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia Geral e Transplante; Leao-Filho, Hilton Muniz [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem; Silva, Adavio de Oliveira e [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Gastroenterologia e Hepatologia

    2013-07-01

    Background: a crucial aspect of living-donor liver transplant is the risk imposed to the donor due to a procedure performed in a healthy individual that can lead to a high postoperative morbidity rate Aim: To correlate the pre- and intraoperative hepatic imaging findings of living adult donors. Methods: From 2003 to 2008 the medical charts of 66 donors were revised; in that, 42 were males (64%) and 24 females (36%), mean age of 30±8 years. The preoperative anatomy was analyzed by magnetic resonance cholangiography to study the bile ducts and by computed tomography angiography to evaluate the hepatic artery and portal vein. Normalcy criteria were established according to previously published studies. Results: Anatomic variations of the bile ducts were found in 59.1% of donors, of the artery hepatic in 31.8% and of the portal vein in 30.3% of the cases during the preoperative period. The magnetic resonance cholangiography findings were in agreement in 44 (66.6%) of donors and in disagreement in 22 (33.3%). With regards to hepatic artery, in all donors the findings of the imaging examination were in agreement with those of the intraoperative period. As to the portal vein, the computed tomography findings were in agreement in 59 (89.4%) donors and in disagreement in seven (10.6%). Conclusions: the bile duct anatomic variations are frequent, and the magnetic resonance cholangiography showed moderate accuracy (70%) in reproducing the surgical findings; the computed tomography reproduced the intraoperative findings of the hepatic artery in 100% of donors, and of the portal vein in 89.4% of the cases, thus demonstrating high accuracy (89%). (author)

  12. Recruiting unrelated donors for the National Marrow Donor Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanke, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Medical advances have made bone marrow transplantation the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. For those patients eligible for a marrow transplant only about 30 percent find an HLA-compatible match within their families. Studies indicate that unrelated volunteers are willing to donate their marrow. The National Marrow Donor Program was formed in 1986 as a result of a federal contract. This group is a network of donor centers, transplant centers, and collection centers. The C...

  13. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Godin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI. Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3% new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P<.001; the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps<.001 gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d=.26; SPI: d=.32; the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P<.05 the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  14. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  15. Evaluation of sustainable electron donors for nitrate removal in different water media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowdar, Harsha S; Hatt, Belinda E; Breen, Peter; Cook, Perran L M; Deletic, Ana

    2015-11-15

    An external electron donor is usually included in wastewater and groundwater treatment systems to enhance nitrate removal through denitrification. The choice of electron donor is critical for both satisfactory denitrification rates and sustainable long-term performance. Electron donors that are waste products are preferred to pure organic chemicals. Different electron donors have been used to treat different water types and little is known as to whether there are any electron donors that are suitable for multiple applications. Seven different carbon rich waste products, including liquid and solid electron donors, were studied in comparison to pure acetate. Batch-scale tests were used to measure their ability to reduce nitrate concentrations in a pure nutrient solution, light greywater, secondary-treated wastewater and tertiary-treated wastewater. The tested electron donors removed oxidised nitrogen (NOx) at varying rates, ranging from 48 mg N/L/d (acetate) to 0.3 mg N/L/d (hardwood). The concentrations of transient nitrite accumulation also varied across the electron donors. The different water types had an influence on NOx removal rates, the extent of which was dependent on the type of electron donor. Overall, the highest rates were recorded in light greywater, followed by the pure nutrient solution and the two partially treated wastewaters. Cotton wool and rice hulls were found to be promising electron donors with good NOx removal rates, lower leachable nutrients and had the least variation in performance across water types. PMID:26379204

  16. [Effectiveness of a Simulation of the Donor Surgery with Other Extraction Teams to Improve Various Problems in Pulmonary Extraction from a Brain-dead Donor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikawa, Hiromichi; Okada, Yoshinori; Noda, Masafumi; Watanabe, Tatsuaki; Notsuda, Hirotsugu; Matsuda, Yasushi; Sakurada, Akira; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Endo, Chiaki; Adachi, Osamu; Miyagi, Shigehito; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The pulmonary extraction from a brain-dead donor is one of the important elements for the success of lung transplantation, but the current scarcity of practical training opportunities is a major problem. We performed a simulation of the donor surgery of multiple organs using a pig with other extraction teams to provide more training opportunities. The effectiveness of this simulation lies in its potential to improve the surgical procedure;furthermore, it may solve problems associated with communicating with other extraction teams. However, it is difficult to judge whether the donor lung is suitable for transplantation, as it would be inappropriate to use such a lung for simulation in training. Since this simulation system is considered to be effective to solve various problems in the current donor surgery, it should be available more frequently to improve a technical level of the donor surgery and to aid surgeons in the rapid implementation of next-generation techniques.

  17. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  18. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in blood donors in Southern Haryana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Arora, Bharti; Khetarpal, Anshul

    2010-01-01

    Blood transfusion is an important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors. For this, a 3.5-year retrospective study, from October 2002 to April 2006 was conducted at the blood transfusion centre of Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha (Hisar) Haryana. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. A total of 5849 donors were tested, out of which 4010 (68.6%) were replacement donors and 1839 (31.4%) were voluntary donors. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.3% in the donors. No voluntary donor was found to be positive for HIV. The low sero-positivity among donors is attributed to pre-donation counseling in donor selection. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and syphilis was 1.7%, 1.0% and 0.9% respectively in total donors. The seroprevalence of hepatitis and syphilis was more in replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. PMID:20551540

  19. Niche suitability affects development: skull asymmetry increases in less suitable areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Maestri

    Full Text Available For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual's performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species.

  20. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya

    2014-10-01

    As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know. PMID:25489130

  1. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin P Ghonge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.

  2. Lipid profile of regular blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche EI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EI Uche,1 A Adediran,2 OD Damulak,3 TA Adeyemo,2 AA Akinbami,4 AS Akanmu21Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; 3Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; 4Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, Ikeja, NigeriaIntroduction: A few reports have linked regular blood donation to the lowering of parameters of lipid profile. Estimating the lipid profile is an accepted method of assessing an individual’s risk for coronary heart disease, particularly if there is evidence of lipid peroxidation. Regular blood donation may lower iron stores, and this in turn lowers lipid peroxidation. This study was carried out to determine the effect of blood donation on lipid profile.Materials and methods: Eighty-two participants consented to participate and were enrolled into the study, 52 of whom were regular blood donors (study group and 30 were non-donors (control group. Venous blood (10 mL was drawn from each subject into new plain screw-capped disposable plastic tubes. This was allowed to clot and the serum was used to determine total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein.Results: The mean total cholesterol (4.66 ± 0.86 mmol/L, triglycerides (1.22 ± 0.64 mmol/L, and low-density lipoprotein (2.32 ± 0.73 mmol/L were significantly lower in the regular blood donors than the control group (5.61 ± 1.26 mmol/L, 1.77 ± 2.9 mmol/L, and 3.06 ± 0.89 mmol/L, respectively; P < 0.05 in all cases. Also, while 42% of the study group had a low/high-density lipoprotein ratio of at least three, about 57% of the control group had a ratio of at least three (P = 0.21.Conclusion: Regular blood donation may be protective against cardiovascular disease as reflected by significantly lower mean total

  3. Ecological suitability assessment and eco-mapping for tourism development in an Eco-sensitive region%生态敏感区旅游开发适宜性评价及生态制图方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石垚; 张微; 任景明; 张建平

    2015-01-01

    Ecological suitability analysis is an important method of applying ecological principles to guide rational spatial distribution and regional development for the planning of certain areas. This method has been widely applied in urban and regional ecological planning. However, due to the lack of systematic assessment methodologies, it has not been significantly promoted for spatial siting, ecological planning, or eco-environmental impact assessments of ecologically sensitive areas, such as nature reserve areas and tourism areas. This study proposes the use of an ecological suitability analysis method and a GIS-based mapping approach to develop an eco-tourism project in an ecologically sensitive montane area. We use the Wudangzhao Scenic Area in Inner Mongolia, China, as a case study for analyzing various ecological factors including topography, slope, aspect, soil organic environment, vegetation cover, river hydrology, geology and lithology. These factors reflect the four typical ecologically sensitive elements of erosion prevention, geological disasters prevention, biodiversity protection, and flood control. We first completed the ecological sensitivity assessment and spatial suitability mapping using both single and integrated eco-sensitive factors. We then superimposed the distribution of relevant tourism projects in the research area in relation to the eco-sensitive assessment results in the form of an eco-map. Finally, we suggest specific ecological risk prevention and protective measures for tourism development and spatial planning in the research area. In addition, this method provided a comprehensive overview of all ecologically sensitive characteristics for mountain based tourism projects currently being developed, spatially displaying them through ecological mapping. Therefore, this method contributes to a more effective decision-making process and helps decision makers develop more appropriate regulatory measures to prevent ecological risk. In conclusion

  4. Sero prevalence of hepatitis -C antibodies in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in blood donors. Design: The retrospective sero-epidemiological data of the institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab over a period of one year after starting HCV screening, was analyzed to estimate the percentage prevalence. Setting; The data was obtained regularly from the blood units established by this institute at the pablic sector hospitals and retesting on initially reactive serum sample by EIA was done at the Institute. Subjects: A total of 166183 directed first time donors or replacement blood donors aged 18-60 years who donated blood at these blood banks or at mobile sessions have been included in the study. All initially reactive donors who tested non-reactive on EIA were excluded from the study. Main outcome Measures: Assessment of prevalence of HCV in blood donors. Results: 4.45% of the total donors intially tested reactive of these 0.36 % were atsety reactive on intial screening. Further testing by EIA, 4.1%. Conclusions: The blood transfusion service started screening for HCV in April 2000 and the prevalence of HCV, amongst the transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) being screened for in the Punjab, is the highest. It is almost double the prevalence of HBV and several thousand time that of HIV. Meticulous and total screening coverage is needed to curtail impending catastrophe. With experience, the choice of testing methodology might have to be reviewed. (author)

  5. Recruiting and retaining plasmapheresis donors: A critical belief analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    This paper identifies critical beliefs underpinning intentions to commence and continue plasmapheresis donation. Whole blood (n = 624) and first-time plasmapheresis (n = 460) donors completed a cross-sectional survey assessing the belief-base of the theory of planned behaviour and rated their plasmapheresis donation intentions. While the idea of red blood cells being returned was a key deterrent for all donors, critical beliefs underlying commencement and continuation in the plasmapheresis donor panel differed and varied as a function of blood donation history. Findings will assist the development of targeted persuasion messages to optimise recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors in a non-remunerated context. PMID:25824702

  6. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  7. Hemodynamic Changes in Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafiei

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Everyday, millions of people around the world go through phlebotomy, either to donate blood or for therapeutic intention. The most important worrisome adverse effects are hemodynamic alterations. In this study, hemodynamic changes following blood donation were assessed. Methods & Materials: Three hundred laborers who donated blood voluntarily were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure (BP and pulse rate were measured before the procedure, ten minutes afterwards, and one week following phlebotomy. Hemoglobin (Hgb and hematocrit (Hct were also determined prior to and one week after phlebotomy. Finally, results before and after donation were compared with each other. Results: 242 volunteers had normal BP and 58 were hypertensive. The mean systolic blood pressures (SBP before phlebotomy, ten minutes after the procedure, and one week later were 120, 117, and 122 mmHg, respectively. During the same periods of time, the mean of diastolic blood pressures (DBP were 77 , 78 and 78 mmHg , in order , while pulse rates on average were 80 , 82 and 76 beats/minute . None of the aforementioned changes were clinically significant. After one week, Hgb decreased by about 0.3 g/dl (P<0.001 and Hct declined on average of 1.7 (P<0.001. Forty six individuals had high DBP and one week after donation, their DBP was reduced by 7 mmHg. Age, body mass index and smoking did not have any significant effect on hemodynamic status. Conclusion: Hemodynamic changes in healthy blood donors were not clinically significant. It seems that DBP drops desirably in hypertensive individuals. This needs to be evaluated more carefully in future studies.

  8. Does the Presence of a Measurable Blood Alcohol Level in a Potential Organ Donor Affect the Outcome of Liver Transplantation?

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanein, Tarek I.; GAVALER, JUDITH S.; Fishkin, David; Gordon, Robert; Starzl, Thomas E.; Van Thiel, David H.

    1991-01-01

    The widespread application of hepatic transplantation has created a tremendous demand for donor organs. An assessment of donor parameters is thought to be important in selecting good donors; however, the criteria utilized have not been standardized. This study was performed to determine the effect of a measurable donor blood alcohol level on graft survival. Fifty-two patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation at the University of Pittsburgh were included in the study. Twenty-five...

  9. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Arefjev; M. G. Minina; N. P. Mogeiko; I. M. Iljinsky

    2011-01-01

    There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor ...

  10. [Use of related live donors in renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyer, M

    1996-06-01

    Collecting pertinent information is first step in assessing the use of living-related kidneys for transplantation. Current bioethics legislation in France limits kidney donation to first-degree family members and spouses in emergency situations. Severe penalties are inflicted for use of other donors or sale of organs. Further valuable information can be obtained from reports in the literature on complications in donors and on the advantages of living donor organs. The proportion of live donors in France is small (3.5% from 1984 through 1993) indicating that transplantation teams prefer cadaver organs except in pediatric cases. The proportion of live donor organs transplanted in northern Europe and North America is much higher. A quick survey of French teams show that opinions and practices vary. Questions still under debate include how to guarantee freedom to refuse or accept, a freedom directly related to correct information. Several propositions have been made in an attempt to harmonize management. First, an information sheet could be distributed during the early discussions, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of live organ donation. A list of complementary examinations could also be established to identify possible contraindications for nephrectomy and define exclusion criteria. A similar procedure adopted by all transplantation teams could be based on these propositions presented in the appendix. Potential donors could then benefit from uniform protection. PMID:8685149

  11. Evaluation of Agricultural Land Suitability: Application of Fuzzy Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problem of evaluation of agricultural land suitability is considered as a fuzzy modeling task. The application of individual fuzzy indicators provides an opportunity for assessment of lsand suitability of lands as degree or grade of performance when the lands are used for agricultural purposes....

  12. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications. PMID:18160357

  13. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  14. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation: A fourteen-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In countries without a national organization for retrieval and distribution of organs of the deceased donors, problem of organ shortage is still not resolved. In order to increase the number of kidney transplantations we started with the program of living unrelated - spousal donors. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcome and renal graft function in patients receiving the graft from spousal and those receiving ghe graft from living related donors. Method. We retrospectively identified 14 patients who received renal allograft from spousal donors between 1996 and 2009 (group I. The control group consisted of 14 patients who got graft from related donor retrieved from the database and matched than with respect to sex, age, kidney disease, immunological and viral pretransplant status, the initial method of the end stage renal disease treatment and ABO compatibility. In the follow-up period of 41 ± 38 months we recorded immunosuppressive therapy, surgical complications, episodes of acute rejection, CMV infection and graft function, assessed by serum creatinine levels at the beginning and in the end of the follow-up period. All patients had pretransplant negative cross-match. In ABO incompatible patients pretransplant isoagglutinine titer was zero. Results. The patients with a spousal donor had worse HLA matching. There were no significant differences between the groups in surgical, infective, immunological complications and graft function. Two patients from the group I returned to hemodialysis after 82 and 22 months due to serious comorbidities. Conclusion. In spite of the worse HLA matching, graft survival and function of renal grafts from spousal donors were as good as those retrieved from related donors.

  15. Unconventional conceptions : family planning in lesbian-headed families created by donor insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Lisa Katherine

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to systematically describe the decision-making phase of family formation in German lesbians planning to parent via donor insemination, to assess the issues pertinent to each mother role and those involved in donor type choice using a retrospective, structured questionnaire. Data was collected from 105 self-identified lesbian women, 55 of whom were birthmothers and 50 of whom were social mothers. The process of planning a lesbian-headed family created by donor insemination ...

  16. Impact of intraoperative donor management on short-term renal function after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Hazebroek; D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); M.A. Schreve; T. van Gelder (Teun); J.I. Roodnat (Joke); W. Weimar (Willem); H.J. Bonjer (Jaap); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether intraoperative diuresis, postoperative recovery, and early graft function differ between laparoscopic open nephrectomy (LDN) and open donor nephrectomy (ODN). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy can reduce donor compli

  17. Mass Transfer from Giant Donors

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovskii, K

    2014-01-01

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass transfer rate via $L_1$ allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolv...

  18. KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION FROM DONORS AFTER CARDIAC DEATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Rozental

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From 668 kidney transplantations performed during the period 2000–2005 68 grafts were recovered from donors after cardiac death and 176 from donors with confirmed brain death. Early results (number of primarily non-functioning grafts, rates of delayed graft function and acute rejections were similar in both groups. 5-year patient survival was 85% from donors after cardiac death and 88% from donors with confirmed brain death. 5-year graft survival was 77% and 85%, respectively. Results showed that the use of kidney grafts recovered from donors after cardiac death is valuable additional source of donor organs. 

  19. DONOR-TRANSMITTED CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mironkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate opportunities, prospects and safety of using heart transplants from aged donors who are at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis.Materials and methods. Over the period from March 1987 to May 2014450 heart transplantations (HTx were performed in V.I.Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artifi cial Organs. During the fi rst month after HTx coronarography was made to 152 (37,8% recipients inorder to exclude/confi rm donor-transmitted coronary atherosclerosis (DTCA and to identify tactics of treatment. Coronary atherosclerosis was detected among 16 patients (3,6% of total number of HTx, 15 (93,8% men and 1 (6,2% women. Mean age of recipients with DTCA at the moment of HTx was 48,3 ± 13,1 years.Results. Hemodynamically relevant coronary atherosclerosis was not detected and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was not made in the group of patients with the mean age of 42,24 ± 8,91 years. Using heart transplants from aged donors is connected with increasing risk of DTCA among the recipients. DTCA-dependent PCI is not connected with coronary mortality. Actuarial survival rate of patients who underwent PCI is comparable with the same one in the total population of HTx recipients and is equal to 87,5% at 5 years and less.Conclusion. Hearts from aged donors (older than 50 years may be used for HTx with suffi cient level of safety. Due to high level of DTCA using of hearts from such donors is preferable for completing urgent HTx to recipients 1А–В UNOS.

  20. Assessment of the best N3− donors in preparation of [M(N)(PNP)]-based (M = 99mTc-; 188Re) target-specific radiopharmaceuticals: Comparison among succinic dihydrazide (SDH), N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HDTCZ) and PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Succinic dihydrazide (SDH), N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HDTCZ) and PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate (HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ) are nitrido nitrogen atom donors employed for the preparation of nitride [M(N)]‐complexes (M = 99mTc and 188Re). This study aims to compare the capability and the efficiency of these three N3− group donors, in the preparation of [M(N)PNP]-based target-specific compounds (M = 99mTc, 188Re; PNP = aminodiphosphine). For this purpose, three different kit formulations (SDH kit; HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ kit; HDTCZ kit) were assembled and used in the preparation of [M(N)(cys ∼)(PNP3)]0/+ complexes (cys ∼ = cysteine derivate ligands). For each formulation, the radiochemical yield (RCY) of the [M(N)(∼ cys)(PNP3)] compounds, was determined by HPLC. The deviation of the percentage of RCY, due to changes in concentration of the N3− donors and of the exchanging ligand, was determined. For 99mTc, data clearly show that HDTCZ is the most efficient donor of N3−; however, SDH is the most suitable nitrido nitrogen atom donor for the preparation of [99mTc(N)(PNP)]-based target-specific agents with high specific activity. When HO2C-PEG600-DTCZ or HDTCZ are used in N3− donation, high amounts of the exchanging ligand (10−4 M) were required for the formation of the final complex in acceptable yield. The possibility to use microgram amounts of HDTCZ also in [188Re(N)] preparation (0.050 mg) reduces its ability to compete in ligand exchange reactions, minimizing the quantity of chelators required to obtain the final complex in high yield. This finding can be exploit for increasing the radiolabeling efficiency in [188Re(N)]-radiopharmaceutical preparations compared to the previously reported HDTCZ-based procedure, notwithstanding a purification process could be necessary to improve the specific activity of the complexes

  1. 利用层次分析法评价东营市浅层地热能适宜性%Suitability Assessment of Shallow Geothermal Energy in Dongying City Based on Ananalytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡松涛; 孙云川; 胡思敬

    2014-01-01

    By using analytical hierarchy process method (AHP method )which combines qualitative analysis and semi-quantitative analysis together,the hierarchical structure model of the suitability of ground heat exchange sys-tem has been established.Based on datas acquired from field and indoor tests,choosing seven evaluation indica-tors,such as depth of groundwater,depth of sand,difficulty degree of drilling holes,ground subsidence,thermal diffusivity,specific heat capacity and heat conductivity,suitability of shallow geothermal energy in Dongying city can be divided into well suitable region and suitable region.This is the first time to analyze the suitability of shallow geothermal energy by using experimental data in Dongying city.It will provide a scientific basis for reasonable ap-plication of shallow geothermal energy in the future.%利用定性、半定量相结合的层次分析法(AHP),建立地埋管换热系统适宜性递阶层次结构模型,在野外试验、室内测试等基础数据的基础上,选取地下水埋藏深度、砂层厚度、成孔难易程度、地面沉降、热扩散率、比热容、综合热导率等7个评价指标,将东营市浅层地热能开发利用划分为适宜区、较适宜区。这是东营地区第一次利用实测数据开展浅层地热能适宜性评价,为今后的合理开发利用提供了科学依据。

  2. Removal of the acyl donor residue allows the use of simple alkyl esters as acyl donors for the dynamic kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, Gerard K.M.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Broxterman, Quirinus B.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols using a lipase and a ruthenium catalyst required some improvements to make it suitable for its use in an industrial process. The use of p-chlorophenyl acetate as acyl donor is not desirable in view of the toxicity of the side product. We herein re

  3. Subclinical leukopenia in a cross section of Nigerian blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adias TC

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Ruth E Umoh2, Teddy C Adias31Haematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 3College of Health Technology, Ogbia, Bayelsa State, NigeriaBackground: Most studies on blood donors are centered on the selective evaluation of red blood cell parameters with little or no regard to white blood cells and platelets.Methods: One hundred and twelve male blood donors comprising 43 first-time and 69 regular blood donors, drawn from a tertiary health facility in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, participated in the study. Their hematological parameters were assessed using a 3-part differential autohematology analyzer (PCE-210 N.Results: Of the blood donors, 18.8% were found to be anemic (packed cell volume [PCV] <33% while 12.5% were leukopenic (white blood cell [WBC] count <2.0 × 109/L. The leukopenia observed in this study was largely due to the significant reductions in both the absolute lymphocyte (P = 0.019, percent lymphocyte (P = 0.016, and percent monocyte count (P = 0.008. Anemia was obviously due to the reduction in the red blood cell (RBC count, PCV, hemoglobin (Hb, mean cell Hb (MCH, and red cell distribution width (RDW values. Significant positive correlations were found between PCV and total WBC count (r = 0.309; P < 0.01 while a negative correlation was found between PCV and absolute lymphocyte counts (r = —0.191; P < 0.005 and RDW (r = —0.219; P < 0.05. Comparison of the mean values of the first-time versus regular blood donor parameters revealed that six parameters were significantly reduced in the regular blood donors (PCV, absolute WBC count, percent monocytes, RBC count, Hb, PCV. The reference ranges of hematological parameters for Port Harcourt donors are also presented in this

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  6. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 352 352 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  8. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Visser; M.H. Mochtar; A.A. de Melker; F. van der Veen; S. Repping; T. Gerrits

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counsellin

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  10. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, See Ching; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless, LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving ...

  11. Organ donor problems and their management

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Veena; Bhosale G

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, transplantation has assumed an important role in the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With the passage of Transplantation of Human Organ Act by the Indian parliament, transplantation of organs from brain dead donors has become a reality. Although there are many issues in success of cadaver programme, intensivists can play a crucial role by converting a potential donor into an actual donor. This article reviews the identification of potential organ donor and...

  12. New biologically active hydrogen sulfide donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thomas; Raynaud, Francoise; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Ransy, Céline; Simonet, Serge; Crespo, Christine; Bourguignon, Marie-Pierre; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vilaine, Jean-Paul; Artaud, Isabelle; Galardon, Erwan

    2013-11-25

    Generous donors: The dithioperoxyanhydrides (CH3 COS)2 , (PhCOS)2 , CH3 COSSCO2 Me and PhCOSSCO2 Me act as thiol-activated hydrogen sulfide donors in aqueous buffer solution. The most efficient donor (CH3 COS)2 can induce a biological response in cells, and advantageously replace hydrogen sulfide in ex vivo vascular studies. PMID:24115650

  13. Assessment of Suitability of Shallow Geothermal Energy in Luoyang Basin Based on AHP%基于AHP的洛阳盆地浅层地热能适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟小洁; 任静; 周奇蒙

    2014-01-01

    运用AHP分析法分别建立地下水热泵换热和地埋管换热适宜性分区评价体系,确定浅层地热能适宜性分区评价体系中的各评价指标的权重,利用权重系统和评分系统,对洛阳盆地地区浅层地热能适宜性进行评价,评价结果与客观情况基本吻合,分区结果合理可靠,为洛阳盆地浅层地热能的合理开发利用提供了科学依据和技术支持。%By using AHP analysis method, suitability evaluation system of groundwater heat exchange and buried pipe heat exchange is estabilished. to determine the weight of each evaluation index of shallow geothermal energy suitability division evaluation system, using a weighting system and scoring system, evaluated suitability of shallow geothermal energy in Luoyang basin, the partition result is reasonable and reliable, the evaluation results are in agreement with the objective, can provides scientific basis and technical references for the development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy in Luoyang basin.

  14. Multidetector row-CT in evaluation of living renal donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-qing; HU Xiao-peng; WANG Wei; LI Xiao-bei; YIN Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2010-01-01

    Background Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) has been evolving to the standard evaluating method of potential living donor in most centers, and can provide excellent details for selecting candidates and determining surgical technique.This study aimed to assess the value of MDCT in evaluation of the anatomy of living kidney donors and to reveal the prevalence of renal vascular variations in a Chinese population.Methods One hundred and four potential donors underwent MDCT and the data sets were post-processed for reformatted images with various techniques, such as maximum intensity projection (MIP), a volume-rendering technique (VR), and multiplanar reformation (MPR). Donor nephrectomies were performed on 97 candidates after MDCT evaluation with the findings during surgery constituting the standard of reference. Resulting MDCT images were compared with actual anatomy found during surgery. Results The MDCT images accurately displayed the anatomic structure of the main renal arteries and veins as well as the upper ureters, except in one case with horseshoe kidney. The prevalence of accessory arteries revealed in images was 27.2% (28/103) and early branching was found in 12.6% (13/103). Compared with findings during surgery, the detection of accessory arteries in MDCT images was 85.7% (6/7), and the detection of larger accessory arteries (>1.5 mm in diameter) was 100%. Detection of early branching was 100%.Conclusion MDCT helps accurately evaluate the renal anatomy of potential donors thus facilitating the planning of surgery.

  15. Suitable footwear for enhanced safety

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Safety shoes are the theme of a new safety campaign. Always remember that accidents can happen - even to your feet! When entering hazardous areas such as underground halls, work sites, experiment assembly sites, workshops etc., sandals, ordinary shoes or similar light footwear should not be worn. Whatever the risks to which you may be exposed, always think safety and wear suitable footwear, i.e. safety shoes, which have non-slip soles and steel reinforcements to protect your feet from being crushed, fractured or pierced. Is it serious, Doctor? "Some traumas resulting from foot-related accidents - open fractures for instance - can be quite serious," explains CERN Works Doctor Véronique Fassnacht. "But the most common injuries are sprained ankles sustained during simple falls caused by differences in floor-levels (e.g. false floors). Fractures, bruising, surface wounds or deep wounds caused by objects falling onto the top of the foot are also quite common." ...

  16. Identification of process suitable diluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean R. Peterman

    2014-01-01

    The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation (STMAS) was formed within the USDOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program in order to develop more efficient methods for the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MA) from used nuclear fuel. The development of processes for MA separations is driven by the potential benefits; reduced long-term radiotoxicty of waste placed in a geologic repository, reduced timeframe of waste storage, reduced repository heat load, the possibility of increased repository capacity, and increased utilization of energy potential of used nuclear fuel. The research conducted within the STMAS framework is focused upon the realization of significant simplifications to aqueous recycle processes proposed for MA separations. This report describes the research efforts focused upon the identification of a process suitable diluent for a flowsheet concept for the separation of MA which is based upon the dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants previously developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  17. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Blood Donor’s Status of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis in this Region of Marathwada, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangrao H. Deshpande

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Blood transfusion can cause the transmission of infections to recipients. This is an important mode of infection. The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of such type of infections among blood donors and to compare the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in voluntary donors and replacement donors. Retrospective study of five years from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 was done. This study was conducted at Blood bank, MIMSR Medical College Latur, Govt. Medical College, Latur and Bhalchandra Blood bank, Latur. Material & Methods: Total 10, 4925 donors were tested. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBC, HCV and Syphilis. Screening of HIV, HBV & HCV was done by ELISA method & Syphilis was screened by RPR type. Results: The comparison of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & Syphilis in voluntary donors and replacement donors showed significant difference only for HIV in the years 2007, 2010, and 2011. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in the study is very low or negligible in voluntary donors as compared to replacement donors. There was a declining trend of seroprevalence for all the disease screened. But in our study the difference is not significant, which indicates that the selection of donors is of low quality. The selection of high quality voluntary donors should be achieved by creation of awareness by education of the prospective donor populations.

  19. Evaluation of living liver donors using contrast enhanced multidetector CT – The radiologists impact on donor selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a valuable and legitimate treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Computed tomography (CT) has proven to be an important tool in the process of donor evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of CT in the donor selection process. Between May 1999 and October 2010 170 candidate donors underwent biphasic CT. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the CT and liver volumetry, and assessed reasons for rejection. 89 candidates underwent partial liver resection (52.4%). Based on the results of liver CT and volumetry 22 candidates were excluded as donors (31% of the cases). Reasons included fatty liver (n = 9), vascular anatomical variants (n = 4), incidental finding of hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 1) and small (n = 5) or large for size (n = 5) graft volume. CT based imaging of the liver in combination with dedicated software plays a key role in the process of evaluation of candidates for LDLT. It may account for up to 1/3 of the contraindications for LDLT

  20. 贵州省小油桐气候适宜性评价指标分析和区划%Assessment Indices of Climate Suitability and Division for Jatropha curcas in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷晓平; 于飞; 马建勇; 娄彦萍

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most high quality raw material for biodiesel,Jatropha curcas has the natural advantages such as outstanding potential on economic and ecology,but their growth depended on meteorological conditions strongly.To avoid introduce blindly,the authors adopted the agro-meteorological analysis and geographic information system (GIS)technology,achieved climatic suitability division for Jatropha curcas,which based on observed meteorological data of 85stations in Guizhou from 1961 to 2009,and combined with the data of field observation.According to the annual temperature (Tmean),> 10℃ accumulated temperature (Σ T),sunshine hours (H),extreme minimum temperature (Tmin) and the average temperature in the coldest month (Tcold),the regionalization standard of the climate suitability of Jatropha curcas was established in Guizhou.Based on GIS spatial analysis function,refinement climatic division which was under grid interval of 100m × 100m and accurated to villages (towns) in Guizhou was finished.Jatropha curcas planting distribution,including suitable area,sub-suitable area and unsuitable area,was developped.The suitable area of Jatropha curcas was mainly located in south and north Pan River,the sub-suitable area was mainly distributed in the subtropical area of Guizhou,and the unsuitable area mainly focused on the central and northern Guizhou.The results could provide the scientific evidence for Jatropha curcas on work safety layout.%小油桐是生物柴油的优质原料之一,经济和生态潜力突出,其生长对气象条件的依赖性强,为避免盲目引种,本研究以贵州85个气象观测站1961-2009年的气候资料为基础,结合野外小油桐实地观测资料,采用农业气象分析方法和地理信息系统(GIS)技术,对小油桐进行气候适宜性区划.利用年均温、>10℃积温、日照时数、极端最低温度及最冷月平均气温等指标确立了贵州省小油桐气候适宜分区标准.依托GIS技术空间分析

  1. Outcome of kidney transplantation between controlled cardiac death and brain death donors: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yingzi; Shao Mingjie; Tian Tingting; She Xingguo; Liu Hong; Ye Shaojun; Ye Qifa

    2014-01-01

    Background Our goal was to evaluate the outcomes of kidney transplants from controlled cardiac death donors compared with brain death donors by conducting a meta-analysis of cohort studies.Methods The PubMed database and EMBASE were searched from January 1980 to July 2013 to identify studies that met pre-stated inclusion criteria.Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed.Two authors independently extracted information on the designs of the studies,the characteristics of the study participants,and outcome assessments.Results Nine cohort studies involving 84 398 participants were included in this meta-analysis; 3 014 received kidneys from controlled cardiac death donors and 80 684 from brain death donors.Warm ischemia time was significantly longer for the controlled cardiac death donor group.The incidence of delayed graft function was 2.74 times (P <0.001) greater in the controlled cardiac death donor group.The results are in favor of the brain death donor group on short-term patient and graft survival while this difference became nonsignificant at mid-term and long term.Sensitivity analysis yielded similar results.No evidence of publication bias was observed.Conclusion This meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies suggests that the outcome after controlled cardiac death donors is comparable with that obtained using kidneys from brain death donors.

  2. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in devel...

  3. DONOR HEART VALVES RECONSTRUCTION BEFORE TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The demonstration of our own experience in heart transplantation after valve reconstruction. Methods and results. From May 2012 to March 2013 3 mitral valve annuloplasties were performed to recipi- ents, requiring urgent HT and having extremely unfavorable prognosis of survival without HT. The recipients were classified as United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS IB, and all of them were on inotropic support. In one case, HT was performed after reconstruction of rheumatic mitral stenosis, in two other cases – after dege- nerative mitral regurgitation. The technical aspects are reviewed of ex-vivo mitral and tricuspid valves repair with concomitant heart transplantation. All patients were discharged from the hospital having excellent postope- rative recovery. Conclusion. Taking into consideration the demonstrated satisfactory result of surveillance and presence of significant experience in performing of reconstructive valve surgery among no-HT cardiosurgical patients, an increase in the pool of suitable donor organs is expected due to the liberalization of the selection criteria and the possibility of the innovative valve reconstruction procedures ex vivo. 

  4. Suitability of Machinery Logging in Slovenian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Jakše

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: The purpose of the research was to examine how much Slovenian forest land is suitable for machine logging and harvesting of timber.Purpose: To determine the actual potential of machinery logging in Slovenian forests.Method: On the basis of Slovenian forest service cadastral maps from 2011, we assumed potential areas for machinery logging and harvesting of timber.Results: In 2011, Slovenia cut about 3.9 million m³ of wood. Given the potential of Slovenian forests that amounts to 5.5 million m³ / year, it was determined that the percentage of machinery logging can significantly increase.Organization: The research will have a significant impact on themanagement of organizations that are considering buying equipment for machinery logging.Society: Society will be richer in knowing that there are opportunities in increasing contemporary technologies in Slovenian forests. With the realization that this type of technology is currently the safest form of work in forests, not only benefits favorable economic results, but also save many victims of accidents at work (in 2011 there were 21 deathsOriginality: The study included the latest findings of modern technology for forest work.Limitations: The greatest limitation is primarily in assessing the suitability of terrains.

  5. Uncertainty in Various Habitat Suitability Models and Its Impact on Habitat Suitability Estimates for Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are extensively used to project habitat suitability of species in stream ecological studies. Owing to complex sources of uncertainty, such models may yield projections with varying degrees of uncertainty. To better understand projected spatial distributions and the variability between habitat suitability projections, this study uses five SDMs that are based on the outputs of a two-dimensional hydraulic model to project the suitability of habitats and to evaluate the degree of variability originating from both differing model types and the split-sample procedure. The habitat suitability index (HSI of each species is based on two stream flow variables, including current velocity (V, water depth (D, as well as the heterogeneity of these flow conditions as quantified by the information entropy of V and D. The six SDM approaches used to project fish abundance, as represented by HSI, included two stochastic models: the generalized linear model (GLM and the generalized additive model (GAM; as well as three machine learning models: the support vector machine (SVM, random forest (RF and the artificial neural network (ANN, and an ensemble model (where the latter is the average of the preceding five models. The target species Sicyopterus japonicas was found to prefer habitats with high current velocities. The relationship between mesohabitat diversity and fish abundance was indicated by the trends in information entropy and weighted usable area (WUA over the study area. This study proposes a method for quantifying habitat suitability, and for assessing the uncertainties in HSI and WUA that are introduced by the various SDMs and samples. This study also demonstrated both the merits of the ensemble modeling approach and the necessity of addressing model uncertainty.

  6. Anaerobic Degradation of Tetrachloroethylene Using Different Co-substrates as Electron Donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biodegradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by acclimated anaerobic sludge using different co-substrates, I.e., glucose, acetate, and lactate as electron donors. Methods HP-6890 gas chromatograph (GC) in combination with auto-sampler was used to analyze the concentration of PCE and its intermediates. Results PCE could be degraded by reductive dechlorination and the degradation reaction conformed to the first-order kinetic equation. The rate constants are k1actate>kglucose>kacetate. The PCE degradation rate was the highest in the presence of lactate as an electron donor.Conclusion Lactate is the most suitable electron donor for PCE degradation and the electron donors supplied by co-metabolic substrates are not the limiting factors for PCE degradation.

  7. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Allain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified. Methods: Review of old and recent literature through Pubmed and references from identified articles. Results and Discussion: Viral marker data comparing confirmed seroprevalence in 1 st time volunteer non-remunerated donors (VNRD and family/replacement donors (FRD corrected for gender and age, show no significant difference between the two groups. Evidence has been provided that for both VNRD and FAD benevolence is more appropriate than altruism. The two groups merge for psychological attitude to donation for which knowing someone needing transfusion is a powerful incentive to give blood. Excluding a life or death situation found in areas where severe blood shortage justifies replacement donation, pressures are exerted on both VNRD and FRD. There is no evidence of coercion of FRD. FRDs therefore meet all criteria for VNRD and are willing to become VNRD and to repeat donation. Ostracising FRD is illegitimate and damaging to the blood supply in resource poor areas. In some countries no difference is made between the two groups of donors representing similar populations asked to give blood in different circumstances. Conclusions: FRDs remain a critical source of volunteer, non-remunerated, blood meeting all classical criteria of VNRD that should be considered legitimate and indispensable at this point in time instead of discouraged.

  8. Significant Improvements in the Practice Patterns of Adult Related Donor Care in US Transplantation Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Chloe; Shaw, Bronwen E; Kiefer, Deidre M; Liesveld, Jane L; Yared, Jean; Kamble, Rammurti T; D'Souza, Anita; Hematti, Peiman; Seftel, Matthew D; Norkin, Maxim; DeFilipp, Zachariah; Kasow, Kimberly A; Abidi, Muneer H; Savani, Bipin N; Shah, Nirali N; Anderlini, Paolo; Diaz, Miguel A; Malone, Adriana K; Halter, Joerg P; Lazarus, Hillard M; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; O'Donnell, Paul V

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations have found a higher incidence of adverse events associated with hematopoietic cell donation in related donors (RDs) who have morbidities that if present in an unrelated donor (UD) would preclude donation. In the UD setting, regulatory standards ensure independent assessment of donors, one of several crucial measures to safeguard donor health and safety. A survey conducted by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) Donor Health and Safety Working Committee in 2007 reported a potential conflict of interest in >70% of US centers, where physicians had simultaneous responsibility for RDs and their recipients. Consequently, several international organizations have endeavored to improve practice through regulations and consensus recommendations. We hypothesized that the changes in the 2012 Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy and the Joint Accreditation Committee-International Society for Cellular Therapy and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation standards resulting from the CIBMTR study would have significantly impacted practice. Accordingly, we conducted a follow-up survey of US transplantation centers to assess practice changes since 2007, and to investigate additional areas where RD care was predicted to differ from UD care. A total of 73 centers (53%), performing 79% of RD transplantations in the United States, responded. Significant improvements were observed since the earlier survey; 62% centers now ensure separation of RD and recipient care (P < .0001). This study identifies several areas where RD management does not meet international donor care standards, however. Particular concerns include counseling and assessment of donors before HLA typing, with 61% centers first disclosing donor HLA results to an individual other than the donor, the use of unlicensed mobilization agents, and the absence of long-term donor follow-up. Recommendations for improvement are made.

  9. An Algorithm Measuring Donor Cell-Free DNA in Plasma of Cellular and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients That Does Not Require Donor or Recipient Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Paul M. K.; Khan, Aneal; Sajid, Umair; Chang, Nicholas; Suresh, Varun; Dimnik, Leo; Lamont, Ryan E.; Parboosingh, Jillian S.; Martin, Steven R.; Pon, Richard T.; Weatherhead, Jene; Wegener, Shelly; Isaac, Debra; Greenway, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has significant potential in the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical conditions. However, accurately and easily distinguishing the relative proportion of DNA molecules in a mixture derived from two different sources (i.e., donor and recipient tissues after transplantation) is challenging. In human cellular transplantation, there is currently no useable method to detect in vivo engraftment, and blood-based non-invasive tests for allograft rejection in solid organ transplantation are either non-specific or absent. Elevated levels of donor cfDNA have been shown to correlate with solid organ rejection, but complex methodology limits implementation of this promising biomarker. We describe a cost-effective method to quantify donor cfDNA in recipient plasma using a panel of high-frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms, next-generation (semiconductor) sequencing, and a novel mixture model algorithm. In vitro, our method accurately and rapidly determined donor:recipient DNA admixture. For in vivo testing, donor cfDNA was serially quantified in an infant with a urea cycle disorder after receiving six daily infusions of donor liver cells. Donor cfDNA isolated from 1 to 2 ml of recipient plasma was detected as late as 24 weeks after infusion suggesting engraftment. The percentage of circulating donor cfDNA was also assessed in pediatric and adult heart transplant recipients undergoing routine endomyocardial biopsy with levels observed to be stable over time and generally measuring rejection. Unlike existing non-invasive methods used to define the proportion of donor cfDNA in solid organ transplant patients, our assay does not require sex mismatch, donor genotyping, or whole-genome sequencing and potentially has broad application to detect cellular engraftment or allograft injury after transplantation.

  10. Design directed self-assembly of donor-acceptor polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszalek, Tomasz; Li, Mengmeng; Pisula, Wojciech

    2016-09-21

    Donor-acceptor polymers with an alternating array of donor and acceptor moieties have gained particular attention during recent years as active components of organic electronics. By implementation of suitable subunits within the conjugated backbone, these polymers can be made either electron-deficient or -rich. Additionally, their band gap and light absorption can be precisely tuned for improved light-harvesting in solar cells. On the other hand, the polymer design can also be modified to encode the desired supramolecular self-assembly in the solid-state that is essential for an unhindered transport of charge carriers. This review focuses on three major factors playing a role in the assembly of donor-acceptor polymers on surfaces which are (1) nature, geometry and substitution position of solubilizing alkyl side chains, (2) shape of the conjugated polymer defined by the backbone curvature, and (3) molecular weight which determines the conjugation length of the polymer. These factors adjust the fine balance between attractive and repulsive forces and ensure a close polymer packing important for an efficient charge hopping between neighboring chains. On the microscopic scale, an appropriate domain formation with a low density of structural defects in the solution deposited thin film is crucial for the charge transport. The charge carrier transport through such thin films is characterized by field-effect transistors as basic electronic elements. PMID:27440174

  11. Donor Care in Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation has been increasing day by day. However, there has been still a huge discrepancy between the numbers of potential organ donor and patients candidate for transplant recipient. Therefore, it is most important to gain organ donor pool. A potential organ donor is defined by the presence of either brain death or a catastrophic injury to the brain. It is mandatory to retrieve organs that offer the greatest likelihood of successful outcomes for the recipients. This strategy nec...

  12. Bioethics of living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, See-Ching; 陳詩正.

    2013-01-01

    Bioethics has been central to living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which mandates a high recipient benefit and an acceptably low donor risk. The double equipoise imposes the contextual features of this already technically complex treatment. This research aimed at looking into key bioethical issues of LDLT in the light of the contemporary practice standards. In adult LDLT, in order to provide a partial graft of adequate size, donor right hepatectomy is often required. This procedure...

  13. Low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Mast, Alan E.

    2013-01-01

    Low hemoglobin deferral occurs in about 10% of attempted whole blood donations and commonly is a consequence of iron deficiency anemia. Pre-menopausal women often have iron deficiency anemia caused by menstruation and pregnancy and have low hemoglobin deferral on their first donation attempt. Frequent donors also develop iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia because blood donation removes a large amount of iron from the donor and the 56-day minimum inter-donation interval for donors in t...

  14. Global Aid Allocation: Are Nordic Donors Different?

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Scott; Hoeffler, Anke

    2004-01-01

    The Nordic development assistance programs have earned a reputation for commitment to human rights and democracy. Is the reputation deserved? We address this question by comparing how much aid donors give and to which recipient countries. Using a global panel data set, spanning the period 1980-99 and 91 recipient countries, we find that individual bilateral donors vary considerably from one another. Nordic aid distribution differs significantly from other bilateral aid donor patterns: Norway,...

  15. Pre-birth selection of umbilical cord blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuoli, Patrizia; Passeri, Simona; Ceccarelli, Francesca; Luchetti, Barbara; Paolicchi, Aldo; Lapi, Simone; Nocchi, Francesca; Lamanna, Roberta; Iorio, Mariacarla; Vanacore, Renato; Mazzoni, Alessandro; Scatena, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    Background . The fact that only a small percentage of cord blood units (CBU) stored are actually used for transplantation contributes to raising the already high costs of their processing and cryopreservation. The identification of predictors allowing the early identification of suitable CBU would allow a reduction of costs for the collection, storage and characterisation of CBU with insufficient volume or cell numbers. In our bank we have adopted a cut-off value for using CBU of 8 × 108 nucleated cells and a volume ≥ 60 mL. Materials and methods In 365 banked CBU, we evaluated the correlation between neonatal/gestational parameters and laboratory data used to assess their quality. Results Biparietal diameter (BPD) and abdominal circumference were significantly and positively correlated with CBU volume (r2=0.12, p=0.0011 and r2=0.092, p=0.0063, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that both parameters can be used to identify CBU with insufficient volume (BPD: area under the curve 0.69, 95% CI=0.57–0.82, p=0.004; abdominal circumference: area under the curve 0.67, 95% CI=0.54–0.79, p<0.01). BPD and head circumference, but not abdominal circumference or femoral length, were positively correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count (r2=0.215, p=0.031, and r2=0.299, p=0.015, respectively). Abdominal circumference, but not BPD, head circumference or femoral length, was statistically significantly correlated with the number of CD34+ cells in the CBU. Weight at birth and placental weight were positively correlated with WBC count, blood volume, CD34+ cell count, total colony-forming units and burst-forming units. Conclusion . Pre-birth assessment of BPD might allow the selection of donors who would yield CBU of sufficient volume and WBC count and avoid the costs of collecting, transferring, storing and analysing CBU with a high probability of resulting unsuitable for transplantation. PMID:20104277

  16. On Modeling Human Leukocyte Antigen-Identical Sibling Match Probability for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Estimating the Need for an Unrelated Donor Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Kelsey; Maiers, Martin; Confer, Dennis; Albrecht, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Prior studies of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) therapy for the treatment of malignant or nonmalignant blood disorders assume a 30% likelihood that a patient will find a match among siblings and, therefore, a 70% likelihood of needing an unrelated donor source. This study utilizes birth data and statistical modeling to assess the adequacy of these estimates to describe the probability among US population cohorts segmented by race/ethnicity and age, including ages of greatest HCT utilization. Considerable variation in the likelihood of an HLA-identical sibling was found, ranging from 13% to 51%, depending upon patient age and race/ethnicity. Low sibling match probability, compounded with increased genetic diversity and lower availability among unrelated donors, put the youngest minority patients at the greatest risk for not finding a suitable related or unrelated HCT donor. Furthermore, the present 40-year decline in birth rates is expected to lead to 1.5-fold decrease in access to a matched sibling for today's young adults (18 to 44 years of age) when they reach peak HCT utilization years (near age 61 years) versus their contemporary adult counterparts (44 to 64 years). Understanding the sibling match probability by race/ethnicity and age cohort leads to forecasting the demand for unrelated HCT sources. PMID:26403513

  17. 24 CFR 581.4 - Suitability determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reviewed for suitability. HUD will maintain a written public record of the following: (1) The suitability... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability determination. 581.4... (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  18. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless,LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving predictable recipient success. With this background, a reflection of the development of LDLT may be appropriate to direct future research and patient- care efforts on this life-saving treatment alternative.

  19. Living-donor liver transplantation: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobritto, Steven; Kato, Tomoaki; Emond, Jean

    2012-11-01

    The disparity between the number of available deceased liver donors and the number of patients awaiting transplantation continues to be an ongoing issue predisposing to death on the liver transplant waiting list. Deceased donor shortage strategies including the use of extended donor-criteria deceased donor grafts, split liver transplants, and organs harvested after cardiac death have fallen short of organ demand. Efforts to raise donor awareness are ongoing, but the course has been arduous to date. Living donor transplantation is a means to access an unlimited donor organ supply and offers potential advantages to deceased donation. Donor safety remains paramount demanding improvements and innovations in both the donor and recipient operations to ensure superior outcomes. The specialty operation is best preformed at centers with specific expertise and shuttling of select patients to these centers supported by third party payers is critical. Training future surgeons at centers with this specific experience can help disseminate this technology to improve local availability. Ongoing research in immunosuppression minimization, withdrawal and tolerance induction may make living donation a desired first-line operation rather than a necessary albeit less-desirable option. This chapter summarizes the progress of living liver donation and its potential applications. PMID:23397534

  20. [Kidney transplant from living donors in children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevri, Fabrizio; Dello Strologo, Luca; Guzzo, Isabella; Belingheri, Mirco; Ghio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    A living-donor kidney transplant offers a child at the terminal stages of renal disease better functional recovery and quality of life than an organ from a deceased donor. Before starting the procedure for a living-donor transplant, however, it is necessary to establish if it is really safe. There are diseases, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, atypical HUS and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with dense deposits, for which living donation is not recommended given the high incidence of recurrence of the disease but also the frequent loss of the graft. Regarding the selection of the donor, an increased risk of acute rejection has been reported for donors older than 60-65 years and a worsening of the renal outcome if the donor's weight is equal to or less than the recipient's. Finally, it is necessary to take into consideration that complications may arise in the donor both in the perioperative period and in the long term. In conclusion, kidney transplant from a living donor is a natural choice within the pediatric setting. The parents, usually young and highly motivated to donate, are the ideal donors. However, although the risks associated with donation are minimal, they are not totally absent, and consequently it is mandatory to follow standardized procedures according to the guidelines issued by the Centro Nazionale Trapianti. PMID:21341241

  1. [Living donor liver transplantation in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U P; Neuhaus, P; Schmeding, M

    2010-09-01

    The worldwide shortage of adequate donor organs implies that living donor liver transplantation represents a valuable alternative to cadaveric transplantation. In addition to the complex surgical procedure the correct identification of eligible donors and recipients plays a decisive role in living donor liver transplantation. Donor safety must be of ultimate priority and overrules all other aspects involved. In contrast to the slightly receding numbers in Europe and North America, in recent years Asian programs have enjoyed constantly increasing living donor activity. The experience of the past 15 years has clearly demonstrated that technical challenges of both bile duct anastomosis and venous outflow of the graft significantly influence postoperative outcome. While short-term in-hospital morbidity remains increased compared to cadaveric transplantation, long-term survival of both graft and patient are comparable or even better than in deceased donor transplantation. Especially for patients expecting long waiting times under the MELD allocation system, living donor liver transplantation offers an excellent therapeutic alternative. Expanding the so-called "Milan criteria" for HCC patients with the option for living donor liver transplantation is currently being controversially debated.

  2. Donor Centers in a Gaussian Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2007-01-01

    We study a neutral donor center (D0) and a negatively charged donor center (D-) trapped by a quantum dot, which is subjected to a Gaussian potential confinement. Calculations are made by using the method of numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. The dependence of the ground state of the neutral shallow donor and the negatively charged donor on the dot size and the potential depth is investigated. The same calculations performed with the parabolic approximation of the Gaussian potential lead to the results that are qualitatively and quantitatively different from each other.

  3. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenfield, Francoise

    1999-01-01

    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved.

  4. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region), for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90) are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  5. A Prospective Controlled Study of Living Kidney Donors: Three-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiske, Bertram L.; Anderson-Haag, Teresa; Israni, Ajay K.; Kalil, Roberto S.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kraus, Edward S.; Kumar, Rajiv; Posselt, Andrew A.; Pesavento, Todd E.; Rabb, Hamid; Steffes, Michael W.; Snyder, Jon J.; Weir, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There have been few prospective controlled studies of kidney donors. Understanding the pathophysiological effects of kidney donation is important for judging donor safety and for improving our understanding of the consequences of reduced kidney function in chronic kidney disease. Study Design Prospective, controlled, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants Three-year follow-up of kidney donors and paired controls suitable for donation at their donor’s center. Predictor Kidney donation. Outcomes Medical history, vital signs, glomerular filtration rate and other measurements at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after donation. Results At 36 months, 182 of 203 (89.7%) original donors and 173 of 201 (86.1%) original controls continue to participate in follow-up visits. The linear slope of the glomerular filtration rate measured by plasma iohexol clearance declined 0.36±7.55 mL/min per year in 194 controls, but increased 1.47±5.02 mL/min per year in 198 donors (P = 0.005) between 6 and 36 months. Blood pressure was not different between donors and controls at any visit, and at 36 months all 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure parameters were similar in 126 controls and 135 donors (mean systolic: 120.0±11.2 [SD] v. 120.7±9.7 mmHg [P=0.6]; mean diastolic: 73.4±7.0 v. 74.5±6.5 mmHg [P=0.2]). Mean arterial pressure nocturnal dipping was manifest in 11.2%±6.6% of controls and 11.3%±6.1% donors (P=0.9). Urinary protein-creatinine and albumin-creatinine ratios were not increased in donors compared to controls. From 6 to 36 months post-donation, serum parathyroid hormone, uric acid, homocysteine and potassium levels were higher, whereas hemoglobin was lower in donors compared to controls. Limitations Possible bias resulting from an inability to select controls screened to be as healthy as donors, short follow-up duration, and drop-outs. Conclusions Kidney donors manifest several of the findings of mild chronic kidney disease. However, at 36 months after

  6. Training techniques in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque, Jessica; Billeter, Adrian T; Lucich, Elizabeth; Marvin, Michael M; Sutton, Erica

    2015-10-01

    The learning curve to achieve competency in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is poorly outlined. Online databases were searched for training in LDN. Abstracts and manuscripts were excluded if they did not address introduction of a laparoscopic technique for donor nephrectomy. Relevant manuscripts were reviewed for surgical technique, use of animal models, co-surgeons, surgeon specialty and training, institution type/volume, and assessment of training method. Forty-four met inclusion criteria, with 75% describing the evolution from open to LDN. Eighty-two percent were from academic centers, and 36% were from centers performing LDN surgeon. This falls below the described learning curve for LDN. The assessment of training and competency for LDN is heterogeneous, and objective learner-based metrics could help surgeons and institutions reach a quality standard for performing this operation. PMID:26179472

  7. Comparison of deferral rates using a computerized versus written blood donor questionnaire: a randomized, cross-over study [ISRCTN84429599

    OpenAIRE

    Bourque Ronald; Haynes R Brian; Ali Anita; Swanson Graham; Hayward Robert; Sellors John W; Moore Karen-Ann; Lohfeld Lynne; Dalby Dawn; Howard Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-administered computer-assisted blood donor screening strategies may elicit more accurate responses and improve the screening process. Methods Randomized crossover trial comparing responses to questions on a computerized hand-held tool (HealthQuiz, or HQ), to responses on the standard written instrument (Donor Health Assessment Questionnaire, or DHAQ). Randomly selected donors at 133 blood donation clinics in the area of Hamilton, Canada participated from 1995 to 1996....

  8. Can the rat donor liver tolerate prolonged warm ischemia ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Qi Yan; Hong Wei Li; Wei Yao Cai; Ming Jun Zhang; Wei Ping Yang

    2000-01-01

    The last two decades of the twentieth century have witnessed increasingly successful rates of liver transplantation. The number of liver transplantations has increased steadily while the number of organ donors has remained relatively constant. Thus a great disparity has developed between the demand and supply of donor organs and remains a major limiting factor for further expansion of liver transplantation. Although many procedures, such as split liver[1] , living-related transplantation[2] , and xenotransplantation[3], have been attempted clinically to overcome the shortage, it is hoped that livers harvested from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) would alleviatethe problem of organ shortage, which again becomes the focus of attention[4-9]. However, sensitivity of the liver to warm ischemia remains a major worry for use of theNHBDs. The aim of this animal study was to assess if murine liver could tolerate prolonged period of warm ischemia and to determine the optimum timing of intervention in the cadaver donor in order to preserve liver viability.

  9. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    OpenAIRE

    Amudha Palanisamy; Paul Persad; Koty, Patrick P.; Douglas, Laurie L.; Stratta, Robert J.; Jeffrey Rogers; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Giuseppe Orlando; Farney, Alan C; Beaty, Michael W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Grier, David D; Scott A. Kaczmorski; Doares, William H.

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each pati...

  10. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    OpenAIRE

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kickstarter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions ...

  11. [Liver transplants from living donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, X; Danninger, F; Malagó, M; Knoefel, W T; Gundlach, M; Bassas, A; Burdelski, M; Broelsch, C E

    1996-03-01

    In this article the authors discuss the advantages of Living Related Liver Transplantation (LRLT), criteria for the selection of donors and the standard operation technique. Among a total of 241 liver transplantation (LTx), 42 LRLT were performed at the University of Hamburg between October 1, 1991 and December 19, 1994. The body weight of recipients for LRLT ranged from 4,6 to 39 kg, with 64,2% having less than 10 kg. The volume of the donor left lateral liver lobe ranged from 100 cc to 350 cc. The average one year survival rate among electively operated patients-status 3-4 (UNOS 1995 classification) was 86.7%, two year survival rate 83.3%. The main advantages of LRLT are consired the following: 1. Absence of mortality on the waiting list, 2. Optimal timing of the transplantation (elective procedure, patient in a good condition), 3. Excellent organ (no primary non function), 4. A possible immunologic advantage, 5. Relief of the waiting list for cadaveric organs, 6. Psychological benefit for the family, 7. Cost effectiveness. Potential candidates for living donation with more than one cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Social and psychological reasons leading to rejection of candidates were as follows: unstable family structure, expected professional or financial difficulties after living donation or withdrawal from consent. LRLT gives parents of a child with TLD a chance to avoid the risk of death on the waiting list or primary non function of the graft. LRLT has therefore established an important place in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:8768973

  12. Analysis of adverse events and predisposing factors in voluntary and replacement whole blood donors: A study from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Agnihotri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of awareness and community motivation, compounded with fragmented blood transfusion services in our country, Often leads to shortage of blood. Donor recruitment and retention are essential for ensuring adequate blood supply. However, adverse events (AEs in donors have a negative impact on donor return. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the frequency of AEs in whole blood donors and analyze the predisposing factors for AEs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on allogeneic whole blood donors over a period of 14 months, i.e., from January 2002 to February 2003. A total of 37,896 donors were monitored for any AEs: 22587 (59.6% were voluntary donors (VD and 15,309 (40.4% were replacement donors (RD. Results: Overall reaction rate was 2.5% with vasovagal reactions constituting 63.5% and hematomas 35.0% of all reactions. Vasovagal reactions showed a significant association with young age, lower weight, first time donation status, female gender, and nature of blood donation camps. Amongst male donors, RDs had more reactions (P=0.03 than VDs. Majority of donors (85% with vasovagal reactions admitted to some fear or anxiety prior to donation. Hematoma formation occurred significantly more when less trained staff performed phlebotomy. Conclusion: Donor safety is an essential prerequisite to increase voluntary blood donation. AE analysis helps in identifying the blood donors at risk of donor reactions and adopting appropriate donor motivational strategies, pre-donation counseling, and care during and after donation.

  13. Uncontrolled Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death Donors (uDCDDs) as a Source of Lungs for Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, T M; Requard, J J

    2015-08-01

    In April 2014, the American Journal of Transplantation published a report on the first lung transplant in the United States recovered from an uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death donor (uDCDD), assessed by ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP). The article identified logistical and ethical issues related to introduction of lung transplant from uDCDDs. In an open clinical trial, we have Food and Drug Administration and Institutional Review Board approval to transplant lungs recovered from uDCDDs judged suitable after EVLP. Through this project and other experiences with lung recovery from uDCDDs, we have identified solutions to many logistical challenges and have addressed ethical issues surrounding lung transplant from uDCDDs that were mentioned in this case report. Here, we discuss those challenges, including issues related to recovery of other solid organs from uDCDDs. Despite logistical challenges, uDCDDs could solve the critical shortage of lungs for transplant. Furthermore, by avoiding the deleterious impact of brain death and days of positive pressure ventilation, and by using opportunities to treat lungs in the decedent or during EVLP, lungs recovered from uDCDDs may ultimately prove to be better than lungs currently being transplanted from conventional brain-dead organ donors. PMID:25873272

  14. 无居民海岛开发适宜性评价指标体系的构建和在厦门海域的应用%Index system establishment for exploitation suitability assessment of uninhabited island and it's application in Xiamen sea area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志兰; 黄宁; 陈秋明; 廖连招; 陈克亮

    2012-01-01

    无居民海岛开发适宜程度取决于对其生态重要性与开发可行性的综合评价.本研究从表征生态重要性的物种、生境和自然历史文化遗迹,以及反映开发可行性的自然、资源和社会经济条件构建无居民海岛开发适宜性评价指标体系;采用专家咨询法和层次分析法确定指标权重,在评价指标量化与标准化处理的基础上,建立生态重要性-开发可行性互斥矩阵确定无居民海岛的开发适宜程度.对厦门海域的实际应用研究结果表明,其18个无居民海岛的开发适宜性总体偏低,中度适宜开发的海岛共有7个,低适宜开发的海岛有8个,不适宜开发的海岛有3个,评价结果与国家海洋局201 1年发布的可供开发利用无居民海岛名录中厦门海域部分基本吻合.作者建议对厦门海域中度适宜开发的无居民海岛可据其资源特征进行适度开发;对低适宜开发的无居民海岛应优先保护海岛生态,维护海岛自然属性;对不适宜开发的无居民海岛应重点加强海岛生态保护,必要时进行生境的重建和修复.%Exploitation suitability assessment is a basic work and precondition of reasonable development and utilization for uninhabited island. However, recent studies and practices of exploitation suitability assessment mostly focus on the land and coastal zone, and the comprehensive assessments of exploitation suitability based on the characteristic of uninhabited island are rarely reported. The exploitation suitability of uninhabited island depends on a comprehensive assessment of the importance of island ecosystem and exploitation feasibility. Therefore, an assessment index system of exploitation suitability for uninhabited island includes species, habitats and natural, history or cultural heritage in view of the ecosystem importance and environment, resources and socio-economic conditions, and the exploitation feasibility that established firstly in this

  15. 蓬莱酿酒葡萄产区土壤肥力特征及适宜性评价%Assessment on soil fertility characteristics and suitability of viticulture in Penglai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成士; 魏彦峰; 王福成; 胡文效; 杨阳; 尹向田

    2015-01-01

    Field samples from 23 vineyards were collected to analyze soil physical and chemical properties and its spatial variation at Penglai. Soil quality was evaluated from the aspects of soil nutrition chemical properties and texture, according to the relevant soil standard, apply to the weighted sum model and expert scoring method, established the wine-grape comprehensive classification standard of soil of Penglai region. The results showed that soil pH was slightly low in Penglai region, north of G206 was suitable, the middle and south were acid slightly; Soil organic matter was medium-low level, but the north was higher slightly than the middle and south; the content of alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, effective phosphorus, exchangeable magnesium were higher, rapidly-available potassium was medium, exchangeable calcium was higher suitable level in the north and middle, but the south is little low; A decline trend indicated from north to south, there were a lttle difference on upper and lower layers. Soil fertility level was given priority to with second and third grade in Penglai area, reached at medium-high suitable levels for wine-grape planting, but among every small area were different in soil characteristics and soil fertility levels. Average soil fertility level was second grade in north of G206, The area of south of S302 and between G206 and S302 belonged in third grade. Overall soil fertility level presented the tendency of higher in the north than the south, soil fertility variation degree (3.65) in north is less than in central (5.21) and south (4.10).%通过全面多点采样分析研究了蓬莱全市23个主要酿酒葡萄基地的土壤理化性质及其空间变异特征.从土壤营养化学指标和质地方面分析评价该基地的土壤质量.依据相关土壤标准,应用加权求和模型和专家打分法,建立了蓬莱产区酿酒葡萄土壤综合分级标准.结果表明,蓬莱产区土壤pH为稍偏酸水平,总体上G206以北为适宜水

  16. Effect of donor GFR on early renal function of recipients with living donor transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯敬财

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of donor GFR on the early renal function in recipients undergoing living donor transplantation. Methods A total of 172 living donor transplant recipients in our kidney transplantation center from 2006 to 2011 were enrolled into this study. Among them,166 were genetically related

  17. Donor profiles: demographic factors and their influence on the donor career

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.J.T.; Doggen, C.J.M.; Atsma, F.; Kort, de W.L.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives  Studying the contribution of demographic factors to the donor career provides important knowledge to be used for donor management. The aim of this study is to gain insight into donor characteristics, more specifically into the demographic profile of active vs. resigned don

  18. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warle, M.C.; Berkers, A.W.; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Dooper, P.M.M.; Kloke, H.J.; Pilzecker, D.; Renes, S.H.; Wever, K.E.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; D'Ancona, F.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been s

  19. Suitability of non-energy GHGs for emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is suitable for emissions trading are proposed. The suitability for emissions trading is assessed for: methane (CH4) from oil and gas production; CH4 from coal mines; CH4 from landfills; CH4 from wastewater treatment; CH4 from enteric fermentation; CH4 from livestock manure, nitrous oxide (N2O) from adipic acid production; N2O from fertilizer use; N2O from nitric acid production, carbon dioxide (CO2) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) from aluminum smelting; sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) from magnesium smelting and die casting; HFCs from HCFC production, other uses of SF6, PFCs and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); CO2 from ammonia production; lime and cement production, and iron ore reduction

  20. Renal Function Recovery in Donors and Recipients after Live Donor Nephrectomy: Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic vs. Open Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bum Soo; Yoo, Eun Sang; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwon, Tae Gyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is associated with less postoperative pain and faster recovery times in living kidney donors. However, pneumoperitoneum, which is required in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, can result in adverse effects on renal function in donors and recipients. We compared renal function in donors and recipients after hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) and open donor nephrectomy (ODN). Materials and Methods Between January 1997 and January 2008, 241 ...

  1. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: Recipient′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukaram E Jamale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson′s chi square test, Student′s t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027 was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335 and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275 was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014. Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002. LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  2. Pediatric deceased donor renal transplantation: An approach to decision making II. Acceptability of a deceased donor kidney for a child, a snap decision at 3 AM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; Gallo, Amy; Grimm, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Allocation of deceased donor kidneys is based on several criteria; however, the final decision to accept or reject the offered kidney is made by the potential recipient's transplant team (surgeon/nephrologist). Several considerations including assessment of the donor quality, the HLA match between the donor and the recipient, several recipient factors, the geographical location of the recipient, and the organ all affect the decision of whether or not to finally accept the organ for a particular recipient. This decision needs to be made quickly, often on the spot. Maximizing the benefit from this scarce resource raises difficult ethical issues. The philosophies of equity and utility are often competing. This article will discuss the several considerations for the pediatric nephrologist while accepting a deceased donor kidney for a particular pediatric patient. PMID:26426405

  3. 基于湖泊形态分析的旅游开发适宜性评价——以大梁子湖为例%SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT BASED ON LAKE MORPHOLOGY ANALYSIS——A CASE OF THE GREAT LIANGZI LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 李江风; 匡华

    2013-01-01

    在旅游开发建设压力下,湖泊生态环境面临巨大挑战.湖泊旅游开发适宜性评价鲜少从湖泊形态入手,而湖泊形态参数所揭示的湖泊水文特征会在一定程度上对旅游开发造成影响.以GIS技术为工具,选取大梁子湖分形几何维数和欧式几何形态指标(岸线发育系数、形状率、近圆率、紧凑度、空间包容面积)作为湖泊形态参数,通过Mapgis软件分析,获得大梁子湖湖泊形态分形维数为1.549,同时进一步计算出构成大梁子湖的6大湖泊的欧式几何形态指标,以此构建基于湖泊形态的旅游开发适宜性评价指标体系,建立湖泊形态和旅游开发适宜性关系模型,揭示湖泊水文特征与景观吸引力、生态脆弱程度、旅游环境安全性以及游客环境容量等旅游开发适宜性指标的内在联系,为湖泊旅游开发决策提供科学依据.%Ecological environment of lake, which is the basis of the development of lake tourism, has been threatened by urban sprawl. Under the pressure of tourism development and construction, lake ecological environment is facing enormous challenges. Suitability assessment of lake tourism development rarely starts from the lake morphology. Academic-related research on lake tourism development potential and suitability assessment is less. Usually the quality of lake resources,development conditions and the limiting factor are selected as suitability assessment indicators of tourism development,while lake morphology parameters are usually excluded. The lake hydrological characteristics that revealed by lake morphology parameters will impact on tourism development to some extent. In this study,GIS was applied as a tool,fractal geometry dimension and Euclidean geometry index (shoreline development index,form ratio,circularity ratio,compactness ratio,space inclusive area) were selected to build index system of suitability assessment and to reveal the correlation of the lake hydrology and

  4. The value of living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoli; Gong, Junhua; Gong, JianPing

    2012-12-31

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a very successful procedure that develops liver resources in case of worldwide shortages. As the technology has developed so much in the past 2 decades, LDLT has the same good prognosis as DDLT. However, LDLT still has lots of ethical & technical problems. It causes great psychiatric, physical and psychosocial harm to donors. Also, it has some negative effects on society by providing a platform for organ trade. Therefore, there is much controversy about the social value of LDLT. After review of recent papers, we find much progress can be made in inspiring the public to become organ donors and creating donation model new to improve the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors. That is the key strategy for increasing the liver supply. With this serious shortage of organs, liver donor transplantation still has its advantages, but we should not place all our hopes on LDLT to increase the liver supply. We all need to try our best to increase donor awareness and promote organ donor registration--when cadaver organs could meet the needs for liver transplantation, living donor liver transplants would not be necessary. PMID:23274332

  5. Normothermic machine perfusion for donor liver preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, H.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, liver transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure. Unfortunately, a sever shortage of donor organs causes significant mortality amongst patients awaiting transplantation. The donor organ shortage could be alleviated by using organs that are normally not accepted for

  6. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...

  7. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  8. Further investigations into the suitability of peanuts for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted during 2007 at multiple locations to continue investigations into the suitability and practicality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as a biodiesel feedstock. An evaluation was conducted at Dawson, GA, to assess 24 peanut cultivars for performance under low input growing ...

  9. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  10. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  11. Informed consent and decision-making about adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation: a systematic review of empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elisa J; Daud, Amna; Caicedo, Juan Carlos; Cameron, Kenzie A; Jay, Colleen; Fryer, Jonathan; Beauvais, Nicole; Skaro, Anton; Baker, Talia

    2011-12-27

    Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a complex procedure that poses serious health risks to and provides no direct health benefit for the donor. Because of this uneven risk-benefit ratio, ensuring donor autonomy through informed consent is critical. To assess the current knowledge pertaining to informed consent for LDLT, we conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on donors' decision-making process, comprehension about risks and outcomes, and information needs for LDLT. Of the 1423 identified articles, 24 met final review criteria, representing the perspective of approximately 2789 potential and actual donors. As donors' decisions to donate often occur before evaluation, they often make uninformed decisions. The review found that 88% to 95% of donors reported understanding information clinicians disclosed about risks and benefits. However, donors reported unmet information needs, knowledge gaps regarding risks, and unanticipated complications. Few donors reported feeling pressure to donate. Most studies were limited by cultural differences, small sample sizes, inconsistent measures, and poor methodological approaches. This systematic review suggests that informed consent for LDLT is sub-optimal as donors do not adequately appreciate disclosed information during the informed consent process, despite United Network for Organ Sharing/CMS regulations requiring formal psychological evaluation of donor candidates. Interventions are needed to improve donor-clinician communication during the LDLT informed consent process such as through the use of comprehension assessment tools and e-health educational tools that leverage adult learning theory to effectively convey LDLT outcome data. PMID:22143436

  12. Decision making around living and deceased donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study exploring the importance of expected relationship changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Ingrid B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data exist on the impact of living kidney donation on the donor-recipient relationship. Purpose of this study was to explore motivations to donate or accept a (living donor kidney, whether expected relationship changes influence decision making and whether relationship changes are actually experienced. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups in 47 of 114 invited individuals (41%, asking retrospectively about motivations and decision making around transplantation. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the focus group transcripts. Results Most deceased donor kidney recipients had a potential living donor available which they refused or did not want. They mostly waited for a deceased donor because of concern for the donor’s health (75%. They more often expected negative relationship changes than living donor kidney recipients (75% vs. 27%, p = 0.01 who also expected positive changes. Living donor kidney recipients mostly accepted the kidney to improve their own quality of life (47%. Donors mostly donated a kidney because transplantation would make the recipient less dependent (25%. After transplantation both positive and negative relationship changes are experienced. Conclusion Expected relationship changes and concerns about the donor’s health lead some kidney patients to wait for a deceased donor, despite having a potential living donor available. Further research is needed to assess whether this concerns a selected group.

  13. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Slot

    Full Text Available Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands.Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC, having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March through September 2013, risk factor questions were asked to all donors who volunteered to donate blood or blood components. Serum samples were collected from donors reporting one or more risk factors, and screened for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi by EIA.Risk factors for T. cruzi infection were reported by 1,426 of 227,278 donors (0.6%. Testing 1,333 at-risk donors, none (0.0%; 95%, CI 0.0-0.4% was seroreactive for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. A total of 472 donors were born in a CEC; 553 donors reported their mother being born in a CEC; and 1,121 donors reported a long-term stay in a CEC. The vast majority of reported risk factors were related to Suriname and Brazil. Overall, the participants resided for 7,694 years in CECs, which equals 2.8 million overnight stays. Of those, 1.9 million nights were spent in Suriname.Asymptomatic T. cruzi infection appears to be extremely rare among Dutch blood donors. Blood safety interventions to mitigate the risk of T. cruzi transmission by transfusion would be highly cost-ineffective in the Netherlands, and are thus not required.

  14. Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes among voluntary blood donors in a tertiary health care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Jawahar Ramasamy; Umadevi Komarla Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) questionnaire is a screening tool to estimate risk of type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to find the prevalence rate of diabetes and prediabetes among voluntary blood donors using FINDRISC score as screening tool in large population. Methods: A total of 210 eligible blood donors were included in this study. After obtaining the consent, subjects will be assessed with FINDRISC questionnaire. The patients with score and #8805;12 poin...

  15. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M; Molier, Michel; BART, Aldert; Hans L Zaaijer

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands. Methodology Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC), having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March thro...

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  18. Hand-assisted right laparoscopic nephrectomy in living donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Meyer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess results obtained with the authors' technique of right hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy in living kidney donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 16 kidney donors who underwent hand-assisted right laparoscopic nephrectomy from February 2001 to July 2004. Among these patients, 7 were male and 9 were female, with mean age ranging between 22 and 58 years (mean 35.75. RESULTS: Surgical time ranged from 55 to 210 minutes (mean 127.81 min and warm ischemia time from 2 to 6 minutes (mean 3.78 min with mean intra-operative blood loss estimated at 90.62 mL. There was no need for conversion in any case. Discharge from hospital occurred between the 3rd and 6th days (mean 3.81. On the graft assessment, immediate diuresis was seen in 15 cases (93.75% and serum creatinine on the 7th post-operative day was 1.60 mg/dL on average. Renal vein thrombosis occurred in 1 patient (6.25% who required graft removal, and lymphocele was seen in 1 recipient (6.25%. CONCLUSION: Hand-assisted right laparoscopic nephrectomy in living donors is a safe and effective alternative to open nephrectomy. Despite a greater technical difficulty, the procedure presented low postoperative morbidity providing good morphological and functional quality of the graft on the recipient.

  19. Hemochromatosis: the new blood donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) due to homozygosity for the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene is a common inherited iron overload disorder in whites of northern European descent. Hepcidin deficiency, the hallmark of the disorder, leads to dysregulated intestinal iron absorption and progressive iron deposition in the liver, heart, skin, endocrine glands, and joints. Survival is normal if organ damage is prevented by early institution of phlebotomy therapy. HH arthropathy is the symptom most affecting quality of life and can be debilitating. Genotype screening in large population studies has shown that the clinical penetrance of C282Y homozygosity is highly variable and can be very low, with up to 50% of women and 20% of men showing a silent phenotype. Targeted population screening for the HFE C282Y mutation is not recommended at present, but might be reconsidered as a cost-effective approach to management if counseling and care were better organized and standardized. Referral of patients to the blood center for phlebotomy therapy and use of HH donor blood for transfusion standardizes treatment, minimizes treatment costs, and may benefit society as a whole. Physician practices should be amended such that HH subjects are more frequently referred to the blood center for therapy.

  20. Associations between Deceased-Donor Urine Injury Biomarkers and Kidney Transplant Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Peter P; Hall, Isaac E; Weng, Francis L; Schröppel, Bernd; Doshi, Mona D; Hasz, Rick D; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Ficek, Joseph; Rao, Veena; Murray, Patrick; Lin, Haiqun; Parikh, Chirag R

    2016-05-01

    Assessment of deceased-donor organ quality is integral to transplant allocation practices, but tools to more precisely measure donor kidney injury and better predict outcomes are needed. In this study, we assessed associations between injury biomarkers in deceased-donor urine and the following outcomes: donor AKI (stage 2 or greater), recipient delayed graft function (defined as dialysis in first week post-transplant), and recipient 6-month eGFR. We measured urinary concentrations of microalbumin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), IL-18, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) from 1304 deceased donors at organ procurement, among whom 112 (9%) had AKI. Each biomarker strongly associated with AKI in adjusted analyses. Among 2441 kidney transplant recipients, 31% experienced delayed graft function, and mean±SD 6-month eGFR was 55.7±23.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) In analyses adjusted for donor and recipient characteristics, higher donor urinary NGAL concentrations associated with recipient delayed graft function (highest versus lowest NGAL tertile relative risk, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.43). Linear regression analyses of 6-month recipient renal function demonstrated that higher urinary NGAL and L-FABP concentrations associated with slightly lower 6-month eGFR only among recipients without delayed graft function. In summary, donor urine injury biomarkers strongly associate with donor AKI but provide limited value in predicting delayed graft function or early allograft function after transplant. PMID:26374609

  1. Knowledge and awareness about Iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors: a study at rural based tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R. Shah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary blood donation is promoted in order to make the blood banking safe and successful. Research in the area of blood donation has found that, iron stores are influenced by regular blood donation if dietary intake of iron is inadequate. Awareness and knowledge among blood donors regarding iron and B12 deficiency and its prevention is very much required. Objective: To assess the knowledge and awareness about iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the 500 voluntary blood donors during the span of 1 year at one of the blood bank of tertiary care hospital using prestructured questionnaire on the various aspect of iron and B12 deficiency/folate deficiency anemia. The data was analysed with the help of Microsoft excel and SPSS. Results: Out of 500 blood donors, 15.6% donors were regular blood donor. It was observed 60% blood donors were having knowledge of anemia in general. Iron deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency were known to 42% and 31.6% donors, respectively. Only 20% donors could able to answer the acceptable level of hemoglobin require for donating the blood. About 42% donors were aware about importance of iron, folate and vitamin B12 in maintaining normal hemoglobin level. Majority (82.7% of regular blood donors were willing to get information regarding iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Conclusion: Significant lack of awareness regarding iron and vitamin B12 deficiency was observed in regular voluntary blood donors. The present study recommends the provision of health education on iron and vitamin B12 deficiency as well as Iron, folate and vitamin B12 rich foods to regular blood donor to prevent anaemia among them. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 708-710

  2. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  3. Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Meena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

  4. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  5. Iron Status in Norwegian Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Røsvik, Anne Synnøve

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims: Blood banks in Norway struggle to close the gap between need and supply of blood. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the iron status in blood donors. The aims of this thesis were first to compare the iron status in new blood donors in 1993-97 and in 2005-06, to describe possible changes in iron status. To describe the effect of four consecutive blood donations without iron supplementation for newly recruited donors was the second aim. Th...

  6. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  7. Facies distribution, heterogeneity study and numerical 3D modeling of a multilayered Rhaetian-Lower Cretaceous aquifer succession in the Höllviken Halfgraben, SW Skåne, Sweden - assessment of suitability for storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlström, M.; Niemi, A.; Lindström, S.; Gunnarsson, N.; Daher, S. Bou

    2012-04-01

    Several variably thick sandstone beds are found within a 200-300 m thick Rhaetian-Lower Cretaceous succession in the Höllviken Halfgraben. Many of these are considered as potential aquifers for geothermal energy and possibly also for CO2 storage. One of the challenges in evaluating this potential lies within the task to assess the frequency and distribution patterns of the sandstone units in the multilayered succession. For this purpose biostratigraphic analyses, lithofacies investigations and numerical modeling have been conducted. The main part of the investigated succession along the margins of the Danish Basin, including the Höllviken Halfgraben reflects a highly dynamic coastline, which along with differential subsidence, and possible multiple sediment sources has resulted in a difficulty to correlate lithological units between boreholes. Four main lithofacies, of which one is fine-grained sandstone, are identified by use geophysical wire line logs and a few cored reference boreholes. The gradual transition between the identified lithofacies implies a genetic relation between the different facies, related to relative sea level fluctuation coupled with tectonic activity. This has, thus, yielded high degree of heterogeneity regarding distribution and frequency of the different facies. The four defined facies can be assigned to a tide dominated deltaic setting, which could further be divided into sub-environements based on proximity to the shoreline. There are only 2-3 sandstone units which have a regional distribution and that can be defined from a sequence stratigraphic analysis and correlated by use of the biostratigraphic results. The majority of beds have, however a local interfingering distribution pattern. A frequency study of the different facies in five wells indicate that the sandstone facies is more common adjacent to the bounding fault zones, thus indicating syndepositional surrounding highs generating eroded clastics entering the H

  8. Liver grafts for transplantation from donors with diabetes: an analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    Full Text Available Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus (DM have worse survival than those without DM after liver transplantation. However, the effect of liver grafts from DM donors on the post-transplantation survival of recipients is unclear. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database (2004-2008, 25,413 patients were assessed. Among them, 2,469 recipients received grafts from donors with DM. The demographics and outcome of patients were assessed. Patient survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression analyses. Recipients from DM donors experienced worse graft survival than recipients from non-DM donors (one-year survival: 81% versus 85%, and five-year survival: 67% versus 74%, P5 years (P<0.001 compared with those with DM duration <5 years. Cox regression analyses showed that DM donors were independently associated with worse graft survival (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.19. The effect of DM donors was more pronounced on certain underlying liver diseases of recipients. Increases in the risk of graft loss were noted among recipients from DM donors with hepatitis-C virus (HCV infection, whereas those without HCV experienced similar outcomes compared with recipients from non-DM donors. These data suggest that recipients from DM donors experience significantly worse patient survival after liver transplantation. However, in patients without HCV infection, using DM donors was not independently associated with worse post-transplantation graft survival. Matching these DM donors to recipients without HCV may be safe.

  9. CT examination of segmental liver transplants from living donors. Anatomy and pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lack of suitable pediatric donors and significantly better results than conventional transplantation have contributed to the steady increase in the number of segmental liver transplants from living donors throughout the world. This article describes the diagnostic impact of axial CT scans following transplantation in a retrospective evaluation of 18 CT examinations of 10 children with an average age of two years. Both spiral and conventional CT scans permit precise visualization of the postoperative anatomy of the upper abdomen that is more distinct than the images provided by ultrasonic scans. Thus, CT scans better facilitate detection of pathological findings. In 60% of the patients (67% of the examinations), the CT scan permitted a definite diagnosis; in the remaining cases, no morphological correlate to the clinical and laboratory findings was detected. In addition to traditional ultrasonic scanning, computed tomography represents a further noninvasive imaging technique for postoperative diagnostics following segmental liver transplants from living donors. (orig.)

  10. Blood donor notification and counseling: Our experience from a tertiary care hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvershi Kotwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the response rate of transfusion-transmissible infection (TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results for the year 2012. Materials and Methods: This study is an observational descriptive study performed in our department over a period of 1 year. We evaluated the response rate of TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results over 1 year as per the existing strategy (three telephonic and two postal communications. Results: During the study period, among the annual donation of 15,322 units, 464 blood donors were found to be seroreactive. Of these 464 seroreactive cases, 47 were HIV positive, 284 were reactive for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, 49 were Hepatitis C (HCV positive and 84 were VDRL reactive. The TTI-reactive donors (464 for various markers were contacted: 229 (49.4% telephonically and the remaining 235 (50.6% not contacted on phone were informed by post. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2% as only 225 donors reported (221 on the first, three on second and one on the third call for one to one counseling. The remaining four non-responders were - one HIV and three HBsAg reactive. The remaining 235 (50.6% reactive donors did not respond to any communication. Conclusion: Donor notification and post-donation counseling are an essential aspect of the blood bank that entails provision of information on serological status, assess the impact of test results on the donor and finally referral for medical care. As in our data only 49.4% of the blood donors could be contacted successfully, incomplete demographic details was the major limiting factor in communicating with rest. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2%. A large majority (94.75% of the notified donors in our study contacted their health care provider when given clear instructions to do so. These results are encouraging because they indicate that a major element of the

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... available when the video has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation ( ...

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell ...

  15. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE FOR LIVER DONOR PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lupaşcu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of the liver is one of the most traumatic operations yet deviced and there is a tendency for it to be offered as a possible life-saving therapy to some of the sickest patients that are submitted to surgery. The concept of vascularized liver graft resulted from the pioneering work of Moore (1959 and Starzl (1960. In the last twenty years, the concept of multiorgan donor has been accepted in most European countries and USA, and, where possible, all organs that can be used are transplanted from a given donor, provided permission is forthcoming. Procurement of the whole liver graft from a heart-beating, but brain-dead, donor remains the standard method of liver procurement and is usually carried out as part af a multiple organ retrieval that also includes the kidneys, pancreas and thoracic organs, and occasionally intestinal grafts are being recovered. The author describes the standard approach for donor hepatectomy.

  16. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  17. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  19. Living donor liver transplantation in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter T W; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) accounts for a small volume of the transplants in the USA. Due to the current liver allocation system based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), LDLT has a unique role in providing life-saving transplantation for patients with low MELD scores and significant complications from portal hypertension, as well as select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Donor safety is paramount and has been a topic of much discussion in the transplant community as well as the general media. The donor risk appears to be low overall, with a favorable long-term quality of life. The latest trend has been a gradual shift from right-lobe grafts to left-lobe grafts to reduce donor risk, provided that the left lobe can provide adequate liver volume for the recipient. PMID:27115007

  20. Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahida Vilsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ≤10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, χ2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood

  1. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  2. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

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    Markus Neteler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other

  3. Assurances of past donor anonymity are meaningless

    OpenAIRE

    Blyth, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The New Scientist recently recounted the story of an American teenager conceived through ostensibly anonymous donor insemination who had been able to identify his donor through DNA testing and an internet genetic database service (also see BioNews issue 333, at http://www.bionews.org.uk/new.lasso?storyid=2808). In fact, we have known since Barry Stevens' remarkable documentary, Offspring, released in 2001, that with some genetic background information, access to DNA testing and the intern...

  4. Donor Transmission of Melanoma Following Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn T. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  5. Donor transmission of melanoma following renal transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kathryn T; Olszanski, Anthony; Farma, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  6. Fragile African States: What Should Donors Do?

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    1. IntroductionNecessarily, all donors will focus increasingly on fragile states. The more successful countries in Africa have achieved growing tax bases and are consequently now gaining access to global capital markets. For such countries, aid is becoming marginal. In contrast, fragile states, by the nature of their condition, have small tax bases and face risks which deter private capital: for them aid remains potentially important. Not only do donors provide a substantial proportion of gov...

  7. Rare blood donors with irregular antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krga-Milanović Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.

  8. TT virus and hepatitis G virus infections in Korean blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mee Juhng Jeon; Jong Hee Shin; Soon Pal Suh; Yong Chai Lim; Dong Wook Ryang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalences of TTV and HGV infections among blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease in Korea, to investigate the association of TTV and HGV infections with blood transfusion, and to assess the correlation between TTV and HGV viremia and hepatic damage.METHODS: A total of 391 serum samples were examined in this study. Samples were obtained from healthy blood donors (n= 110), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive donors (n=112), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive donors (n=69), patients with type B chronic liver disease (n=81), and patients with type C chronic liver disease (n= 19).TTV DNA was detected using the hemi-nested PCR. HGV RNA was tested using RT-PCR. A history of blood transfusion and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also determined.RESULTS: TTV DNA was detected in 8.2 % of healthy blood donors, 16.1% of HBsAg-positive donors, 20.3 % of antiHCV-positive donors, 21.0 % of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 21.1% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. HGV RNA was detected in 1.8 % of healthy blood donors, 1.8 % of HBsAg-positive donors, 17.4 % of anti-HCV-positive donors, 13.6% of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 10.5% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. The prevalence of TTV and HGV infections in HBV- or HCV-positive donors and patients was significantly higher than in healthy blood donors (P<0.05),except for the detection rate of HGV in HBsAg-positive donors which was the same as for healthy donors. There was a history of transfusion in 66.7% of TTV DNA-positive patients and 76.9% of HGV RNA-positive patients (P<0.05). No significant increase in serum ALT and AST was detected in the TTV- or HGV-positive donors and patients.CONCLUSION: TTV and HGV infections are more frequently found in donors and patients infected with HBV or HCV than in healthy blood donors. However, there is no significant

  9. Recent advance in living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikura, Yasuhiko; Kawasaki, Seiji; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Terada, Masaru; Ikegami, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Yuichi; Urata, Koichi; Chisuwa, Hisanao; Ogino, Shiro; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2002-02-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT)has been performed in more than 2000 cases around the world. This procedure is considered to have certain advantages over cadaveric liver transplantation, because detailed preoperative evaluation of the donor liver is possible and superior graft quality is available. The indication has recently been widened to include adult patients. The results of LDLT have been reported to be very good. In this article,several considerations on LDLT,including living donor selection and application to adult patients, are discussed. Between June 1990 and March 2001, 143 patients underwent LDLT at Shinshu University Hospital. During this period, 160 patients were determined to be candidates for liver transplantation in our institution, and 185 candidates were evaluated as potential donors for these patients. Thirty-eight of 185 donor candidates were excluded for reasons including liver dysfunction and withdrawal of consent. The recipients included 60 adults, 50 (83%) of whom are currently alive. Taking into account the worldwide shortage of cadaveric organ donation,the importance of LDLT will probably never diminish. This procedure should be established on the basis of profound consideration of donor safety as well as accumulated expertise of hepatobiliary surgery. PMID:11865355

  10. Living donor transplant: wider selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Valeri, M; Torlone, N; Vega, A; Tullio, T; Condò, S; Dominijanni, S; Casciani, C U

    2004-04-01

    The availability of cadaveric donor organs is insufficient for actual needs. The organ demand increases by 20% per year. Living donor transplant (LDT) may be a valid therapeutical alternative provided one uses proper criteria. LDT provides many advantages, like improved patient and organ survival, short waiting time, and the possibility to carefully plan the procedure. Potential risks include perioperative mortality and renal dysfunction in the kidney donor. At present, kidney LDTs in Italy represent 8% of the total, with an organ survival rate of 97% after 1 year (vs 93% for cadaveric transplants) and donors mortality rate of almost null. Most LDTs are performed from kinsmen. Presently, law no. 458, 26 June 1967, is in force in Italy for kidney LDT and law no. 453, 16 December 1999, for liver LDT. The foundations of LDT are, of course, the recipient's condition, the donor's motivation, and the altruism of the donation. It is desirable that in the future an increasing number of LDT be performed, supported by a careful, widespread health education regarding organ donation from living subjects and by the possibility to obtain insurance for the donor, which has been considered but never provided by actual laws. PMID:15110560

  11. Systemic Heparinisation in Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy

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    Charlotte Crotty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Systemic heparinisation is advocated during laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN as a preventative measure against renal vascular thrombosis during the warm ischaemic interval. This study compares the outcome with and without the administration of systemic heparinisation. Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on 186 consecutive LDN patients between April 2008 and November 2012. Systemic heparin (2000–3000 IU was administered intravenously to donors (hep n=109. From January 2010, heparin was not used systemically in this group of LDN (no hep n=77. Outcome measures included donor and recipient complications, initial graft function, and 12 month graft survival. Results. The demographics of both heparinised and non-heparinised donors were similar. The warm ischaemic time (WIT was comparable in both groups (WIT; hep 5±3 versus no hep 5±3 minutes; P=1.000. There was no difference in complication rates, no episodes of graft thrombosis, and no incidences of primary nonfunction in either group. Delayed graft function occurred in 4/109 and 1/77 (3.6% versus 1.2%; P=0.405 and there was no significant difference in graft survival (P=0.650. Conclusion. Omitting systemic heparinisation during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a feasible and safe approach that does not compromise donor or recipient outcome.

  12. Effects of nephrectomy on respiratory function and quality of life of living donors: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Karen; Paisani, Denise M.; Pacheco, Nathália C. T.; Chiavegato, Luciana D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A living donor transplant improves the survival and quality of life of a transplant patient. However, the impact of transplantation on postoperative lung function and respiratory muscular strength in kidney donors remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, quality of life and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. METHOD: This prospective cohort enrolled 110 consecutive kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. Subjects underwent pulmonary function (using spirometry) and respiratory muscular strength (using manovacuometry) assessments on the day prior to surgery and 1, 2, 3 and 5 days postoperatively. Quality of life (measured by the SF-36) was evaluated preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively. PPCs were assessed daily by a blinded assessor. RESULTS: Donors exhibited a decrease of 27% in forced vital capacity, 58% in maximum inspiratory capacity and 51% in maximum expiratory pressure on the 1stpostoperative day (p<0.001) but this improved over days 2, 3 and 5 but had not returned to preoperative levels. Patient quality of life was still impaired at 30 days with regards to functional capacity, physical role, pain, vitality and social functioning (p<0.05) but these parameters improved slowly. None of the patients developed PPCs. CONCLUSION: Kidney donors submitted to nephrectomy exhibited a reduction in pulmonary function, respiratory muscular strength and quality of life, most of which were improving toward pre-surgical levels. PMID:26443973

  13. Dechlorinating ability of TCE-fed microcosms with different electron donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the work presented herein is to assess the effect of different electron donors (butyric acid and methanol) on the dechlorinating activity of two microbial cultures where active methanogenic populations are present, in an effort to evaluate the importance of the electron donor selection process. The ability of each anaerobic culture to dechlorinate TCE, when enriched with either butyric acid or methanol, was verified based on the results of gas chromatography. In addition, the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods gave positive results for the presence of Dehalococcoides spp. According to results of the batch tests conducted in this study, it appears that the selection of the electron donor for stimulating TCE dechlorination depends on microbial culture composition; therefore, the decision on the appropriate electron donor should be based on site-specific microcosm studies

  14. Seroprevalence of HIV and hepatitis C co-infection among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Surendra; Ghimire, Prakash; Tiwari, Bishnu Raj; Shrestha, Ashish Chandra; Gautam, Avhishekh; Rajkarnikar, Manita

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in different categories of blood donors and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection rate. A total of 33,255 blood samples were screened for HIV using a third generation ELISA test at the Central Blood Transfusion Service, Nepal Red Cross Society, Kathmandu from December 2006 to September 2007. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.19% (95% CI= 0.15-0.25) and co-infection with HCV was found in 10.8% (95% CI= 4.4-20.9). There were no significant differences in HIV seroprevalence among the different categories of age, sex, type of donation and time of donation. The study revealed a relatively lower seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley than reported earlier but a higher HCV co-infection rate. The similar seroprevalence between first time and repeat donors suggests the need for more improved donor education and counselling. PMID:19323036

  15. Risk of cancer after blood transfusion from donors with subclinical cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Reilly, Marie;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although mechanisms for detection of short-term complications after blood transfusions are well developed, complications with delayed onset, notably transmission of chronic diseases such as cancer, have been difficult to assess. Our aim was to investigate the possible risk of cancer...... transmission from blood donors to recipients through blood transfusion. METHODS: We did a register-based retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence among patients who received blood from donors deemed to have a subclinical cancer at the time of donation. These precancerous donors were diagnosed......, and essentially complete, population and health-care registers. The risk of cancer in exposed recipients relative to that in recipients who received blood from non-cancerous donors was estimated with multivariate Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. FINDINGS: Of the 354 094 transfusion...

  16. Human tooth bank: sociocultural profile of a group of donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Moreira Poletto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey the sociocultural profile of a specific group of individuals who donated teeth to the Human Tooth Bank of Positivo University, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Methods: The research consisted of a questionnaire containing the following information about: Patient’s age, sex, occupation, education, reason for tooth loss and intention to replace the missing tooth by means of prosthesis or implant. The questionnaire was filled out by 50 patients after having the extraction procedure performed and donating the dental organ. The data were compiled and analyzed by means of descriptive and multivariate statistics. Results: The sociocultural profile of the donor was basically composed of individuals in the age group between 30 and 50 years, with educational level ranging from zero to nine or more years of formal schooling. Caries disease was the most frequent reason for tooth loss (36%, followed by periodontal disease (34%. Of the donors analyzed, more than half did not intend to replace the tooth. Furthermore, according to the multivariate analysis, the most relevant factors for assessing the profile of donors were the variables age, orthodontic indication, caries and periodontal disease. Conclusion: This information was shown to be relevant for structuring the oral health care services, as well as in the strategy for obtaining teeth from the Public Health Units.

  17. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field. PMID:21649566

  18. HFE gene mutations and iron status of Brazilian blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.J.L. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the HFE and TFR2 genes have been associated with iron overload. HFE and TFR2 mutations were assessed in blood donors, and the relationship with iron status was evaluated. Subjects (N = 542 were recruited at the Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Iron status was not influenced by HFE mutations in women and was independent of blood donation frequency. In contrast, men carrying the HFE 282CY genotype had lower total iron-binding capacity (TIBC than HFE 282CC genotype carriers. Men who donated blood for the first time and were carriers of the HFE 282CY genotype had higher transferrin saturation values and lower TIBC concentrations than those with the homozygous wild genotype for the HFE C282Y mutation. Moreover, in this group of blood donors, carriers of HFE 63DD plus 63HD genotypes had higher serum ferritin values than those with the homozygous wild genotype for HFE H63D mutation. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HFE 282CY leads to a 17.21% increase (P = 0.018 and a 83.65% decrease (P = 0.007 in transferrin saturation and TIBC, respectively. In addition, serum ferritin is influenced by age (3.91%, P = 0.001 and the HFE 63HD plus DD genotype (55.84%, P = 0.021. In conclusion, the HFE 282Y and 65C alleles were rare, while the HFE 63D allele was frequent in Brazilian blood donors. The HFE C282Y and H63D mutations were associated with alterations in iron status in blood donors in a gender-dependent manner.

  19. Early experiences on living donor liver transplantation in China: multicenter report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-hao; SUN Bei-cheng; GE Wen-gang; YAN Lü-nan; ZHANG Feng; LI Xiang-cheng; ZHU Ji-ye; PENG Zhi-hai; LIU Jin-hui; LI Guo-qiang; CHENG Feng

    2006-01-01

    Background Because of the lack of brain death laws in China, the proportion of cadaveric organ donation is low. Many patients with end-stage liver disease die waiting for a suitable donor. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) would reduce the current discrepancy between the number of patients on the transplant waiting list and the number of available organ donors. We describe the early experience of LDLT in the mainland of China based on data from five liver transplant centers.Methods Between January 2001 and October 2003, 45 patients with end-stage liver disease received LDLT at five centers in China. The indication and timing, surgical techniques and complications, nonsurgical issues including rejection, infection, and advantages of LDLT in the series were reviewed. Actuarial patient and graft survival rates were calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimate. Statistical analysis was completed by using SPSS 10.0.Results All LDLT recipients were cirrhotic patients, except for one man with fulminant hepatic failure. Among the 45 cases of LDLT, 35 (77.8%) were performed in one center (the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University). The overall 1 and 3 year survival rate of the recipients was 93.1% and 92.0%, respectively. Of the 45 LDLT donors, there were 3 cases of biliary leakage, 2 subphrenic collections, 1 fat liquefaction around the incision and 1 biliary peritonitis after T tube removal. All donors recovered completely.Conclusions LDLT provides an excellent approach to addressing the problem of donor shortage in China even though the operation is complicated, uncompromising and difficult with respect to the safety of the donors and receptors. Despite early technical hurdles having been overcome, perfection of technique is still necessarily. At present, LDLT is a good choice for the patients with irreversible liver disease.

  20. Is it right to promote living donor liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure in pediatric recipients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Raymond

    2005-07-01

    Good clinical results are currently achieved in elective pediatric liver transplantation (LT) with living-related donors. However, the question whether such therapeutic approach may also be promoted in case of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) remains a matter of debate. This work briefly reviews the ethical background and overall medical results of living-related donation in pediatric LT. When considering FHF, success is essentially conditioned by the availability of a suitable organ donor before the onset of irreversible brain damage and death of the transplant candidate on the waiting list. Accordingly, living donor LT provides several advantages for patients with FHF, including the short waiting time and the access to a transplant with reduced ischemic injury and optimal graft quality; however, living donation is also characterized by several drawbacks to be carefully considered, particularly the possibility of coercion to the recipient's family as well as the operative risks of the emergency donor hepatectomy. The ethical soundness of living parental donor LT for FHF is discussed, with emphasis to the type of medical context, with or without access to an efficient emergency postmortem organ sharing system. PMID:15943615

  1. Multidetector CT in the evaluation of potential living donors for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Torres, Ana; Fernández-Cuadrado, Jaime; Pinilla, Inmaculada; Parrón, Manuel; de Vicente, Emilio; López-Santamaría, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation is increasingly being used to help compensate for the increasing shortage of cadaveric liver grafts. However, the extreme variability of the hepatic vascular systems can impede this surgical procedure. Evaluation of potential living donors was conducted in which a two-detector-row computed tomographic (CT) scanner was used to obtain arterial phase and portal dominant phase images following the intravenous injection of contrast material, after which three-dimensional maximum-intensity-projection and volume-rendered images were created. The vascular anatomy was evaluated, with special attention given to the origin and course of the artery to segment IV and the presence of variants, especially those considered relative or absolute contraindications for donation, those requiring reconstruction, or those potentially altering the surgical approach. In addition, graft and remnant liver volumes were determined and the liver parenchyma evaluated. Multidetector CT is proving to be valuable in the evaluation of potential living liver donors, contributing to donor safety and providing comprehensive information about the hepatic vascular anatomy, the liver parenchyma, and graft and remnant liver volume. This information is critical in choosing the most suitable potential donor, in surgical planning, and in obtaining an optimal graft that maintains the balance between blood supply and venous drainage. PMID:16009821

  2. Report of the clinical donor case workshop of the European Association of Tissue Banks annual meeting 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beele, Hilde; van Wijk, Marja J; Parker, Robert; Sánchez-Ibáňez, Jacinto; Brubaker, Scott A; Wulff, Birgit; Richters, Cornelia D; Cox, Mike; Warwick, Ruth M; Eastlund, Ted

    2013-12-01

    The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) donor case workshop is a forum held within the program of the EATB annual congress. The workshop offers an opportunity to discuss and evaluate approaches taken to challenging situations regarding donor selection, it promotes consensus development in deciding tissue donor acceptability when donor health issues are not addressed in standards and regulations, and serves to strengthen the professional tissue banking networks across Europe and beyond. This report reflects some of the discussion at the workshop during the annual congress in Vienna in 2012. The cases presented dealt with problems encountered by tissue bank facilities concerning idiopathic thrombocytopenia and auto-immune disorders, hemodilution and blood sample identification, premalignant and malignant lesions, and Huntington's disease. The discussions during the workshop demonstrate that the implications on the safety of tissue transplantation of various tissue donor illnesses, physical findings and behaviours, and the preventive measures taken by tissue facilities, may not always be agreed by tissue facility medical directors and other professionals. Moreover, they reveal that operating procedures, regulations and standards cannot comprehensively cover all tissue donor findings, medical histories and circumstances surrounding the cause of death. For many of the issues raised, there is a need for scientific research to provide a better evidence base for future deliberations about the suitability and eligibility of tissue allograft donors.

  3. PREEXISTING PATHOLOGY IN ZERO BIOPSIES DONOR KIDNEYS AND IN ONE-HOUR BIOPSIES OF KIDNEY ALLOGRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper we present thedetailed analisys of data available in the literature concerning the «zero» byopsies of donor kidneys and «hour» byopsies of kidney allografts. With attention we take a look on a previous existed pathology of cadaver kidneys discovered through byopsies. We trying to define the role of preexisting pathology in the following results of transplantation. Moreover we describe the histologic criteria of suitability of cadaver kidneys for transplantation 

  4. PREEXISTING PATHOLOGY IN ZERO BIOPSIES DONOR KIDNEYS AND IN ONE-HOUR BIOPSIES OF KIDNEY ALLOGRAFTS

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Arefjev; M. G. Minina; I. M. Iljinsky

    2011-01-01

    In the following paper we present thedetailed analisys of data available in the literature concerning the «zero» byopsies of donor kidneys and «hour» byopsies of kidney allografts. With attention we take a look on a previous existed pathology of cadaver kidneys discovered through byopsies. We trying to define the role of preexisting pathology in the following results of transplantation. Moreover we describe the histologic criteria of suitability of cadaver kidneys for transplantation 

  5. Assessing Excel VBA Suitability for Monte Carlo Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Botchkarev, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation includes a wide range of stochastic techniques used to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of complex systems or processes. Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) software is, arguably, the most commonly employed general purpose tool for MC simulation. Despite the popularity of the Excel in many industries and educational institutions, it has been repeatedly criticized for its flaws and often described as questionable, if not complet...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF SUITABILITY OF RADIONAVIGATION DEVICES USED IN AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk JAFERNIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article characterises/describes the radionavigation devices recommended for and used in contemporary aviation taking into account the requirements of the legal regulations concerning CNS/ATM systems as determined by international aviation organisations. The latest achievements in the field of satelite techniques connected with the development in electronic and information engineering as well as in the area of computing machines have resulted in the higher precision of determining the parameters of technical devices, therefore the article focuses especially on the issues of the application of satelite navigation for aviation and the possibility of its improvement.

  7. AppTitude©: a tool for forest suitability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Rodrígues, Fernando; Azevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    Forests provide different services and products in processes involving diverse groups of stakeholders with particular perceptions and perspectives. The relationship between forest uses and stakeholders can be more or less compatible, which affects forest management decisions. Part of the solution for potential conflicts among forest uses and stakeholders relies on the definition of the best locations for different uses: it depends on gathering and processing information and ...

  8. Site Suitability and Hazard Assessment Guide for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2013-10-01

    Commercial nuclear reactor projects in the U.S. have traditionally employed large light water reactors (LWR) to generate regional supplies of electricity. Although large LWRs have consistently dominated commercial nuclear markets both domestically and abroad, the concept of small modular reactors (SMRs) capable of producing between 30 MW(t) and 900 MW(t) to generating steam for electricity is not new. Nor is the idea of locating small nuclear reactors in close proximity to and in physical connection with industrial processes to provide a long-term source of thermal energy. Growing problems associated continued use of fossil fuels and enhancements in efficiency and safety because of recent advancements in reactor technology suggest that the likelihood of near-term SMR technology(s) deployment at multiple locations within the United States is growing. Many different types of SMR technology are viable for siting in the domestic commercial energy market. However, the potential application of a particular proprietary SMR design will vary according to the target heat end-use application and the site upon which it is proposed to be located. Reactor heat applications most commonly referenced in connection with the SMR market include electric power production, district heating, desalinization, and the supply of thermal energy to various processes that require high temperature over long time periods, or a combination thereof. Indeed, the modular construction, reliability and long operational life purported to be associated with some SMR concepts now being discussed may offer flexibility and benefits no other technology can offer. Effective siting is one of the many early challenges that face a proposed SMR installation project. Site-specific factors dealing with support to facility construction and operation, risks to the plant and the surrounding area, and the consequences subsequent to those risks must be fully identified, analyzed, and possibly mitigated before a license will be granted to construct and operate a nuclear facility. Examples of significant site-related concerns include area geotechnical and geological hazard properties, local climatology and meteorology, water resource availability, the vulnerability of surrounding populations and the environmental to adverse effects in the unlikely event of radionuclide release, the socioeconomic impacts of SMR plant installation and the effects it has on aesthetics, proximity to energy use customers, the topography and area infrastructure that affect plant constructability and security, and concerns related to the transport, installation, operation and decommissioning of major plant components.

  9. Assessing groundwater stoichiometric composition and its suitability in Northwestern Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jahidul Islam; Abdul Hakim; Mohamed Musa Hanafi; Abdul Shukor Juraimi; Ratna Rani Sarkar; AKM Mosharof Hossain; Indira Chowdhury; Jafor Ali; Abul Kashem

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality analyses included pH, EC, cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe3+ and As3+), anions (CO32-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43- and Cl-) and TDS of northwestern Bangladesh. The samples contained Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ as the dominant cations and HCO3- and Cl- were the dominant anions. Ratios of major cations and anions of water samples suggest the predominance of Ca and Mg-containing minerals over Na-containing minerals. According to TDS and SAR values, all samples were cla...

  10. The Application of BP Networks to Land Suitability Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The back propagation (BP) model of artificial neural networks (ANN) has many good qualities comparing with ordinary methods in land suitability evaluation.Through analyzing ordinary methods' limitations,some sticking points of BP model used in land evaluation,such as network structure,learning algorithm,etc.,are discussed in detail,The land evaluation of Qionghai city is used as a case study.Fuzzy comprehensive assessment method was also employed in this evaluation for validating and comparing.

  11. Critical realism: a suitable vehicle for entrepreneurship research?

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an outline of the origins and principal features of critical realist social theory, followed by a focused review of the methodological implications of this philosophical perspective. The primary purpose of the chapter is to consider why critical realism might offer a suitable ‘vehicle’ for qualitative research in the field of entrepreneurship, and to assess its explanatory potential with reference to recent empirical studies informed by a realist perspective. The conclud...

  12. Comparison of mesenchymal stromal cells from young healthy donors and patients with severe chronic coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tina; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Hansen, Susanne Kofoed;

    2011-01-01

    It has been questioned whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from patients with ischemic heart disease are suitable for use in regenerative stem cell therapy. We compared MSCs from patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and MSCs from young healthy donors...

  13. Comparison of mesenchymal stromal cells from young healthy donors and patients with severe chronic coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tina; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Hansen, Susanne Kofoed;

    2011-01-01

    It has been questioned whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from patients with ischemic heart disease are suitable for use in regenerative stem cell therapy. We compared MSCs from patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and MSCs from young healthy donors with r...

  14. Effect of Blood Donor Characteristics on Transfusion Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassé, Michaël; McIntyre, Lauralyn; English, Shane W; Tinmouth, Alan; Knoll, Greg; Wolfe, Dianna; Wilson, Kumanan; Shehata, Nadine; Forster, Alan; van Walraven, Carl; Fergusson, Dean A

    2016-04-01

    Optimal selection of blood donors is critical for ensuring the safety of blood products. The current selection process is concerned principally with the safety of the blood donor at the time of donation and of the recipient at the time of transfusion. Recent evidence suggests that the characteristics of the donor may affect short- and long-term transfusion outcomes for the transfused recipient. We conducted a systematic review with the primary objective of assessing the association between blood donor characteristics and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central databases and performed manual searches of top transfusion journals for all available prospective and retrospective studies. We described study characteristics, methodological quality, and risk of bias and provided study-level effect estimates and, when appropriate, pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals using the Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance approach. The overall quality of the evidence was graded using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. From 6121 citations identified by our literature search, 59 studies met our eligibility criteria (50 observational, 9 interventional). We identified the evaluation of association of 17 donor characteristics on RBC transfusion outcome. The risk of bias and confounding of the included studies was high. The quality of evidence was graded as very low to low for all 17 donor characteristics. Potential associations were observed for donor sex with reduced survival at 90 days and 6 months in male recipients that receive donated blood from females (hazard ratio 2.60 [1.09, 6.20] and hazard ratio 2.40 [1.10, 5.24], respectively; n = 1), Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related (HLA-DR) selected transfusions (odds ratio [OR] 0.39 [0.15, 0.99] for the risk of transplant alloimmunization, n = 9), presence of antileukocyte antibodies (OR 5.84 [1.66, 20.59] for risk

  15. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonwane B

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  16. Evaluation of the medically complex living kidney donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Yasar; Yildiz, Alaattin

    2012-01-01

    Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of "Medically complex living donors" are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term "Complex living donor" is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor. PMID:22655169

  17. Donor-transmitted, donor-derived, and de novo cancer after liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Lynch, Stephen V

    2014-03-01

    Cancer is the third most common cause of death (after cardiovascular disease and infection) for patients who have a functioning kidney allograft. Kidney and liver transplant recipients have similar cancer risks because of immunosuppression but different risks because of differences in primary diseases that cause renal and hepatic failure and the inherent behavior of cancers in the liver. There are 4 types of cancer that may develop in liver allograft recipients: (1) recurrent cancer, (2) donor-transmitted cancer, (3) donor-derived cancer, and (4) de novo cancer. Identification of potential donor cancer transmission may occur at postmortem examination of a deceased donor or when a probable donor-transmitted cancer is identified in another recipient. Donor-transmitted cancer after liver transplant is rare in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Aging of the donor pool may increase the risk of subclinical cancer in donors. Liver transplant recipients have a greater risk of de novo cancer than the general population, and risk factors for de novo cancer in liver transplant recipients include primary sclerosing cholangitis, alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and increased age. Liver transplant recipients may benefit from cancer screening because they have a high risk, are clearly identifiable, and are under continuous medical supervision.

  18. Fear, fascination and the sperm donor as 'abjection' in interviews with heterosexual recipients of donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jennifer

    2009-07-01

    The background to this article is the medical regulation of sperm donation in the UK and the recent policy change so that children born from sperm, eggs or embryos donated after April 2005 have the right to know their donor's identity. I draw upon data from interviews with ten women and seven joint interviews with couples who received donor insemination from an anonymous sperm donor and were the parents of donor insemination children. I explore the symbolic presence of the donor and his potential to disrupt social and physical boundaries using the theoretical conceptions of boundaries and pollution as articulated by Mary Douglas and Julia Kristeva. I present data to argue that the anonymous donor manifests in various figures; the shadowy and ambiguous figure of 'another man'; the intelligent medical student; the donor as a family man, with children of his own who wants to help infertile men father children. In addition participants perceive the donor's physical characteristics, but also see their husband's physical characteristics, in their children. In conclusion I argue that anonymisation preserves features of conventional family life, maintains the idea of exclusivity within the heterosexual relationship and affirms the legal father's insecurity about his infertility.

  19. Are live kidney donors at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To share experience of live donor nephrectomy (including intraoperative variables, morbidity and ethical aspects) and to give an overview of surgical technique being practiced. Results: Majority of the donors (58.5%) were 31-50 years old and 70.6% were first-degree relatives. Left sided kidney was taken in 96.5% cases. Mean operative time was 145 minutes. Mean renal warm ischemia time from cross clamping of renal vessels to cold perfusion on the bench was 1.5 minutes per operation. Operative complications encountered were injury to lumbar veins in 5.1 % cases, slipping of satinsky clamp on vena cava stump in 1.7 % and accidental pleural damage in 5.1 % cases. Postoperative morbid complications found were urinary retention in 6.4 % cases, epididymo-orchitis in 1.7 %, prolonged lymph drain in 3.4 %, stitch infection in 1.7 % and prolonged wound discomfort in 5.1 % patients. Conclusions: Open live donor nepherectomy appears to be safe procedure for harvesting kidney. Related or emotionally related donors must be the choice in all cases. Non-related donors may be entertained in selected cases despite the probability of organ vending in our society. (author)

  20. International rare donor panels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, S; Scharberg, E A; Thornton, N; Yahalom, V; Sareneva, I; Lomas-Francis, C

    2016-04-01

    International rare blood donor panels or registries are important in the consistent availability of rare blood for patients who need this scarce resource. In countries where it has been possible to commit resources to this effort and often where the need is great, donors have been entered into a registry. The ISBT leadership recognized the importance of this very challenging inventory management activity and created a Working Party to support it. Individual countries support the WHO International Rare Donor Panel by submitting their donors' phenotype or genotype information to be catalogued into the database. It is extremely important that this database be cultivated and grown. The contributing countries keep their list updated and supply the blood product as they can when requested. It is known that some blood types are extremely scarce worldwide and requests for these are particularly difficult to fulfil. Thus, it is important to have a protocol to identify and recruit donors with rare blood types. It is equally or perhaps more important to ensure that the patients who need the rare blood are being managed appropriately in the presence and absence of rare blood products being available. PMID:26689301

  1. Longterm clinical and radiological follow-up of living liver donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish Murad, Sarwa; Fidler, Jeff L; Poterucha, John J; Sanchez, William; Jowsey, Sheila G; Nagorney, David; Rosen, Charles B; Heimbach, Julie K

    2016-07-01

    Although short-term risks of living donor hepatectomy have been well defined, little is known about the longterm impact. We aimed to perform a systematic follow-up to screen for unanticipated health consequences of liver donation. All donors who were more than 1 year from donation were invited for a systematic evaluation including physical and laboratory assessment, quality of life questionnaire, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Those unable to return were offered the questionnaire and laboratory assessment at home. Out of our total of 97 donors, 45 returned for a full assessment and 23 completed labs and survey locally (total n = 68; 70%) after a median of 5.5 years (1.5-10.9 years) after donation. The only laboratory abnormality was a significant decrease in platelet count (median 198 ×10(9) /L versus 224 ×10(9) /L before donation; P Liver regeneration was complete. Spleen volume did significantly increase (median 278 cm(3) versus 230 cm(3) before donation; P liver donation appears satisfactory. None of our donors have developed occult biliary strictures, failure of regeneration, abnormal liver function, or other important health consequences after a median of 5.5 years from surgery. These findings can be used when counseling potential donors in the future. Liver Transplantation 22 934-942 2016 AASLD. PMID:27144969

  2. Measures for increasing the safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation using right lobe grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Fu Wen; Ming-Qing Xu; Jiang-Wen Liu; Zhi-Gang Deng; Hong Wu; Zhe-Yu Chen; Lu-Nan Yan; Bo Li; Yong Zeng; Ji-Chun Zhao; Wen-Tao Wang; Jia-Yin Yang; Yu-Kui Ma

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) should be the primary consideration. The aim of this study was to report our experience in increasing the safety of donors in LDLTs using right lobe grafts. METHODS:We retrospectively studied 37 living donors of right lobe grafts from January 2002 to March 2006. The measures for increasing the safety of donors in LDLT included carefully selected donors, preoperative evaluation by ultrasonography, angiography and computed tomography; and necessary intraoperative cholangiography and ultrasonography. Right lobe grafts were obtained using an ultrasonic dissector without inlfow vascular occlusion on the right side of the middle hepatic vein. The standard liver volume and the ratio of left lobe volume to standard liver volume were calculated. RESULTS:There was no donor mortality in our group. Postoperative complications only included bile leakage (1 donor), biliary stricture (1) and portal vein thrombosis (1). All donors recovered well and resumed their previous occupations. In recipients, complications included acute rejection (2 patients), hepatic artery thrombosis (1), bile leakage (1), intestinal bleeding (1), left subphrenic abscess (1) and pulmonary infection (1). The mortality rate of recipients was 5.4% (2/37); one recipient with pulmonary infection died from multiple organ failure and another from occurrence of primary disease. CONCLUSIONS:The ifrst consideration in adult-to-adult LDLT is the safety of donors. The donation of a right lobe graft is safe for adults if the remnant hepatic vasculature and bile duct are ensured, and the volume of the remnant liver exceeds 35% of the total liver volume.

  3. Whether or not to accept a deceased donor kidney offer for a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Abanti; James, Gerri; Grimm, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The expansion of the number of children on the deceased donor renal transplant waitlist has far outstripped the supply of organs in most countries, leading to numerous adjustments to increase supply and to maximize the utility of donor organs. The system for organ allocation varies by country based on local laws, priorities, and resources. Adjustments are made to optimize allocation, enhance post-transplant survival benefit, decrease unequal transplant access, and optimize utilization of donated kidneys. Allocation of deceased donor kidneys is based on several criteria; however, the final decision to accept or reject the offered kidney is made by the potential recipient's transplant team (surgeon/nephrologist). Several considerations including assessment of the donor quality, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match between the donor and the recipient, numerous recipient factors, the geographical location of the recipient, and the organ all affect the decision to accept the organ or not for a particular recipient. This decision must be made quickly, often on the spot. Maximizing the benefit from this scarce resource raises difficult ethical issues. The philosophies of equity and utility are often competing. In this manuscript, we highlight a representative case that helps to focus on important issues for the pediatric nephrologist to consider while making the decision to accept a deceased donor kidney offer for a particular pediatric patient. PMID:26130248

  4. Influence of donor-recipient sex mismatch on long-term survival of pancreatic grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Mei, Shengmin; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Qijun; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Hu, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    To assess the role of sex mismatch on graft survival after pancreas transplantation. We evaluated 24,195 pancreas-transplant recipients reported in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients over a 25-year period. Pancreatic graft survival (PGS) was analyzed according to donor-recipient sex pairing using Kaplan-Meier estimations. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 14,187 male and 10,008 female recipients were included in final analyses. Mean follow-up was 8.3 ± 5.7 years. In multivariate analyses, neither recipient sex nor donor sex was associated with pancreatic graft failure (PGF), but donor-recipient sex mismatch (regardless of recipient sex) was an independent predictor of PGS (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14; p donor factors eliminated the association between F → M sex mismatch and PGF (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.93-1.10; p = 0.752), but not M → F (1.09; 1.02-1.17; 0.020). Stratified analyses suggested that the negative effect of donor-recipient sex mismatch could be neutralized in older patients. These findings suggest that donor-recipient sex pairing should be taken into consideration in organ-allocation strategies. PMID:27403718

  5. The value of MR cholangiography in preoperative evaluation of biliary anatomy of living liver donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the value of MR cholangiography(MRC) in the preoperative evaluation of biliary anatomy of living liver donors. Methods: Fifty eight consecutive donors underwent MRC examinations and living liver transplantation. MRC was performed on a 1.5 T scanner with breath-hold rapid acquisition of T2WI slab and breathing-gating 3D FSE T2WI. Images of MRC and IOC were compared and classified according to the modified Huang's classification. Results: Thirty four (58.6%) liver donors showed normal biliary anatomy on IOC, and 24 (41.4%) donors revealed variant bile anatomy. MRC correctly depicted biliary anatomy in 91.4% (53/58) donors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MRC in distinguishing normal and different types of variant biliary anatomy were 83.3% (20/24), 100% (34/34), 100% (20/20), 89.5% (34/38) respectively. Conclusion: MRC can accurately assess the biliary anatomy in living liver donors and may guide the preoperative planning of liver transplant. (authors)

  6. AN ANDROID APPLICATION FOR VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Turhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an expectation that the blood will always be there when it is really needed. Blood donor volunteers constitute the main supply source in an effective blood supply chain management. They feed blood stocks through their donation. In an emergency situation, if the stocks are insufficient, the only source of blood supply will be the people who come to the health center and donate the blood on a voluntary basis. It is certain that time is a very important component in such situation. For this reason, the health care center should call the nearest available donor in order to ensure to get the service as quickly as possible. A smart phone application is developed to facilitate the identification of the nearest available blood donor volunteer and the communication with him/her in the emergency situations where the blood can’t be supplied through the blood banks’ stocks. In this paper this application will be presented.

  7. Aromatic fumaronitrile core-based donor-linker-acceptor-linker-donor (D-pi-A-pi-D) compounds: synthesis and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Krishna; Adhikari, Ravi M; Kinstle, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    A new class of aromatic fumaronitrile core-based compounds with different donors and linkers has been synthesized and well characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 have indole and 2-phenylindole groups as electron donors, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 have a diphenylamino group as the electron donor, and compound 5 has a 3,6-di-tert-butylcarbazole group as an electron donor. These compounds absorb in the blue-to-green region and emit in the blue-to-red region depending on the electron donor, linker, and solvents. The quantum yields of fluorescence of these compounds in solution are measured and found to be moderate, but in solid states, they are high. These compounds display strong emission solvatochromism that is reflected by a large shift in their fluorescence emission maxima on changing the solvents. This change is accompanied by a successive decrease in fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence lifetimes of these compounds are measured in different solvent and found to vary from compounds with solvents, concentration, and excitation energy have been studied. The correlation between the functional group and optical properties has been established to some extent. The ability of these compounds to function as colorimetric and luminescence pH sensors is demonstrated with color changes and luminescence switching upon the addition of trifluoroacetic acid. The potentiality of these compounds for application in optoelectronics has been optically assessed.

  8. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Production of donor-derived offspring by allogeneic transplantation of spermatogonia in the yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tetsuro; Kumakura, Naoki; Morishima, Kagayaki; Mitsuboshi, Toru; Ishida, Masashi; Hara, Takashi; Kudo, Satomi; Miwa, Misako; Ihara, Shoko; Higuchi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2012-06-01

    Although the yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) is the fish most commonly farmed in Japan, breeding of this species has not yet started. This is primarily due to the lack of sufficiently sophisticated methods for manipulating gametogenesis, which makes it difficult to collect gametes from specific dams and sires. If it were possible to produce large numbers of surrogate fish by transplanting germ cells isolated from donor individuals harboring desirable genetic traits, then the probability of acquiring gametes carrying the donor-derived haplotype would increase, and breeding programs involving this species might increase as a result. As a first step, we established a method for the allogeneic transplantation of yellowtail spermatogonia and the production of donor-derived offspring. Donor cells were collected from immature (10-month-old) yellowtail males with testes containing abundant type A spermatogonia, labeled with PKH26 fluorescent dye, and transferred into the peritoneal cavities of 8-day-old larvae. Fluorescence observation at 28 days post-transplantation revealed that PKH26-labeled cells were incorporated into recipients' gonads. To assess whether donor-derived spermatogonia could differentiate into functional gametes in the allogeneic recipient gonads, gametes collected from nine male and four female adult recipients were fertilized with wild-type eggs and milt. Analysis of microsatellite DNA markers confirmed that some of the first filial (F(1)) offspring were derived from donor fish, with the average contribution of donor-derived F(1) offspring being 66% and the maximum reaching 99%. These findings confirmed that our method was effective for transplanting yellowtail spermatogonia into allogeneic larvae to produce donor-derived offspring. PMID:22460666

  10. Donor-recipient matching: myths and realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Javier; Ciria, Ruben; de la Mata, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Liver transplant outcomes keep improving, with refinements of surgical technique, immunosuppression and post-transplant care. However, these excellent results and the limited number of organs available have led to an increasing number of potential recipients with end-stage liver disease worldwide. Deaths on waiting lists have led liver transplant teams maximize every organ offered and used in terms of pre and post-transplant benefit. Donor-recipient (D-R) matching could be defined as the technique to check D-R pairs adequately associated by the presence of the constituents of some patterns from donor and patient variables. D-R matching has been strongly analysed and policies in donor allocation have tried to maximize organ utilization whilst still protecting individual interests. However, D-R matching has been written through trial and error and the development of each new score has been followed by strong discrepancies and controversies. Current allocation systems are based on isolated or combined donor or recipient characteristics. This review intends to analyze current knowledge about D-R matching methods, focusing on three main categories: patient-based policies, donor-based policies and combined donor-recipient systems. All of them lay on three mainstays that support three different concepts of D-R matching: prioritarianism (favouring the worst-off), utilitarianism (maximising total benefit) and social benefit (cost-effectiveness). All of them, with their pros and cons, offer an exciting controversial topic to be discussed. All of them together define D-R matching today, turning into myth what we considered a reality in the past. PMID:23104164

  11. Donor safety in living donor liver transplantation: a single-center analysis of 300 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Lei

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the safety to donors of living-donor liver transplantation. METHODS: This study included 300 consecutive living liver tissue donors who underwent operations at our center from July 2002 to December 2012. We evaluated the safety of donors with regard to three aspects complications were recorded prospectively and stratified by grade according to Clavien's classification, and the data were compared in two stages (the first 5 years' experience (pre-January 2008 and the latter 5 years' experience (post-January 2008; laboratory tests such as liver function and blood biochemistry were performed; and the health-related quality of life was evaluated. RESULTS: There was no donor mortality at our center, and the overall morbidity rate was 25.3%. Most of the complications of living donors were either grade I or II. There were significantly fewer complications in the latter period of our study than in the initial period (19.9% vs 32.6%, P<0.001, and biliary complications were the most common complications, with an incidence of 9%. All of the liver dysfunction was temporary; however, the post-operative suppression of platelet count lasted for years. Although within the normal range, eight years after operation, 22 donors showed lower platelet levels (189 × 10(9/L compared with the pre-operative levels (267 × 10(9/L (P<0.05. A total of 98.4% of donors had returned to their previous levels of social activity and work, and 99.2% of donors would donate again if it was required and feasible. With the exception of two donors who experienced grade III complications (whose recipients died and a few cases of abdominal discomfort, fatigue, chronic pain and scar itching, none of the living donors were affected by physical problems. CONCLUSION: With careful donor selection and specialized patient care, low morbidity rates and satisfactory long-term recovery can be achieved after hepatectomy for living-donor liver transplantation.

  12. Anisotropic donor states in electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, Adam J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we consider the application of the stabilization method to calculations of the ground state energy and resonance width of shallow donors in a uniform electric field. We show for the first time that within our formulation of this method it is very easy to include various factors influencing electronic structure of shallow impurities, like effective mass anisotropy or magnetic field. We demonstrate that the effective mass anisotropy significantly changes the lifetime of donor bound electrons. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Calcium alginate dressings promote healing of split skin graft donor sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M

    2012-02-03

    A prospective controlled trial was carried out to assess the healing efficacy of calcium alginate and paraffin gauze on split skin graft donor sites. Thirty patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 21 to the paraffin gauze group. The donor sites were assessed at 10 days post harvesting to determine if they were completely healed (100%) or not. Twenty one of the 30 patients dressed with calcium alginate were completely healed at day 10, while only 7\\/21 in the paraffin gauze group were healed (p < 0.05). There were two infections in the study, both occurring in the alginate group while there was no difference in dressing slippage between the two groups. Calcium alginate dressings provide a significant improvement in healing split skin graft donor sites.

  14. Spring Season Habitat Suitability Index raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster represents a continuous surface of sage-grouse habitat suitability index (HSI, created using ArcGIS 10.2.2) values for Nevada during spring, which is a...

  15. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above. PMID:22567418

  16. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borra V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary principle protecting safety and quality, and on supply and expense considerations. This review therefore provides an overview of the available evidence on donor exclusion criteria, as well as on their cost-effectiveness, for the most frequent reasons of donor deferral in our region. PubMed was queried to retrieve primary research studies, systematic reviews, and health technology assessments (HTAs concerning donor exclusion criteria. With a similar approach, HTAs about the different blood-banking safety interventions were included. Reasons for donor deferral were recorded via the blood bank information system of the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. Seven systematic reviews were identified: four on donor safety (hypotension, hypertension/type 2 diabetes, epilepsy, and higher age and three on recipient safety (hemochromatosis, men who have sex with men, and endoscopy. Forty-three low-quality observational studies were included, as well as 16 HTAs: three about donor exclusion criteria and 13 cost-utility analyses about blood-banking safety interventions. In general, the available evidence for deferral reasons was of low quality, and for 60% of the top 30 reasons for excluding donors, no evidence was found. Blood banking shows its unique position as many safety measures far exceed the normally accepted cost of €50,000/quality-adjusted life-years. The historical model based on the precautionary principle and on supply and expense considerations provides adequate supplies of

  17. Transplantation of a 2-year-old deceased-donor liver to a 61-year-old male recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wing Chiu; Sharr, William W; Chok, Kenneth S H; Cheung, Tan To; Fung, James Y Y; Chan, Albert C Y; Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau

    2015-04-01

    The suitable size of a graft is a key element in the success of liver transplantation. A small-for-size liver graft is very likely to sustain a significant degree of injury as a result of ischemia, preservation, reperfusion, and rejection. Usually, small-for-size grafts are a concern in living-donor liver transplantation rather than in deceased-donor liver transplantation. Here, we describe the successful transplantation of a liver from a 2-year-old deceased donor to a 61-year-old male recipient who suffered from liver failure related to hepatitis B. No report of successful deceased-donor liver transplantation with discrepancies between donor and recipient age and size to such an extent has been found in the literature. Despite unusually large discrepancies, with effort in minimizing the ischemic time, revised surgical techniques, and strong regenerative power of the "young" graft, the old patient's liver function gradually returned to normal. This again proves that the definition of a "suitable graft" evolves with time and experience.

  18. Suitable scale of Weigan River plain oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShunJun; SONG YuDong; TIAN ChangYan; LI YueTan; LI XiuCang; CHEN XiaoBing

    2007-01-01

    Desert coexists with oasis in long time, and the existence and development of oasis system demand better oasis vegetation ecological system. Oasis scale of arid zone plain encircling water should be determined in case of desertification caused by land over-reclamation under the circumstance of water resources shortage. Steady oasis with virtuous circle must have appropriate land use structure for agriculture, forestry and graziery. The study on the suitable scale and developmental space of oasis will provide theoretical and applicable foundation for effective construction of oases. By analyzing the hydrothermal, water and soil balance, an optimal mathematical model has been established. Based on hydrometeorology data collected for years in Weigan River plain, and by the principle of water balance,a calculation has been made of the water resources for evapotranspiration and the optimal acreage of oasis and cultivated land, which shows that the water resources for evapotranspiration in the Weigan River plain oasis is 22.32×108 m3 and the optimal oasis acreage under the condition of conventional irrigation mode is 3716.06 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 1564.79 km2. Under the condition of water-saving irrigation, the suitable oasis acreage is 5515.49 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 2322.31 km2. The oasis area had reached 4123 km2, and the cultivated land acreage had reached 1507 km2 after the Agriculture Irrigation Drainage Water Project of World Bank Loan in Weigan River basin was finished in 1997. The oasis and cultivated land acreage will be more suitable, and the oasis scale can be enlarged moderately by means of water saving irrigation.

  19. Donor exclusion in the National Blood Service Tissue Services living bone donor programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, F; Warwick, R M; Purkis, J; Pearson, J

    2006-01-01

    National Blood Service (NBS) Tissue Services (TS) operates living donor and deceased donor tissue banking programmes. The living bone donor programme operates in collaboration with 91 orthopaedic departments across the country and collects bone donations, in the form of surgically removed femoral heads (FHs), from over 5,000 patients per annum undergoing total hip replacement. Bone donated via the living programme constitutes approximately 55% of the total bone donated to NBS. Non-NBS tissue banks, primarily in hospital orthopaedic departments, also bank donated bone for the UK. A survey of information received from 16 collaborating orthopaedic centres, between April 2003 and August 2004, identified 709 excluded donors. The total number of donations banked from these sites was 1,538. Donations can be excluded before collection if there are contraindications noted in a potential donor's medical history before their operation. Donors may also be excluded after collection of the FH, for instance because of reactive microbiology tests for blood borne viruses, or if the donation storage conditions or related documentation have not met stringent quality requirements. In this survey, bone or joint conditions were the major reasons for excluding potential donors before donation (154 of 709 exclusions, 22%), followed by a current or a past history of malignancy (139 of 709 exclusions, 20%). Local staffing and operational difficulties sometimes resulted in potential donors being missed, or specific reasons for exclusion not being reported (117 exclusions). These out numbered exclusions due to patient refusal (80 exclusions). A small number (quality. Training to ensure that standards are complied with and a firm evidence base for exclusion criteria, applied uniformly, will help focus donor identification efforts on individuals meeting rational criteria so that fewer potential donations are lost. PMID:16511660

  20. Donor exclusion in the National Blood Service Tissue Services living bone donor programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, F; Warwick, R M; Purkis, J; Pearson, J

    2006-01-01

    National Blood Service (NBS) Tissue Services (TS) operates living donor and deceased donor tissue banking programmes. The living bone donor programme operates in collaboration with 91 orthopaedic departments across the country and collects bone donations, in the form of surgically removed femoral heads (FHs), from over 5,000 patients per annum undergoing total hip replacement. Bone donated via the living programme constitutes approximately 55% of the total bone donated to NBS. Non-NBS tissue banks, primarily in hospital orthopaedic departments, also bank donated bone for the UK. A survey of information received from 16 collaborating orthopaedic centres, between April 2003 and August 2004, identified 709 excluded donors. The total number of donations banked from these sites was 1,538. Donations can be excluded before collection if there are contraindications noted in a potential donor's medical history before their operation. Donors may also be excluded after collection of the FH, for instance because of reactive microbiology tests for blood borne viruses, or if the donation storage conditions or related documentation have not met stringent quality requirements. In this survey, bone or joint conditions were the major reasons for excluding potential donors before donation (154 of 709 exclusions, 22%), followed by a current or a past history of malignancy (139 of 709 exclusions, 20%). Local staffing and operational difficulties sometimes resulted in potential donors being missed, or specific reasons for exclusion not being reported (117 exclusions). These out numbered exclusions due to patient refusal (80 exclusions). A small number (quality. Training to ensure that standards are complied with and a firm evidence base for exclusion criteria, applied uniformly, will help focus donor identification efforts on individuals meeting rational criteria so that fewer potential donations are lost.

  1. Functional repair of human donor lungs by IL-10 gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypel, Marcelo; Liu, Mingyao; Rubacha, Matt; Yeung, Jonathan C; Hirayama, Shin; Anraku, Masaki; Sato, Masaaki; Medin, Jeffrey; Davidson, Beverly L; de Perrot, Marc; Waddell, Thomas K; Slutsky, Arthur S; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2009-10-28

    More than 80% of potential donor lungs are injured during brain death of the donor and from complications experienced in the intensive care unit, and therefore cannot be used for transplantation. These lungs show inflammation and disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, leading to poor gas exchange. Although the number of patients in need of lung transplantation is increasing, the number of donors is static. We investigated the potential to use gene therapy with an adenoviral vector encoding human interleukin-10 (AdhIL-10) to repair injured donor lungs ex vivo before transplantation. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that mainly exerts its suppressive functions by the inactivation of antigen-presenting cells with consequent inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In pigs, AdhIL-10-treated lungs exhibited attenuated inflammation and improved function after transplantation. Lungs from 10 human multiorgan donors that had suffered brain death were determined to be clinically unsuitable for transplantation. They were then maintained for 12 hours at body temperature in an ex vivo lung perfusion system with or without intra-airway delivery of AdhIL-10 gene therapy. AdhIL-10-treated lungs showed significant improvement in function (arterial oxygen pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance) when compared to controls, a favorable shift from proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, and recovery of alveolar-blood barrier integrity. Thus, treatment of injured human donor lungs with the cytokine IL-10 can improve lung function, potentially rendering injured lungs suitable for transplantation into patients. PMID:20368171

  2. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena K Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for lower abdominal surgeries. Blind TAP block has many complications and uncertainty of its effects. Use of ultrasonography increases the safety and efficacy. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound (USG-guided TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN. Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups by closed envelope method. At the end of surgery, USG-guided TAP block was given to the patients of both the groups. Study group (group S received inj. Bupivacaine (0.375%, whereas control group (group C received normal saline. Inj. Tramadol (1 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analog scale (VAS more than 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS both at rest and on movement, time to first dose of rescue analgesic, cumulative dose of tramadol, sedation score, and nausea score, which were also noted at 30 min, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively. Total tramadol consumption at 24 h was also assessed. Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score, longer time to first dose of rescue analgesic (547.13±266.96 min vs. 49.17±24.95 min and lower tramadol consumption (103.8±32.18 mg vs. 235.8±47.5 mg in 24 h. Conclusion: The USG-guided TAP block is easy to perform and effective as a postoperative analgesic regimen in RDN, with opioids-sparing effect and without any complications.

  3. 基于GIS与层次分析的上海市蕴藻浜两岸生态环境综合评价%Assessment of the ecological environment suitability for the two banks of Yunzaobang River in Shanghai using GIS and analytic hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 仵彦卿; 覃荣高

    2013-01-01

    Based on the ecological environment analysis according to the environmental investigation of the Yunzaobang River in Shanghai,we assessed the ecological suitability of land use in the area by combination of GIS and analytic hierarchy process.The results showed that the suitable,relatively suitable,unsuitable and relatively unsuitable areas were 27.1%,15.1%,32.0% and 25.8%,respectively.Furthermore,the effect of bank utilization rates on the ecological suitability was further discussed.The quality of the river water would be significantly improved if the natural degradation ability of the microbes in the substrate sludge and the two banks can be fully utilized.In order to reduce the influence of human activities on the ecosystem of the river bank,the stone-laying of some river bank can be substituted by ecological brick material.Finally,the planning of "three river combination" for Yunzaobang River,Huangpu River and Yangtse River was proposed,which gives scientific support to the environmental treatment of Yunzaobang in Shanghai.Moreover,the assessment techniques can be used for the other similar area.%根据对上海市蕴藻浜的环境调查,分析了沿岸生态环境问题,采用层次分析和GIS技术相结合的方法,对上海市宝山区蕴藻浜两岸生态环境进行了评价,评价结果显示研究区目前适宜区为27.1%,较适宜区为15.1%,不适宜区为32.0%,最不适宜区为25.8%,在此基础上深入探讨了岸线占用率指标对生态适宜性评价的影响.结果表明,充分利用河流两岸和底泥中大量的微生物对河流水体中的污染物进行自然降解,将大大改善河流水质,在必须构筑河岸地段,可尝试利用生态砖材料代替浆砌石材料,从而减少人为破坏河流两岸原有生态系统.结合研究区生态环境现状,提出了蕴藻浜与黄浦江和长江“三江合一”的规划,为上海市蕴藻浜的环境综合整治提供科学依据,同时该评价方法也可以

  4. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, F

    1980-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  5. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  6. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are interested ... of volunteers willing to be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube ...

  7. The Dutch Living Donor Kidney Exchange Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Klerk (Marry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractKidney transplantation is the optimal option for patients with an end-stage renal disease. The first successful transplantation with a living genetically related donor has been performed since 26 October 1954, when an identical twin transplant was performed in Boston. In the years that f

  8. Dilemma over live-donor transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Garwood, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Organ transplants save thousands of lives each year, but put many live donors at risk due to an unregulated organ trade that exploits the vulnerable in developing countries and complicates legitimate organ donation efforts. Countries face a dilemma: how they can increase the supply of organs in a manner that is ethical and humane.

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 23,393 ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Try something new! Loading... Working... Sign ...

  10. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido;

    2013-01-01

    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge a...

  11. Case 1: chronic infected donor site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Following a coronary bypass surgery, a vein donor site became infected and failed to heal despite use of antibiotics and a variety of topical treatments. Octenilin Wound Gel not only helped to promote healing, but also increased the patient's ability to tolerate dressing changes. PMID:26949845

  12. Living Donor Hepatectomy: Is it Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Anna; Tapia, Viridiana; Parina, Ralitza; Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan; Mekeel, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) is high risk to a healthy donor and remains controversial. Living donor nephrectomy (LDN), conversely, is a common practice. The objective is to examine the outcomes of LDH and compare this risk profile to LDN. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for hepatectomies and nephrectomies from 1998 to 2011. LDH or LDN were identified by donor ICD-9 codes. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and complications. Bivariate analysis compared nondonor hepatectomy or nondonor nephrectomy (NDN). Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline organ disease, malignancy, or benign lesions. There were 430 LDH and 9211 nondonor hepatectomy. In-hospital mortality was 0 and 6 per cent, respectively (P LDN and 117,966 NDN. Mortality rates were 0.8 per cent LDN and 1.8 per cent NDN (P LDN had fewer complications [OR 0.06 (0.05-0.08)] and better survival [OR 0.32 (0.18-0.58)]. Complication rates were higher in LDH than LDN (4% vs 1%, P LDN. PMID:26463316

  13. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.

    1971-01-01

    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... views 4:25 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 55, ...

  15. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin

    2010-01-01

    South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea...

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... Monks 3,700 views 4:41 Stem Cell Basics - How Blood is Made. - Duration: 10:58. Vernon ...

  17. Organ Donor Recognition: Practical and Ethical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe brain dead patient is the ideal multiorgan donor. Conditions that can lead to the state of brain death are limited. A subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury precede in 83% of the cases the state of brain death. Because of better prevention and t

  18. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  19. 广西能源作物木薯种植的可能规模:自然适宜性与社会限制性评价%Potential Capacity of Cassava Planting in Guangxi:Assessment of Natural Suitability and Socio-Economic Restrictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王露; 杨海龙; 封志明; 吕耀

    2012-01-01

    木薯是我国的非粮作物,是生产生物乙醇的主要原料之一。广西是木薯的传统种植区域,随着木薯需求量持续增长,其种植潜力问题越来越受到研究机构与政府部门重视。本文从广西木薯种植的气候适宜性、土壤适宜性、地形适宜性和土地利用的社会经济限制性出发,较为系统地评估了广西木薯种植的自然适宜性和社会限制性,定量揭示了广西木薯种植的土地潜力、可能规模及其地域格局。研究结果表明,广西木薯种植的主要限制因素是地形条件,其次是土壤因素;若不考虑土地利用的社会经济限制性,广西3/5的土地适宜木薯种植;但考虑到土地利用的社会限制性,广西适宜木薯种植的土地则只有115.5万hm2;与目前已种植木薯22.3万hm2相比,尚有约4倍的土地种植潜力;从地域格局看,广西未来木薯发展的重点将在柳州和来宾地区。%Because of the fast consumption of fossil energy and associated environmental problems,governments have paid increasing attention to the development of the bio-energy industry.The Chinese government has formulated a series of policies to improve the bio-energy industry.In order to ensure the food security,the Chinese government has claimed that bio-ethanol could only be produced by non-food crops such as sweet sorghum and cassava.Cassava is a type of non-food crops and one of main materials of bio-ethanol production.With the increasing demands for cassava in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,which is the most important traditional cassava planting area,relevant institutions and government departments are paying increasing attention to the cultivation potential of cassava.In this paper,based on climate suitability,soil suitability,terrain suitability,and socio-economic restrictions of land use,we used the AHP method to evaluate the suitability of each index.Then,the suitability of comprehensive indexes was evaluated.At last,an assessment

  20. Effects of Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields on Shallow Donor Impurity Binding Energy in a Parabolic Quantum Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Kasapoglu; H. Sari; I. S(o)kmen

    2004-01-01

    @@ We have calculated variationally the ground state binding energy of a hydrogenic donor impurity in a parabolic quantum well in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields. These homogeneous crossed fields are such that the magnetic field is parallel to the heterostructure layers and the electric field is applied perpendicular to the magnetic field. The dependence of the donor impurity binding energy to the well width and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields are discussed. We hope that the obtained results will provide important improvements in device applications, especially for a suitable choice of both fields in the narrow well widths.

  1. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher Jl; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas. PMID:27090089

  2. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher Jl; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I

    2016-04-19

    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas.

  3. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  5. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Donor Management Research: Improvements in... management practices, but further investigation is needed. Upon review of research possibilities being... management study to be accomplished by contract or targeted research questions that will be incorporated...

  6. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation and...... and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health...

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern wild turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Research on Items Suitable for Online Auction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhanghua; LIU Lu; WU Lihua

    2004-01-01

    Based on the classification to the attribute information of auctioned commodity, the valuation signal of auctioned commodity is categorized into two groups: codable valuation signal and un-codable valuation signal. A valuation signal model is developed and used to reason under the environment of common valuation auction. The results show that the value of commodity auctioned online tends to be lower and the commodity with bigger factor that can be described online is more suitable for online auction.

  10. Donor safety and remnant liver volume in living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Rong Shi; Lu-Nan Yan; Cheng-You Du

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the relationship between donor safety and remnant liver volume in right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).METHODS:From July 2001 to January 2009,our liver transplant centers carried out 197 LDLTs.The clinical data from 151 cases of adult right lobe living donors (not including the middle hepatic vein) were analyzed.The conditions of the three groups of donors were well matched in terms of the studied parameters.The donors' preoperative data,intraoperative and postoperative data were calculated for the three groups:Group 1 remnant liver volume (RLV) < 35%,group 2 RLV 36%-40%,and group 3 RLV > 40%.Comparisons included the different remnant liver volumes on postoperative liver function recovery and the impact of systemic conditions.Correlations between remnant liver volume and post-operative complications were also analyzed.RESULTS:The donors' anthroposomatology data,operation time,and preoperative donor blood test indicators were calculated for the three groups.No significant differences were observed between the donors' gender,age,height,weight,and operation time.According to the Chengdu standard liver volume formula,the total liver volume of group 1 was 1072.88 ± 131.06 mL,group 2 was 1043.84 ± 97.11 mL,and group 3 was 1065.33 ± 136.02 mL.The three groups showed no statistically significant differences.When the volume of the remnant liver was less than 35% of the total liver volume,the volume of the remnant had a significant effect on the recovery of liver function and intensive care unit time.In addition,the occurrence of complications was closely related to the remnant liver volume.When the volume of the remnant liver was more than 35% of the total liver volume,the remnant volume change had no significant effect on donor recovery.CONCLUSION:To ensure donor safety,the remnant liver volume should be greater than the standard liver volume (35%) in right lobe living donor liver transplantation.

  11. Factors that influence Greeks' decision to register as potential bone marrow donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, P A; Sparos, L D; Katostaras, T; Velonakis, E; Kalokerinou, A

    2008-06-01

    Hemopoietic stem cells can be used from bone marrow or blood or umbilical cord blood of matched siblings or appropriately matched unrelated volunteers. Today, large bone marrow registries have been established to help identify volunteer unrelated bone marrow donors for patients lacking a family donor. Despite there being almost 10 million registered potential bone marrow donors (PBMD) worldwide, only 50% of white patients have a suitable bone marrow match. Growth in the number of PBMD increases the likelihood of finding a compatible donor for a patient. The attitudes and knowledge of 250 registered PBMD and 315 not registered PBMD toward bone marrow donation, tissues and organs donation, and blood donation were surveyed, using a questionnaire with 27 items. Multivariate logistic regression identified gender (females more often than males), regular blood donation, having a relative or a friend who has already been registered as PBMD, having a relative or a friend who needs bone marrow transplantation, family discussion about tissue and organ donation, knowledge about bone marrow transplantation, information about bone marrow transplantation, and trust in health professionals were independent predictive factors influencing people's decision to register as PBMD. Knowledge of these factors is important to target recruitment efforts.

  12. Molecular assembly of amino acid interlinked, topologically symmetric, π-complementary donor-acceptor-donor triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, M B; Sandeepa, K V; Govindaraju, T

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid interlinked pyrene and naphthalenediimide (NDI) based novel donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) triads are designed to exploit their topological symmetry and complementary π-character for facile charge-transfer complexation. Consequently, free-floating high-aspect-ratio supercoiled nanofibres and hierarchical helical bundles of triads are realized by modulating the chemical functionality of interlinking amino acids. PMID:23946856

  13. ِAnalysis of donor motivations in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham eAbdeldayem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The introduction of the living donor liver transplantation (LDLT in Egypt as in elsewhere, has raised important psychological conflicts and ethical questions. The objective of this study was to get better understanding of the potential donors’ motives towards LDLT.Methods:This study was conducted on consecutive 193 living –liver donors who underwent partial hepatectomy as donors for LDLT during the period between April 2003 and January 2013, at the National Liver Institute Menoufeyia University, Egypt. Potential donors were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively through a screening questionnaire and interviews as regard their demographic data, relationship to the potential recipient and motives towards proceeding to surgery. They were assured that the information shared between them and the transplant centre is confidential. Results.The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations.Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is

  14. QFD Based Benchmarking Logic Using TOPSIS and Suitability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Users’ satisfaction on quality is a key that leads successful completion of the project in relation to decision-making issues in building design solutions. This study proposed QFD (quality function deployment based benchmarking logic of market products for building envelope solutions. Benchmarking logic is composed of QFD-TOPSIS and QFD-SI. QFD-TOPSIS assessment model is able to evaluate users’ preferences on building envelope solutions that are distributed in the market and may allow quick achievement of knowledge. TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution provides performance improvement criteria that help defining users’ target performance criteria. SI (Suitability Index allows analysis on suitability of the building envelope solution based on users’ required performance criteria. In Stage 1 of the case study, QFD-TOPSIS was used to benchmark the performance criteria of market envelope products. In Stage 2, a QFD-SI assessment was performed after setting user performance targets. The results of this study contribute to confirming the feasibility of QFD based benchmarking in the field of Building Envelope Performance Assessment (BEPA.

  15. Comparison of deferral rates using a computerized versus written blood donor questionnaire: a randomized, cross-over study [ISRCTN84429599

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourque Ronald

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-administered computer-assisted blood donor screening strategies may elicit more accurate responses and improve the screening process. Methods Randomized crossover trial comparing responses to questions on a computerized hand-held tool (HealthQuiz, or HQ, to responses on the standard written instrument (Donor Health Assessment Questionnaire, or DHAQ. Randomly selected donors at 133 blood donation clinics in the area of Hamilton, Canada participated from 1995 to 1996. Donors were randomized to complete either the HQ or the DHAQ first, followed by the other instrument. In addition to responses of 'yes' and 'no' on both questionnaires, the HQ provided a response option of 'not sure'. The primary outcome was the number of additional donors deferred by the HQ. Results A total of 1239 donors participated. Seventy-one potential donors were deferred as a result of responses to the questionnaires; 56.3% (40/71 were deferred by the DHAQ, and an additional 43.7% (31/71 were deferred due to risks identified by the HQ but not by the DHAQ. Fourteen donors self-deferred; 11 indicated on the HQ that they should not donate blood on that day but did not use the confidential self-exclusion option on the DHAQ, and three used the self-exclusion option on the DHAQ but did not indicate that they should not donate blood on the HQ. The HQ identified a blood contact or risk factor for HIV/AIDS or sexually transmitted infection that was not identified by the DHAQ in 0.1% to 2.7% of donors. Conclusion A self-administered computerized questionnaire may increase risk reporting by blood donors.

  16. Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies in Living Versus Deceased Donor Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, J; Kaneku, H; Jie, C; Walsh, R C; Abecassis, M; Tambur, A R

    2016-08-01

    With less ischemia, improved donor selection and controlled procedures, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) might lead to less HLA donor-specific antibody (DSA) formation or fewer adverse outcomes than deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). Using the multicenter A2ALL (Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study) biorepository, we compared the incidence and outcomes of preformed and de novo DSAs between LDLT and DDLT. In total, 129 LDLT and 66 DDLT recipients were identified as having serial samples. The prevalence of preformed and de novo DSAs was not different between DDLT and LDLT recipients (p = 0.93). There was no association between patient survival and the timing (preformed vs. de novo), class (I vs. II) and relative levels of DSA between the groups; however, preformed DSA was associated with higher graft failure only in DDLT recipients (p = 0.01). De novo DSA was associated with graft failure regardless of liver transplant type (p = 0.005) but with rejection only in DDLT (p = 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, DSA was an independent risk factor for graft failure regardless of liver transplant type (p = 0.017, preformed; p = 0.002, de novo). In conclusion, although similar in prevalence, DSA may have more impact in DDLT than LDLT recipients. Although our findings need further validation, future research should more robustly test the effect of donor type and strategies to mitigate the impact of DSA. PMID:26896194

  17. Your Path to Transplant: a randomized controlled trial of a tailored computer education intervention to increase living donor kidney transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Amy D.; Robbins, Mark L.; Andrea L. Paiva; Peipert, John D; Kynard-Amerson, Crystal S; Goalby, Christina J.; Davis, LaShara A; Thein, Jessica L.; Schenk, Emily A.; Baldwin, Kari A.; Skelton, Stacy L; Amoyal, Nicole R.; Brick, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    Background Because of the deceased donor organ shortage, more kidney patients are considering whether to receive kidneys from family and friends, a process called living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Although Blacks and Hispanics are 3.4 and 1.5 times more likely, respectively, to develop end stage renal disease (ESRD) than Whites, they are less likely to receive LDKTs. To address this disparity, a new randomized controlled trial (RCT) will assess whether Black, Hispanic, and White tra...

  18. Donor-derived exosomes induce specific regulatory T cells to suppress immune inflammation in the allograft heart

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangping Song; Jie Huang; Xiao Chen; Xiao Teng; Zhizhao Song; Yong Xing; Mangyuan Wang; Kai Chen; Zheng Wang; Pingchang Yang; Shengshou Hu

    2016-01-01

    To inhibit the immune inflammation in the allografts can be beneficial to organ transplantation. This study aims to induce the donor antigen specific regulatory T cells (Treg cell) inhibit the immune inflammation in the allograft heart. In this study, peripheral exosomes were purified from the mouse serum. A heart transplantation mouse model was developed. The immune inflammation of the allograft heart was assessed by histology and flow cytometry. The results showed that the donor antigen-spe...

  19. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death underwent a transesophageal (TE Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia. The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV. Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For

  20. Eligibility and Exclusion of Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Levstik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis patients are excluded in many countries as voluntary blood donors. In 1991, changes in the Canadian Red Cross policy allowed healthy hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary donors.