WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing deposition levels

  1. Assessing deposition levels of 55Fe, 60Co and 63Ni in the Ignalina NPP environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudelis, A.; Druteikienė, R.; Lukšienė, B.;

    2010-01-01

    . Non-destructive analysis by the HPGe gamma-spectrometry was followed by radiochemical separation. Radiochemical analysis was based on anion-exchange and extraction chromatography. 55Fe and 63Ni activities were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The results indicate that the deposition...

  2. Assessing deposition levels of {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni in the Ignalina NPP environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudelis, A., E-mail: gudelis@ktl.mii.l [Nuclear and Environmental Radioactivity Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Savanoriu Avenue, 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Druteikiene, R.; Luksiene, B.; Gvozdaite, R. [Nuclear and Environmental Radioactivity Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Savanoriu Avenue, 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Nielsen, S.P.; Hou, X. [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark); Mazeika, J.; Petrosius, R. [Radioisotope Laboratory, Institute of Geology and Geography, Sevcenkos Street, 13, LT-03223 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2010-06-15

    Two RBMK-1500 reactor units operated in Lithuania in the 1987-2004 period (one of them was stopped for decommissioning in 2004). This study presents a preliminary investigation of surface deposition density levels of {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni in moss samples collected in the close vicinity of the Ignalina NPP. Non-destructive analysis by the HPGe gamma-spectrometry was followed by radiochemical separation. Radiochemical analysis was based on anion-exchange and extraction chromatography. {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni activities were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The results indicate that the deposition values of {sup 55}Fe are generally higher than those of {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni.

  3. Assessment of indoor radiation level in the environs of the uranium deposit area of West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    War, S.A. [Department of Physics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong - 793 022, Meghalaya (India)], E-mail: aaron2416@yahoo.com; Nongkynrih, P.; Khathing, D.T. [Department of Physics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong - 793 022, Meghalaya (India); Iongwai, P.S. [Department of Zoology, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong - 793 022, Meghalaya (India)

    2009-11-15

    An estimation of the indoor background radiation dose distribution was carried out in dwellings of eleven villages located within and around the uranium mineralization area of Kylleng-Pyndensohiong, Mawthabah in West Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India. The ambient indoor gamma radiation level was monitored using Thermo Luminescence Dosimeters (TLDs) while the indoor radon and thoron concentration was measured using twin-cup dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). Results obtained from the study reveals that the local inhabitants of villages located close to the mining site receive higher doses than those inhabitants of villages located at a much farther distance from the mining site. The average total annual effective dose was found to be varying from 1.2 mSv y{sup -1} in the village of Langpa to 3.4 mSv y{sup -1} in the village of Nongbah Jynrin. The data obtained will serve as a reference in documenting changes to environmental radioactivity if mining is to be carried out in the future.

  4. Resource assessment of copper deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; GU De-sheng; T. Shoji; H. Kaneda

    2005-01-01

    Copper-bearing deposits of China are statistically analyzed in terms of ore grade, metal amount and ore tonnage. Each of grade and metal amount shows more or less a lognormal distribution. Analysis gives 10 copper metallogenic districts, each having specific densities of deposit numbers and copper reserves larger than 3. Based on the ratio of copper in ore value (Rcu), Chinese copper deposits are classified into two groups: mainly copper-producing deposits (MC: Rcu≥0.5) and accessorily copper-producing deposits (AC: Rcu<0. 5). The grade-tonnage relation of MC deposits can be combined by two exponential functions approximating high grade (> 3.0 %) and low grade (<2.0%) parts. The critical copper grade, which is obtained from the low grade part of the relation, is 0. 34 %. Chinese copper resources are concluded to become pessimistic, because some mines are working with grades close to this critical value. Taking account of the fact that many copper deposits are actually polymetallic, Cu-equivalent grades, which are converted from ratios of metal prices to the copper price, are also introduced. The critical Cu-equivalent grade of MC deposits (0. 43 % ) also suggests that Chinese copper resources are pessimistic.

  5. Assessment of Global Mercury Deposition through Litterfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Bao, Zhengduo; Lin, Che-Jen; Yuan, Wei; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-16

    There is a large uncertainty in the estimate of global dry deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg). Hg deposition through litterfall represents an important input to terrestrial forest ecosystems via cumulative uptake of atmospheric Hg (most Hg(0)) to foliage. In this study, we estimate the quantity of global Hg deposition through litterfall using statistical modeling (Monte Carlo simulation) of published data sets of litterfall biomass production, tree density, and Hg concentration in litter samples. On the basis of the model results, the global annual Hg deposition through litterfall is estimated to be 1180 ± 710 Mg yr(-1), more than two times greater than the estimate by GEOS-Chem. Spatial distribution of Hg deposition through litterfall suggests that deposition flux decreases spatially from tropical to temperate and boreal regions. Approximately 70% of global Hg(0) dry deposition occurs in the tropical and subtropical regions. A major source of uncertainty in this study is the heterogeneous geospatial distribution of available data. More observational data in regions (Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America) where few data sets exist will greatly improve the accuracy of the current estimate. Given that the quantity of global Hg deposition via litterfall is typically 2-6 times higher than Hg(0) evasion from forest floor, global forest ecosystems represent a strong Hg(0) sink. PMID:27418119

  6. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposit model: Chapter M in Mineral deposit model for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Timothy S.; Cox, Dennis P.; Bliss, James D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2015-01-01

    This report contains a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper (SSC) deposits that supersedes the model of Cox and others (2003). This model is for use in assessments of mineral resource potential. SSC deposits are the second most important sources of copper in the world behind porphyry copper deposits. Around 20 percent of the copper in the world is produced from this class of deposits. They are also the most important sources of cobalt in the world, and they are fourth among classes of ore deposits in production of silver. SSC deposits are the basis of the economies of three countries: Democratic Republic of Congo, Poland, and Zambia. This report provides a description of the key features of SSC deposits; it identifies their tectonic-sedimentary environments; it illustrates geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics of SSC deposits; it reviews and evaluates hypotheses on how these deposits formed; it presents exploration and assessment guides; and it lists some gaps in our knowledge about the SSC deposits. A summary follows that provides overviews of many subjects concerning SSC deposits.

  7. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  9. Nickel-cobalt laterites: a deposit model: Chapter H in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric J.; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are supergene enrichments of Ni±Co that form from intense chemical and mechanical weathering of ultramafic parent rocks. These regolith deposits typically form within 26 degrees of the equator, although there are a few exceptions. They form in active continental margins and stable cratonic settings. It takes as little as one million years for a laterite profile to develop. Three subtypes of Ni-Co laterite deposits are classified according to the dominant Ni-bearing mineralogy, which include hydrous magnesium (Mg)-silicate, smectite, and oxide. These minerals form in weathering horizons that begin with the unweathered protolith at the base, saprolite next, a smectite transition zone only in profiles where drainage is very poor, followed by limonite, and then capped with ferricrete at the top. The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon. Because of their complex mineralogy and heterogeneous concentrations, mining of these metallurgically complex deposits can be challenging. Deposits range in size from 2.5 to about 400 million tonnes, with Ni and Co grades of 0.66–2.4 percent (median 1.3) and 0.01–0.15 percent (median 0.08), respectively. Modern techniques of ore delineation and mineralogical identification are being developed to aid in streamlining the Ni-Co laterite mining process, and low-temperature and low-pressure ore processing techniques are being tested that will treat the entire weathered profile. There is evidence that the production of Ni and Co from laterites is more energy intensive than that of sulfide ores, reflecting the environmental impact of producing a Ni-Co laterite deposit. Tailings may include high levels of

  10. Teachers' Self-Assessed Level of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least…

  11. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  12. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, P.; Theobald, M. R.; Dias, T.; Tang, Y. S.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.; Máguas, C.; Sutton, M.; Branquinho, C.

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds have been established, such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations). For Mediterranean ecosystems, few studies have been carried out to assess these parameters. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. For that we have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, which have been shown to be one of the most sensitive to excessive N. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done under Mediterranean climate, in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, by sampling lichen functional diversity and annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations and modelling N deposition downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). By modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition, the critical load was estimated to be below 26 kg (N) ha-1 yr-1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. By modelling the highly significant relationship of lichen functional groups with annual atmospheric ammonia concentration, the critical level was estimated to be below 1.9 μg m-3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should be taken into account in policies that aim at protecting Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  13. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pinho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds have been established, such as critical loads (deposition fluxes and levels (concentrations. For Mediterranean ecosystems, few studies have been carried out to assess these parameters. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. For that we have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, which have been shown to be one of the most sensitive to excessive N. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done under Mediterranean climate, in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, by sampling lichen functional diversity and annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations and modelling N deposition downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn. By modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition, the critical load was estimated to be below 26 kg (N ha−1 yr−1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. By modelling the highly significant relationship of lichen functional groups with annual atmospheric ammonia concentration, the critical level was estimated to be below 1.9 μg m−3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should be taken into account in policies that aim at protecting Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  14. Assessing the Emission Sources of Atmospheric Mercury in Wet Deposition Across Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratz L. E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available From August 2007 to August 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg and trace element analysis at four sites in Illinois, USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify the levels of Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. The measurement sites were located in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. We were not able to identify a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition among the sites. At all four locations we frequently observed Hg concentrations in precipitation > 25 ng/L, while each site received > 10 μg/m2 of Hg wet deposition annually, suggesting a substantial impact from local and regional anthropogenic emission sources. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. The results suggested that 60-83% of total Hg deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. Although we identified other source signatures in the precipitation composition, including cement manufacturing, metal smelting / waste incineration, and iron-steel production, these sources contributed substantially less to the measured amounts of Hg wet deposition. We also applied the hybrid receptor model Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA to the Hg wet deposition data from each site to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. Results suggested that sources in the Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and Ohio River Valley urban/industrial areas had a substantial impact on Hg wet deposition, strongly supporting the conclusion that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois.

  15. Assessing the Emission Sources of Atmospheric Mercury in Wet Deposition Across Illinois, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Gratz L. E.; Keeler G. J.; Dvonch J. T.; Morishita M; Barres J. A.

    2013-01-01

    From August 2007 to August 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analysis at four sites in Illinois, USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify the levels of Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. The measurement sites were located in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. We were not able to identify a clear spatial gradi...

  16. Assessment of the effect of acid deposition on forest soils in Stockholm County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odlare, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess how the acidity in the upper layer of forest soils in Stockholm County is affected by acid deposition. The acidity balance in a long-term perspective was assessed by a steady state mass balance model approach. The model involved a procedure where all significant acidifying processes were weighted against the neutralizing process. If the acidity balance reached a value higher than zero, the critical load of the soil has been exceeded. The acidity balance was calculated for 91 forest sample sites throughout Stockholm County. Two different data sets were used: 22 sites from the National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation, and 69 sites from the Forestry Board. The acidity balance was assessed in relation to four different scenarios: (1) Present deposition, whole tree harvesting; (2) Present deposition, stem harvesting; (3) 30% reduction in deposition, whole tree harvesting; and (4) 30% reduction in deposition, stem harvesting. A majority of the sites reached a positive acidity balance in all scenarios, i.e. they had exceeded the critical load. However, the values decreased with stem harvesting and 30% reduction in deposition. A 30% reduction together with stem harvesting gave the result that 59% of the sites from the National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation and 55% of the sites from the forestry Board achieved a positive balance. That is, almost half of the sites did not exceed the critical load. It is therefore likely that scenario 4 is close to the 50 percentile of exceeding the critical load. After studying the different parameters in the model, it seems that the most important factors for the difference between sites are base cation uptake and weathering. The sample sites that did not reach excessive levels had a low base cation uptake in comparison with other parameters and a relatively high weathering rate. It seems that acidification on the 91 sample sites is less dependent on acid deposition and more on tree

  17. Assessment of the effectiveness of uranium deposit searching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following groups of uranium deposit searching methods are described: radiometric review of foreign work; aerial radiometric survey; automobile radiometric survey; emanation survey up to 1 m; emanation survey up to 2 m; ground radiometric survey; radiometric survey in pits; deep radiometric survey; combination of the above methods; and other methods (drilling survey). For vein-type deposits, the majority of Czech deposits were discovered in 1945-1965 by radiometric review of foreign work, automobile radiometric survey, and emanation survey up to 1 m. The first significant indications of sandstone type uranium deposits were observed in the mid-1960 by aerial radiometric survey and confirmed later by drilling. (P.A.)

  18. Assessing the Sources of Atmospheric Mercury Wet Deposited in Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvonch J. T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available From October 2008 through August 2010, event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg, trace elements, and major ions analysis were collected at six monitoring sites in Florida, USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify the levels of Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources in support of a Hg Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL project. The measurement sites were located in Pensacola, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, Davie, and Everglades National Park. For the period April 2009 through August 2010, Hg wet deposition rates ranged from 26.8 to 38.7 μg/m2 across the six sites. We observed a strong seasonal pattern, with increases in measured Hg concentrations and Hg wet deposition occurring during the summer months, which was further pronounced at the southern sites. We also observed a clear overall spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition, increasing across sites from north to south.

  19. Formation Mechanism and Stability Assessment of the Colluvial Deposit Slope in Zuoyituo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wenxing; Zhang Yihu; Yin Hongmei

    2004-01-01

    The basic features of the colluvial deposit slope in Zuoyituo such as geological conditions, dimensions, slip surfaces and groundwater conditions are described concisely in this paper. The formation mechanism of the slope is discussed. It is considered that the formation of the colluvial deposit slope in Zuoyituo has undergone accumulation, slip, load, deformation and failure. The effects of rainfall on slope stability are categorized systematically based on existing methodology, and ways to determine the effects quantitatively are presented. The remained slip force method is improved by the addition of quantitative relations to the existing formulae and programs. The parameters of the colluvial deposit slope are determined through experimentation and the method of back-analysis. The safety factors of the slope are calculated with the improved remained slip force method and the Sarma method. The results show that rainfall and water level in the Yangtze River have a significant effect on the stability of the colluvial deposit slope in Zuoyituo. The hazards caused by the instability of the slope are assessed, and prevention methods are put forward.

  20. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  1. A global assessment of forest surface albedo and its relationships with climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; Nolè, Angelo; Van Noije, Twan; Borghetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a global assessment of the relationships between the short-wave surface albedo of forests, derived from the MODIS satellite instrument product at 0.5° spatial resolution, with simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates (Ndep ), and climatic variables (mean annual temperature Tm and total annual precipitation P), compiled at the same spatial resolution. The analysis was performed on the following five forest plant functional types (PFTs): evergreen needle-leaf forests (ENF); evergreen broad-leaf forests (EBF); deciduous needle-leaf forests (DNF); deciduous broad-leaf forests (DBF); and mixed-forests (MF). Generalized additive models (GAMs) were applied in the exploratory analysis to assess the functional nature of short-wave surface albedo relations to environmental variables. The analysis showed evident correlations of albedo with environmental predictors when data were pooled across PFTs: Tm and Ndep displayed a positive relationship with forest albedo, while a negative relationship was detected with P. These correlations are primarily due to surface albedo differences between conifer and broad-leaf species, and different species geographical distributions. However, the analysis performed within individual PFTs, strengthened by attempts to select 'pure' pixels in terms of species composition, showed significant correlations with annual precipitation and nitrogen deposition, pointing toward the potential effect of environmental variables on forest surface albedo at the ecosystem level. Overall, our global assessment emphasizes the importance of elucidating the ecological mechanisms that link environmental conditions and forest canopy properties for an improved parameterization of surface albedo in climate models. PMID:25044609

  2. Lithostratigraphy, depositional history and sea level changes of the Cauvery Basin, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvairvasamy Ramkumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary sequence exposed in the erstwhile Tiruchirapalli district hosts a more or less complete geological record of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary period. Systematic field mapping, collation of data on the micro-meso scale lithology, sedimentary structures, petrography, faunal assemblage and facies relationships of these rocks, in the light of modern stratigraphic concepts, helped to enumerate the lithostratigraphic setup and depositional history of the basin. Spatial and temporal variations of the lithologies and revised stratigraphic units are presented in this paper. Many high frequency sea level cycles (presumably fourth or higher order which stack up to form third order sea level cycles (six in number, which in turn form part of second order cycles (two in number, including seven eustatic sea level peaks, have been recorded in this basin. Trend analysis of sea level curves indicates a gradual increase of the sea level from Barremian to Coniacian and a gradual decrease from Coniacian to Danian. Such lasting sea level trends had their influence on the sedimentation pattern and facies association. It is inferred that depositional bathymetry was maintained at a shallow-moderate level, primarily influenced by a lack of major subsidence during the depositional history of this basin. The study also revealed a prevalent simple basin filling process and dominant control by sea level changes, rather than tectonic movements over the depositional regime.

  3. The Influence of Strategic Alternatives on the Increasing Level Value of the Term Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Catalina Turkes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the influence of the strategic alternative on the value level increase of the term deposits attracted from the Romanian’s population households, during the period 2012 – Q1/2015, depending on the change of the standards related to deposits granting in RON, EURO and other currencies, but also depending on the aggregate volume of deposits demand at a national level. One-way ANOVA represents the ideal model to emphasize that the average of the term deposits attracted from the population’s households during the last four years is influenced by the strategic alternative used by the credit institutions. The results of this analysis underlined the fact that there is a strong link between the strategic alternative adopted by the banks and the change of the value level of the term deposits intended for the population. The strategies to attract RON deposits proved to be more efficient compared to the strategies adopted by the banks for other currencies.

  4. Using foliar and forest floor mercury concentrations to assess spatial patterns of mercury deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated spatial patterns of mercury (Hg) deposition through analysis of foliage and forest floor samples from 45 sites across Adirondack Park, NY. Species-specific differences in foliar Hg were evident with the lowest concentrations found in first-year conifer needles and highest concentrations found in black cherry (Prunus serotina). For foliage and forest floor samples, latitude and longitude were negatively correlated with Hg concentrations, likely because of proximity to emission sources, while elevation was positively correlated with Hg concentrations. Elemental analysis showed moderately strong, positive correlations between Hg and nitrogen concentrations. The spatial pattern of Hg deposition across the Adirondacks is similar to patterns of other contaminants that originate largely from combustion sources such as nitrogen and sulfur. The results of this study suggest foliage can be used to assess spatial patterns of Hg deposition in small regions or areas of varied topography where current Hg deposition models are too coarse to predict deposition accurately. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations were negatively correlated with latitude and longitude. • This pattern suggests regional emissions may be affecting mercury deposition rates. • Hg deposition pattern was similar to deposition patterns for N and S. • Foliage samples are a useful indicator of atmospheric Hg deposition rates. - Foliar mercury concentrations reflect current mercury deposition rates and are useful for assessing regional patterns of atmospheric mercury deposition

  5. Ecotoxicity assessment at three tropical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several ecotoxicity test methods have been standardised to ensure international acceptance of data for predicting environmental risk of chemical substances. Test organism, concentration exposure duration, and end point effects are fundamental consideration in these methods. While concentration-exposure and end-point effect such as 96LC50 are easily decided, the choice of test organism species is more complex. The aquatic ecosystem for example is teemed with multitude of species that may show differing response to the same toxicant or pollutant. The basic tests recommended by OECD includes three functionally important types of organisms namely alga, daphnia, and fish that represent three trophical levels. Alga presenting the phytoplankton level is food to daphnia, a zooplankton that is in turn food to fishes. Daphnia species hardly thrives in the tropical environment and is replaced instead by Moina sp. of the same Cladoceran order. The sensitivity of the three types of organisms differs. The LC50/EC50 values of cadmium chloride for tilapia, moina macrocopa and chlorella vulgaris (alga) range from 30 mg/1 to 0.2 mg/1 with moina macrocopa being the most sensitive. The least resistant species is not necessarily at the lowest trophical level. Tests on industrial effluents gave similar trends. Wastewater from an industrial drain that received discharge from chemical-based industries generated the lowest EC50 for moina macrocopa at 0.1%, algae at 0.3% and tilapia at 2.4%. Effluent from a paper processing factory however did not yield any EC50 value for moina while fish and alga had LC50 and EC50 values of 44% and 0.005%, respectively. The trends of acute toxicity tests on fish, moina and alga illustrate the necessity of conducting ecotoxicological testings on at least these three trophical levels. Assessment can be made based on the most sensitive species to ensure protection of the ecosystem through conservation of the food chain cycle. (Author)

  6. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R., II; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  7. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, P.; Theobald, M. R.; Dias, T.; Tang, Y. S.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.; Máguas, C.; Sutton, M.; Branquinho, C.

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations) can be established. Few studies have assessed these thresholds for semi-natural Mediterranean ecosystems. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. We have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, one of the most sensitive comunity indicators of excessive N in the atmosphere. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done for a Mediterranean climate in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, based on the relation between lichen functional diversity and modelled N deposition for critical loads and measured annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations for critical levels, evaluated downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and annual atmospheric ammonia concentration showed the critical level to be below 1.9 μg m-3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition showed that the critical load was lower than 26 kg (N) ha-1 yr-1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should aid development of policies to protect Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  8. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pinho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds such as critical loads (deposition fluxes and levels (concentrations can be established. Few studies have assessed these thresholds for semi-natural Mediterranean ecosystems. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. We have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, one of the most sensitive comunity indicators of excessive N in the atmosphere. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done for a Mediterranean climate in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, based on the relation between lichen functional diversity and modelled N deposition for critical loads and measured annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations for critical levels, evaluated downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn. Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and annual atmospheric ammonia concentration showed the critical level to be below 1.9 μg m−3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition showed that the critical load was lower than 26 kg (N ha−1 yr−1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should aid development of policies to protect Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  9. Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malaysia - Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This assessment of compliance with the Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems (Core Principles) was conducted as a part of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) performed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank at the request of the Malaysian government. This assessment was conducted by Claire McGuire, Senior Financial Sector Specialist with the Worl...

  10. Responses of hydraulics at the whole-plant level to simulated nitrogen deposition of different levels in Fraxinus mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Ying; Wang, Miao; Yang, Da; Song, Jia; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Han, Shi-Jie; Hao, Guang-You

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is expected to have great impact on forest ecosystems by affecting many aspects of plant-environmental interactions, one of which involves its influences on plant water relations through modifications of plant hydraulic architecture. However, there is a surprising lack of integrative study on tree hydraulic architecture responses to N deposition, especially at the whole-plant level. In the present study, we used a 5-year N addition experiment to simulate the effects of six different levels of N deposition (20-120 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) on growth and whole-plant hydraulic conductance of a dominant tree species (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.) from the typical temperate forest of NE China. The results showed that alleviation of N limitation by moderate concentrations of fertilization (20-80 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) promoted plant growth, but further N additions on top of the threshold level showed negative effects on plant growth. Growth responses of F. mandshurica seedlings to N addition of different concentrations were accompanied by corresponding changes in whole-plant hydraulic conductance; higher growth rate was accompanied by reduced whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and higher leaf water-use efficiency. A detailed analysis on hydraulic conductance of different components of the whole-plant water transport pathway revealed that changes in root and leaf hydraulic conductance, rather than that of the stem, were responsible for Kplant responses to N fertilization. Both plant growth and hydraulic architecture responses to increasing levels of N addition were not linear, i.e., the correlation between measured parameters and N availability exhibited bell-shaped curves with peak values observed at medium levels of N fertilization. Changes in hydraulic architecture in response to fertilization found in the present study may represent an important underlying mechanism for the commonly observed changes in water-related tree performances

  11. Responses of hydraulics at the whole-plant level to simulated nitrogen deposition of different levels in Fraxinus mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Ying; Wang, Miao; Yang, Da; Song, Jia; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Han, Shi-Jie; Hao, Guang-You

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is expected to have great impact on forest ecosystems by affecting many aspects of plant-environmental interactions, one of which involves its influences on plant water relations through modifications of plant hydraulic architecture. However, there is a surprising lack of integrative study on tree hydraulic architecture responses to N deposition, especially at the whole-plant level. In the present study, we used a 5-year N addition experiment to simulate the effects of six different levels of N deposition (20-120 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) on growth and whole-plant hydraulic conductance of a dominant tree species (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.) from the typical temperate forest of NE China. The results showed that alleviation of N limitation by moderate concentrations of fertilization (20-80 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) promoted plant growth, but further N additions on top of the threshold level showed negative effects on plant growth. Growth responses of F. mandshurica seedlings to N addition of different concentrations were accompanied by corresponding changes in whole-plant hydraulic conductance; higher growth rate was accompanied by reduced whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and higher leaf water-use efficiency. A detailed analysis on hydraulic conductance of different components of the whole-plant water transport pathway revealed that changes in root and leaf hydraulic conductance, rather than that of the stem, were responsible for Kplant responses to N fertilization. Both plant growth and hydraulic architecture responses to increasing levels of N addition were not linear, i.e., the correlation between measured parameters and N availability exhibited bell-shaped curves with peak values observed at medium levels of N fertilization. Changes in hydraulic architecture in response to fertilization found in the present study may represent an important underlying mechanism for the commonly observed changes in water-related tree performances

  12. Do N-isotopes in atmospheric nitrate deposition reflect air pollution levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyn, Fabian; Matthias, Volker; Aulinger, Armin; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2015-04-01

    Dry and wet deposition of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds mostly originate from anthropogenic NH3 and NOX sources. Regarding land-borne pollutants, coastal environments usually have a lower pollution level than terrestrial/urban areas, which have a greater anthropogenic imprint. To investigate this spatial characteristic, we measured NO3- and NH4+ deposition and N isotopes of NO3-(δ15N-NO3-) in 94 and 88 wet and dry deposition samples, respectively, at a coastal (List on Sylt) and a terrestrial/urban site (Geesthacht) in Germany from May 2012 to May 2013. A higher total N deposition rate was observed in Geesthacht (10.4 vs. 8.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1) due to higher NH4+ deposition, which can be explained by more agricultural influence. Surprisingly, overall NO3- fluxes were higher at the coastal site than at the terrestrial/urban site. We assume that sea-salt aerosols and the increased influence of NOX emissions from ships in most recent times compensate the higher terrestrial/urban pollution level and thus lead to higher NO3- fluxes in dry and comparable fluxes in wet deposition at the coastal site, despite a much lower impact of land-based sources. In line with this, overall mean N isotopes values of NO3- show higher values in List than in Geesthacht in dry (+3.1 vs. +1.9‰) as well as in wet deposition (-0.1 vs. -1.0‰). This surprising result can mainly be attributed to an emerging source of NOX, ship emissions, which have a distinctly higher impact at the coastal site. The usage of heavy oil and possibly new technologies in marine engines, which emit more enriched 15N in comparison to older engines, caused the spatial isotopic differences.

  13. The timing of Mediterranean sapropel deposition relative to insolation, sea-level and African monsoon changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, K. M.; Grimm, R.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Marino, G.; Ziegler, M.; Rohling, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is sensitive to global sea-level changes and African monsoon variability on orbital timescales. Both of these processes are thought to be important to the deposition of organic-rich sediment layers or 'sapropels' throughout the eastern Mediterranean, yet their relative influe

  14. Base level change and depositional filling response of Jurassic in the Qiangtang Basin of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The base level during the deposition of Jurassic in the Qiangtang Basin shows a complete cycle from rising to falling. The base level change is closely connected with tectonic evolution of the basin,especially connected with Bangonghu-Nujiang ocean evolution process in the formation and evolution of the basin. It is also affected by climate. The Jurassic strata correspond to a long-term base level cycle sequence. The sequence is in fact a non-complete symmetrical cycle,consisting of rising hemicycle and falling hemicycle. It can be divided into 6 intermediate-term base level cycle sequences,including 2 carbonate sequences,3 mixture sedimentary sequences of carbonate and clastic rocks and one clastic sedimentary sequence. Depositional filling characteristics during base level change show that Bangonghu-Nujiang ocean spreads in Toarcian-Bajocian ages,and is at the height of spreading of Bangonghu-Nujiang ocean in Bathonian-Oxfordian ages. In that process,sea area became smaller because of the dry climate. Eventually,marine depositional filling is ended with the subduction and collision of Bangonghu-Nujiang ocean.

  15. A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores: Chapter A in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Fey, David L.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a descriptive model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits that presents their geological, mineralogical and geochemical attributes and is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new models that will be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment. This deposit modeling effort by the USGS is intended to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Included in this report are geological, geophysical and geochemical assessment guides to assist in mineral resource estimation. The deposit attributes, including grade and tonnage of the deposits described in this report are based on a new mineral deposits data set of all known MVT deposits in the world.

  16. Methodology for quantifying uncertainty in coal assessments with an application to a Texas lignite deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Luppens, James A.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A common practice for characterizing uncertainty in coal resource assessments has been the itemization of tonnage at the mining unit level and the classification of such units according to distance to drilling holes. Distance criteria, such as those used in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 891, are still widely used for public disclosure. A major deficiency of distance methods is that they do not provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Additionally, relying on distance between data points alone does not take into consideration other factors known to have an influence on uncertainty, such as spatial correlation, type of probability distribution followed by the data, geological discontinuities, and boundary of the deposit. Several geostatistical methods have been combined to formulate a quantitative characterization for appraising uncertainty. Drill hole datasets ranging from widespread exploration drilling to detailed development drilling from a lignite deposit in Texas were used to illustrate the modeling. The results show that distance to the nearest drill hole is almost completely unrelated to uncertainty, which confirms the inadequacy of characterizing uncertainty based solely on a simple classification of resources by distance classes. The more complex statistical methods used in this study quantify uncertainty and show good agreement between confidence intervals in the uncertainty predictions and data from additional drilling. (author)

  17. Higher level learning outcomes attained through assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carravilla; José Fernando Oliveira; Manuel Pina Marques

    2012-01-01

    Bloom#8217;s taxonomy for learning domains proposes six categories for the cognitive domain, that go from the basic remembering of facts and definitions to the complex creation act, in which new knowledge structures or patterns are built or new meanings assigned. The Bologna Declaration strained the emphasis on the learning outcomes and on their alignment with the assessment. In this paper a step forward is proposed, in which the assessment process itself has a central role in the attainment ...

  18. An occurrence model for the national assessment of volcanogenic beryllium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Hetland, Brianna

    2010-01-01

    The general occurrence model summarized here is intended to provide a descriptive basis for the identification and assessment of undiscovered beryllium deposits of a type and style similar to those found at Spor Mountain, Juab County, Utah. The assessment model is restricted in its application in order to provide a coherent basis for assessing the probability of the occurrence of similar economic deposits using the current U.S. Geological Survey methodology. The model is intended to be used to identify tracts of land where volcanogenic epithermal replacement-type beryllium deposits hosted by metaluminous to peraluminous rhyolite are most likely to occur. Only a limited number of deposits or districts of this type are known, and only the ores of the Spor Mountain district have been studied in detail. The model highlights those distinctive aspects and features of volcanogenic epithermal beryllium deposits that pertain to the development of assessment criteria and puts forward a baseline analysis of the geoenvironmental consequences of mining deposits of this type.

  19. Messinian evaporite deposition during sea level rise in the Gulf of Lions (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Bache, François; Gargani, Julien; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Gorini, Christian; Rabineau, Marina; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Leroux, Estelle; Do Couto, Damien; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Olivet, Jean-Louis; Clauzon, Georges; Dos Reis, Antonio Tadeu; Aslanian, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Messinian Salinity Crisis resulted from desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea after its isolation from the Atlantic Ocean at the end of the Miocene. Stratal geometry tied to borehole data in the Gulf of Lions show that the pre-crisis continental shelf has been eroded during a major sea-level fall and that sedi-ments from this erosion have been deposited in the basin. This detrital package is onlapped by high amplitude seismic reflectors overlain by the "Messinian ...

  20. Assessment of toxicity in waters due to heavy metals derived from atmospheric deposition using Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukurluoglu, Sibel; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2013-01-01

    Water toxicity originating from the atmospheric deposition of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) was investigated on Vibrio fischeri activity in Izmir, Turkey. A LUMIStox® test was applied to dry and wet deposition samples and metal solutions. The inhibition levels and effective toxicity concentrations of these samples and solutions were determined. Interactive toxicity effects among the metals were investigated. When the impacts of the synthetic single heavy metal solutions were compared with each other, a toxicity ranking of Cr>Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn>Ni was obtained in order of decreasing severity. The total effective concentrations of these six metals were in the ranges of 0.074-0.221 mg/L and 0.071-0.225 mg/L for receiving aqueous solutions of dry and wet atmospheric depositions, respectively. The toxicity data showed that the wet deposition samples were 15% more toxic than the dry deposition samples. The interactive toxicity effects of the heavy metals in both dry and wet deposition samples were classified as antagonistic. High levels of heavy metals deposited in dissolved form may constitute an important input in the biochemical cycle and may have significant impacts. PMID:23030388

  1. Plant volatiles induced by herbivore egg deposition affect insects of different trophic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina E Fatouros

    Full Text Available Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae. Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant's volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels.

  2. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    Preface The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way? Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on 'Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development' at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18-19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development. The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  3. The timing of Mediterranean sapropel deposition relative to insolation, sea-level and African monsoon changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. M.; Grimm, R.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Marino, G.; Ziegler, M.; Rohling, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin is sensitive to global sea-level changes and African monsoon variability on orbital timescales. Both of these processes are thought to be important to the deposition of organic-rich sediment layers or 'sapropels' throughout the eastern Mediterranean, yet their relative influences remain ambiguous. A related issue is that an assumed 3-kyr lag between boreal insolation maxima and sapropel mid-points remains to be tested. Here we present new geochemical and ice-volume-corrected planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope records for sapropels S1 (Holocene), S3, S4, and S5 (Marine Isotope Stage 5) in core LC21 from the southern Aegean Sea. The records have a radiometrically constrained chronology that has already been synchronised with the Red Sea relative sea-level record, and this allows detailed examination of the timing of sapropel deposition relative to insolation, sea-level, and African monsoon changes. We find that sapropel onset was near-synchronous with monsoon run-off into the eastern Mediterranean, but that insolation-sapropel/monsoon phasings were not systematic through the last glacial cycle. These latter phasings instead appear to relate to sea-level changes. We propose that persistent meltwater discharges into the North Atlantic (e.g., at glacial terminations) modified the timing of sapropel deposition by delaying the timing of peak African monsoon run-off. These observations may reconcile apparent model-data offsets with respect to the orbital pacing of the African monsoon. Our observations also imply that the previous assumption of a systematic 3-kyr lag between insolation maxima and sapropel midpoints may lead to overestimated insolation-sapropel phasings. Finally, we surmise that both sea-level rise and monsoon run-off contributed to surface-water buoyancy changes at times of sapropel deposition, and their relative influences differed per sapropel case, depending on their magnitudes. Sea-level rise was clearly important for

  4. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, C.L.; Byrne, M.A.; Andersson, K.G.; Bell, K.F.; Roed, J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Vollmair, D.V.; Hotchkiss, S.A.M

    1999-06-01

    In the past, very little thought has been given to the processes and implications of deposition of potentially hazardous aerosol directly onto humans. This state of unpreparedness is unsatisfactory and suitable protocols have been developed and validated for tracer experiments to investigate the deposition and subsequent fate of contaminant aerosol on skin, hair and clothing. The main technique applied involves the release and subsequent deposition on volunteers in test rooms of particles of different sizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers. Experiments indicate that the deposition velocity to skin increases linearly with the particle size. A wind tunnel experiment simulating outdoor conditions showed a dependence on skin deposition velocity of wind speed, indicating that outdoor deposition velocities may be great. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted, and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. The dynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. This technique was also applied to estimate the fraction of aerosol dust transferred to skin by contact with a contaminated surface. The various parameters determined were applied to establish a model for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses from deposition on skin may be expected to be of the same order of magnitude as the gamma doses received over the first year from contamination on outdoor surfaces. According to the calculations, beta doses from skin deposition to individuals in areas of Russia, where dry deposition of Chernobyl fallout led to very high levels of contamination, may have amounted to several Sievert and may thus be responsible for a significant cancer risk. (au)

  5. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, very little thought has been given to the processes and implications of deposition of potentially hazardous aerosol directly onto humans. This state of unpreparedness is unsatisfactory and suitable protocols have been developed and validated for tracer experiments to investigate the deposition and subsequent fate of contaminant aerosol on skin, hair and clothing. The main technique applied involves the release and subsequent deposition on volunteers in test rooms of particles of different sizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers. Experiments indicate that the deposition velocity to skin increases linearly with the particle size. A wind tunnel experiment simulating outdoor conditions showed a dependence on skin deposition velocity of wind speed, indicating that outdoor deposition velocities may be great. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted, and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. The dynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. This technique was also applied to estimate the fraction of aerosol dust transferred to skin by contact with a contaminated surface. The various parameters determined were applied to establish a model for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses from deposition on skin may be expected to be of the same order of magnitude as the gamma doses received over the first year from contamination on outdoor surfaces. According to the calculations, beta doses from skin deposition to individuals in areas of Russia, where dry deposition of Chernobyl fallout led to very high levels of contamination, may have amounted to several Sievert and may thus be responsible for a significant cancer risk. (au)

  6. Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10μgm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32μgm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois

  7. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  8. Dynamic geochemical models to assess deposition impacts of metals for soils and surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Tipping, E.; Bonten, L.T.C.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of geochemical models to assess the impacts of the deposition of metals on the concentrations of metals in soils and surface waters. We describe three dynamic models: SMART2-metals, SMARTml and CHUM-AM, each with their specific purpose and geographical scale of applica

  9. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, J.G.; Bell, K.F.; Byrne, M.A.; Fogh, C.L.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Vollmair, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The deposition to human body surfaces of potentially hazardous aerosol has been investigated through tracer experiments. Particles of different sizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers were released in test rooms and deposited on volunteers. Various sampling techniques to examine the clearance and retention of the aerosol to skin, hair and clothing were investigated, and a protocol for the most efficient procedure was established and validated. Experiments indicate that the deposition velocity to skin increases linearly with the particle size. A wind tunnel experiment simulating outdoor conditions showed outdoor deposition velocities to be almost an order of magnitude higher than those recorded indoors. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted, and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. The dynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. Using the experimentally determined parameters, a model was established for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses that could be expected from deposition on skin were of the same order of magnitude as the gamma doses received over several years from contamination on outdoor surfaces. Assuming very high dry contamination levels, as were recorded in some areas of Russia after the Chernobyl accident, it was found that beta doses from skin deposition may amount to several Sievert and thus be responsible for a significant cancer risk. (au). 12 tabs., 9 ills., 43 refs.

  10. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition to human body surfaces of potentially hazardous aerosol has been investigated through tracer experiments. Particles of different sizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers were released in test rooms and deposited on volunteers. Various sampling techniques to examine the clearance and retention of the aerosol to skin, hair and clothing were investigated, and a protocol for the most efficient procedure was established and validated. Experiments indicate that the deposition velocity to skin increases linearly with the particle size. A wind tunnel experiment simulating outdoor conditions showed outdoor deposition velocities to be almost an order of magnitude higher than those recorded indoors. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted, and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. The dynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. Using the experimentally determined parameters, a model was established for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses that could be expected from deposition on skin were of the same order of magnitude as the gamma doses received over several years from contamination on outdoor surfaces. Assuming very high dry contamination levels, as were recorded in some areas of Russia after the Chernobyl accident, it was found that beta doses from skin deposition may amount to several Sievert and thus be responsible for a significant cancer risk. (au)

  11. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Byrne, M.A.; Andersson, Kasper Grann;

    1999-01-01

    , and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. Thedynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. This technique was also applied to estimate the fraction of aerosol dust transferred to skin by contact...... with a contaminated surface. The various parameters determined wereapplied to establish a model for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses from deposition on skin may be expected to be of the same order...... of magnitudeas the gamma doses received over the first year from contamination on outdoor surfaces. According to the calculations, beta doses from skin deposition to individuals in areas of Russia, where dry deposition of Chernobyl fallout led to very high levels ofcontamination, may have amounted to several...

  12. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  13. Benefits of deposition reduction for nature management; a nation-wide assessment of the relation between atmospheric deposition, ecological quality and avoidable management costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.J.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Dobben, van H.F.; Wijk, van M.N.

    2004-01-01

    Alterra was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to estimate the additional costs made by nature reserve managers to mitigate the effects of atmospheric deposition. The costs of increasing deposition levels - or the benefits of reducing depositio

  14. Assessment of dry and wet atmospheric deposits of radioactive aerosols: application to Fukushima radiocaesium fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Marc-André; Renaud, Philippe; Korsakissok, Irène; Kato, Hiroaki; Hinton, Thomas G; Mourlon, Christophe; Simon-Cornu, Marie

    2014-10-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident led to massive atmospheric deposition of radioactive substances onto the land surfaces. The spatial distribution of deposits has been estimated by Japanese authorities for gamma-emitting radionuclides through either airborne monitoring surveys (since April 2011) or in situ gamma-ray spectrometry of bare soil areas (since summer 2011). We demonstrate that significant differences exist between the two surveys for radiocaesium isotopes and that these differences can be related to dry deposits through the use of physically based relationships involving aerosol deposition velocities. The methodology, which has been applied to cesium-134 and cesium-137 deposits within 80-km of the nuclear site, provides reasonable spatial estimations of dry and wet deposits that are discussed and compared to atmospheric numerical simulations from the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. As a complementary approach to numerical simulations, this field-based analysis has the possibility to contribute information that can be applied to the understanding and assessment of dose impacts to human populations and the environment around Fukushima. PMID:25196232

  15. Assessment of pulmonary aerosol deposition and epithelial permeability in 99mTc-DTPA inhalation scintigram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree of lung injury in bronchiolo-alveolar lesions may be quantitated from the pulmonary epithelial permeability estimated by 99mTc-diethylene triamine penta acetate (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigram. However, significant aerosol deposition sometimes occurs in the central airways and obscures the peameability change in the lung periphery. The radioaerosol deposition pattern and its effct on assessing the pulmonary epithelial permeability was studied. 99mTc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in 47 patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), 12 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), and 27 non-smoking and 17 smoking healthy volunteers. The scintigraphic images of the lungs were classified into 4 grades: 0=homogeneous distribution; 1=patchy distribution; 2=hot spots with partial defects; and 3= hot spots with little deposition in the lung field. The rate constant was used as a parameter for the permeability. The smokers and patients with PF showed increased kep values of 2.36±1.21%/min (mean±SD) and 2.49±1.29% min as compared with the nonsmokers with 0.94±0.27% min, respectively. The nonsmokers, smokers and 36 patients with PF were classified as deposition grade 0 or 1, suggesting good aerosol penetration to the lung periphery. All patients with COPD showed either grade 2 or 3 deposition. Aerosol deposition in the central airways can cause underestimation of the permeability because of the thicker lining layer in the bronchus than in the alveolus. In conclusion, the aerosol deposition pattern should be analyzed when the method is applied clinically to assess the permeability of the bronchiolo-alveolar epithelium. (author)

  16. Deposition of trace elements in the Trail region, British Columbia : an assessment of the environmental effect of a base metal smelter on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Sanei, H. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Duncan, W.F. [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., Trail, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A two-year study was conducted to assess the spatial deposition and accumulation of trace elements on surface soil near a base metal smelter in Trail, British Columbia. The deposition was monitored by 22 flat moss-monitoring stations. The aerial deposition and accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc on the surface soil near the smelter was assessed. The objective was to determine the cumulative deposition of the elements that settle on land and to determine the influence of the pollution source in terms of deposition pattern and seasonal variation. The deposition of the trace elements was found to be highest near the smelter. The pattern of deposition varied seasonally. The factors affecting deposition were meteorological conditions, physiography, and in-process activities at the smelter. Production levels of lead and zinc at the smelter and the quantity of emissions from the stack were more directly related to the observed aerial deposition of elements than any other factor. There was a good correlation between the deposition rate of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper by the monitoring stations and the quantity of elements in the soil, suggesting the possible effect of airborne materials on the geochemistry of the soil in the study area. However, there was a poor correlation for mercury and arsenic, suggesting these elements in the soil samples may be related to soil chemistry instead of atmospheric deposition. The results provide an improved understanding of the net increase of trace elements in surface soil over a given period of time. 89 refs., 14 tabs., 18 figs.

  17. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ASSESSMENT LEVEL OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Vorona, E.

    2010-01-01

    A study of current approaches to assessing the level of social responsibility. Proposed methodological approach to evaluating the performance of the social responsibility of railway transport. Conceptual Basis of social reporting in rail transport.

  18. Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality

  19. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  20. LEAF WASHING AS AN ASSESSMENT TOOL TO CHARACTERIZE DRY ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Vittori Antisari; Serena Carbone; Chiara Ferronato; Andrea Simoni; Gilmo Vianello

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize dry atmospheric deposition after the washing of broad leaves and conifer foliage. To assess this method different sites chosen on the basis of different exposure to both point (e.g. waste incinerator plant (WIP), local crafts) and widespread (e.g. roads, agricultural practices) sources of anthropogenic pollution.The principal components analysis (PCA), performed on the major and trace elements identified after leaf washing, extracted four factors. F2 w...

  1. Extreme-wave deposits in the Caribbean - towards an improved tsunami hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Oetjen, Jan; May, S. Matthias; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Coastal zones worldwide experience considerable population pressure and demand for a management of hazards such as tsunamis. Tsunami hazard assessment is the initial step of the management process and requires reliable information on frequency and magnitude. In areas with short historical documentation, these long-term frequency-magnitude patterns, which are best explained by inverse power-law functions, mainly rely on geological traces. According to the historical record covering the last 520 years, Caribbean tsunami hazard is demonstrated by more than 80 mostly regional or local seismically induced events. However, based on two numerical hydrodynamic models of tsunamis spawning at the Muertos Trough and the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (SCBD), two trigger scenarios only marginally considered so far, we show that pan-Caribbean tsunamis can be taken into account as well. We furthermore review more than 50 studies for possible geological evidence of tsunamis in the Caribbean including fine-grained subsurface deposits and subaerial coarse clasts, and re-evaluate their implications for tsunami hazard assessment against state-of-the-art models of tsunami deposition. Only a limited number of reliable palaeotsunami records with consistent and robust age control were identified, hampering inter-island or interregional correlation of deposits. Separating between storm and tsunami transport of solitary boulders is very difficult in most cases. Those arranged in ridges or incorporated into polymodal ridge complexes or ramparts, respectively, which line many windward coasts of the Caribbean, can mainly be attributed to long-term formation during strong storms implying the overprinting of potential tsunami signatures. The quantification of parameters of tsunami flooding based on tsunami deposits, such as flow depth, inundation distance or flow velocity, by applying inverse and forward numerical models of sediment transport is still underdeveloped in the Caribbean and needs to

  2. Guatemala - Poverty assessment : good performance at low levels

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report is organized into three sections with seven chapters. The first section assesses poverty levels and changes over time within Guatemala and compares both the levels and changes to those of other countries. It summarizes the overall conditions and changes in Guatemala (chapter one); presents the country's poverty profile and analyzes the evolution of poverty over time and space u...

  3. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1996-09-16

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single- and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and its performance as early as possible in the project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  4. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  5. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  6. Holocene depositional environments and surface-level changes at Lake Fryxell, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, T.E.; Hall, B.L.; Hendy, C.H.; Spaulding, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on Holocene surface-level variations of Lake Fryxell, Antarctica, as determined from multi-proxy analyses of 18 sediment cores. During this time accumulating sediments were predominantly aeolian sand with algal and carbonate laminae. Based on stratigraphy, mineralogy and diatom assemblages we suggest some carbonate laminae were deposited when lake level dropped, leading to concentration and subsequent precipitation of salts. Although lake level appears to have remained relatively stable throughout the Holocene, minor (<4.5 m below present) lowstands occurred at approximately 6400, 4700, 3800 and ??? 1600 cal. yr BP. The stability of Lake Fryxell during the Holocene contrasts with large-scale variability at other Dry Valleys lakes (eg, Lake Vanda) and with suggestions from chemical diffusion models of a near-desiccation at ???1200 cal. yr BP. The reason for the comparative stability of Lake Fryxell is uncertain, but may be the result of basin morphology and the number, aspect and proximity of meltwater sources. ?? 2008 SAGE Publications.

  7. Accounting of 131l decomposition under retrospective assessment of its deposition on the basis of determination of 129l deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilin Yu.l.

    2013-12-01

    given article aimed a justification of approaches to account of radioactive decay of 131l in the course of determination of its ground deposition density on the basis of determination of the ground deposition density of 129l at the late stage after the accident.

  8. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in world biodiversity hotspots: the need for a greater global perspective in assessing N deposition impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phoenix, G.K.; Hicks, W.K.; Cinderby, S.; Kuylenstierna, J.C.I.; Stock, W.D.; Dentener, F.J.; Giller, K.E.; Austin, A.T.; Lefroy, R.D.B.; Gimeno, B.S.; Ashmore, M.R.; Ineson, P.

    2006-01-01

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is known to reduce plant diversity in natural and semi-natural ecosystems, yet our understanding of these impacts comes almost entirely from studies in northern Europe and North America. Currently, we lack an understanding of the threat of N deposition t

  9. STATE OF THE ART OF DRILLING LARGE DIAMETER BOREHOLES FOR DEPOSITION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological disposal is internationally recognized as the safest and most sustainable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. Mainly, clay rock, salt rock and crystalline rock are being considered as possible host rocks. Different geological environment in different countries led to the various repository concepts. Main feature of the most matured repository concept is that canisters with spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in vertical or horizontal large diameter deposition holes. Drilling technology of the deposition holes depends on repository concept and geological and geomechanical characteristics of the rock. The deposition holes are mechanically excavated since drill & blast is not a possible method due to requirements on final geometry like surface roughness etc. Different methods of drilling large diameter boreholes for deposition of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel are described. Comparison of methods is made considering performance and particularities in technology.

  10. Mid to late Holocene sea-level reconstruction of Southeast Vietnam using beachrock and beach-ridge deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattegger, K.; Tjallingii, R.; Saito, Y.; Michelli, M.; Thanh, N.T.; Wetzel, A.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractBeachrocks, beach ridge, washover and backshore deposits along the tectonically stable south-eastern Vietnamese coast document Holocene sea level changes. In combination with data from the final marine flooding phase of the incised Mekong River valley, the sea-level history of South Vietnam

  11. Reading Leveled Books in Assessment-Saturated Classrooms: A Close Examination of Unmarked Processes of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontovourki, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the reading of leveled books and the assessment of students' reading levels in a public school classroom. The purpose of the research study was to examine how these processes of assessment, which often go unnoticed, shaped the ways reading and readers were defined. The research was located in a third grade, public school…

  12. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  13. Preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary assessments of the post-closure radiological impact from the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow engineered facilities at four sites are presented. This provides a framework to practice and refine a methodology that could be used, on behalf of the Department, for independent assessment of any similar proposal from Nirex. Information and methodological improvements that would be required are identified. (author)

  14. Thermal imaging for assessment of electron-beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) additive manufacturing deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Taminger, Karen M.; Domack, Christopher S.; Brewer, Amy; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-05-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapidly growing field where 3-dimensional parts can be produced layer by layer. NASA's electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) technology is being evaluated to manufacture metallic parts in a space environment. The benefits of EBF3 technology are weight savings to support space missions, rapid prototyping in a zero gravity environment, and improved vehicle readiness. The EBF3 system is composed of 3 main components: electron beam gun, multi-axis position system, and metallic wire feeder. The electron beam is used to melt the wire and the multi-axis positioning system is used to build the part layer by layer. To insure a quality deposit, a near infrared (NIR) camera is used to image the melt pool and solidification areas. This paper describes the calibration and application of a NIR camera for temperature measurement. In addition, image processing techniques are presented for deposit assessment metrics.

  15. Reconstructing temporal trends in heavy metal deposition: Assessing the value of herbarium moss samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shotbolt, L. [Geography Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.shotbolt@qmul.ac.uk; Bueker, P. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pb25@york.ac.uk; Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ma512@york.ac.uk

    2007-05-15

    The use of the herbarium moss archive for investigating past atmospheric deposition of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb was evaluated. Moss samples from five UK regions collected over 150 years were analysed for 26 elements using ICP-MS. Principal components analysis identified soil as a significant source of Ni and As and atmospheric deposition as the main source of Pb and Cu. Sources of Zn and Cd concentrations were identified to be at least partly atmospheric, but require further investigation. Temporal and spatial trends in metal concentrations in herbarium mosses showed that the highest Pb and Cu levels are found in Northern England in the late 19th century. Metal concentrations in herbarium moss samples were consistently higher than those in mosses collected from the field in 2000. Herbarium moss samples are concluded to be a useful resource to contribute to reconstructing trends in Pb and Cu deposition, but not, without further analysis, for Cd, Zn, As and Ni. - Herbarium moss samples can contribute to the reconstruction of past heavy metal deposition.

  16. A modelling study of regional deposition of inspired aerosols with reference to dosimetric assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W. (UKAEA Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth (UK))

    1988-01-01

    An improved lung deposition model, agreeing well with a wide range of total and regional deposition data, was used to investigate some assumptions embodied in current ICRP recommendations. Following a comparison between predictions of the new model and the original ICRP Task Group deposition model, the possible influence upon dosimetric calculations caused by various different effects were investigated. Some significant differences between regional deposition predictions of the new model and the current ICRP recommendations embodied in Publication 30 were found, up to a factor of approx 4 in some cases. The impact of improved modelling, aerosol polydispersity, the possibility of mouth as compared to nose breathing and exercise level (especially if there is transition from nose to mouth breathing at high work rates) were observed to be the most important. The impact of different breathing patterns was found to be less significant while the effect of different particle densities could be relatively successfully accounted for via a suitable transition from geometric to aerodynamic diameter. (author).

  17. Black shale deposition during Toarcian super-greenhouse driven by sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hermoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most elusive aspects of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE is the paradox between carbon isotopes that indicate intense global primary productivity and organic carbon burial at a global scale, and the delayed expression of anoxia in Europe. During the earliest Toarcian, no black shales were deposited in the European epicontinental seaways, and most organic carbon enrichment of the sediments postdated the T-OAE (defined by the overarching positive trend in the carbon isotopes. In the present studied, we have attempted to establish a sequence stratigraphy framework for Early Toarcian deposits recovered from a core drilled in the Paris Basin using a combination of mineralogical (quartz and clay relative abundance and geochemical (Si, Zr, Ti and Al measurements. Combined with the evolution in redox sensitive elements (Fe, V and Mo, the data suggest that expression of anoxia was hampered in European epicontinental seas during most of the T-OAE due to insufficient water depth that prevented stratification of the water column. Only the first stratigraphic occurrence of black shales in Europe corresponds to the "global" event. This interval is characterised by > 10% Total Organic Carbon (TOC content that contains relatively low concentration of molybdenum compared to subsequent black shale horizons. Additionally, this first black shale occurrence is coeval with the record of the major negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE, likely corresponding to a period of transient greenhouse intensification likely due to massive injection of carbon into the Atmosphere–Ocean system. As a response to enhanced weathering and riverine run-off, increased fresh water supply to the basin may have promoted the development of full anoxic conditions through haline stratification of the water column. In contrast, post T-OAE black shales were restricted to epicontinental seas (higher Mo to TOC ratios during a period of relative high sea level, and carbon

  18. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  19. Source assessment of deposited particles in a Slovenian show cave (Postojnska jama: evidence of long-lasting anthropogenic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Muri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Postojnska jama (Postojna Cave is one of the most famous karst caves in the world and has been a well-known tourist attraction for nearly 200 years. It is particularly famous for its unique double-track railway. Eight heavy metals – aluminium (Al, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, strontium (Sr, and zinc (Zn – were determined in dust deposits by ICP-MS in order to assess sources of deposited particles on the cave walls. The samples were collected along the main passage in the cave, at different horizontal and vertical levels, in order to test horizontal homogeneity and study vertical distribution of the particles. It seems that the railway is an important anthropogenic source of particles, reflected in increased concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn, as well as of Fe and Mn in dust deposits at individual sampling sites. The maximum concentrations of Cu (217 μg g-1, Pb (4,940 μg g-1, and Zn (1,060 μg g-1 considerably exceeded their natural abundance and were explained by anthropogenic impact. The three heavy metals are markers for vehicles, engine oil and brake wear. On the other hand, mixed sources could prevail for Fe and Mn. The maximum concentrations of Fe (85,900 μg g-1 and Mn (682 μg g-1 in dust deposits were similar to the concentrations determined in fragments of the railway tracks (97,100 μg g-1 for Fe and 821 μg g-1 for Mn and were explained by track wear and/or corrosion. In most other parts of the cave, Fe and Mn concentrations were, however, below the concentration of their natural abundance. Al, Sr, and Cr seem to be predominantly of natural origin. They generally exhibited concentrations lower than their natural abundance.

  20. A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits: Chapter J in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R., II; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. A wide variety of other commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks including niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other elements enriched in these deposits include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium. Carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are presented together in this report because of the spatial, and potentially genetic, association between carbonatite and alkaline rocks. Although these rock types occur together at many locations, carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are not generally found together.

  1. Duration perception: assessing contributions of lower and higher level processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kliegl, Katrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Although time perception in the milliseconds to seconds range is crucial for human perception and performance, it is known that time perception is prone to distortions. In current models of duration perception, effects of arousal and attention are stressed. In the present work, the contributions of lower level sensory and higher level cognitive processes are assessed, and methods are developed helping to disentangle these influences. In a first series of experiments, effects of the retinal...

  2. Assessment of Communication Skills Level among Healthcare Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Barati, M; A. Afsar; M. Ahmadpanah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Communication skills are the most important characteristics for healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to assess communication skills level and its related factors among healthcare practitioners in Bahar-Hamadan.Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 309 employees in Bahar health care system. Data-gathering tools consisted of a 3-part questionnaire: communication skills level measuring feedback, listening, and verbal commun...

  3. Energy level alignment in polymer organic solar cells at donor-acceptor planar junction formed by electrospray vacuum deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), we have measured the energy level offset at the planar interface between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). Gradual deposition of PCBM onto spin-coated P3HT in high vacuum was made possible by using electrospray vacuum deposition (EVD). The UPS measurement of EVD-prepared planar interface resulted in the energy level offset of 0.91 eV between P3HT HOMO and PCBM LUMO, which is considered as the upper limit of Voc of the organic photovoltaic cells

  4. Energy level alignment in polymer organic solar cells at donor-acceptor planar junction formed by electrospray vacuum deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Hong, Jong-Am; Kwon, Dae-Gyeon; Seo, Jaewon; Park, Yongsup, E-mail: parky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-21

    Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), we have measured the energy level offset at the planar interface between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and C{sub 61}-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). Gradual deposition of PCBM onto spin-coated P3HT in high vacuum was made possible by using electrospray vacuum deposition (EVD). The UPS measurement of EVD-prepared planar interface resulted in the energy level offset of 0.91 eV between P3HT HOMO and PCBM LUMO, which is considered as the upper limit of V{sub oc} of the organic photovoltaic cells.

  5. Levels of Biological Diversity: a Spatial Approach to Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU-IONUŢ PETRIŞOR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity, interpreted as a variety of natural and man-dominated biological and ecological systems, plays an important role in assuring their stability and can be interpreted at different spatial scales, based on the hierarchical level of the system (biocoenose/ ecosystem, biome/complex of ecosystem, biosphere/ecosphere. Literature distinguishes six levels of biodiversity, namely alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, and omega. The current paper lists methodologies appropriate for assessing diversity at each of these levels, with a particular focus on regional diversity (gamma, delta, and epsilon diversities, i.e. CORINE land cover classification and the biogeographical regions of the European Union.

  6. Methodology for quick assessment of deposited radioactivity on ground in a radiation emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt assessment of ground deposited radioactivity for planning effective counter measures in a radiation emergency has assumed a mandatory status after aircraft accident at Palomares, disintegration of Cosmos-954, nuclear accidents at TMI, Kyshtym and Chernobyl. Aerial gamma spectrometric survey is the most effective, rapid, comprehensive and economical technique in such eventualities to demark the large area surface contamination. Based on the computations carried out, air to ground correlation factors (AGCFs) and selection of optimum parameters like flight line spacing and survey altitudes for an effective aerial gamma spectrometric survey are discussed. (author)

  7. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  8. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  9. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance of...... environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of...

  10. Integrated assessment of acid deposition impacts using reduced-form modeling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R.; Small, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    Emissions of sulfates and other acidic pollutants from anthropogenic sources result in the deposition of these acidic pollutants on the earth`s surface, downwind of the source. These pollutants reach surface waters, including streams and lakes, and acidify them, resulting in a change in the chemical composition of the surface water. Sometimes the water chemistry is sufficiently altered so that the lake can no longer support aquatic life. This document traces the efforts by many researchers to understand and quantify the effect of acid deposition on the water chemistry of populations of lakes, in particular the improvements to the MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) modeling effort, and describes its reduced-form representation in a decision and uncertainty analysis tool. Previous reduced-form approximations to the MAGIC model are discussed in detail, and their drawbacks are highlighted. An improved reduced-form model for acid neutralizing capacity is presented, which incorporates long-term depletion of the watershed acid neutralization fraction. In addition, improved fish biota models are incorporated in the integrated assessment model, which includes reduced-form models for other physical and chemical processes of acid deposition, as well as the resulting socio-economic and health related effects. The new reduced-form lake chemistry and fish biota models are applied to the Adirondacks region of New York.

  11. SEM/EDS characterisation of dusty deposits in precipitation and assessment of their origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Miler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS analysis of dusty material in rainfall residue, deposited and collected on February 19th 2014 in Ljubljana, was carried out with the intention to characterise it according to its chemical and mineral composition and to assess its origin. The material consists of poorly sorted and sharp-edged particles of mostly very fine-grained silt and clay fractions, which is consistent with long-range aerial transport. Particles are represented by illite, chlorite and kaolinite group clay minerals, quartz, feldspars, carbonates, accessory minerals and secondary Fe-oxy-hydroxide minerals. Quantities of minerals and illite/ kaolinite ratio (4.5 correspond to dusts in rainfall residues originating from Moroccan Atlas, while chlorite/kaolinite ratio (2.8 agrees better with dust from central Libya. The element ratios Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, Mg/Al, Fe/Al and (Ca+Mg/Fe in the studied dusty deposit are in good agreement with ratios in dusts from rainfall residues originating from Morocco and northern Mauritania. This was also confirmed by the trajectories of cloud movement that caused precipitation with dusty deposit, although the back trajectory HYSPLIT simulation of air masses indicated northern Mauritania, central Niger, southern Algeria, southwestern and central Libya as the most possible source regions.

  12. Communicating uncertainties in assessments of future sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman-Svahn, P.

    2013-12-01

    How uncertainty should be managed and communicated in policy-relevant scientific assessments is directly connected to the role of science and the responsibility of scientists. These fundamentally philosophical issues influence how scientific assessments are made and how scientific findings are communicated to policymakers. It is therefore of high importance to discuss implicit assumptions and value judgments that are made in policy-relevant scientific assessments. The present paper examines these issues for the case of scientific assessments of future sea level rise. The magnitude of future sea level rise is very uncertain, mainly due to poor scientific understanding of all physical mechanisms affecting the great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, which together hold enough land-based ice to raise sea levels more than 60 meters if completely melted. There has been much confusion from policymakers on how different assessments of future sea levels should be interpreted. Much of this confusion is probably due to how uncertainties are characterized and communicated in these assessments. The present paper draws on the recent philosophical debate on the so-called "value-free ideal of science" - the view that science should not be based on social and ethical values. Issues related to how uncertainty is handled in scientific assessments are central to this debate. This literature has much focused on how uncertainty in data, parameters or models implies that choices have to be made, which can have social consequences. However, less emphasis has been on how uncertainty is characterized when communicating the findings of a study, which is the focus of the present paper. The paper argues that there is a tension between on the one hand the value-free ideal of science and on the other hand usefulness for practical applications in society. This means that even if the value-free ideal could be upheld in theory, by carefully constructing and hedging statements characterizing

  13. Quantitative assessment of inhalation exposure and deposited dose of aerosol from nanotechnology-based consumer sprays†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Yevgen; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a quantitative assessment of inhalation exposure and deposited aerosol dose in the 14 nm to 20 μm particle size range based on the aerosol measurements conducted during realistic usage simulation of five nanotechnology-based and five regular spray products matching the nano-products by purpose of application. The products were also examined using transmission electron microscopy. In seven out of ten sprays, the highest inhalation exposure was observed for the coarse (2.5–10 μm) particles while being minimal or below the detection limit for the remaining three sprays. Nanosized aerosol particles (14–100 nm) were released, which resulted in low but measurable inhalation exposures from all of the investigated consumer sprays. Eight out of ten products produced high total deposited aerosol doses on the order of 101–103 ng kg−1 bw per application, ~85–88% of which were in the head airways, only <10% in the alveolar region and <8% in the tracheobronchial region. One nano and one regular spray produced substantially lower total deposited doses (by 2–4 orders of magnitude less), only ~52–64% of which were in the head while ~29–40% in the alveolar region. The electron microscopy data showed nanosized objects in some products not labeled as nanotechnology-based and conversely did not find nano-objects in some nano-sprays. We found no correlation between nano-object presence and abundance as per the electron microscopy data and the determined inhalation exposures and deposited doses. The findings of this study and the reported quantitative exposure data will be valuable for the manufacturers of nanotechnology-based consumer sprays to minimize inhalation exposure from their products, as well as for the regulators focusing on protecting the public health. PMID:25621175

  14. Assessment of radon levels in some water resources in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is produced by the radioactive decay of radium. Breathing high concentrations of radon can cause lung cancer. When radon gas migrates through the atmosphere, the solid radon progeny are deposited on the soil and water below, entering into the food chain. Radon generated from rocks containing its parents may escape to the underground or surface running water, which ultimately used as drinking water or for irrigation. In this work radon level was determined in different water resources in Egypt. Water from spring, tap water Nile and some commercially available drinking water were subjected to radon measurements using CR-39 detectors. Radon concentration in different water resources was found the range from 8.94 to 10.00 Bq/m3 while in trapped air above water was 9.3 to 10.38 Bq/m3

  15. Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boamponsem, L.K. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University Post Office, Kumasi (Ghana); Department of Laboratory Technology, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Adam, J.I. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University Post Office, Kumasi (Ghana); Dampare, S.B., E-mail: dampare@cc.okayama-u.ac.j [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Department of Earth Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1, Tsushima-Naka 3-Chome, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Nyarko, B.J.B. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Essumang, D.K. [Department of Laboratory Technology, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2010-05-01

    In situ lichens (Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

  16. Estimation of aerial deposition and foliar uptake of xenobiotics: Assessment of current models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Droppo, J.G.; Van Voris, P.

    1987-10-01

    This report reviews existing mathematical and/or computer simulation models that estimate xenobiotic deposition to and transport through (both curricular and stomatal) vegetative surfaces. The report evaluates the potential for coupling the best of those models to the existing Uptake, Translocation, Accumulation, and Biodegradation model to be used for future xenobiotic exposure assessments. Here xenobiotic compounds are defined as airborne contaminants, both organic and gaseous pollutants, that are introduced into the environment by man. Specifically this document provides a detailed review of the state-of-the-art models that addressed aerial deposition of particles and gases to foliage; foliar and cuticular transport, metabolism, and uptake of organic xenobiotics; and stomatal transport of gaseous and volatile organic xenobiotic pollutants. Where detailed information was available, parameters for each model are provided on a chemical by chemical as well as species by species basis. Sufficient detail is provided on each model to assess the potential for adapting or coupling the model to the existing UTAB plant exposure model. 126 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Late Quaternary sea level and environmental changes from relic carbonate deposits of the western margin of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Purnachandra Rao; G Rajagopalan; K H Vora; F Almeida

    2003-03-01

    Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India occur as dolomite crusts, aragonite sands (pelletal / oolitic) and aragonite-cemented limestones, oyster shells, corals, encrusted coralline algal and foraminiferal-dominated nodules. The petrology and mineralogy of the deposits indicate that except for aragonite sands and foraminiferal nodules, the others were formed in shallow marine conditions and serve as sea level indicators. Radiocarbon dates were measured for 62 relic deposits covering the entire margin. The age of these deposits on the continental shelf off Cape Comorin and Mangalore, between 110 and 18m depth, ranges between 12, 610 14C yr BP and 6,390 14C yr BP. On the northwestern margin of India, especially on the carbonate platform (between 64 and 100 m), the age ranges from 17,250 to 6,730 14C yr BP. The relic deposits of the Gulf of Kachchh at depths between 35 and 25m are dated at 12,550-9,630 14C yr BP. The age vs. depth plot of the relic deposits further indicates that the Gulf of Kachchh was inundated much early, atleast by 15 ka, after the Last Glacial Maximum, and was subjected to uplift and subsidence during the Holocene. The carbonate platform subsided during the early Holocene. Some of the relic deposits between Cape Comorin and Mangalore plot on or, closely follow the glacio-eustatic sea level curve. Despite abundant siliciclastic flux discharged by the Narmada and Tapti during the early Holocene, the platform off these rivers is largely devoid of this flux and carbonate sedimentation continued until 6,700 14C yr BP. We suggest that the river-derived ediment flux diverted southwards under the influence of the SW monsoon current and, thereby, increased the turbidity on the shelf and slope southeast of the carbonate platform and facilitated the formation of deeper water foraminiferal nodules off Vengurla-Goa.

  18. "Assessment Drives Learning": Do Assessments Promote High-Level Cognitive Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, M. J.; Alt, H.

    2011-01-01

    Students tend to learn in the way they know, or think, they will be assessed. Therefore, to ensure deep, meaningful learning, assessments must be geared to promote cognitive processing that requires complex, contextualised thinking to construct meaning and create knowledge. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive levels is used worldwide to assist in…

  19. Descriptive risk assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on Rocky Mountain amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Vertucci, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of habitat acidification to the six species of amphibians that occur in the mountains of Colorado and Wyoming. Our evaluation included extrinsic environmental factors (habitat sensitivity and amount of acidic atmospheric deposition) and species-specific intrinsic factors (sensitivity to acid conditions, habitat preferences, and timing of breeding). Only one of 57 surveyed localities had both acid neutralizing capacity μeq/L and sulfate deposition >10 kg/ha/yr, extrinsic conditions with a possible risk of acidification. Amphibian breeding habitats in the Rocky Mountains do not appear to be sufficiently acidic to kill amphibian embryos. Some species breed in high-elevation vernal pools during snowmelt, and an acidic pulse during snowmelt may pose a risk to embryos of these species. However, the acidic pulse, if present, probably occurs before open water appears and before breeding begins. Although inherent variability of amphibian population size may make detection of declines from anthropogenic effects difficult, acidic deposition is unlikely to have caused the observed declines of Bufo boreas and Rana pipiens in Colorado and Wyoming. Amphibians in the Rocky Mountains are not likely to be at risk with acidification inputs at present levels.

  20. Assessing Upper-Level Winds on Day-of-Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    On the day-or-launch. the 45th Weather Squadron Launch Weather Officers (LWOS) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers to include NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP). During launch operations, the payload launch team sometimes asks the LWO if they expect the upper level winds to change during the countdown but the LWOs did not have the capability to quickly retrieve or display the upper-level observations and compare them to the numerical weather prediction model point forecasts. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a capability in the form of a graphical user interface (GUI) that would allow them to plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Kennedy Space Center Doppler Radar Wind Profilers and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station rawinsondes and then overlay model point forecast profiles on the observation profiles to assess the performance of these models and graphically display them to the launch team. The AMU developed an Excel-based capability for the LWOs to assess the model forecast upper-level winds and compare them to observations. They did so by creating a GUI in Excel that allows the LWOs to first initialize the models by comparing the O-hour model forecasts to the observations and then to display model forecasts in 3-hour intervals from the current time through 12 hours.

  1. The four-level project success framework: application and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Eskander Howsawi; David Eager; Ravindra Bagia; Klaus Niebecker

    2014-01-01

    Success is one of the ultimate goals of any project endeavour. Thus, clarifying the meaning of success is a vital step in achieving the desired success. In this study, the authors reviewed the project success literature and provided a framework for defining and evaluating project success. The framework consists of four levels that contain the possible criteria for assessing and evaluating success. The authors demonstrate the framework by case application. Further, experts in the field of proj...

  2. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  3. Using probabilistic risk assessment to derive financial assurance coverage levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a risk assessment methodology to characterize the potential costs associated with transportation of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An application of this methodology is also provided for illustration. The risk assessment uses as inputs characterizations of (1) waste shipments by type of vehicle; and (2) environmental settings by generic route. The risk assessment analyzes potential events (e.g., small accident enroute) and their consequences (e.g., dispersion of released materials and subsequent human exposure) for each transport configuration (i.e., combination of vehicle type and generic route). Finally, the risk assessment estimates the probability and magnitude of corrective action costs (e.g., for cleanup of property and the environment) and third-party compensation costs (e.g., for bodily injury and property damage) attached to the consequences of each event. These estimates are then combined with the estimates of the probability of each event to construct a cost curve for corrective action costs and third-party compensation costs. Using these cost curves, financial assurance coverage levels can be derived by specifying a not-to-be-exceeded likelihood that potential costs would exceed the coverage amount

  4. Effects of ethanolamine, pH change, and increased hydrazine levels on deposit-covered alloy 600 and brass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical dissolution tests and electrochemical tests were carried out on alloy 600 (UNS N06600) specimens covered with synthetic deposit simulating the tube deposits in the steam generators at Indian Point 2 Station in Buchanan, New York. The tests showed that the introduction of ethanolamine (ETA) and a moderate increase in pH gave rise to lower corrosion rates, but enhancement of hydrazine levels caused them to rise. In the case of brass, both types of tests showed that raising the pH caused the corrosion rates to increase, but the introduction of ETA led to a mild decrease in these rates

  5. Decreased Circulating C3 Levels and Mesangial C3 Deposition Predict Renal Outcome in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Jun Kim; Hyang Mo Koo; Beom Jin Lim; Hyung Jung Oh; Dong Eun Yoo; Dong Ho Shin; Mi Jung Lee; Fa Mee Doh; Jung Tak Park; Tae-Hyun Yoo; Shin-Wook Kang; Kyu Hun Choi; Hyeon Joo Jeong; Seung Hyeok Han

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mesangial C3 deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the role of complement in the pathogenesis or progression of IgAN is uncertain. In this observational cohort study, we aimed to identify the clinical implications of circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition and to investigate their utility as predictors of renal outcomes in patients with IgAN. METHODS: A total of 343 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled betw...

  6. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina

    2014-08-01

    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  7. Early herbivore alert matters: plant-mediated effects of egg deposition on higher trophic levels benefit plant fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashalidou, Foteini G; Frago, Enric; Griese, Eddie; Poelman, Erik H; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2015-09-01

    Induction of plant defences, specifically in response to herbivore attack, can save costs that would otherwise be needed to maintain defences even in the absence of herbivores. However, plants may suffer considerable damage during the time required to mount these defences against an attacker. This could be resolved if plants could respond to early cues, such as egg deposition, that reliably indicate future herbivory. We tested this hypothesis in a field experiment and found that egg deposition by the butterfly Pieris brassicae on black mustard (Brassica nigra) induced a plant response that negatively affected feeding caterpillars. The effect cascaded up to the third and fourth trophic levels (larval parasitoids and hyperparasitoids) by affecting the parasitisation rate and parasitoid performance. Overall, the defences induced by egg deposition had a positive effect on plant seed production and may therefore play an important role in the evolution of plant resistance to herbivores. PMID:26147078

  8. Environmental assessment of the material deposited on the former uranium mining disposal dump in Radoniow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoniow is a small town in the district of Lubomierz near Jelenia Gora (south-western Poland). From the end of World War II up to the end of the 1960s, uranium mining activities were carried out near the town. The uranium deposits were almost entirely exploited, leaving traces of the mining activities in the form of waste disposal dumps on the east side of Mount Glebiec. The area of the terrain is 6.85 ha. The district authorities plan to use the material on the dumps (containing significant quantities of uranium) as a bedding for the construction of a road around the town (PHARE contract). The measurements performed by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR) and ordered by MOSTOSTAL-Warszawa (the developer of the road) were aimed at assessing the usability of the dumped material for road construction. The assessment programme consisted of environmental measurements at the disposal site, an assessment of the usability of the materials from the disposal site for the construction of the road, and an analysis of the risk to workers exposed to the material deposited on the dumps. The following tasks were performed: (a) measurement of the whole area using a mobile spectrometric laboratory (creating a radiological map of the area); (b) measurement of the beta activity and gamma dose rate at the surface of the material deposited on the dumps at 41 measurement locations using an RKP-1 radiometer; (c) measurement of the gamma dose rate at the 41 locations using an Exploranium GR-130; (d) measurement of the gamma dose rate at 5 locations using an ionization chamber; (e) measurement of the gamma spectra at 3 locations on the dumps and at 2 locations representative of local background; and (f) sampling for further analysis at CLOR by gamma spectrometry using natural radioactive contamination analyzers AZAR-90 and MAZAR-95. The following samples were taken: 41 samples of the surface material of the dump (10 cm depth); 10 samples from the deep layers of the

  9. Multi-hazards risk assessment at different levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, N.; Larionov, V.; Bonnin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Natural and technological disasters are becoming more frequent and devastating. Social and economic losses due to those events increase annually, which is definitely in relation with evolution of society. Natural hazards identification and analysis, as well natural risk assessment taking into account secondary technological accidents are the first steps in prevention strategy aimed at saving lives and protecting property against future events. The paper addresses methodological issues of natural and technological integrated risk assessment and mapping at different levels [1, 2]. At the country level the most hazardous natural processes, which may results in fatalities, injuries and economic loss in the Russian Federation, are considered. They are earthquakes, landslides, mud flows, floods, storms, avalanches. The special GIS environment for the country territory was developed which includes information about hazards' level and reoccurrence, an impact databases for the last 20 years, as well as models for estimating damage and casualties caused by these hazards. Federal maps of seismic individual and collective risk, as well as multi-hazards natural risk maps are presented. The examples of regional seismic risk assessment taking into account secondary accidents at fire, explosion and chemical hazardous facilities and regional integrated risk assessment are given for the earthquake prone areas of the Russian Federation. The paper also gives examples of loss computations due to scenario earthquakes taking into account accidents trigged by strong events at critical facilities: fire and chemical hazardous facilities, including oil pipe lines routes located in the earthquake prone areas. The estimations of individual seismic risk obtained are used by EMERCOM of the Russian Federation, as well as by other federal and local authorities, for planning and implementing preventive measures, aimed at saving lives and protecting property against future disastrous events. The

  10. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider the current state of the art in PSA to be sufficiently well developed for results to be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process-referred to as risk informed regulation. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for the regulatory authority to have a high degree of confidence in the PSA. However, at the 1994 IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997, the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce, in cooperation, guidance on Regulatory Review of PSA. This led to the publication of IAEA-TECDOC-1135 on the Regulatory Review of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Level 1, which gives advice for the review of Level 1 PSA for initiating events occurring at power plants. This TECDOC extends the coverage to address the regulatory review of Level 2 PSA.These publications are intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable level of quality so that it can be used as the

  11. LEAF WASHING AS AN ASSESSMENT TOOL TO CHARACTERIZE DRY ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize dry atmospheric deposition after the washing of broad leaves and conifer foliage. To assess this method different sites chosen on the basis of different exposure to both point (e.g. waste incinerator plant (WIP, local crafts and widespread (e.g. roads, agricultural practices sources of anthropogenic pollution.The principal components analysis (PCA, performed on the major and trace elements identified after leaf washing, extracted four factors. F2 was lithogenic while the other three were anthropogenic. The enrichment factor (EF highlights that Cd, Cu and Zn had a purely anthropogenic origin. The sites were grouped according to the predominant source of exposure and the synthetic index of enrichment (SIE showed a decrease as follows: downwind from WIP > max exposure to WIP > min exposure to WIP > road > craft > rural zone.The leaf area allows to calculate the annual flow of elements and the deposition flux in the study area varied for Cd from 0.07 to 0.55 mg m-2, for Co from 0.1 to 0.48 mg m-2, for Cr from 0.63 to 3.7 mg m-2, for Cu from 14.5 to 32.27 mg m-2. The Cd flux in the Bologna area was lower than in some industrial zones of the World and the lowest values were found in the rural zones and under a minimum exposure to the incinerator plant, while the highest values were near the roads and under maximum exposure to the incinerator. The direct analysis of the leaf-washing water allows to discriminate the anthropogenic or geogenic metals deposited on the leaves using multivariate statistical analysis. It is also possible to predict the flow of metals in different areas of investigation.

  12. Assessment of human exposure level to PM10 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xingqin; Hou, Qing; Li, Nan; Zhai, Shixian

    2013-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that atmospheric particulate matter, especially PM10 (inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm) is one of the pollutants that are harmful to human health. In recent years, particulate matter pollution in China is becoming increasingly serious and PM10 has become the primary pollutant in Beijing and other cities. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out studies and a health damage assessment of PM10. In human health damage assessment, measuring human exposure level to PM10 is required and crucial to provide accurate exposure data for the exposure-response relationship, and also for the accurate quantitative assessment of human exposure. The spatial distribution of particle concentration in China is variable because of spatial differences in the local economic level and the geographical environment. Along with the accelerating urbanisation in China, city population density is high, and the population distribution is variable between and within cities, thus resulting in different population numbers exposed to different concentration ranges. Therefore, an accurate assessment of China's level of exposure to particulate matter is a priority and the basis for assessing the damage to public health caused by particle pollution. Using high accuracy population and PM10 monitoring data, this study analysed the human exposure to PM10 in different regions and typical cities of China. The results show that for most areas of China, the population-weighted PM10 exposure concentration is slightly higher than the annual mean concentration, meaning that more of the population is exposed to high concentrations, and most of the population is exposed to levels that meet the second national standard (between 40 and 100 μg m-3), occupying about 83.7% of population and 76.3% of area in China. The population exposure to PM10 is higher in two types of typical regions and cities: areas with dense human populations

  13. How to Assess the Biomechanical Risk Levels in Beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, G; Rossi, F; Baracco, A

    2016-01-01

    Beekeepers are at particular risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders, but many of the studies lack detailed exposure assessment. To evaluate the biomechanical overload exposure in a specific farming activity, a multitasking model has been developed through the characterization of 37 basic operational tasks typical of the beekeeping activity. The Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) Checklist and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Index methodologies have been applied to these elementary tasks to evaluate the exposure, and the resulting risk indices have been time-weighted averaged. Finally, an easy access, computer-assisted toolkit has been developed to help the beekeepers in the biomechanical risk assessment process. The risk of biomechanical overload for the upper limbs ranges from acceptable (maintenance and recovery of woody material and honey packaging with dosing machine tasks) to high (distribution of the top supers) risk level. The risk for back injury is always borderline in women and increases with exposure time, whereas it ranges from acceptable to borderline in men. The definition of the biomechanical risk levels allows for planning of corrective actions aimed at preventing and reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders through engineering, administrative, and behavioral interventions. The methodology can be used for risk assessment in other mainly manual agricultural activities. PMID:26765780

  14. Plant Volatiles Induced by Herbivore Egg Deposition Affect Insects of Different Trophic Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Lucas-Barbosa, D.; Weldegergis, B.T.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.; Huigens, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their conseque

  15. An assessment of the variability in performance of wet atmospheric deposition samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R.C.; Robertson, J.K.; Obal, John

    1987-01-01

    The variability in performance of two brands of wet/dry atmospheric deposition samplers were compared for 1 year at a sincle site. A total of nine samplers were used. Samples were collected weekly and analyzed for pH, specific conductance, common chemical constituents, and sample volume. Additionally, data on the duration of each sampler opening were recorded using a microdatalogger. These data disprove the common perception that samplers remain open throughout a precipitation event. The sensitivity of sampler sensors within the range tested did not have a defineable impact on sample collection. The nonnormal distribution within the data set necessitated application of the nonparametric Friedman Test to assess comparability of sample chemical composition and volume between and within sampler brands. Statistically significant differences existed for most comparisons, however the test did not permit quantification of their magnitudes. Differences in analyte concentrations between samplers were small. (USGS)

  16. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature

  17. Current directions in screening-level ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Efroymson, R A

    2000-12-11

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is a tool used by many regulatory agencies to evaluate the impact to ecological receptors from changes in environmental conditions. Widespread use of ERAs began with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program to assess the ecological impact from hazardous chemicals released to the environment. Many state hazardous chemical regulatory agencies have adopted the use of ERAs, and several state regulatory agencies are evaluating the use of ERAs to assess ecological impacts from releases of petroleum and gas-related products. Typical ERAs are toxicologically-based, use conservative assumptions with respect to ecological receptor exposure duration and frequency, often require complex modeling of transport and exposure and are very labor intensive. In an effort to streamline the ERA process, efforts are currently underway to develop default soil screening levels, to identify ecological screening criteria for excluding sites from formal risk assessment, and to create risk-based corrective action worksheets. This should help reduce the time spent on ERAs, at least for some sites. Work is also underway to incorporate bioavailability and spatial considerations into ERAs. By evaluating the spatial nature of contaminant releases with respect to the spatial context of the ecosystem under consideration, more realistic ERAs with respect to the actual impact to ecological receptors at the population, community or ecosystem scale should be possible. In addition, by considering the spatial context, it should be possible to develop mitigation and monitoring efforts to more appropriately address such sites within the context of an ecological framework.

  18. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  19. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  20. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives results from the first comprehensive level-3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the Hanford tank farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM). At the HTF, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/saltcake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is ∼60 million gal, containing ∼200 million Ci of radioactivity

  1. Road-deposited sediment, soil and precipitation (RDS) in Bratislava, Slovakia. Compositional and spatial assessment of contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krcmova, Katrina; Cveckova, Veronika; Rapant, Stanislav [Geological Survey of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia); Robertson, Davina [Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Sciences

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim and scope: The urban environment in Bratislava is, in association with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, significantly influenced by several potential sources of pollution, including automobile exhaust and industry emissions. Urban road-deposited sediments contain many potentially toxic elements such as Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and also Fe at concentrations much higher than in soil. In this study, the chemical composition and spatial variability of road-deposited sediments in urban area of Bratislava were assessed for the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Fe and Mn. Additional evaluation of archive data for soil, snow and atmospheric dust was undertaken to provide an integrated view on urban environment contamination. Materials and methods: Urban road-deposited sediments (RDS) were collected during summer 2003 and 2004 mainly from major city crossroads. RDS samples were analysed for total metal content, pseudo-total metal content (HNO{sub 3} digestion) and by a sequential extraction method, grain fraction composition and mineralogical composition (X-ray analysis). Metal concentrations in soil and snow samples from urban and non urban city area were compared. Results and discussion: The highest concentrations for all metals were found in the finest RDS fraction (<0.125 mm). Whilst in the fraction <1 mm mean concentrations of Cr, Cu and Pb reached 55.2, 143.8 and 34.4 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, for the fraction <0.125 mm, markedly higher contents of these elements were documented at the level of 86.8, 218.4 and 63.1 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. The soil contents of potentially toxic risk elements in the urban area including As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher than in the non-urban area (except for Cd with similar contents). This distribution pattern of evaluated chemicals in urban and non-urban area is more evident in the case of winter precipitation (snow). The snow concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the urban area

  2. Dynamic assessment in EFL classrooms: Assessing listening comprehension in three proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hashemi Shahraki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of dynamic assessment (DA, grounded in Vygotskian Sociocultural theory, in classrooms is believed to have the potential to provide a situation for creating a group of learners’ Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD (Poehener, 2009. The present study explored the implementation of DA in English as Foreign Language (EFL classrooms on groups of learners at different proficiency levels in the context of listening comprehension. 146 Iranian EFL learners at three proficiency levels were selected for this study (experimental groups=71 and control groups=75. A multi-assessment procedure in the format of dynamic and non-dynamic pretest-enrichment phase-dynamic and non-dynamic posttest was conducted. During the nine-week group dynamic assessment procedures, mediational strategies were only given to the experimental groups. The quantitative data analysis revealed that through mediated interactions within the group’s ZPD, group dynamic assessment is able to determine the learners’ developed abilities in listening comprehension while at the same time support the development of individual learners in this skill. Moreover, it was found that the level of proficiency of the learners did not have a significant effect on learners’ gains from group dynamic assessment procedures. These findings can have implications for all classroom teachers that the use of DA in classroom setting cannot only be beneficial to them but also be considered as a strategic learning and assessment method that can meet both the learners’ and teacher’s needs.

  3. Malaysia; Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation—Detailed Assessment of Observance of Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates and addresses Malaysia’s compliance with the Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems (Core Principles), and reviews relevant laws, regulations and regulatory and supervisory practices related to conventional banking sector, and the operations of Perbadanan Insurans Deposit Malaysia (PIDM). Though several weaknesses in the legal framework have been noted in this assessment, there has been no experience with bank failures in Malaysia since PIDM’s establi...

  4. Agenda, extended abstracts, and bibliographies for a workshop on Deposit modeling, mineral resources assessment, and their role in sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A., (Edited By); Schulz, Klaus J.

    2002-01-01

    Global demand for mineral resources continues to increase because of increasing global population and the desire and efforts to improve living standards worldwide. The ability to meet this growing demand for minerals is affected by the concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and resource development require a long-term perspective and an integrated approach to land-use, resource, and environmental management worldwide. This, in turn, requires unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation. The purpose of the IGC workshop is to review the state-of-the-art in mineral-deposit modeling and quantitative resource assessment and to examine their role in the sustainability of mineral use. The workshop will address such questions as: Which of the available mineral-deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral-exploration information? How can mineral-resource assessments be used to address economic and environmental issues? Presentations will include overviews of assessment methods used in previous national and other small-scale assessments of large regions as well as resulting assessment products and their uses.

  5. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  6. Assessment of Communication Skills Level among Healthcare Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Communication skills are the most important characteristics for healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to assess communication skills level and its related factors among healthcare practitioners in Bahar-Hamadan.Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 309 employees in Bahar health care system. Data-gathering tools consisted of a 3-part questionnaire: communication skills level measuring feedback, listening, and verbal communication. Subjects’ demographic variables such as age, gender, education level and job were also recorded. The obtained data was analyzed by means of the statistical software SPSS-13 using coefficient correlation, liner regression, t-test, and One-way Anova.Results: The subjects reported 62.2, 57.1, and 60.2% of receivable scores of verbal, listening, and feedback communication, respectively. Overall communication skills of 27.8% of the participants were evaluated at the desired level. Significant differences were observed in average score of communication skills related to age, gender, education degree, employment status, workhouse, and experience (P<0.05. In liner regression, factors influencing communication skills were age, gender, and education degree (P< 0.05.Conclusion: The results reveal that the communication skills of more than half of the medical practitioners are weak and moderate. It is recommended to design some program to improve medical practitioners' communication skills. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:62-69

  7. Quaternary sea level high-stand deposits of the southeast U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain: Age, distribution, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, R. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Ghaleb, B.; Portell, R.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Wehmiller, J. F.; Thompson, W. G.; Oches, E. A.; Willard, D. A.; Katz, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Emerged Quaternary paleo-shorelines and marine deposits provide a more direct way to reconstruct and analyze sea-level variability than methods using oxygen isotope analyses of deep ocean benthic foraminifera. New Uranium-series dates on fossil corals (primarily Astrangia spp. and Septastrea spp.) combined with previously published dates have allowed us to constrain the age, elevation, and geographical distribution of marine sediments deposited in the United States Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) from Virginia to Florida during periods of past high relative sea level (SL). We present new dates from deposits (VA/NC: Tabb/Norfolk, Nassawadox, & Omar Formations; SC: Wando, Socastee, & Canepatch Formations; FL: Anastasia, Ft. Thompson, & Bermont Formations) representing interglacial high-stands during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 7, 9, and 11. In addition, we incorporate stratigraphic, marine micropaleontologic, and palynologic records with our SL chronology to reconstruct a more complete history of middle-to-late Pleistocene interglacial climates of the ACP. Ultimately, these results will test modeled sea-level fingerprint studies based on various melting scenarios of the Greenland and/or Antarctic ice sheets.

  8. Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation

  9. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) level 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from the deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider that the current state of the art in PSA (especially Level 1 PSA) is sufficiently well developed that it can be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process - referred to as 'risk informed regulation'. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for regulatory authorities to have a high degree of confidence in PSA. However, at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process in 1994 and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' Meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997 the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce in co-operation a technical document on the regulatory review of PSA. This publication is intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable standard so that it can be used as the basis for taking risk informed decisions within a regulatory decision making process. The document gives guidance on how to set about reviewing a PSA and on the technical issues that need to be addressed. This publication gives guidance for the review of Level 1 PSA for

  10. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  11. Decreased circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition predict renal outcome in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mesangial C3 deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN. However, the role of complement in the pathogenesis or progression of IgAN is uncertain. In this observational cohort study, we aimed to identify the clinical implications of circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition and to investigate their utility as predictors of renal outcomes in patients with IgAN. METHODS: A total of 343 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled between January 2000 and December 2008. Decreased serum C3 level (hypoC3 was defined as C3 <90 mg/dl. The study endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD and a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine (D-SCr. RESULTS: Of the patients, there were 66 patients (19.2% with hypoC3. During a mean follow-up of 53.7 months, ESRD occurred in 5 patients (7.6% with hypoC3 compared with 9 patients (3.2% with normal C3 levels (P = 0.11. However, 12 patients (18.2% with hypoC3 reached D-SCr compared with 17 patients (6.1% with normal C3 levels [Hazard ratio (HR, 3.59; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.33-10.36; P = 0.018]. In a multivariable model in which serum C3 levels were treated as a continuous variable, hypoC3 significantly predicted renal outcome of D-SCr (per 1 mg/dl increase of C3; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P = 0.011. The risk of reaching renal outcome was significantly higher in patients with mesangial C3 deposition 2+ to 3+ than in patients without deposition (HR 9.37; 95% CI, 1.10-80.26; P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that hypoC3 and mesangial C3 deposition were independent risk factors for progression, suggesting that complement activation may play a pathogenic role in patients with IgAN.

  12. Impact of global seismicity on sea level change assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Melini, D

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the effect of seismic activity on sealevel variations, by computing the time-dependent vertical crustal movement and geoid change due to coseismic deformations and postseismic relaxation effects. Seismic activity can affect both the absolute sealevel, by changing the Earth gravity field and hence the geoid height, and the relative sealevel, i.e. the radial distance between seafloor and geoid level. By using comprehensive seismic catalogues we assess the net effect of seismicity on tidal relative sealevel measurements as well as on the global oceanic surfaces, and we obtain an estimate of absolute sealevel variations of seismic origin. Our results confirm that, on a global scale, most of the signal is associated with few giant thrust events, and that RSL estimates obtained using tide-gauge data can be sensibly affected by the seismic driven sealevel signal. The recent measures of sealevel obtained by satellite altimetry show a wide regional variation of sealevel trends over the oceanic surfaces, wit...

  13. Assessing Level of Ubiquitous Computing Services for Ubiquitous Business Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KWON Ohbyung

    2004-01-01

    We are entering into a new era of enterprise computing that is characterized by an emphasis on broadband convergence, knowledge sharing, and calm services. Some people refer to this as the "ubiquitous network" business model because its focus is on a high degree of connectivity between a company and its customers, suppliers, and channel partners. Moreover, immediate access to ideas, goods,and services will be of greater value than the traditional model of permanent and ponderous possession.This paper illustrates how ubiquitous computing technology can be combined with legacy computer-based information systems, along with thoughts on relevant issues of ubiquitous commerce. We also propose a model for how to assess levels of ubiquitous computing services.

  14. Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY

  15. Assessment of exposure to composite nanomaterials and development of a personal respiratory deposition sampler for nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    collects nanoparticles in a worker's breathing zone apart from larger particles. The NRD sampler consists of a respirable cyclone fitted with an impactor and a diffusion stage containing eight nylon-mesh screens. A sampling criterion for nano-particulate matter (NPM) was developed and set as the target for the collection efficiency of the NRD sampler. The sampler operates at 2.5 Lpm and fits on a worker's lapel. The cut-off diameter of the impactor was experimentally measured to be 300 nm with a sharpness of 1.53. Loading at typical workplace levels was found to have no significant effect (2-way ANOVA, p=0.257) on the performance of the impactor. The effective deposition of particles onto the diffusion stage was found to match the NPM criterion, showing that a sample collected with the NRD sampler represents the concentration of nanoparticles deposited in the human respiratory system.

  16. Assessment of stress level of forestry experts with academic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landekić, Matija; Martinić, Ivan; Lovrić, Marko; Sporcić, Mario

    2011-12-01

    This paper provides the results of an applied research of forests engineers connected to their risk of mental stress occurrence in everyday work. This paper also has a component of a basic research, in which the adequacy and reliability of applied methodology in this kind of researches is examined. The mental stress induced risk is tested by usage of an e-mail survey which consists out of 23-part ERI (Effort-Reward Imbalance) questionnaire. For the assessment of mental stress exposure level following indicators have been used: 1) ERI--ratio of devoted effort and achieved reward, and 2) overcommitment. These indicators have been analyzed in comparison to the demographic parameters (gender, age) and the complexity of assigned jobs of the interviewees. The interview was applied on a randomly sampled forestry experts employed in public and private sector. The analysis of reliability of the three components of ERI questionnaire has showed satisfactory internal consistency. Descriptive statistics has been done regarding gender and the complexity of assigned jobs. The testing of the "devoted effort/achieved reward" variable (E/R index) has shown a statistically significant difference of the index value between male interviewees on managerial and standard expert positions. The value of E/R index was x > or = 1 at 18.97% of the sampled interviewees, which indicates a divergence between devoted effort and achieved reward, and also points to a possibility of mental stress occurrence risk. Multiple response tables have shown that female interviewees with less than 20 years of professional experience manifest stress related symptoms earlier than their male colleagues with similar professional experience do. Regression analysis has shown a significant correlation of E/R index to gender, internship and overcommitment. This research also assesses the viability of the applied method as an instrument of forestry experts' mental stress level determination.

  17. Overview of calcite/opal deposits at or near the proposed high-level nuclear waste site, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: Pedogenic, hypogene, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C. A.; Dublyansky, Y. V.; Harmon, R. S.; Schluter, C. M.

    1995-09-01

    Calcite/opal deposits (COD) at Yucca Mountain were studied with respect to their regional and field geology, petrology and petrography, chemistry and isotopic geochemistry, and fluid inclusions. They were also compared with true pedogenic deposits (TPD), groundwater spring deposits (GSD), and calcite vein deposits (CVD) in the subsurface. Some of the data are equivocal and can support either a hypogene or pedogenic origin for these deposits. However, Sr-, C-, and O-isotope, fluid inclusion, and other data favor a hypogene interpretation. A hypothesis that may account for all currently available data is that the COD precipitated from warm, CO2-rich water that episodically upwelled along faults during the Pleistocene, and which, upon reaching the surface, flowed downslope within existing alluvial, colluvial, eluvial, or soil deposits. Being formed near, or on, the topographic surface, the COD acquired characteristics of pedogenic deposits. This subject relates to the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a high-level nuclear waste site.

  18. An assessment of undergraduate paramedic students' empathy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Williams

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of empathy in paramedic students across seven Australian universities. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a paper-based questionnaire employing a convenience sample of first, second, and third year undergraduate paramedic students. Student empathy levels were measured using the Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS. Results: A total of 783 students participated in the study of which 57were females. The medical conditions: intellectual disability, attempted suicide, and acute mental illness all produced mean scores above 50 suggesting good empathetic regard, while patients presenting with substance abuse produced the lowest mean score (M=41.57, SD= 12.29. There was a statistically significant difference between males (M=49.79 and females (M=51.61 for patients with intellectual disability (t[sub](778[/sub]=2.76, p=0.006. Conclusions: The findings from this study found that student reported poor empathetic regard for patients with substance abuse, while female students report higher levels of empathy than their male colleagues across each medical condition. The overall findings provide a framework for educators to begin constructing guidelines focusing on the need to incorporate, promote and instil empathy into paramedic students in order to better prepare them for future out-of-hospital healthcare practice.

  19. Assessing the recovery potential of alpine moss-sedge heath: Reciprocal transplants along a nitrogen deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, Heather F., E-mail: h.armitage@abdn.ac.u [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Britton, Andrea J. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Woodin, Sarah J. [Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Wal, Rene van der [Aberdeen Centre for Environmental Sustainability (ACES), School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The potential of alpine moss-sedge heath to recover from elevated nitrogen (N) deposition was assessed by transplanting Racomitrium lanuginosum shoots and vegetation turfs between 10 elevated N deposition sites (8.2-32.9 kg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) and a low N deposition site, Ben Wyvis (7.2 kg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}). After two years, tissue N of Racomitrium shoots transplanted from higher N sites to Ben Wyvis only partially equilibrated to reduced N deposition whereas reciprocal transplants almost matched the tissue N of indigenous moss. Unexpectedly, moss shoot growth was stimulated at higher N deposition sites. However, moss depth and biomass increased in turfs transplanted to Ben Wyvis, apparently due to slower shoot turnover (suggested to result partly from decreased tissue C:N slowing decomposition), whilst abundance of vascular species declined. Racomitrium heath has the potential to recover from the impacts of N deposition; however, this is constrained by the persistence of enhanced moss tissue N contents. - Alpine moss-sedge heath, dominated by Racomitrium lanuginosum, from across the UK has the potential to recover from the impacts of N pollution; however, this is constrained by persistence of enhanced moss tissue N contents.

  20. Assessment of pulmonary aerosol deposition and epithelial permeability in [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA inhalation scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Minoru; Suzuki, Yukio; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Hasegawa, Naoki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Kawashiro, Takeo; Yokoyama, Tetsuro; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-05-01

    The degree of lung injury in bronchiolo-alveolar lesions may be quantitated from the pulmonary epithelial permeability estimated by [sup 99m]Tc-diethylene triamine penta acetate (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigram. However, significant aerosol deposition sometimes occurs in the central airways and obscures the peameability change in the lung periphery. The radioaerosol deposition pattern and its effct on assessing the pulmonary epithelial permeability was studied. [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in 47 patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), 12 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), and 27 non-smoking and 17 smoking healthy volunteers. The scintigraphic images of the lungs were classified into 4 grades: 0=homogeneous distribution; 1=patchy distribution; 2=hot spots with partial defects; and 3= hot spots with little deposition in the lung field. The rate constant was used as a parameter for the permeability. The smokers and patients with PF showed increased kep values of 2.36[+-]1.21%/min (mean[+-]SD) and 2.49[+-]1.29% min as compared with the nonsmokers with 0.94[+-]0.27% min, respectively. The nonsmokers, smokers and 36 patients with PF were classified as deposition grade 0 or 1, suggesting good aerosol penetration to the lung periphery. All patients with COPD showed either grade 2 or 3 deposition. Aerosol deposition in the central airways can cause underestimation of the permeability because of the thicker lining layer in the bronchus than in the alveolus. In conclusion, the aerosol deposition pattern should be analyzed when the method is applied clinically to assess the permeability of the bronchiolo-alveolar epithelium. (author).

  1. Data Base for a National Mineral-Resource Assessment of Undiscovered Deposits of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, S.D.; Cox, D.P.; McCammon, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    For this assessment, the conterminous United States was divided into 12 regions Adirondack Mountains, Central and Southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau, East Central, Great Basin, Great Plains, Lake Superior, Northern Appalachians, Northern Rocky Mountains, Pacific Coast, Southern Appalachians, and Southern Basin and Range. The assessment, which was conducted by regional assessment teams of scientists from the USGS, was based on the concepts of permissive tracts and deposit models. Permissive tracts are discrete areas of the United States for which estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits of a particular deposit type were made. A permissive tract is defined by its geographic boundaries such that the probability of deposits of the type delineated occurring outside the boundary is neglible. Deposit models, which are based on a compilation of worldwide literature and on observation, are sets of data in a convenient form that describe a group of deposits which have similar characteristics and that contain information on the common geologic attributes of the deposits and the environments in which they are found. Within each region, the assessment teams delineated permissive tracts for those deposit models that were judged to be appropriate and, when the amount of information warranted, estimated the number of undiscovered deposits. A total of 46 deposit models were used to assess 236 separate permissive tracts. Estimates of undiscovered deposits were limited to a depth of 1 km beneath the surface of the Earth. The estimates of the number of undiscovered deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc were expressed in the form of a probability distribution. Commonly, the number of undiscovered deposits was estimated at the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program was used to combine the probability distribution of the number of undiscovered deposits with the grade and tonnage data sets associated with each deposit model to

  2. Case Report of a Fatal Antifreeze Ingestion with a Record High Level and Impressive Renal Crystal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene glycol, methanol, and diethylene glycol are readily available in many household and commercially available products. While these alcohols are relatively nontoxic themselves, their acidic metabolites are toxic and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Herein we report a lethal case of massive ethylene glycol ingestion in a suicide with a record high level (1254 mg/dL) and images of the histologic examination of the kidneys revealing impressive calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Autopsy findings also showed evidence of mild cerebral edema. PMID:27747109

  3. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    . GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate

  4. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: → N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. → Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. → Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. → Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  5. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul, E-mail: raul.ochoa@ccma.csic.es [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Allen, Edith B. [Department of Botany and Plant Sciences and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Branquinho, Cristina; Cruz, Cristina; Dias, Teresa [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Campo Grande, Bloco C4, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Fenn, Mark E. [US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Manrique, Esteban [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Corona, M. Esther [Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Jose Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sheppard, Lucy J. [Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Stock, William D. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: > N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. > Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. > Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. > Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  6. System Level Uncertainty Assessment for Collaborative RLV Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A. C.; Bradford, John E.; Olds, John R.; Graham, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative design process utilizing Probabilistic Data Assessment (PDA) is showcased. Given the limitation of financial resources by both the government and industry, strategic decision makers need more than just traditional point designs, they need to be aware of the likelihood of these future designs to meet their objectives. This uncertainty, an ever-present character in the design process, can be embraced through a probabilistic design environment. A conceptual design process is presented that encapsulates the major engineering disciplines for a Third Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Toolsets consist of aerospace industry standard tools in disciplines such as trajectory, propulsion, mass properties, cost, operations, safety, and economics. Variations of the design process are presented that use different fidelities of tools. The disciplinary engineering models are used in a collaborative engineering framework utilizing Phoenix Integration's ModelCenter and AnalysisServer environment. These tools allow the designer to join disparate models and simulations together in a unified environment wherein each discipline can interact with any other discipline. The design process also uses probabilistic methods to generate the system level output metrics of interest for a RLV conceptual design. The specific system being examined is the Advanced Concept Rocket Engine 92 (ACRE-92) RLV. Previous experience and knowledge (in terms of input uncertainty distributions from experts and modeling and simulation codes) can be coupled with Monte Carlo processes to best predict the chances of program success.

  7. Understanding the Atomic-Level Chemistry and Structure of Oxide Deposits on Fuel Rods in Light Water Nuclear Reactors Using First Principles Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Zs.; O'Brien, C. J.; Brenner, D. W.; Andersson, D. A.; Stanek, C. R.

    2016-09-01

    The results of recent studies are discussed in which first principles calculations at the atomic level have been used to expand the thermodynamic database for science-based predictive modeling of the chemistry, composition and structure of unwanted oxides that deposit on the fuel rods in pressurized light water nuclear reactors. Issues discussed include the origin of the particles that make up deposits, the structure and properties of the deposits, and the forms by which boron uptake into the deposits can occur. These first principles approaches have implications for other research areas, such as hydrothermal synthesis and the stability and corrosion resistance of other materials under other extreme conditions.

  8. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota

  9. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.

  10. Volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrence model: Chapter C in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Koski, Randolph A.; Mosier, Dan L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Slack, John F.; Ridley, W. Ian; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Thurston, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, also known as volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, volcanic-associated massive sulfide, or seafloor massive sulfide deposits, are important sources of copper, zinc, lead, gold, and silver (Cu, Zn, Pb, Au, and Ag). These deposits form at or near the seafloor where circulating hydrothermal fluids driven by magmatic heat are quenched through mixing with bottom waters or porewaters in near-seafloor lithologies. Massive sulfide lenses vary widely in shape and size and may be podlike or sheetlike. They are generally stratiform and may occur as multiple lenses.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF THE SOIL, GROUND AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AT KLEN GOLD AND SILVER DEPOSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, prospecting and design-related works are performed prior to the upcoming launch of mining operations at Klen gold and silver deposit in Chukot Autonomous District. The anthropogenic impact of the geological exploration in this intact territory has been produced since 1984. A considerable amount of borehole drilling, prospecting, road building, and temporary housing development has been performed. The engineering research, including ecological surveys, has been completed to assess the ecological impact of upcoming exploratory and mining operations at the deposit. Assessment of the geochemical condition of the landscape constituents, including the soil, ground and bottom sediments is of special importance in terms of their engineering protection and rational management of the natural environment. The above assessments were based on the field sampling made by «Sibgeoconsulting», CJSC (Krasnoyarsk and the laboratory research made by accredited laboratories of Federal State Unitary Geological Enterprise «Urangeolograzvedka» (Irkutsk and «Krasnoyarskgeologiya» (Krasnoyarsk. The analysis of the chemical pollution of soils, ground and bottom sediments is based on the examination of 30 samples. Peculiarities of the chemical composition of samples extracted at the deposit were identified. It has been discovered that pH values of the soil vary from 5.1 to 7.3. The concentration of metal in bottom sediments exceeds its concentration in the soil by far. Almost all irregular features of the sample water in the whole territory of the deposit are caused by the anthropogenic impact. In general, the metal content in soils, ground and bottom sediments within the territory of the deposit is slightly different from the regular clarke.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF THE SOIL, GROUND AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AT KLEN GOLD AND SILVER DEPOSIT

    OpenAIRE

    Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich; Lebedev Viktor Vadimovich

    2012-01-01

    Currently, prospecting and design-related works are performed prior to the upcoming launch of mining operations at Klen gold and silver deposit in Chukot Autonomous District. The anthropogenic impact of the geological exploration in this intact territory has been produced since 1984. A considerable amount of borehole drilling, prospecting, road building, and temporary housing development has been performed. The engineering research, including ecological surveys, has been completed to assess t...

  13. Alluvial deposition and lake-level fluctuations forced by Late Quaternary climate change: the Dead Sea case example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Y.; Avouac, J. P.; Bourles, D.; Tisnerat, N.

    2003-11-01

    Based on geomorphic observations, we discuss lake-level fluctuations, alluvial deposition and river entrenchment in the Dead Sea-Wadi Araba area. The bulk of alluvium in the northern Wadi Araba was probably deposited before the Lisan period of lake transgression that started at about 70 kyears B.P. The lake reached a maximum elevation about 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.), possibly around 15 cal. kyears B.P. as indicated by the highest preserved beach ridges. Cosmogenic exposure dates show that the ridge material consists mainly of remobilized Pleistocene gravel indicating little sediment supply during most of the Lisan period. During this period, a reduced sediment flux fed subaquatic fan deltas along the margin of the Dead Sea. Wetter conditions settled at the end of this period, the water level rose to about 280 m b.s.l. around 15 kyears B.P. and prevailed in the early Holocene (10.5-7 cal. kyears B.P.). Following that humid period, the lake level dropped and two major episodes of fluvial aggradation occurred during periods of relative low lake level. The first aggradational episode took place between about 7.0 and 6.2 cal. kyears B.P. Beach bars indicate a subsequent lake transgression between 6.2 and 4.4 kyears B.P. up to 350 m b.s.l. The second aggradational episode happened between 4.4 and 2.0 cal. kyears B.P., and was also followed by a late transgression up to 375 m b.s.l., dated to 1960-1715 cal. years B.P. The correlation between low lake level and fluvial aggradation is taken to reflect the synchronous change of the fluvial regime and of the lake hydrologic balance, forced by climate changes, rather than a base-level control. We also exclude large tectonic forcing on fan emplacement and river entrenchment. Alluviation appears in this setting as a very irregular process, characterized by long periods of quiescence alternating with periods of fan build-up, reflecting the transient response of the water drainage system to climate change.

  14. Deep repository - engineered barrier systems. Assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, David; Moren, Lena; Sellin, Patrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Keto, Paula [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-09-15

    The main objectives of this report are to: 1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, 2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, 3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, 4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, 5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling project can be divided into three main categories: 1. Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 230), and one high and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The high-grade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. 2. Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (0, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The relationships between dry densities and hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and compressibility in saturated state for these materials were investigated. Most of the tests were performed with a groundwater salinity of 3.5%. This salinity is comparable to sea water and can be expected to be at the high end of salinities occurring during the assessment period. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the dry densities required to meet the function indicator criteria. These densities are referred to as the density criteria. However throughout the assessment period a loss of material and thus

  15. The high-level marine shell-bearing deposits of Clava, Inverness-shire, and their origin as glacial rafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J. W.

    The enigmatic high-level, till-covered, cold water marine shell-bearing deposits at Clava, Inverness-shire, are described systematically in the light of new observations made at sites documented in the literature. The marine deposits, named here as the Clava Shelly Formation, include three members, the unfossiliferous Clava sand, the underlying Clava shelly clay and a shelly diamicton known as the Clava shelly till. The first two members form a conformable coarsening-upwards sequence containing a shallow water, high-boreal to low-Arctic fauna and flora. The Clava shelly till is essentially glacially re-sedimented glaciomarine clay containing a sparse fauna, but its stratigraphic relationship and age are not absolutely clear. The shelly clay is ascribed to a Mid-Devensian interstadial episode on the basis of amino-acid dating. It is concluded that the Clava shelly clay, and several discrete masses of Clava sand and shelly till, are glacially transported allochthons derived from the Great Glen. The rafts were probably detached as a result of high pore water pressure building up in laterally restricted aquifers beneath a confined glacier that flowed north-eastwards across the Loch Ness basin. This glacier was deflected eastwards and upwards towards Clava by ice flowing from the northern Highlands along the Beauly Firth during the build-up of the last Scottish ice-sheet. The rafts were stacked at the ice margin when the glacier entered the Nairn Valley before being overriden by the expanding ice-sheet.

  16. Assessment of Prospecting Potentiality for Superlarge Continental Volcanic Rock—Type Uranium Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵华; 陈名佐; 等

    1999-01-01

    The superlarge continental volcanic rock-type uranium deposits,which were discovered abroad long ago,have not ye been reported up to now in China.This is an important problem that needs to be urgently solved by uranium geologists at present.In this paper,on the basis of analyzing the metallogenic settings and geological conditions of the superlarge continental volcanic rock-type uranium deposits discovered in the world along with the metallogenic characteristics of those of the same type in China,the space-time distribution patterns of continental volcanics and the metallogenic potential of main tectono-volcanic belts in China are discussed,and a synthetic conclusion has been drawn that there is a possibility to discover the superlarge continental volcanic rock-type uranium deposits in China.Moreover,it is evidenced that the Ganhang,Nanling,Yanliao,Da Hinggan Ling and other tectono-volcanic belts possess favorable geological conditions for the formation of ssuperlarge ore deposits of the continental volcanic rock type.The intersecting and overlapping locations of the aforementioned main belts with other tectono-volcanic(-intrusive)belts are the most potential areas where the superlarge continental volcanic rock-type uranium deposits would be found.

  17. Assessing browse trend at the landscape level Part 2: Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Fager, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Part 1, we assessed browse trend across a wide geographic area of Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area by conducting surveys of browsing-related architectures. Those data were qualitative. Below we describe the periodic collection of quantitative data from permanently marked locations; we refer to this phase of the trend assessment program as "monitoring." Trend was monitored by three methods: 1 Repeat photography. 2 Comparison of the height of live stems with the height of stems killed by browsing (LD Index). 3 Net annual stem growth rate (NAGRL3). The photography provides an assessment of trend from the comparison of photographs taken at intervals of a few years. The LD Index and NAGRL3 measurements provide an immediate assessment of trend.

  18. Infiltration in layered loessial deposits: Revised numerical simulations and recharge assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny, Elad; Šimůnek, Jirka

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess recharge rates and their timing under layered loessial deposits at the edge of arid zones. Particularly, this study is focused on the case of the coastal plain of Israel and Gaza. First, results of a large-scale field infiltration test were used to calibrate the van Genuchten parameters of hydraulic properties of the loessial sediments using HYDRUS (2D/3D). Second, optimized soil hydraulic parameters were used by HYDRUS-1D to simulate the water balance of the sandy-loess sediments during a 25-year period (1990-2015) for three environmental conditions: bare soil, and soil with both sparse and dense natural vegetation. The best inverse parameter optimization run fitted the infiltration test data with the RMSE of 0.27 d (with respect to a moisture front arrival) and R2 of 96%. The calibrated model indicates that hydraulic conductivities of the two soil horizons, namely sandy loam and sandy clay loam, are 81 cm/d and 17.5 cm/d, respectively. These values are significantly lower than those previously reported, based on numerical simulations, for the same site. HYDRUS-1D simulation of natural recharge under bare soil resulted in recharge estimates (to the aquifer) in the range of 21-93 mm/yr, with an average recharge of 63 mm/yr. Annual precipitation in the same period varied between 100 and 300 mm/yr, with an average of 185 mm/yr. For semi-stabilized dunes, with 26% of the soil surface covered by local shrub (Artemisia monosperma), the mean annual recharge was 28 mm. For the stabilized landscape, with as much as 50% vegetation coverage, it was only 2-3 mm/yr. In other words, loessial sediments can either be a source of significant recharge, or of no recharge at all, depending on the degree of vegetative cover. Additionally, the time lag between specific rainy seasons and corresponding recharge events at a depth of 22 m, increased from 2.5 to 5 years, and to about 20 years, respectively, with an increasing vegetative cover. For

  19. Atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides: An assessment of current knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pul, W.A.J. van; Bidleman, T.F.; Brorström-Lunden, E.;

    1999-01-01

    there is a shortage of measurement data to evaluate the deposition and reemission processes. It was concluded that the mechanisms of transport and dispersion of pesticides can be described similarly to those for other air pollution components and these mechanisms are rather well-known. Large uncertainties are present...

  20. The Effect of Peer Assessment on Project Performance of Students at Different Learning Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Gao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Peer assessment has been increasingly integrated in educational settings as a strategy to foster student learning. Yet little has been studied about how students at different learning levels may benefit from peer assessment. This study examined how peer-assessment and students' learning levels influenced students' project performance using a…

  1. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project.

  2. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project

  3. Assessment of accident rate at lithuanian railways level crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas Liudvinavichius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The most pressing problem facing the rail traffic safety experts is an accident rate at the railway level crossings. The purpose is to investigate the circumstances, which affect traffic safety at the level crossings, and to offer effective tools for experts to improve the safety the problems of these dangerous spaces of railway infrastructure. Methodology. This paper observes the logistic regression as a method to estimate the accident rate at level crossings in Lithuania. The authors have studied and evaluated the key factors affecting the safety of railway crossings. These factors are the intensity of trains and road transport means through the railway level crossing, the visibility of the approaching train from both sides of the traffic, the maximum permissible speed of the trains, the number of tracks (single track, double track, and multi-track, the level of installed alarm and automatic equipment, a density of population in this area, etc. Finally, only the factors, which might be described by mathematical expressions (numbers, were identified. Findings. By using logistic regression method, it was found that the most determinant factors at level crossings are the maximum speed of trains, poor visibility crossing (less than 1,000 m, intensity of the road traffic at crossings, and inappropriate implementation of roads crossing the rails. Based on the study results, the conclusions and recommendations were formulated which primary measures to prevent accidents at level crossing and on what level crossing should be taken urgently. Originality.Revealed trends and major causes of accidents at railway crossings of Lithuania for 2004-2011 year. The necessity of implementation of progressive technical measures for the prevention accidents on railway level crossing is proved. Practical value. About 50% of Lithuanian railway crossings do not meet the requirements of the level crossing legislation. This parameter is one of the key risk

  4. Los Alamos low-level waste performance assessment status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Purtymun, W.D.; Dewart, J.M.; Rodgers, J.E. (comps.)

    1986-06-01

    This report reviews the documented Los Alamos studies done to assess the containment of buried hazardous wastes. Five sections logically present the environmental studies, operational source terms, transport pathways, environmental dosimetry, and computer model development and use. This review gives a general picture of the Los Alamos solid waste disposal and liquid effluent sites and is intended for technical readers with waste management and environmental science backgrounds but without a detailed familiarization with Los Alamos. The review begins with a wide perspective on environmental studies at Los Alamos. Hydrology, geology, and meteorology are described for the site and region. The ongoing Laboratory-wide environmental surveillance and waste management environmental studies are presented. The next section describes the waste disposal sites and summarizes the current source terms for these sites. Hazardous chemical wastes and liquid effluents are also addressed by describing the sites and canyons that are impacted. The review then focuses on the transport pathways addressed mainly in reports by Healy and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. Once the source terms and potential transport pathways are described, the dose assessment methods are addressed. Three major studies, the waste alternatives, Hansen and Rogers, and the Pantex Environmental Impact Statement, contributed to the current Los Alamos dose assessment methodology. Finally, the current Los Alamos groundwater, surface water, and environmental assessment models for these mesa top and canyon sites are described.

  5. Los Alamos low-level waste performance assessment status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the documented Los Alamos studies done to assess the containment of buried hazardous wastes. Five sections logically present the environmental studies, operational source terms, transport pathways, environmental dosimetry, and computer model development and use. This review gives a general picture of the Los Alamos solid waste disposal and liquid effluent sites and is intended for technical readers with waste management and environmental science backgrounds but without a detailed familiarization with Los Alamos. The review begins with a wide perspective on environmental studies at Los Alamos. Hydrology, geology, and meteorology are described for the site and region. The ongoing Laboratory-wide environmental surveillance and waste management environmental studies are presented. The next section describes the waste disposal sites and summarizes the current source terms for these sites. Hazardous chemical wastes and liquid effluents are also addressed by describing the sites and canyons that are impacted. The review then focuses on the transport pathways addressed mainly in reports by Healy and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. Once the source terms and potential transport pathways are described, the dose assessment methods are addressed. Three major studies, the waste alternatives, Hansen and Rogers, and the Pantex Environmental Impact Statement, contributed to the current Los Alamos dose assessment methodology. Finally, the current Los Alamos groundwater, surface water, and environmental assessment models for these mesa top and canyon sites are described

  6. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

    2009-05-30

    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions. PMID:18976857

  7. The effect of airway deposition on the assessment of lung injury by 99mTc-DTPA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation method permits detection of pulmonary epithelial damage. We investigated one of several problems, airway deposition of inhaled aerosol, on the assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability in healthy nonsmokers and patients with interstitial lung diseases. We used the rate constant of pulmonary 99mTc-DTPA clearance curve, k, as a parameter of the epithelial permeability. The alveolar-peripheral airway deposition of aerosol was estimated by the duplicated inhalation method, which we newly developed. The mean k in patients with interstitial lung disease (2.52±0.72%/min, n=8; pc) was higher in patients with interstitial lung disease (4.08±1.63%/min; pc in both groups (pc obtained among the subjects (r=0.951; p99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation method although the correction was significant in the individual subjects. (author)

  8. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

    2009-05-30

    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions.

  9. Assessment of the relative importance of nitrogen deposition, climate change and forest management on the sequestration of carbon by forest in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    De, Vries, J.A.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; G. J. Reinds; Wieggers, H.J.J.; Mol-Dijkstra, J. P.; J. Kros; NABUURS G. J.; Pussinen, A.; Solberg, S.; Dobbertin, M.; Laubhann, D.; H. Sterba; Oijen, van, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes results of studies assessing and predicting changes in forest growth and carbon sequestration in forests and forest soils in response to various scenarios with respect to changes in CO2 concentration, climate (precipitation and temperature), atmospheric deposition (N and S deposition) and forest management (forest management scenarios), using empirical and process oriented models, respectively

  10. Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Satish, B N V S; Srikala, P; Maharudrappa, B; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M; Kumar, Prashant; Hugar, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting people worldwide, which require constant monitoring of their glucose levels. Commonly employed procedures include collection of blood or urine samples causing discomfort to the patients. Hence the need for an alternative non invasive technique is required to monitor glucose levels. Saliva present in the oral cavity not only maintains the health of the oral cavity but plays a important role in diagnosis of ...

  11. Assessment of Serum Vitamin D Levels in Hypertensive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High blood pressure is very prevalent worldwide, as well as vitamin D deficiency. There are several observation data that support the concept that vitamin D is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Also some clinical data demonstrate positive effect of vitamin D therapy on hypertension. We studied serum levels of vitamin D and its association with blood pressure in 30 hypertensive patients and 20 age and socioeconomic status matched healthy controls. There was no statistically significant difference in serum vitamin D levels in the group of patients compared with controls. In patients group, patients with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2 showed statistically significant decrease in serum vitamin D levels as compared to those with BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2 (P = 0.021). There was no significant association between serum vitamin D levels and age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the group of patients. A negative correlation between serum vitamin D levels and BMI was found in patients group (P = 0.045). In conclusion, no association between serum levels of vitamin D and blood pressure in hypertensive patients, but it is statistically associated with BMI. Further large scale studies are needed putting in consideration the effect of genetic factor

  12. Assessment of hand hygiene levels among healthcare professionals in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rameswarapu, Rohin; K, Surendranath Sai; Valsangkar, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionHand hygiene, either by hand disinfection or hand washing remains to be most pivotal in controlling infection in healthcare settings. Simple preventive measures have been proven effective to contain infections. The exiguity on studies done in healthcare settings in India has galvanized us to undertake this study on hand hygiene assessment among nurses in a healthcare setting in IndiaMaterials and methodsA cross sectional study was done in one of leading organization in preventive ...

  13. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  14. Assessing Levels of Attention Using Low Cost Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Per; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of mobile eye trackers embedded in next generation smartphones or VR displays will make it possible to trace not only what objects we look at but also the level of attention in a given situation. Exploring whether we can quantify the engagement of a user interacting with a laptop, w...... perspective of individual behavioural adaptation, the correlations between the pupil size and the task dependent reaction time and error rates may longer term provide a foundation for modifying smartphone content and interaction to the users perceived level of attention.......The emergence of mobile eye trackers embedded in next generation smartphones or VR displays will make it possible to trace not only what objects we look at but also the level of attention in a given situation. Exploring whether we can quantify the engagement of a user interacting with a laptop, we...

  15. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project.

  17. Atmospheric deposition in an urban area: Implications for assessing the effects of hazardous air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Bouzonville, Adrien; Elsass, Philippe; Elsass, Francoise; Atkins, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants emitted to the atmosphere in urban areas have indirect effects through deposition onto the ground, which, over time, could negatively affect the quality of soil, plants, water and groundwater. In this baseline study, evaluation of topsoil contamination in an urban area of France has been carried out to correlate concentrations observed in the soil with the local air emission sources. The analytical program is an extensive study carried out over a 200 km2 area and the results confir...

  18. Assessing Levels of Attention Using Low Cost Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Per; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of mobile eye trackers embedded in next generation smartphones or VR displays will make it possible to trace not only what objects we look at but also the level of attention in a given situation. Exploring whether we can quantify the engagement of a user interacting with a laptop, we...... perspective of individual behavioural adaptation, the correlations between the pupil size and the task dependent reaction time and error rates may longer term provide a foundation for modifying smartphone content and interaction to the users perceived level of attention....

  19. An assessment of variations in mercury deposition to Antarctica over the past 34,000 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雪斌; 孙立广; 谢周清

    2003-01-01

    We performed a comparison analysis of the variations in Mercury (Hg)concentrations and the precipitation proxies (e. g. , 18 O values and 10 Be concentrations) in the Dome C ice core. The results showed that there were significant correlations between Hg and δ 18 O values, 10 Be concentrations, indicating that the accumulation rate in Dome C is one of the key factors controlling the variations of Hg concentrations in the past 34,000 years, and implying that Hg concentrations in ice core can be used as another reliable proxy of precipitation rate in Antarctica. Based upon the high-resolution δ 18 O values, we estimated the variations in mercury deposition flux to Antarctica over the past 34,000 years. The highest mercury deposition flux is about 3.80 pg cm -2 yr-1 during the Last Glacial Maxium (LGM) as high as 3.5 times of the mercury deposition flux (about 1.08 pg em-2 yr -1 ) in Holocene due to the fluctuations in natural mercury emissions such as the oceanic biological emissions.

  20. Assessment of dose level of ionizing radiation in army scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, which includes both particle radiation and high energy radiation. Ionizing radiation is widely used in industry and medicine. Any human activity of nuclear technologies should be linked to the foundation of scientific methodology and baseline radiation culture to avoid risk of radiation and should be working with radioactive materials and expertise to understand, control practices in order to avoid risks that could cause harm to human and environment. The study was conducted in warehouses and building of Sudan air force Khartoum basic air force during September 2010. The goal of this study to estimate the radiation dose and measurement of radioactive contamination of aircraft scrap equipment and increase the culture of radiological safety as well as the concept of radiation protection. The results showed that there is no pollution observed in the contents of the aircraft and the spire part stores outside, levels of radiation dose for the all contents of the aircraft and spire part within the excitable level, except temperature sensors estimated radiation dose about 43 μSv/h outside of the shielding and 12 μSv/h inside the shielding that exceeded the internationally recommended dose level. One of the most important of the identification of eighteen (18) radiation sources used in temperature and fuel level sensors. These are separated from the scrap, collected and stored in safe place. (Author)

  1. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  2. Navigation forces during wrist arthroscopy: assessment of expert levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obdeijn, Miryam; Horeman, Tim; Boer, de Lisanne L.; Baalen, van Sophie; Liverneaux, Philippe; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To facilitate effective and efficient training in skills laboratory, objective metrics can be used. Forces exerted on the tissues can be a measure of safe tissue manipulation. To provide feedback during training, expert threshold levels need to be determined. The purpose of this study was to

  3. Assessing the Preparedness Level of Incoming Principles of Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Phillip W.

    2000-01-01

    Reports that the introductory level Principles of Accounting classes at Southwest Virginia Community College (SVCC) had high unsuccessful grade rates between 1989 and 1999. Describes a study conducted to determine whether there was a statistical difference in the test scores and GPA of successful versus unsuccessful accounting students. Finds that…

  4. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels o

  5. Using motion capture to assess colonoscopy experience level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Preisler, Louise; Hillingsø, Jens Georg;

    2014-01-01

    ) vs 12% for novice endoscopists (SD 9)], the level of the right hand below the sighting line (z-axis) (25 cm for experienced endoscopists vs 36 cm for novice endoscopists, P left hand below the z-axis (6 cm for experienced endoscopists vs 15 cm for novice endoscopists, P...

  6. Assessing Levels of Attention using Low Cost Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Per; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2015-01-01

    Exploring whether we can quantify the engagement of a user interacting with a laptop, we apply mobile eye tracking to assess pupil size changes, related to attentional aspects of alertness, orientation and conflict resolution. Visually presenting conflicting cues and targets we hypothesize that it......'s feasible measure the allocated effort when responding to confusing stimuli. Although such experiments are normally carried out in a lab, we are able to differentiate between sustained alertness and complex decision making even with low cost eye tracking in the wild. From a quantified self perspective...

  7. Multi -risk assessment at a national level in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashvili, Otar; Amiranashvili, Avtandil; Tsereteli, Emili; Elizbarashvili, Elizbar; Saluqvadze, Manana; Dolodze, Jemal

    2013-04-01

    Work presented here was initiated by national GNSF project " Reducing natural disasters multiple risk: a positive factor for Georgia development " and two international projects: NATO SFP 983038 "Seismic hazard and Rusk assessment for Southern Caucasus-eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and EMME " Earthquake Model for Middle east Region". Methodology for estimation of "general" vulnerability, hazards and multiple risk to natural hazards (namely, earthquakes, landslides, snow avalanches, flash floods, mudflows, drought, hurricanes, frost, hail) where developed for Georgia. The electronic detailed databases of natural disasters were created. These databases contain the parameters of hazardous phenomena that caused natural disasters. The magnitude and intensity scale of the mentioned disasters are reviewed and the new magnitude and intensity scales are suggested for disasters for which the corresponding formalization is not yet performed. The associated economic losses were evaluated and presented in monetary terms for these hazards. Based on the hazard inventory, an approach was developed that allowed for the calculation of an overall vulnerability value for each individual hazard type, using the Gross Domestic Product per unit area (applied to population) as the indicator for elements at risk exposed. The correlation between estimated economic losses, physical exposure and the magnitude for each of the six types of hazards has been investigated in detail by using multiple linear regression analysis. Economic losses for all past events and historical vulnerability were estimated. Finally, the spatial distribution of general vulnerability was assessed, and the expected maximum economic loss was calculated as well as a multi-risk map was set-up.

  8. Assessment of the natural radioactivity levels in Kirkuk oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Taqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural radioactivity levels of Kirkuk oil field are studied using high resolution gamma rays spectrometry. For this reason, soil samples were collected from three sites in the Iraq North Oil Company: Baba Gurgur, Shurau and old process plant (Terkiz. The activity concentrations obtained for 238U-series (226Ra, 214Pb, and 214Bi, 232Th-series (228Ac, 212Pb, and 208Tl and 40K. The results have been compared with the worldwide average values. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq, the absorbed dose rate (D, the annual effective dose rate (AEDE, the external hazard (Hex, the internal hazard (Hin and Gamma radiation representative level Index (Iγ were also obtained and compared with the international recommended values.

  9. [Assessment levels of the user's satisfaction in a private hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Wilma Batista Souza; Melleiro, Marta Maria

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the satisfaction of the users of a private hospital in terms of a number of attributes of the services in units. This exploratory, descriptive study used a quantitative approach and was developed in a private hospital in the city of São Paulo. The casuistry consisted of 71 users and data collection was performed during the period from March to August 2007, using a derivative of the scale model of the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) of the evaluative model of Parasuraman et al. The level of overall satisfaction ranged around 95%. The assurance (96%) and reliability (96%) were considered the most important dimensions of quality, followed by empathy (95%), responsiveness (93%) and tangibility (88%). Medical and nursing staffs introduced high levels of satisfaction. 91% has intention to recommend the hospital. This research provided the knowledge of the attributes most important in terms of satisfaction and contributed to confirming or reshaping assistance and management processes.

  10. Assessments of blood lead levels in children with febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Nastaran; Izadi, Anahita; Noorbakhsh, Samileh; Javadinia, Shima; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Ashouri, Sarvenaz; Asgarian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead elements have an adverse effect on human health. The most important complications of lead poisoning are disorders of nervous system particularly seizure .This study aimed to evaluate the blood lead levels and its association with convulsion in a group of hospitalized febrile children. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 60 hospitalized febrile children with 1- 60 month old participated in the study via non-probability convenience sampling method. All of the infor...

  11. Methodology to assess and map the potential development of forest ecosystems exposed to climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition: A pilot study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Jenssen, Martin; Riediger, Jan

    2015-07-15

    A methodology for mapping ecosystems and their potential development under climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition was developed using examples from Germany. The methodology integrated data on vegetation, soil, climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. These data were used to classify ecosystem types regarding six ecological functions and interrelated structures. Respective data covering 1961-1990 were used for reference. The assessment of functional and structural integrity relies on comparing a current or future state with an ecosystem type-specific reference. While current functions and structures of ecosystems were quantified by measurements, potential future developments were projected by geochemical soil modelling and data from a regional climate change model. The ecosystem types referenced the potential natural vegetation and were mapped using data on current tree species coverage and land use. In this manner, current ecosystem types were derived, which were related to data on elevation, soil texture, and climate for the years 1961-1990. These relations were quantified by Classification and Regression Trees, which were used to map the spatial patterns of ecosystem type clusters for 1961-1990. The climate data for these years were subsequently replaced by the results of a regional climate model for 1991-2010, 2011-2040, and 2041-2070. For each of these periods, one map of ecosystem type clusters was produced and evaluated with regard to the development of areal coverage of ecosystem type clusters over time. This evaluation of the structural aspects of ecological integrity at the national level was added by projecting potential future values of indicators for ecological functions at the site level by using the Very Simple Dynamic soil modelling technique based on climate data and two scenarios of nitrogen deposition as input. The results were compared to the reference and enabled an evaluation of site-specific ecosystem changes over time

  12. Methodology to assess and map the potential development of forest ecosystems exposed to climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition: A pilot study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Jenssen, Martin; Riediger, Jan

    2015-07-15

    A methodology for mapping ecosystems and their potential development under climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition was developed using examples from Germany. The methodology integrated data on vegetation, soil, climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. These data were used to classify ecosystem types regarding six ecological functions and interrelated structures. Respective data covering 1961-1990 were used for reference. The assessment of functional and structural integrity relies on comparing a current or future state with an ecosystem type-specific reference. While current functions and structures of ecosystems were quantified by measurements, potential future developments were projected by geochemical soil modelling and data from a regional climate change model. The ecosystem types referenced the potential natural vegetation and were mapped using data on current tree species coverage and land use. In this manner, current ecosystem types were derived, which were related to data on elevation, soil texture, and climate for the years 1961-1990. These relations were quantified by Classification and Regression Trees, which were used to map the spatial patterns of ecosystem type clusters for 1961-1990. The climate data for these years were subsequently replaced by the results of a regional climate model for 1991-2010, 2011-2040, and 2041-2070. For each of these periods, one map of ecosystem type clusters was produced and evaluated with regard to the development of areal coverage of ecosystem type clusters over time. This evaluation of the structural aspects of ecological integrity at the national level was added by projecting potential future values of indicators for ecological functions at the site level by using the Very Simple Dynamic soil modelling technique based on climate data and two scenarios of nitrogen deposition as input. The results were compared to the reference and enabled an evaluation of site-specific ecosystem changes over time

  13. Economic assessment of utilizing protective properties of level coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, A.F.; Batmanov, Yu.K.; Gainutdinov, I.A.

    1982-12-01

    Increasing mining depth negatively influences mining efficiency and safety. At depths to 600 m 10% of coal comes from seams prone to rock bursts. At depths exceeding 600 m proportion of coal from seams prone to rock bursts increases to 40%. Investigations carried out in Ukrainian coal mines show that coal losses (due to rock burst hazard) in level seams mined by a longwall system amount to 4.6 Mt per year. Cost of rock burst prevention and repairs after rock bursts amounts to 12 million rubles per year. About 68% of coal from level coal seams comes from long coal pillars mined by a longwall system. In level coal seams prone to rock bursts this proportion is 40% lower (proportion of longwall mining is reduced due to increased rock burst hazards). Only 10% of coal seams prone to rock bursts are mined using a system of stress relaxation by cutting another overlying or underlying coal seam (utilizing protective properties of a coal seam). A method for economic analysis of protective properties of coal seams in seam groups is described. Using the method the optimum order of mining coal seams in a seam group is determined. Examples of the method's use are analyzed. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  14. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment. Volume 3, Appendices C, D, E, F, and G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the third of a three-volume document describing the project and contains descriptions of the probability assessment principles; the expert identification and selection process; the weighting methods used; the inverse modeling methods; case structures; and summaries of the consequence codes.

  15. Assessment of the natural radioactivity levels in Kirkuk oil field

    OpenAIRE

    Ali H. Taqi; Laith Abdul Aziz Al-Ani; Abbas M. Ali

    2016-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of Kirkuk oil field are studied using high resolution gamma rays spectrometry. For this reason, soil samples were collected from three sites in the Iraq North Oil Company: Baba Gurgur, Shurau and old process plant (Terkiz). The activity concentrations obtained for 238U-series (226Ra, 214Pb, and 214Bi), 232Th-series (228Ac, 212Pb, and 208Tl) and 40K. The results have been compared with the worldwide average values. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the abs...

  16. Assessment of Radon level in dwellings of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhassan Haddadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Indoor radon gas (222Rn has been recognized as one of the causes of lung cancer. The presence of radioactive radium in the construction & materials in the buildings its changes in contact with radon gas may lead to increase level of radon gas in the residential houses. In this regards, indoor radon measurement is important. This study was conducted to determine radon concentration in Tabriz houses. Materials & Methods: In this study, 196 radon diffusion dosimeters were left in different floors of houses constructed with different materials such as cement (betony, heated brick & clay with raw brick at every floor for 6 months. The “electrochemical etching” method was applied to detect “alpha tracks” on the polymers of dosimeters and based on number of these tracks, radon concentration was determined. Results: This study showed that average radon concentration were 39Bqm-3 in the houses. At different floors & different construction material the average effective dose equivalent of lung tissue was 0.97msvy-1. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that, the indoor radon levels in the Tabriz houses are within acceptable range.

  17. [Assessment levels of the user's satisfaction in a private hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Wilma Batista Souza; Melleiro, Marta Maria

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the satisfaction of the users of a private hospital in terms of a number of attributes of the services in units. This exploratory, descriptive study used a quantitative approach and was developed in a private hospital in the city of São Paulo. The casuistry consisted of 71 users and data collection was performed during the period from March to August 2007, using a derivative of the scale model of the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) of the evaluative model of Parasuraman et al. The level of overall satisfaction ranged around 95%. The assurance (96%) and reliability (96%) were considered the most important dimensions of quality, followed by empathy (95%), responsiveness (93%) and tangibility (88%). Medical and nursing staffs introduced high levels of satisfaction. 91% has intention to recommend the hospital. This research provided the knowledge of the attributes most important in terms of satisfaction and contributed to confirming or reshaping assistance and management processes. PMID:20394232

  18. Assessment of lake sensitivity to acidic deposition in national parks of the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L; Williams, M W; Campbell, D H; Tonnessen, K A; Blett, T; Clow, D W

    2009-06-01

    The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration 3000 m, with 80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world. PMID:19544737

  19. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on deposited material and external doses, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  20. Computer codes for level 1 probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) entails several laborious tasks suitable for computer codes assistance. This guide identifies these tasks, presents guidelines for selecting and utilizing computer codes in the conduct of the PSA tasks and for the use of PSA results in safety management and provides information on available codes suggested or applied in performing PSA in nuclear power plants. The guidance is intended for use by nuclear power plant system engineers, safety and operating personnel, and regulators. Large efforts are made today to provide PC-based software systems and PSA processed information in a way to enable their use as a safety management tool by the nuclear power plant overall management. Guidelines on the characteristics of software needed for management to prepare a software that meets their specific needs are also provided. Most of these computer codes are also applicable for PSA of other industrial facilities. The scope of this document is limited to computer codes used for the treatment of internal events. It does not address other codes available mainly for the analysis of external events (e.g. seismic analysis) flood and fire analysis. Codes discussed in the document are those used for probabilistic rather than for phenomenological modelling. It should be also appreciated that these guidelines are not intended to lead the user to selection of one specific code. They provide simply criteria for the selection. Refs and tabs

  1. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  2. Assessing nurses’ knowledge levels in the nutritional management of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mogre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although nutrition education for diabetes patients is the responsibility of dieticians and/or nutritionist, nurses have an important role to play. This study measured the knowledge level of nurses’ and associated factors in the nutritional management of diabetes. In this cross-sectional study a sample of 200 nurses completed a 21-item nutritional management of diabetes knowledge test developed based on the ADA and WHO guidelines for the nutritional management of diabetes. Using Cronbach's alpha, reliability was 0.62. The nurses (n = 200 had almost a 1:1 male to female ratio (n = 99, 49.5% and n = 101, 50.5% and a mean age of 27.24 ± 3.66 years. Total mean score was 12.13 ± 3.17 (44.9% correct. Over 70% of the nurses said diabetes patients could exclude any of the major nutrients from their meals. Almost 90% (n = 179 of the nurses did not know the recommended daily caloric intake of carbohydrates for diabetes patients. Higher mean scores were found in nurses who have ever had a refresher course in nutrition, ever counseled a diabetes patient and took 2–3 nutrition courses during school. Nurses’ knowledge in the nutritional management of diabetes was poor. It raises questions about the adequacy of nurses’ knowledge in the nutritional management of diabetes.

  3. Toward Guidelines for Population-level Ecological Risk Assessment: Results of a U.S. EPA Risk Assessment Forum Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The choice of levels of biological organization reflected in ecological risk assessment (ERA) is receiving increasing attention. Most ERAs conducted for chemicals by the U.S. EPA, and indeed by most organizations worldwide, focus on organism-level attributes (e.g., survival, gro...

  4. Late Quaternary sea level and environmental changes from relic carbonate deposits of the western margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rajagopalan, G.; Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India occur as dolomite crusts, aragonite sands (pelletal / oolitic) and aragonite-cemented limestones, oyster shells, corals, encrusted coralline algal and foraminiferal-dominated nodules...

  5. POTENTIAL FUTURE EFFECTS OF CURRENT LEVELS OF SULFUR DEPOSITION ON STREAM CHEMISTRY IN THE SOUTHERN BLUE RIDGE MOUNTAINS, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using newly available regional data sets we examine the potential for future changes in stream acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) for the Southern Blue Ridge Province (SBRP) of the U.S. as related to (1) levels of S deposition, (2) retention of S within watersheds, (3) current surf...

  6. Assessing the atmospheric deposition of mercury to Lake Michigan: The importance of the Chicago/Gary urban area on wet and dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Matthew Scott

    1998-12-01

    Mercury is a toxic bioaccumulative substance found in aquatic ecosystems. The results of the first study of atmospheric mercury deposition into Lake Michigan and the relative importance of the Chicago/Gary urban area were investigated as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) and the Atmospheric Exchange Over Lakes and Oceans Study (AEOLOS). Event wet-only precipitation, total aerosol, and vapor phase samples were collected for mercury and trace element determinations from five sites around Lake Michigan from July 1994 through October 1995 as part of the LMMBS. In addition, intensive over-water measurements were conducted aboard the EPA research vessel Lake Guardian during the summer of 1994 and the winter of 1995 as part of the AEOLOS. Atmospheric mercury concentrations were from two to ten times higher in the Chicago/Gary urban area. Wet and dry Hg deposition (including reactive gaseous Hg) were calculated to Lake Michigan using a hybrid receptor modeling framework. The model utilized mercury monitoring data collected during the LMMBS and AEOLOS together with high resolution over-water meteorological data provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Atmospheric deposition was found to be the primary pathway for mercury input to Lake Michigan, contributing approximately 84% of the estimated 1419 Kg annual flux. Wet deposition (10.6 μg m-2) and dry deposition (10.0 μg m-2) contributed almost equally to the annual atmospheric Hg deposition of 20.6 μg m-2 (1189 Kg). A strong urban influence was observed in the over-water mercury deposition estimates in the southern portion of the lake. An independent meteorological transport analysis determined that local sources in the Chicago/Gary urban area significantly impacted the LMMBS sites around Lake Michigan. The Chicago/Gary urban area was found to contribute about 20% (127 Kg) of the annual atmospheric mercury deposition to Lake Michigan. Multivariate statistical analysis of

  7. Expression levels of candidate genes for intramuscular fat deposition in two Banna mini-pig inbred lines divergently selected for fatness traits

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Mei Zhao; Wei-Zhen Li; Hong-Bin Pan; Ying Huang; Ming-Hua Yang; Hong-Jiang Wei; Shi-Zheng Gao

    2012-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content plays an important role in meat quality. Many genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism were identified as candidate genes for IMF deposition, since genetic polymorphisms within these genes were associated with IMF content. However, there is less information on the expression levels of these genes in the muscle tissue. This study aimed at investigating the expression levels of sterol regulating element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), diacylglycerol acyltrans...

  8. Environmental impact assessment of trace metal deposition around the petrol filling stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide use of petroleum products causes contamination of air, water, soil and plants. The present study was conducted to monitor the trace metal deposition in road side soil around the petrol filling stations along the busy roads of Karachi, Pakistan. Total 21 road side soil samples were collected from selected locations of busy roads. The soil samples were digested using acid digestion method and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used for the elemental analysis. Results of the study showed that concentration of lead was highest in the soil samples ranging from 41.3 to 361 mg/kg, then copper from 23.0 to 101 mg/kg, manganese from 36.2 to 125.0 mg/kg and zinc from 27.5 to 213.0 mg/kg, respectively. The correlation-coefficient (r) was also calculated between the metals in soil samples. The correlation matrix showed that all the pollution is coming from the same source. The gravitational sedimentation and impact on vegetation of coarse fraction is responsible for the high lead contamination of vegetation and soils. Collected data showed that, almost all the pollution being generated by automobile exhaust in urban areas of Karachi. The soil acts as an important sink for pollutants released through different activities. (author)

  9. Atmospheric aerosol in an urban area: Comparison of measurement instruments and methodologies and pulmonary deposition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1995 a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol in the Bologna urban area (Italy) was carried out. A transportable laboratory, set up by ENEA (Italian national Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) Environmental Department (Bologna), was utilized with instruments for measurement of atmospheric aerosol and meteorological parameters. The aim of this campaign was of dual purpose: to characterize aerosol in urban area and to compare different instruments and methodologies of measurements. Mass concentrations measurements, evaluated on a 23-hour period with total filter, PM10 dichotomous sampler and low pressure impactor (LPI Berner), have provided information respectively about total suspended particles, respirable fraction and granulometric parameters of aerosol. Eight meteorologic parameters, number concentration of submicromic fraction of aerosol and mass concentration of micromic fraction have been continually measured. Then, in a daytime period, several number granulometries of atmospheric aerosol have also been estimated by means of diffusion battery system. Results related to different measurement methodologies and granulometric characteristics of aerosol are presented here. Pulmonary deposition of atmospheric aerosol is finally calculated, using granulometries provided by LPI Brener and ICRP 66 human respiratory tract model

  10. Preliminary assessment of the current impact and potential risk of acidic deposition on walleye populations in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wales, D.L.; Liimatainen, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Netting survey and field bioassay data were used to determine a pH threshold for survival of walleye. Established pH thresholds were then used to assess the current impact and potential risk of acidic deposition on walleye populations in Ontario. Extinction of walleye appeared to occur in lakes with pH < 5.5. Some losses may also have occurred in lakes with pH 5.5-6.0. An estimated 0.3% (number of lakes (N)=12) of the Ontario walleye lakes currently have pH < 5.5 and have likely lost walleye populations. A further 1.5% (N=60) of the lakes have pH 5.5-6.0 and may show signs of acidification stress. An estimated 2.0% (N=79) of the province's walleye lakes have very low alkalinities (0.0-2.0 mg/l) and are classified as extremely sensitive to continued high deposition of acidic precipitation. 19 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements in Belgrade using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements using the moss genera Brachythecium sp. (B. rutabulum and B. salebrosum) and Eurhynchium sp. (E. hians and E. striatum) collected in autumn 2004 in the urban area of Belgrade. The concentrations of 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th, U) were determined in moss and local topsoil samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of elements in moss positively correlated to those obtained for topsoil. High enrichment factors for As, Zn, Mo, Br, Sb, Se, Hg, and Cl, calculated to continental crust composition, gave an evidence for anthropogenic impact on urban area, mainly due to intensive vehicular traffic and fossil fuel combustion. The concentrations of elements in moss, characteristic for fossil fuel combustion, obtained in this study, were substantially lower than in the previous investigation (2000) conducted in the area of Belgrade. The level of concentrations for V, Cr, Ni, and As in moss from this study correlated to those measured for neighboring countries, and were several times higher than the base-level data from low polluted areas. The level of accumulated elements in both investigated moss genera were similar and all studied species could be combined for biomonitoring purposes in urban areas

  12. Level-2 probabilistic safety assessment for 220 MWe Indian PHWR (KAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used to complement, enhance and validate conclusions that are based on deterministic design principles. The Level-2 PSA for Kakrapara Atomic Power Station (KAPS), an Indian PHWR, is an extension of Level-l PSA where Plant Damage States (PDSs) form the interface between the two. The ultimate product of a Level 2 PSA study are identification of various challenges to the containment, the possible containment responses and their estimated probabilities and an assessment of the consequent releases to the environment. This paper discusses the significance of level-2 PSA, The main contributors to large Early Release Frequency (LERF) come from severe accident sequences

  13. ASSESSMENT OF FEAR OF NEGATIVE EVALUATION LEVELS AND EMPATHIC TENDENCY LEVELS OF NATIONAL JUNIOR JUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Olcay KARABULUT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted with a total of 63 junior judokas (32 female judokas and 31 male judokas who joined preparatory camp organized by Turkish Judo Federation at Çankırı Camping Training Center between the 7th and the 20th of June, 2012 and who were selected using random sampling method. Participation was voluntary. Two questionnaire forms were used in the study: “Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale” developed by Leary (1983 and adapted into Turkish by Çetin et al. (2010, and “Empathic Tendency Scale” designed by Dökmen (1988. For the data analysis, descriptive statistical methods such as frequency (n and percentages (% were used for the personal information. In order to explore differences, t test was employed for gender variable while such non-parametric tests as Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were used for the variables of sportive age and success in national and international competitions because the data did not follow normal distribution and homogeneity conditions were not met. Level of significance was set at 0.05. As the result of the study; it was found out that fear of negative evaluation and empathic tendency did not change in terms of gender and sportive age while the scores of the judokas who ranked among the top five judokas in national and international competitions were lower than those who did not rank among the top five judokas in national and international competitions and the difference between successful athletes and unsuccessful athletes in national competitions was statistically significant.

  14. Defining and Assessing College-Level Learning: Perceptions from Faculty Assessors of Prior Learning Assessment Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Cynthia Rae

    2013-01-01

    Prior learning assessment (PLA) is a non-traditional component of higher education that recognizes that life experiences and learning from outside of academia can be deemed valid and awarded college credit. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of faculty assessors of PLA portfolios. This study sought to understand, through a…

  15. Gold mineralisation and orogenic metamorphism in the Lena province of Siberia as assessed from Chertovo Koryto and Sukhoi Log deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina A. Yudovskaya; Vadim V. Distler; Vsevolod Yu. Prokofiev; Nickolay N. Akinfiev

    2016-01-01

    The Chertovo Koryto gold deposit (80 t Au at 1.84 g/t) in the Lena world-class province, Siberia, is hosted in a metamorphosed sequence of the Paleoproterozoic Mikhailovsk Formation that comprises the oldest black shale strata of the Baikal-Patom region. The mineralisation is confined to the thrust zone complicated with a conjugate anticline fold, zones of shearing and dislocation. The structural position of the mineralisation is similar to that at the giant Sukhoi Log deposit in the neighbouring Mama-Bodaibo zone. In the latter, the isotope age data suggest that Khomolkho black shales, hosts to Sukhoi Log mineralisation, are of Ediacaran age and underwent prograde metamorphism during early Paleozoic. The geochemical composition of the terrigenous rocks that host Sukhoi Log, Chertovo Koryto, and a number of other deposits at the various stratigraphic levels throughout the Proterozoic sequence have much in common. They do not show elevated metal contents above the common black shale abundances, except for Au and As, which is at variance with the accepted view on diagenetic enrichment of black shales in the Lena province. The occurrence of sagenitic rutile in quartz and chlorite pseudomorphs after biotite and other petrographic observations provide evidence on a retrograde nature of the metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Mikhailovsk rocks. The sulphides are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite with very minor pyrite at Chertovo Koryto, whereas pyrite is the predominant sulphide in the Sukhoi Log ore. Fluid inclusion data on both deposits emphasise a high-temperature nature of the mineralisation albeit revealing great contrast in the fluid composition. Sukhoi Log mineralisation was formed at mixing be-tween low-salinity aqueous solutions and dense gaseous carbonic fluids, which facilitated effective gold scavenging and precipitation, as demonstrated by thermodynamic simulation. The precursory devola-tilisation of the Mikhailovsk sediments at the prograde stage results in

  16. A methodology to assess the maturity level of brewery business processes

    OpenAIRE

    Armendáriz, Mikel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a procedure to assess the maturity level of the brewery business processes to be able to determine the required level of process automation & IT for a brewery.This procedure is made up by several tailored questionnaires that have been based on the Process and Enterprise Maturity Model management assessment tool. This tool is described in the article called The Process Audit written by Michael Hammer and published by Harvard Business Review in 2007...

  17. Integrated assessment of farm level adaptation to climate change in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mandryk, M.

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the thesis allowed assessing plausible futures of agriculture in Flevoland around 2050 with insights in effective adaptation to climate change at different levels. Besides empirical findings, this thesis contributed methodologically to the portfolio of climate change impact and adaptation assessment. Overall, this thesis performed a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account crop, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multi-objective) and participa...

  18. The application of assessment principles to an operational low level waste disposal site in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the current assessment principles utilized in England and discusses their application to the Drigg low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site. The Drigg Site was established in 1959 and the assessment principles were published in 1985; therefore, although the Drigg Site has operated successfully, the application of the assessment principles has caused changes in operations and the establishment of further site research by the Department of the Environment

  19. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

    1995-06-01

    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  20. Assessing the Conceptual Understanding about Heat and Thermodynamics at Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vasudeo Digambar; Tambade, Popat Savaleram

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Thermodynamic Concept Test (TCT) was designed to assess student's conceptual understanding heat and thermodynamics at undergraduate level. The different statistical tests such as item difficulty index, item discrimination index, point biserial coefficient were used for assessing TCT. For each item of the test these indices…

  1. Analysis of Assessment Practice and Subsequent Performance of Third Year Level Students in Natural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, K. C.; Dippenaar, S. M.; Du Toit, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Summative assessment qualifies the achievement of a student in a particular field of specialization at a given time. Questions should include a range of cognitive levels from Bloom's taxonomy and be consistent with the learning outcomes of the module in question. Furthermore, a holistic approach to assessment, such as the application of the…

  2. Quality and Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Deposits of Punjab Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *1S. Imad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major coal fields in Punjab Province are located in the Salt and Surghar ranges, whose collective reserves are 235 million tons. Representative coal samples were collected from Makarwal, Kallar Kahar and Dandot for assessment of quality and its impact on environment during combustion. The coal was classified as sub-bituminous type on the basis of proximate analysis. Average measured calorific values were noted 6801, 5624 and 6415 Btu/lb for Makarwal, Kallar Kahar and Dandot samples respectively. Moderate moisture, volatiles, fixed carbon and low ash designate it as suitable material for electric generation and cement manufacturing. The average sulfur content of all samples was appeared as 5.13%, which is high for power generation and other allied industries. The combustion of this coal may pose threat to the environment in the region due to the presence of high sulfur and other trace elements like Al, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Sn, and Ni in appreciable quantities. Appropriate measure is essential to substantially reduce sulfur and these trace elements before using it in the power generation plants and other industries of Pakistan

  3. MRI assessment of changes in liver iron deposition post-venesection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if changes in hepatic iron content in patients with hemochromatosis pre- and post-venesection could be detected by changes in liver signal intensity with MRI. Materials and methods: The study was performed with institutional ethics approval and with informed consent. Gradient echo images were performed on 20 patients with hemochromatosis pre- and post-venesection and 10 control subjects: gradient echo T1-weighted in- and out-phases (4.54 (in)/2.27 (out), 167 [TE/TR], Flip 70o) and gradient echo T2* (5/18 [TE/TR], Flip 10o). The liver to muscle signal ratio was compared pre- and post-venesection. Results: All MRI sequences showed significant correlation between the liver to muscle signal intensity ratio and the serum ferritin pre-venesection [r = -0.70, -0.65, -0.74, -0.72, in/out/T2*r/T2*, respectively]. There was a significant increase on all sequences in the liver to muscle signal intensity ratio post-venesection (p < 0.001). The control group and patients post-venesection had almost identical liver to muscle signal intensity ratios. Conclusion: The reduction in liver signal intensity caused by iron excess in hemochromatosis returns to normal post-venesection. Measurement of liver to muscle signal intensity ratios may be a useful tool in assessing treatment response in iron overload states.

  4. MRI assessment of changes in liver iron deposition post-venesection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddy, P., E-mail: pbeddy@eircom.net [Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); McCann, J., E-mail: jwjmccann@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, St James' Hospital and Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland); Ahern, M., E-mail: mahern@stjames.ie [Department of Radiology, St James' Hospital and Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland); Norris, S., E-mail: snorris@stjames.ie [Department of Hepatology, St James' Hospital and Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland); Keogan, M., E-mail: mkeogan@stjames.ie [Department of Radiology, St James' Hospital and Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if changes in hepatic iron content in patients with hemochromatosis pre- and post-venesection could be detected by changes in liver signal intensity with MRI. Materials and methods: The study was performed with institutional ethics approval and with informed consent. Gradient echo images were performed on 20 patients with hemochromatosis pre- and post-venesection and 10 control subjects: gradient echo T1-weighted in- and out-phases (4.54 (in)/2.27 (out), 167 [TE/TR], Flip 70{sup o}) and gradient echo T2* (5/18 [TE/TR], Flip 10{sup o}). The liver to muscle signal ratio was compared pre- and post-venesection. Results: All MRI sequences showed significant correlation between the liver to muscle signal intensity ratio and the serum ferritin pre-venesection [r = -0.70, -0.65, -0.74, -0.72, in/out/T2*r/T2*, respectively]. There was a significant increase on all sequences in the liver to muscle signal intensity ratio post-venesection (p < 0.001). The control group and patients post-venesection had almost identical liver to muscle signal intensity ratios. Conclusion: The reduction in liver signal intensity caused by iron excess in hemochromatosis returns to normal post-venesection. Measurement of liver to muscle signal intensity ratios may be a useful tool in assessing treatment response in iron overload states.

  5. Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The

  6. Assessing the magnitude of the 869 Jogan tsunami using sedimentary deposits: Prediction and consequence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Daisuke; Goto, Kazuhisa; Imamura, Fumihiko; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Minoura, Koji

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the spatial distribution and sedimentological features of the 869 Jogan tsunami deposit along the Pacific coast of Japan are reviewed to evaluate deposit-based estimates of the magnitude of the Jogan tsunami and the use of tsunami deposits in the prediction of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami. Inundation of the Sendai Plain and the offshore wave sources of both tsunamis are compared. The Jogan tsunami deposit is ubiquitous on the coastal plains of Sendai Bay, whereas, to date, it is only identified in a few locations along the Sanriku and Joban Coasts. This resulted in an underprediction of the size of the wave source of the Tohoku-oki tsunami. The inland boundary of the inundation area of the Tohoku-oki tsunami on the Sendai Plain is approximately equivalent to that of the Jogan tsunami, although many sedimentological and geomorphologic factors make a direct comparison of the tsunamis complicated and difficult. The magnitude of the Jogan earthquake (Mw = 8.4), which was derived from the tsunami deposit inland extent and numerical inundation modeling, was too small to predict the magnitude of the Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw = 9.0-9.1) and tsunami. Additional research is needed to improve deposit-based estimates of the magnitudes of past tsunamis and to increase the ability to use tsunami deposits, in conjunction with inundation modeling, to assess future tsunami hazards.

  7. Assessment of a numerical model to reproduce event‐scale erosion and deposition distributions in a braided river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, R.; Hicks, D. M.; Brasington, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Numerical morphological modeling of braided rivers, using a physics‐based approach, is increasingly used as a technique to explore controls on river pattern and, from an applied perspective, to simulate the impact of channel modifications. This paper assesses a depth‐averaged nonuniform sediment model (Delft3D) to predict the morphodynamics of a 2.5 km long reach of the braided Rees River, New Zealand, during a single high‐flow event. Evaluation of model performance primarily focused upon using high‐resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of Difference, derived from a fusion of terrestrial laser scanning and optical empirical bathymetric mapping, to compare observed and predicted patterns of erosion and deposition and reach‐scale sediment budgets. For the calibrated model, this was supplemented with planform metrics (e.g., braiding intensity). Extensive sensitivity analysis of model functions and parameters was executed, including consideration of numerical scheme for bed load component calculations, hydraulics, bed composition, bed load transport and bed slope effects, bank erosion, and frequency of calculations. Total predicted volumes of erosion and deposition corresponded well to those observed. The difference between predicted and observed volumes of erosion was less than the factor of two that characterizes the accuracy of the Gaeuman et al. bed load transport formula. Grain size distributions were best represented using two φ intervals. For unsteady flows, results were sensitive to the morphological time scale factor. The approach of comparing observed and predicted morphological sediment budgets shows the value of using natural experiment data sets for model testing. Sensitivity results are transferable to guide Delft3D applications to other rivers. PMID:27708477

  8. AGGREGATIONS OF LEVEL III ECOREGIONS FOR NATIONAL NUTRIENT ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggregations of level III Ecoregions for the National Nutrient Assessment and Management Strategy: This map of draft aggregation of level III ecoregions of the conterminous United States defines broad areas within which there are general similarities in the quality and types of e...

  9. Assessment of the Fire Risk Levels in an Office Building and a Nightclub with Prescriptive Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, D.; Steffensen, F.B.; Jomaas, Grunde;

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the risk level of an office building and a nightclub with code compliant prescriptive designs was conducted in order to evaluate whether an uniform safety level of the two occupancy types can be established. A risk assessment method using Monte Carlo simulations and 1- and 2-zone ...

  10. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  11. Assessment of noise levels in clinical and laboratory areas of dental teaching institution, Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Parkar, Sujal M; Sagar H Parekh; Lopa M Shah; Abhishek S Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To measure and assess the noise levels produced by different dental equipments. Materials and Methods: Measurement of the noise level was performed in preclinics, clinics, and dental laboratory of different departments of Ahmedabad Dental College and Hospital. The noise levels were determined using a Mini sound meter (CEM USA), which was placed at the dentist′s and laboratory technician′s ear level and at a distance of 1 m from a main noise source. The level of noise was measured in deci...

  12. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  13. Energy Deposition and Quench Level Calculations for Millisecond and Steady-State Quench Tests of LHC Arc Quadrupoles at 4 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, N V; Chetvertkova, V; Lechner, A; Priebe, A; Sapinski, M; Verweij, A; Wollmann, D

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, beam-induced quench tests with 4 TeV protons were performed to probe the quench level of LHC arc quadrupole magnets at timescales corresponding to millisecond beam losses and steady-state losses. As the energy deposition in magnet coils cannot be measured directly, this study presents corresponding FLUKA simulations as well as estimates of quench levels derived with the QP3 code. Furthermore, beam loss monitor (BLM) signals were simulated and benchmarked against the measurements. Simulated and measured BLM signals are generally found to agree within 30 percent.

  14. Consequence assessment for the high-level waste tanks probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the US DOE Hanford Site, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total volume is about 60 million gallons containing approximately 120 Curies of radioactivity. The radioactive material consists primarily of 137Cs, 90Sr, and transuranics. Risk concerns with the tanks are associated with possible energy releases because of the presence of flammable gases, organic liquids, reactive chemical compounds, and radioactive decay heat. Because of the high concentration of radioactivity in the wastes and because a large number of the older single-shell tanks have some history or evidence of leaking, there is a public perception that they pose a serious risk to the onsite workers and the offsite public. The tank farm probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) was performed for two reasons: (1) to develop a baseline estimate of the risks these wastes pose to the workers and the public for the present tank contents and configurations and (2) to provide a relative ranking of the risks associated with individual groups of tanks. The latter information would be helpful in planning the order of the tank remediation work by indicating which tanks pose the greatest risk; the former could help allay concerns

  15. Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India: Sea level and environmental changes during the Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    sands (pelletal/oolitic sediments) and aragonite-cemented limestones, oyster shells, corals, coralline-algal and foraminiferal-dominated nodules. The petrology and mineralogy of the deposits indicate that except for aragonite sands and foraminiferal... pellets while others are ooilte- dominated. The age of the sands ranges between 14.3 ka to 7.6 cal kaBP. The limestones associated with the platform exhibit acicular aragonite cements and their ages lie between 11 ka and 13.3 kaBP. Large oyster shells...

  16. Contemporary deposition and long-term accumulation of sediment and nutrients by tidal freshwater forested wetlands impacted by sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary deposition (artificial marker horizon, 3.5 years) and long-term accumulation rates (210Pb profiles, ~150 years) of sediment and associated carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) were measured in wetlands along the tidal Savannah and Waccamaw rivers in the southeastern USA. Four sites along each river spanned an upstream-to-downstream salinification gradient, from upriver tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW), through moderately and highly salt-impacted forested wetlands, to oligohaline marsh downriver. Contemporary deposition rates (sediment, C, N, and P) were greatest in oligohaline marsh and lowest in TFFW along both rivers. Greater rates of deposition in oligohaline and salt-stressed forested wetlands were associated with a shift to greater clay and metal content that is likely associated with a change from low availability of watershed-derived sediment to TFFW and to greater availability of a coastal sediment source to oligohaline wetlands. Long-term accumulation rates along the Waccamaw River had the opposite spatial pattern compared to contemporary deposition, with greater rates in TFFW that declined to oligohaline marsh. Long-term sediment and elemental mass accumulation rates also were 3–9× lower than contemporary deposition rates. In comparison to other studies, sediment and associated nutrient accumulation in TFFW are lower than downriver/estuarine freshwater, oligohaline, and salt marshes, suggesting a reduced capacity for surface sedimentation (short-term) as well as shallow soil processes (long-term sedimentation) to offset sea level rise in TFFW. Nonetheless, their potentially large spatial extent suggests that TFFW have a large impact on the transport and fate of sediment and nutrients in tidal rivers and estuaries.

  17. An assessment of Raman spectroscopy to detect iodine deposited on thin oxide films formed on Type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 is one of the most important volatile fission product elements with respect to radiobiological impact, and the characterisation of its chemical state and distribution on reactor surfaces is required for reactor safety assessments. To this end, duplicate samples of Type 316 (17%Cr/12%Ni) stainless steel oxidised in Co2/CH3I gas mixtures and previously characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been examined using Raman spectroscopy. The aim is to improve our understanding of the way in which iodine is distributed throughout the oxide scale and to identify its chemical state. In this report we present Raman spectra recorded from a series of stainless steel specimens together with spectra recorded from a number of standard iodine compounds. It is demonstrated that the technique is well suited as a fingerprint method of species identification, can differentiate between the chemical state of iodine as iodide and iodate and can analyse thin oxide films (5-50 nm). Identification of iodine deposits in these oxide films at concentrations of ≤1 At% was not achieved however, there being insufficient iodine present to distinguish any peaks present from the background signal. It is concluded that local concentrations of iodine in oxide inclusions of different composition/morphology on the steel surface does not occur to any extent. (author)

  18. Sea-level changes and hydrothermal sedimentary mineralization of large-superlarge ore deposits among Sinian to Triassic in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Duofu(陈多福); CHEN; Xianpei(陈先沛); CHEN; Guangqian(陈光谦)

    2003-01-01

    Among the Sinian to Triassic strata in South China, the stratiform, quasi-stratiform and lenticular metallic deposits in association with hydrothermal sedimentation mainly occur in the four periods: (1) the Sinian Datangpo interglacial period, (2) the early period of Early Cambrian, (3) the late period of Middle Devonian to early period of Late Devonian,and (4) the late period of Early Permian. The four mineralization periods all happened around the maximum flooding period in the third-order seal-level cycle during the ascending stage in the first-order sea-level cycle. The deep seawater layer, starved and non-compensatory basin, low sedimentary rate, and low energy and anoxic environment during the maximum flooding period are very suitable for the formation and preservation of large to superlarge hydrothermal sedimentary deposits. The maximum flooding period also coincided with the intensified regional tectonism, extensive deep magmatism and hydrothermal sedimentation, which provide, for the formation of large to superlarge hydrothermal sedimentary deposits through the rapid accumulation of hydrothermal sediments, the needed dynamics, ore-forming materials and favorable passway for hydrothermal fluids to enter the basin.

  19. 78 FR 15746 - Compendium of Analyses To Investigate Select Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment End-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Compendium of Analyses To Investigate Select Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment End-State... document entitled: Compendium of Analyses to Investigate Select Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment End... Analyses to Investigate Select Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment End-State Definition and...

  20. Effect of X-ray beam vertical angulation on radiographic assessment of alveolar crest level.

    OpenAIRE

    Zulqarnain B; Almas K

    1998-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are diagnosed and monitored by various methods. Probing pocket depth measurements and dental radiographs are two of the most commonly used methods. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of x-ray beam vertical angulation on radiographic assessment of alveolar crest level in five human mandibles. A standardized technique was used to take bitewing radiographs with -10 degrees, 0 degree and +10 degrees angulation of X-Ray beam. The range of the mean difference...

  1. Kriged and modeled ambient air levels of benzene in an urban environment: an exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dejian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of air pollution, particularly hazardous air pollutants (HAPs. However, quantifying exposure to these pollutants is problematic. Objective Our goal was to explore the utility of kriging, a spatial interpolation method, for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of HAPs. We used benzene as an example and compared census tract-level kriged predictions to estimates obtained from the 1999 U.S. EPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA, Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN model. Methods Kriged predictions were generated for 649 census tracts in Harris County, Texas using estimates of annual benzene air concentrations from 17 monitoring sites operating in Harris and surrounding counties from 1998 to 2000. Year 1999 ASPEN modeled estimates were also obtained for each census tract. Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed on the modeled and kriged benzene levels. Weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discretized kriged and modeled estimates of ambient air levels of benzene. Results There was modest correlation between the predicted and modeled values across census tracts. Overall, 56.2%, 40.7%, 31.5% and 28.2% of census tracts were classified as having 'low', 'medium-low', 'medium-high' and 'high' ambient air levels of benzene, respectively, comparing predicted and modeled benzene levels. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20, 0.31, indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusions There was a lack of concordance between predicted and modeled ambient air levels of benzene. Applying methods of spatial interpolation for assessing exposure to ambient air pollutants in health effect studies is hindered by the placement and number of existing stationary monitors collecting HAP data. Routine monitoring needs to be expanded if we are to use these data

  2. A framework for sea level rise vulnerability assessment for southwest U.S. military installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, B.; Flick, Reinhard; Helly, J.; Nishikawa, T.; Pei, Fang Wang; O'Reilly, W.; Guza, R.; Bromirski, Peter; Young, A.; Crampton, W.; Wild, B.; Canner, I.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an analysis framework to determine military installation vulnerabilities under increases in local mean sea level as projected over the next century. The effort is in response to an increasing recognition of potential climate change ramifications for national security and recommendations that DoD conduct assessments of the impact on U.S. military installations of climate change. Results of the effort described here focus on development of a conceptual framework for sea level rise vulnerability assessment at coastal military installations in the southwest U.S. We introduce the vulnerability assessment in the context of a risk assessment paradigm that incorporates sources in the form of future sea level conditions, pathways of impact including inundation, flooding, erosion and intrusion, and a range of military installation specific receptors such as critical infrastructure and training areas. A unique aspect of the methodology is the capability to develop wave climate projections from GCM outputs and transform these to future wave conditions at specific coastal sites. Future sea level scenarios are considered in the context of installation sensitivity curves which reveal response thresholds specific to each installation, pathway and receptor. In the end, our goal is to provide a military-relevant framework for assessment of accelerated SLR vulnerability, and develop the best scientifically-based scenarios of waves, tides and storms and their implications for DoD installations in the southwestern U.S. ?? 2011 MTS.

  3. Performance assessment for future low-level waste disposal facilities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the strategy for waste management on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and the approach to preparing future performance assessments that has evolved from previous performance assessment studies of low-level radioactive waste disposal on the ORR. The strategy for waste management is based on the concept that waste classification should be determined by performance assessment other than the sources of waste. This dose-based strategy for waste classification and management places special importance on the preparation and interpretation of waste disposal performance assessments for selecting appropriate disposal technologies and developing waste acceptance criteria. Additionally, the challenges to be overcome in the preparation of performance assessments are discussed. 7 refs

  4. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out

  5. Regulation and performance assessment for the Drigg low level waste disposal site in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper briefly describes the low level waste disposal facility at Drigg and the framework of UK regulations that apply to it. Particular attention is paid to the approach that the Environment Agency of England and Wales is likely to adopt regarding the assessment of that part of a safety case dealing with long term post-closure radiological performance. This assessment comprises two parts, a scientific and technical peer review, followed by an independent quantitative analysis based upon the probabilistic risk assessment centred approach developed during the past 14 years by the Environment Agency of England and Wales. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs

  6. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  7. A Quantitative Assessment of the Sea Level Drop in the Messinian Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, J.; Topper, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the Late Miocene progressive restriction of the gateway(s) between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean initiated the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The restriction caused a salinity rise and the formation of extremely thick evaporite deposits within the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the closure of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean resulted in a dramatic sea level drop. The lithosphere adepts to changes in loads (sediments and water) on the surface by flexural adjustment of the Earth's surface. This can have a significant impact on the connectivity of basins and the temporal evolution of the sea level drop in each basin. The Mediterranean Sea is characterized by two deep basins with different amounts of river input (western/eastern Mediterranean basin) separated by the relatively shallow Sicily sill. The temporal evolution of the sea level drop in the western/eastern Mediterranean basin is therefore very sensitive to the temporal and spatial evolution of the Sicily gateway and hence flexure response of the earth surface due to the changes in waterload. However, studies of the MSC sea level drop haven't taken this flexural response into consideration (e.g. Meijer and Krijgsman, 2005). Here we use an elastic model (TISC) coupled with a simple hydrology model to calculate the temporal evolution of the sea level drop in and the flexural response of the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. Preliminary results show that when sea level drops below the Sicily sill, the rate of sea level increases in the western but decreases in the eastern Mediterranean. Following a relative sea level drop of ~1300 m, resulting in a flexural uplift of ~700m, the eastern Mediterranean reaches equilibrium. At the time the western Mediterranean (flexural uplift of ~900m) reaches an equilibrium it is almost completely desiccated. The magnitudes of the sea level drops and flexural response are, however, highly dependent on the hypsometry

  8. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency. A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okwen, Roland [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Frailey, Scott [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Leetaru, Hannes [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Moulton, Sandy [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to

  9. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy).

    OpenAIRE

    Umberto Di Salvatore; Fabrizio Ferretti; Paolo Cantiani; Alessandro Paletto; Isabella De Meo; Ugo Chiavetta

    2013-01-01

    The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices i...

  10. Environmental assessment model for shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes: interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial trenches. The model is intended to be generic and to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for a 1000-y period following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios considered by the model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses are calculated as well as doses to the intruder and farmer

  11. Skills in clinical communication: Are we correctly assessing them at undergraduate level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zamora Cervantes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Communicating with the patient in clinical practice refers to the way in which the doctor and the patient interact both verbally and nonverbally, in order to achieve a shared understanding of problems and solutions. Traditional learning and assessment systems are overwhelmed when it comes to addressing the complex and multi-dimensional problems of professional practice. Problem Based Learning (PBL has been put forward as an alternative to the mere reproduction of knowledge and pre-established patterns, enabling students to develop their own learning strategies to overcome problems in their future professional practice. The challenge is to determine how to assess the acquisition of clinical communication skills. The authors have recommended a summative assessment of clinical communication skills based on the combination of different methods. It highlights the importance of feedback-based formative assessment. This raises the need to develop and validate assessment scales in clinical communication at an undergraduate level. Based on this work, the authors put forward a "fanned out" assessment in terms of clinical communication skills in Medicine degrees, with the use of different instruments in a "spiraled" manner, where the greater the contact with clinical practice in the various degree and integral courses, the greater difficulty experienced, with the participation of all the stakeholders involved (self, hetero and peer assessment without precluding the involvement of patients (real or simulated in the design of assessment instruments.

  12. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: potential use in environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Natália Rust; Oliva, Marco Antonio; da Cruz Centeno, Danilo; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ribas, Rogério Ferreira; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM(Fe)) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM(Fe) application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  14. Use of ecotoxicological screening action levels in ecological risk assessment at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory drivers found in several environmental statutes require that ecological risk assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment be performed to assess potential environmental impact from contaminated sites and from proposed remedial alternatives. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, the initial phase of the ecological risk assessment process required preliminary evaluation of contaminated sites to determine whether potential for ecological impact exists. The preliminary evaluations were made using Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels (ESALS) calculated as a function of reference toxicity dose, body weight, food/water/air intake, and fraction of soil intake with food. Reference toxicity doses were derived from the Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST) toxicology databases. Other parameters required for ESAL calculations were derived from physiological, metabolic, and behavioral data available in the literature. The Los Alamos ESALs were derived for guilds of animals with similar behavioral patterns, which were identified from natural resource survey data collected at Los Alamos. Subsequent to development of Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels, Hazard Quotients, which are ratios of soil concentrations to Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels, were calculated for potential contaminants of concern. The Hazard Quotients were used to identify which potential contaminants of concern should be evaluated further for ecological impact. There is potential for ecological impact when the Hazard Quotient is equal to or greater than one

  15. Ultrasensitive electroanalysis of low-level free microRNAs in blood by maximum signal amplification of catalytic silver deposition using alkaline phosphatase-incorporated gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yanmei; Sun, Zongzhao; Zhang, Ning; Qi, Wei; Li, Shuying; Chen, Lijun; Wang, Hua

    2014-10-21

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type analysis method has been initially developed for probing low-level free microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood by a maximal signal amplification protocol of catalytic silver deposition. Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were first synthesized and in-site incorporated into alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to form the ALP-AuNCs. Unexpectedly, the so incorporated AuNCs could dramatically enhance the catalysis activities of ALP-AuNCs versus native ALP. A sandwiched hybridization protocol was then proposed using ALP-AuNCs as the catalytic labels of the DNA detection probes for targeting miRNAs that were magnetically caught from blood samples by DNA capture probes, followed by the catalytic ligation of two DNA probes complementary to the targets. Herein, the ALP-AuNC labels could act as the bicatalysts separately in the ALP-catalyzed substrate dephosphorylation reaction and the AuNCs-accelerated silver deposition reaction. The signal amplification of ALP-AuNCs-catalyzed silver deposition was thereby maximized to be measured by the electrochemical outputs. The developed electroanalysis strategy could allow for the ultrasensitive detection of free miRNAs in blood with the detection limit as low as 21.5 aM, including the accurate identification of single-base mutant levels in miRNAs. Such a sandwich-type analysis method may circumvent the bottlenecks of the current detection techniques in probing short-chain miRNAs. It would be tailored as an ultrasensitive detection candidate for low-level free miRNAs in blood toward the diagnosis of cancer and the warning or monitoring of cancer metastasis in the clinical laboratory.

  16. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  17. An Assessment of the Level of Faculty Burnout at Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tanya

    A study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC), California, to assess the level of faculty burnout and to determine the need for personal and organizational interventions to reduce burnout and improve morale. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was administered to all 105 full-time faculty at EVC, and scores for the MBI subscales of…

  18. The assessment of risks from exposure to low-levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is concerned with risk assessments for human populations receiving low level radiation doses; workers routinely exposed to radiation, Japanese victims of nuclear bombs, and the general public are all considered. Topics covered include risk estimates for cancer, mortality rates, risk estimates for nuclear site workers, and dosimetry

  19. Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics Diagnostic: A Conceptual Assessment for the Junior Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Pollock, Steven J.; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to systematically improve our junior-level E&M I course, we have developed a tool to assess student conceptual learning of electrostatics at the upper division. Together with a group of physics faculty, we established a list of learning goals for the course that, with results from student observations and interviews, served as…

  20. Assessing Knowledge Levels of Secondary School Physical Education and Sports Teachers about Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mensure

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to assess knowledge levels of physical education teachers in inclusive education in secondary schools. For the research, the survey method was employed. It consisted of 55 physical education teachers employed in 47 secondary schools included in inclusive education program under Kocaeli Provincial Directorate of…

  1. A Critical Analysis of Conventional Descriptions of Levels Employed in the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2010-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tabletop-based protocol employing manipulables that is used to gauge whether individuals with severe developmental disabilities can learn to perform a series of discrimination tasks of varying levels of difficulty. Empirical research suggests that the ABLA is useful in terms of predicting…

  2. Modelling and assessment work in support of the Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associated with low-level radioactive waste disposal operations at Drigg in Cumbria is a programme of technical support work. The role of this work in the recent review of the site authorisation is described, with particular emphasis on the hydrogeological modelling and radiological assessment studies. The scope of the ongoing technical programme is described. (author)

  3. Assessment of Positive Psychology Course According to Comments and Life Satisfaction Levels of Counselor Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Asli Uz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the "Positive Psychology" course according to comments and life satisfaction levels of counselor candidates. The course was offered in Guidance and Psychological Counseling undergraduate program as an elective course. The participants of the study were 56 senior undergraduate students attended…

  4. Integrated assessment of farm level adaptation to climate change in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the thesis allowed assessing plausible futures of agriculture in Flevoland around 2050 with insights in effective adaptation to climate change at different levels. Besides empirical findings, this thesis contributed methodologically to the portfolio of climate change impact and adapt

  5. The assessment of risks from exposure to low-levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report is concerned with risk assessments for human populations receiving low level radiation doses; workers routinely exposed to radiation, Japanese victims of nuclear bombs, and the general public are all considered. Topics covered include risk estimates for cancer, mortality rates, risk estimates for nuclear site workers, and dosimetry.

  6. Clinical and biochemical assessment of high serum vitamin B12 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Nexø, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Measurement of serum cobalamin (Cbl) is routinely used to assess suspected Cbl deficiency. Surprisingly, 15% of all samples analysed for serum Cbl show values above the reference range of 200-600 pmol/L. Aim: We hypothesized that increased Cbl levels are caused by alterations in the...

  7. Diagnostic Assessment of Preparedness of Level One Sports Science Students for Biomechanics Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Sharon J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the use of a diagnostic test to assess the preparedness of level one students for a sports biomechanics module. During their first week at university, a cohort of 108 students completed a diagnostic test at the end of their first lecture in sports biomechanics, with no prior notice. Upon…

  8. Sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic analysis of Carboniferous deposits in western Libya: Recording the sedimentary response of the northern Gondwana margin to climate and sea-level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Sebastian; Petitpierre, Laurent; Redfern, Jonathan; Grech, Paul; Bodin, Stéphane; Lang, Simon

    2010-06-01

    Detailed sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic analysis of Carboniferous (Tournaisian to Moscovian) strata exposed in the north-western Murzuq Basin and southern Ghadames Basin, western Libya, provides new insights into the sedimentary response of the northern Gondwana margin to climate and sea-level change. The Lower Carboniferous Marar and Assedjefar Formations can be divided into five depositional sequences of 3rd order. In total 27 facies types are defined, grouped into four facies associations: offshore shales, shallow marine clastics, fluvial sandstones and marine carbonates. The bulk of the Lower Carboniferous interval is dominated by an alternation of offshore shales and shallow marine clastics, which were deposited during the transgressive and highstand systems tracts. The clastic deposits mostly consist of laterally persistent coarsening and thickening upward cycles with a common succession from basal hummocky cross-stratified sandstones to ripple-laminated sandstones, capped by multidirectional cross-stratified sandstones. Within the lowstand systems tracts, lenticular sandbodies have been identified, which vary in thickness from 1.5 m (ca. 40 m wide) to 50 m (ca. 1.5 km wide). These are interpreted to be fluvial channel complexes based on their geometry, erosive base, and presence of thick stacked sandstones with unidirectional planar and trough cross-bedding, the absence of bioturbation and occurrence of land plant fragments. These channel complexes mostly cut down into offshore shales, and are interpreted to be bound at the base by sequence boundaries. Palaeogeographic maps generated for each lowstand system show the location and palaeoflow direction of these fluvial channel complexes. They are interpreted to represent large incised valleys filled with thick fluvial sandstones. Their identification and distribution indicates repeated exposure of large areas of western Libya, most-likely controlled by major eustatic sea-level changes. The

  9. Environmental health risk assessment of ambient lead levels in Lisbon, Portugal: A full chain study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casimiro, E.; Philippe Ciffroy, P.; Serpa, P.;

    2011-01-01

    to calculate the Pb levels in the various body systems. Our results showed a low health risk from Pb exposures. It also identified that ingestion of leafy vegetables (i.e. lettuce, cabbage, and spinach) and fruits contribute the most to total Pb blood levels. This full chain assessment approach of the 2FUN......The multi-causality interactions between environment and health are complex and call for an integrated multidisciplinary study approach. Emerging computational toxicology tools that link toxicology, chemistry, environmental sciences, biostatistics, and computer sciences are proving to be very...... useful for integrated full-chain human health risk assessments. In this study we use a newly developed computational tool – the 2FUN player to conduct a full-chain assessment combining measured ambient air lead concentrations with multi-media modelling and PBPK simulations to estimate the health risks...

  10. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  11. Assessing grain-size correspondence between flow and deposits of controlled floods in the Colorado River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy; Rubin, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Flood-deposited sediment has been used to decipher environmental parameters such as variability in watershed sediment supply, paleoflood hydrology, and channel morphology. It is not well known, however, how accurately the deposits reflect sedimentary processes within the flow, and hence what sampling intensity is needed to decipher records of recent or long-past conditions. We examine these problems using deposits from dam-regulated floods in the Colorado River corridor through Marble Canyon–Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A., in which steady-peaked floods represent a simple end-member case. For these simple floods, most deposits show inverse grading that reflects coarsening suspended sediment (a result of fine-sediment-supply limitation), but there is enough eddy-scale variability that some profiles show normal grading that did not reflect grain-size evolution in the flow as a whole. To infer systemwide grain-size evolution in modern or ancient depositional systems requires sampling enough deposit profiles that the standard error of the mean of grain-size-change measurements becomes small relative to the magnitude of observed changes. For simple, steady-peaked floods, 5–10 profiles or fewer may suffice to characterize grain-size trends robustly, but many more samples may be needed from deposits with greater variability in their grain-size evolution.

  12. Interplay of salt dynamics, sea-level change and climate on the depositional evolution of a Paleogene economic coal bearing salt rim syncline, Schoeningen, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A.; Pollok, L.; Brandes, C.; Winsemann, J. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie

    2013-08-01

    The Paleogene basin fill (maximum 300 m thick) of the Schoeningen rim syncline in northern Germany is well known for its economic lignitic coal deposits. The fill provides an example of the interaction of basin subsidence, sea-level, and climate changes on depositional environment and gives insight into the development of the coal seams within a sequence stratigraphic context. The rim syncline records thirteen Lower to Middle Eocene coal seams with intervening clastic layers that were deposited during a long-lived transgression of the Central German Estuary, which lasted until the Late Oligocene (Standke, 2008). The previous analysis of the rim syncline fill has primarily focused on coal deposits, their lateral extent and paleo-botanical habitat. In this work, 357 lithologic logs were calibrated to outcrop profiles and integrated with previous studies to provide a facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy interpretation of the syncline fill. This improves understanding of the depositional environments of the lesser-studied clastics that intervene the coals (Osman et al., in review). Four 3{sup rd} order sequences are recorded in the Lower to Middle Eocene basin fill. Sequences 1 and 2 document the interplay of sands and coals within a transgressive estuarine phase. The sands show a regime change from tide- to more wave-dominated estuarine conditions before a turnaround to a regressive deltaic phase. This succession typifies an incised valley fill. However, the accommodation space generated for the initial estuary development is thought to have originated via continual salt withdrawal (Brandes et al. 2012) instead of by incision during relative sea-level fall. The observed tide to wave estuary regime change is linked to increased subsidence rates at 57 Ma that generated a higher tidal prism. As the subsidence rates slowed and the syncline broadened, the tidal prism decreased, leading to the development of more wave-dominated facies. The intervening coal seams

  13. The assessment of spatial correlation between location of deposits and faults using geostatistical methods: case study, Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dehghani Ahmadabad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the promising area for ore deposits is one of the most important steps of prospecting in regional scales. There are many different methods for identifying these areas including geochemical and geophysical methods, remote sensing and sophisticated statistical methods. Based on the theory of spatial relations between the dispersion pattern of ore deposits and metallogenic provinces, mineralization belts, faults and structural factors, some new interpretative methods can be proposed in the preliminary exploration phase of the potential areas. In this study, the geostatistical methods were used, where the spatial location of faults and known metallic deposits were considered as the primary source of data to obtain their correlation (case study of metallic deposits in Yazd province. The research was performed on 807 major and minor faults and 76 metallic deposits, mainly from hydrothermal origins. The data was arranged in ArcViewGIS software environment. The geostatistical analysis was performed by defining the regionalized variable (distance between faults and deposits in a Mathematica subroutine. Variography operations, in order to find the spatial structure, were performed on regionalized variable using Surpac software. It was also shown that the theory of spatial correlation was valid for the defined variable. In this work, the variography operation was used to find the direction and the range of the effect of faults and deposits. Variograms indicated that the possibility of ore deposits existence in an area could depend on the direction of the faults. By drawing the directional variogram and variogram map, the best stretches for more exploratory studies is shown to be parallel along the Azimuth 130◦ and 64 km distance. By revealing the spatial structure in different directions, the area of mineralization related to the faults and the number of ore deposits associated with major faults have been marked.

  14. Development of radiological impact assessments for the Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drigg low-level waste disposal site has developed from simple trenches cut in clay, accepting loosely tipped waste, to an engineered vault constructed of reinforced concrete receiving containerised waste. The paper describes the associated development of the radiological impact assessments and how those assessments have been influenced by the development of legislation and Government policy. The current deterministic risk assessment is described and the major conclusions presented. The successor to this model is based on a 3-D network approach to the representation of site specific engineering and geological features, with compartmental modelling of the biosphere. The development of this model, which will be used in deterministic and probabilistic modes for the next assessment, is described. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements around point sources and human health risk assessment. I: Impact zones around a lead source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, L.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Andersen, B.;

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of lead was monitored over 8 years in the area around a car battery factory north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The area also has heavy traffic. Deposition was measured by in-situ grown vegetables, transplant grass culture biomonitors, bulk deposition and soil samples. Three impact zones...... were identified by a multivariate statistical analysis. Within each zone, the total dietary intake of lead was estimated for adults and children as a percentage of the provisional tolerably weekly intake (PTWI), and as a result recommendation on restrictions in use of locally grown fruit and vegetables...

  16. A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds' objectively assessed physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena;

    2009-01-01

    activity assessments that met all inclusion criteria. General linear models were used to assess the changes in physical activity between 1999-2000 and 2005. RESULTS: A significant increase in mean physical activity level and physical activity during weekends was observed between the two study periods (P...... = 0.02 and mean physical activity level and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children from low-SES groups showed no change...... over time, an increase was seen among children from middle-SES groups. Moreover, in high-SES groups, an increase was observed for mean physical activity level (girls only) between study periods, whereas no change was seen for MVPA participation. CONCLUSIONS: Nine-year-old children living in Oslo...

  17. Comparison of gamma scintigraphy and a pharmacokinetic technique for assessing pulmonary deposition of terbutaline sulphate delivered by pressurized metered dose inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Steed, K; Hooper, G; Källén, A; Borgström, L

    1995-02-01

    A comparison has been made of pulmonary deposition of terbutaline sulphate from a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), measured in 8 healthy male subjects by gamma scintigraphy and by a pharmacokinetic (charcoal-block) method, involving drug recovery in urine. Measurements were carried out with a pMDI at slow (27 l/min) and fast (151 l/min) inhaled flows and with Nebuhaler large volume spacer device (average inhaled flow 17 l/min). Overall, the two methods did not differ significantly in their estimates of whole lung deposition, although values obtained by gamma scintigraphy exceeded those from the charcoal-block method for the pMDI with fast inhalation. The regional distribution of drug within the lungs and deposition in the oropharynx could be assessed by gamma scintigraphy, but not by the charcoal-block method. It is concluded that either method may be used to assess whole lung deposition of terbutaline sulphate from pMDIs, both with and without a spacer, although each method has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. PMID:7784338

  18. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  19. A Systems-Level Approach to Building Sustainable Assessment Cultures: Moderation, Quality Task Design and Dependability of Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Peta; Wyatt-Smith, Claire; Klenowski, Val

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conditions that are necessary at system and local levels for teacher assessment to be valid, reliable and rigorous. With sustainable assessment cultures as a goal, the article examines how education systems can support local-level efforts for quality learning and dependable teacher assessment. This is achieved through…

  20. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP. Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes <68 km for all locations, above which WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  1. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, C. J.; Enell, C.-F.; Turunen, E.; Clilverd, M. A.; Thomson, N. R.; Verronen, P. T.

    2007-08-01

    Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP). Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC) model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  2. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and energy-level analysis of metal-organic-deposited Ga2O3:Cr3+ films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokida, Yoshinori; Adachi, Sadao

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study are (i) to demonstrate the synthesis of Cr3+-activated β-Ga2O3 films by metal-organic deposition and (ii) to report the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of such films from 20 to 300 K. An activation energy of ˜0.9 eV for the Cr3+ ions in β-Ga2O3 is determined from a plot of PL intensity vs calcination temperature. The red-line emission doublet R1 and R2 at ˜1.8 eV and the broad emission band with a peak at ˜1.7 eV are ascribed to the Cr3+ ions in the β-Ga2O3 host. The energies of the excited states, i.e., 2E, 4T2, 2T2, 4T1, and 4T1, in Cr3+ are determined from the experimental PL and PL excitation spectra using a newly developed analysis model. The high-energy luminescence tail of the broad 4T2 → 4A2 emission band can be explained by the hot-carrier effect of the photoexcited electrons in the 4T2 state. The relative intensities of the R-line emission doublet can also be explained very well by the population and depopulation of the electron numbers in the E¯ (R1) and 2A¯ (R2) states. PL properties, such as the temperature-dependent PL intensity, peak energy, and spectral width, are analyzed in detail.

  3. Assessment of elemental distribution and heavy metals contamination in phosphate deposits: potential health risk assessment of finer-grained size fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Saffarini, Ghazi; Alzughoul, Khitam

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations and chemical distributions of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, U, and V) in the Al-Jiza phosphate ores were investigated. Typically, the mean concentration values of Cd, Cr, Ni, U, and Zn are 15 ± 8, 109 ± 21, 34 ± 6, 211 ± 55, 142 ± 55, and 161 ± 57 mg kg(-1), respectively. On the other hand, the encountered average concentration values of Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, U, and V in the phosphate dust particles (clay minerals factor, and diagenesis factor. Health risk assessments of non-cancerous effects in finer-grained size fraction that might be caused by contamination with the heavy elements have been calculated for both children and adults. The risk assessments in case of children for non-cancerous effects showed that U has values greater than the safe level of hazard index (HI = 1). In case of adults, the value of risk for U is also higher as compared to those of Cd, Ni, Cr, and Zn where it lies within the safe range of hazard index (HI Child health risk assessment indicates that children are more vulnerable to contaminants from phosphate mining than adults. PMID:24292694

  4. Assessment of human health risk of reported soil levels of metals and radionuclides in Port Hope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk assessment methods are applied to the question of health implications of contaminated soil in the Port Hope area. Soil-related as well as other pathways of exposure are considered. Exposures to the reported levels of uranium, antimony, chromium, copper, nickel, cadmium, cobalt, selenium, and zinc in Port Hope soils are not expected to result in adverse health consequences. Oral exposure to arsenic in soil at the reported levels is estimated to result in incremental cancer risk levels in the negligible range (10-5). Estimated exposures also fall well below suggested toxic thresholds for arsenic. For the two small areas within the >50 μg/g isopleth, assessment of exposure is difficult without more definitive data on soil concentrations in these zones. Contamination of soils with lead is overall quite limited. In general, the reported soil levels of lead are not anticipated to pose a hazard. The site with the highest concentrations of lead is located on the west bank of the Ganaraska River, a popular fishing area. Depending on the level and extent of contamination, as well as degree of contact with the site, potential exposures could exceed tolerable intakes for children. Exposures to the radionuclides Ra(226), Pb(210), and U(238) in soil at the reported levels are estimated to fall well within recommended population limits

  5. Site descriptions for preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental contexts of four sites, previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. as potential locations for low-level waste disposal facilities, are described. Information on geographical setting, climate, surface hydrology, land use, agriculture, fisheries, geology and hydrogeology is presented. The geological and hydrogeological data are interpreted with the support of deterministic modelling of groundwater conditions. The routes by which radionuclides may migrate from the site are identified and reduced to 1D statistical descriptions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments. Additional data required to improve the assessment of the performance of the site are identified. (author)

  6. National plan for siting high-level radioactive waste repositories and environmental assessment: Public draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    The process used to find sites suitable for disposal of high level radioactive waste is described. Existing and planned activities for screening successively smaller portions of land to identify suitable candidate sites, and for subsequently selecting one or more of these sites for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes are discussed. Environmental effects of the proposed action, including the anticipate range of field studies to characterize various land areas and reasonable alternative siting strategies, are assessed. The environmental assessment provides the basis for a finding of whether or not implementation of this plan will result in significant environmental impacts.

  7. Assessment of TRACE Code for GE Level Swell Test to Review Industrial Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chanyi; Cheng, Ae Ju; Bang, Young Seok; Hwang, Taesuk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS) has reviewed the industrial code for safety analysis of nuclear power plant, in which TRACE and MARS-KS codes are being used to support the understanding of specific phenomena and code prediction. For this aspect, the TRACE code was assessed for the GE Level Swell Experiment. General Electric (GE) performed a series of experiments to investigate thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as critical flow, void distribution, and liquid-vapor mixture swell during blowdown conditions. These GE Level swell experiments are frequently simulated to verify safety analysis codes as a separate effect test. TRACE code calculations with version 5.0 patch 4 for GE Level Swell experiment 1004-3 have been performed to assess the applicability of the TRACE code for verification of industrial code. An Assessment analysis of the TRACE version 5.0 patch 4 code was carried out for GE Level Swell experiments 1004-3 by comparison purpose with SPACE. Overall, TRACE predicted the pressure and axial void fractions at different times reasonably well for 1004-3 blowdown test, while SPACE tends to underestimate the pressure. It was also found that results of void fraction distribution should be compared at different time to discuss the accuracy of the SPACE code against this test.

  8. Assessment on the Vulnerability of Mangrove Ecosystems in the Guangxi Coastal Zone under Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on coastal zone. The mangrove ecosystems occur at the intertidal zone in tropical and subtropical coasts and are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of mangrove ecosystems to sea level rise, assess the impacts of sea level rise on mangrove ecosystem and formulate the feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal ecosystems. In this research, taking the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi province, China as a case study, the potential impacts of sea level rise on the mangrove ecosystems were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway- Receptor- Consequence) model. An index system for vulnerability assessment on coastal mangrove ecosystems under sea level rise was worked out, in which rate of sea level rise, subsidence/uplift rate, habitat elevation, daily inundation duration, intertidal slope and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method based on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment based on the sea-level rise rates of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.27 cm/a, the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi was within the EVI score of 0 in the projections of 2030s, 2050s and 2100s, respectively. As the sedimentation and land uplift could offset the rate of sea level rise and the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of mangrove ecosystems was negligible. While at the A1F1 scenario with a sea level rise rate of 0

  9. Assessment of Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in North Egypt aerosols using neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to assess the current level of atmospheric heavy metal pollution of aerosols in different cities of North Egypt using the neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma techniques. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of particulate matter PM10 and total suspended particulate matter were close to industrial areas. From the results of the enrichment factor calculations, the most significant elements of anthropogenic origin are Ba, Sb, Ce and Zn. - Highlights: → Average concentration of Cd using OE-ICP is below detection limit for all the samples. → Maximum average concentration of Pb in PM10 and TSP is 5425 and 570.3, respectively. → Concentration of 20 elements in PM10 and TSP aerosols are determined using the NAA. → EF revealed that Pb, Ba, Br, Ce, Hf, La Sb and Zn are of anthropogenic origin.

  10. Assessment of Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in North Egypt aerosols using neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.H., E-mail: elaraby_20032000@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Jezan University, KSA (Saudi Arabia); Abd El-Wahab, M., E-mail: wahab_magda@yahoo.com [Faculty of women for Arts, Science and Education, Physics Department, Ain Shams University, PO11757 Cairo (Egypt); Diab, H.M., E-mail: hnndiab@yahoo.co.uk [National Center of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority Cairo (Egypt); El-Desouky, T.M., E-mail: trkhegazy@yahoo.com [Faculty of women for Arts, Science and Education, Physics Department, Ain Shams University, PO11757 Cairo (Egypt); Mohsen, M., E-mail: m1mohsen@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science. Physics Department, Ain-Shams University, PO 11566 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of the present study is to assess the current level of atmospheric heavy metal pollution of aerosols in different cities of North Egypt using the neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma techniques. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of particulate matter PM{sub 10} and total suspended particulate matter were close to industrial areas. From the results of the enrichment factor calculations, the most significant elements of anthropogenic origin are Ba, Sb, Ce and Zn. - Highlights: > Average concentration of Cd using OE-ICP is below detection limit for all the samples. > Maximum average concentration of Pb in PM10 and TSP is 5425 and 570.3, respectively. > Concentration of 20 elements in PM{sub 10} and TSP aerosols are determined using the NAA. > EF revealed that Pb, Ba, Br, Ce, Hf, La Sb and Zn are of anthropogenic origin.

  11. Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1981-10-13

    The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

  12. The performance assessment process for DOE low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety of the low-level waste disposal facilities, as well as al US DOE facilities, is a primary criterion in their design and operation. Safety of low-level waste disposal facilities is evaluated from two perspectives. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation. The safety evaluations vary from simple safety assessments to very complex safety analysis reports, depending on the degree of hazard associated with the facility operation. Operational requirements for the Department's low-level waste disposal facilities, including long-term safety are contained in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management (1). This paper will focus on the process of conducting long-term performance analyses rather than on operational safety analysis

  13. Calibration of a liquid scintillation counter to assess tritium levels in various samples

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Haddad, M N; Abu-Jarad, F A

    1999-01-01

    An LKB-Wallac 1217 Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was calibrated with a newly adopted cocktail. The LSC was then used to measure tritium levels in various samples to assess the compliance of tritium levels with the recommended international levels. The counter was calibrated to measure both biological and operational samples for personnel and for an accelerator facility at KFUPM. The biological samples include the bioassay (urine), saliva, and nasal tests. The operational samples of the light ion linear accelerator include target cooling water, organic oil, fomblin oil, and smear samples. Sets of standards, which simulate various samples, were fabricated using traceable certified tritium standards. The efficiency of the counter was obtained for each sample. The typical range of the efficiencies varied from 33% for smear samples down to 1.5% for organic oil samples. A quenching curve for each sample is presented. The minimum detectable activity for each sample was established. Typical tritium levels in bio...

  14. Atomic force microscopy and Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer technique to assess contact lens deposits and human meibum extracts☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Sarah; Drolle, Elizabeth; Lorentz, Holly; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Leonenko, Zoya; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the differences in meibomian gland secretions, contact lens (CL) lipid extracts, and CL surface topography between participants with and without meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods Meibum study: Meibum was collected from all participants and studied via Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) deposition with subsequent Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) visualization and surface roughness analysis. CL Study: Participants with and without MGD wore both etafilcon A and balafilcon A CLs in two different phases. CL lipid deposits were extracted and analyzed using pressure-area isotherms with the LB trough and CL surface topographies and roughness values were visualized using AFM. Results Meibum study: Non-MGD participant meibum samples showed larger, circular aggregates with lower surface roughness, whereas meibum samples from participants with MGD showed more lipid aggregates, greater size variability and higher surface roughness. CL Study: Worn CLs from participants with MGD had a few large tear film deposits with lower surface roughness, whereas non-MGD participant-worn lenses had many small lens deposits with higher surface roughness. Balafilcon A pore depths were shallower in MGD participant worn lenses when compared to non-MGD participant lenses. Isotherms of CL lipid extracts from MGD and non-MGD participants showed a seamless rise in surface pressure as area decreased; however, extracts from the two different lens materials produced different isotherms. Conclusions MGD and non-MGD participant-worn CL deposition were found to differ in type, amount, and pattern of lens deposits. Lipids from MGD participants deposited irregularly whereas lipids from non-MGD participants showed more uniformity. PMID:25620317

  15. Value of assessing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in differential diagnosis of hypercorticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penezić Zorana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome remains a challenge in clinical endocrinology. The aim of this study was to establish the value of assessing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in differential diagnosis of hypercorticism using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. We have evaluated 114 patients with Cushing's syndrome testing the value of pathohistological examination and postoperative testing. The control group consisted of 53 obese healthy persons. ACTH level was determined using a commercial RIA (CIS, France. ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma was found in 56.14% examinees, ectopic secretion in 6.14%, cortisol secreting adrenal adenoma in 37.57%, and adrenal carcinoma in 6.14% of all patients with Cushing's syndrome. Basal ACTH level for pituitary adenoma was 107.29±75.69 pg/mL; for ectopic secretion 181.63±149.84 pg/mL; for adrenal adenoma 4.22±2.32 pg/mL; for adrenal carcinoma 5.50 ±7.72 pg/mL; and 34.76 ±10.07 pg/mL in control group. Testing the value of assessing ACTH the area under ROC curve was 0.9965±0.0071. Test sensitivity was 99.89% and test specificity was 97%. For ACTH cut-off level of 8 pg/mL, test sensitivity was 88.50%, with specificity of 99%. For ACTH cut-off level of 22 pg/mL, test sensitivity was 99.30%, with specificity of 98%. Our intermediate zone from 8 to 22 pg/mL confirms that assessment of ACTH level is a reliable tool in differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

  16. Assessment of entrainment and deposition for a potential landslide in Lushan area, central Taiwan by 3D discrete element simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Tang, C.; Hu, J.; Chan, Y.; Chi, C.

    2011-12-01

    important assessment of entrainment and deposition for potential landslide cases and mapping of susceptible area.

  17. Correlation test to assess low-level processing of high-density oligonucleotide microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jonas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently a number of competing techniques for low-level processing of oligonucleotide array data. The choice of technique has a profound effect on subsequent statistical analyses, but there is no method to assess whether a particular technique is appropriate for a specific data set, without reference to external data. Results We analyzed coregulation between genes in order to detect insufficient normalization between arrays, where coregulation is measured in terms of statistical correlation. In a large collection of genes, a random pair of genes should have on average zero correlation, hence allowing a correlation test. For all data sets that we evaluated, and the three most commonly used low-level processing procedures including MAS5, RMA and MBEI, the housekeeping-gene normalization failed the test. For a real clinical data set, RMA and MBEI showed significant correlation for absent genes. We also found that a second round of normalization on the probe set level improved normalization significantly throughout. Conclusion Previous evaluation of low-level processing in the literature has been limited to artificial spike-in and mixture data sets. In the absence of a known gold-standard, the correlation criterion allows us to assess the appropriateness of low-level processing of a specific data set and the success of normalization for subsets of genes.

  18. Does Grade Level Matter for the Assessment of Business Process Management Maturity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabryelczyk Renata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to create and test the practical application of a business process management maturity assessment conducted at two different grade levels (management and professional level in an organization. The conceptual framework for this research includes creating a business process maturity indicator (BPMI for six process areas: strategy, documentation, optimization, implementation, execution, and controlling. The comparative analysis of the business process management maturity is performed using the BPMI on two cases: inside a single organization and the sector internally.

  19. The influence of street level bureaucracy on the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Zhang, Jasmine; Christensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors are critical to the implementation of measures identified through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) processes. This paper addresses the challenge of implementation from a street level perspective and studies the role of planners and their use of discretion in the SEA...... high level of implementation of measures put forward in the SEA report, and underlines the role of planners at the front line of implementation, functioning as ‘innovators’ during the SEA process and the following implementation of measures. The paper documents the importance of examining planners...

  20. Antarctic Glacial Retreats and the Records of Sea Level Change in Deposits at the North Bank of the Shenzhen Bay,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洪汉; 黄宝林

    1997-01-01

    In view of the huge ice cover of 24.5×106 km3 in Antarctica,which accounts for over 90% by volume of the ice body on earth,the movement of Antarctic glaciers is a major control on global sea-level change and climatic fluctuation.As recorded in the Quaternary de posits in King George Island,West Antarctica,Three rapid ablations can be recognized at 11000,9000and 6100 years ago and the global climate within the past 6000 years is characterized by small-amplitude warm-cold fluctuation.Intertibal deposits at the north bank of the Shenzhen Bay suggest a periodic variation in sea level in about every 670 years over the last 6000 years with low sea levels recorded in the periods of 5500-4900,3900-3600,2400-2200and 1300-1200 years ago.Between these periods the sea level rised for about 80 cm on average.The modern warming climate in the last century corresponds with a rise of sea level at the rate of 2-3mm/a.

  1. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 2: Radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report presents the results of the radiological assessment which consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment which could result from the disposal of high level nuclear waste within seabed sediments in the deep oceans

  2. Proceedings from the technical workshop on near-field performance assessment for high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of 'Technical workshop of near-filed performance assessment for high-level waste' held in Madrid October 15-17, 1990. It includes the invited presentations and summaries of the scientific discussions. The workshop covered several topics: * post-emplacement environment, * benchmarking of computer codes, * glass release, * spent-fuel release, * radionuclide solubility, * near-field transport processes, * coupled processes in the near-field, * integrated assessments, * sensitivity analyses and validation. There was an invited presentation on each topic followed by an extensive discussion. One of the points highlighted in the closing discussion of the workshop was the need for international cooperation in the field of near-field performance assessment. The general opinion was that this was best achieved in smaller groups discussing specific questions. (au) Separate abstracts were prepared for 9 papers in this volume

  3. FIELD VALIDATION OF CORROSION RATES FOR LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flitton, M.K. Adler; Seitz, R.R.

    2003-02-27

    Research is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to assess corrosion rates of metals in the subsurface environment in direct support of waste management operations and environmental restoration activities. This research addresses a need identified by Department of Energy-Headquarters when reviewing the performance assessment for the low-level waste disposal facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Corrosion rates are a key factor determining release rates of long-lived radionuclides from activated metal waste streams. Radionuclide releases from these wastes are key contributors to the projected long-term dose associated with the disposal facility. Short-term results from the corrosion samples buried for one and three years suggest that the corrosion rates assumed for the assessments are conservative. However, the rates appear to be increasing, thus, future retrievals of coupons will be used to identify whether the increasing trend continues.

  4. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methodology in a level-I PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a methodology for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, applicable to a probabilistic safety assessment level I. The work contents are: correct association of distributions to parameters, importance and qualification of expert opinions, generations of samples according to sample sizes, and study of the relationships among system variables and system response. A series of statistical-mathematical techniques are recommended along the development of the analysis methodology, as well different graphical visualization for the control of the study. (author)

  5. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some countries.

  6. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Neugarten J; Golestaneh L

    2014-01-01

    Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute...

  7. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth Mads F; Kloster Stine; Girma Tsinuel; Faurholt-Jepsen Daniel; Andersen Gregers; Kæstel Pernille; Brage Søren; Friis Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women,...

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Safety Integrity Level of Message Transmission Between Safety-Related Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Rástočný; Mária Franeková; Iveta Zolotová; Karol Rástočný, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the possibilities of a quantitative assessment of message transmission between safety-related equipment for control and communication systems with a guarantee of a higher safety integrity level (SIL). The theoretical methods and standards recommended for industrial safety-related control, information and communication systems with SIL3 are described. The main part of the contribution covers theoretical methods and practical procedures used within a safety ana...

  9. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    OpenAIRE

    Oleh Mozhovyi; Nataliia Stukalo

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some count...

  10. The Dark Side of Internet Searches: A Macro Level Assessment of Rape Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Makin, David A; Morczek, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Assessing the promulgation of rape culture in society or merely establishing at an empirical level the degree to which a nation reflects such attitudes or behaviors has remained of interest to scholars across numerous disciplines. One common limitation (or criticism) within prior empirical research is claims of lack of generalizability or influences of social desirability. This research employs the use of Google Trends data from 2004-2012, via nine keyword searches specific to rap...

  11. Assessment of the breath alcohol concentration in emergency care patients with different level of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisdotter Andersson, Annika; Kron, Josefin; Castren, Maaret; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Hök, Bertil; Wiklund, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients seeking emergency care are under the influence of alcohol, which in many cases implies a differential diagnostic problem. For this reason early objective alcohol screening is of importance not to falsely assign the medical condition to intake of alcohol and thus secure a correct medical assessment. Objective At two emergency departments, demonstrate the feasibility of accurate breath alcohol testing in emergency patients with different levels of cooperation. Method As...

  12. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, A.B. [UK Dept. of the Environment, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL`s own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures.

  13. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL's own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures

  14. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  15. Level-2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment for 220 MWe Indian PHWR (KAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used to complement, enhance and validate conclusions that are based on deterministic design principles. This paper discusses various stages and insights drawn from Level-2 PSA study performed for Kakrapara Atomic Power Station (KAPS), an Indian PHWR. The Level-2 PSA deals with frequency and magnitude of releases to environment and consists of probabilistic and deterministic analysis elements. The probabilistic element consists of the development and quantification of containment logic models for each PDS. The deterministic element consists of calculating the release magnitude from the core, physical process of accident progression including containment response and source term analysis of radionuclide releases to the environment for the representative events from each PDS using appropriate codes. Some intended objectives of this Level-2 PSA study were : - To gain insights into the progression of severe accidents and containment performance and identify and prioritise scenarios requiring further and more refined analysis. - To identify major containment failure modes and to estimate the corresponding releases of radionuclides. - To identify any weak links in the plant design and suggest plant specific back-fit measures as risk reduction options. The Level-2 is an extension of Level-1 PSA The Plant Damage States form the interface between the two analyses are developed according to the requirement of Level-2 analysis. The containment Engineered Safety Features (ESFs) are treated as part of the Level-2 analysis. The ultimate product of a Level 2 PSA, is a discussion of a number of challenges to the containment, of the possible containment responses and their estimated probabilities and an assessment of the consequent releases

  16. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  17. A new global dataset with extreme sea levels and its application for assessing flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Extreme sea levels, caused by storm surges and high tides, can have devastating societal impacts. The global coastal population is faced with an increasing trend in flood risk, induced by socio-economic development and climate change. Without action, the increasing trends in flood hazard and exposure will be associated with catastrophic flood losses in the future. The adequate allocation of global investments in adaptation requires an accurate understanding of the current and future coastal flood risk on a global-scale. Here we present the first global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels (GTSR dataset) based on dynamical modelling. GTSR covers the entire world's coastline and consists of time series of tides and surges and estimates of extreme values for various return periods. The dataset is based on two different hydrodynamic models: FES2012 for modelling tides, and GSTM for modelling storm surges. GSTM is forced by meteorological fields from ERA-Interim to simulate storm surges for the period 1979-2014. Validation showed that there is very good agreement between modelled and observed sea levels. Only in regions prone to tropical cyclones, extreme sea levels are severely underestimated due to the limited resolution of the meteorological forcing. This will be resolved for future updates of GTSR. As a first application of GSTR, we estimate that 99 million people are exposed to a 1 in 100 year flood. This is almost 40% lower than estimates based the DIVA dataset, another global dataset of extreme sea level. We foresee other applications in assessing impacts of climate change and risk management, such as assessing changes in storminess, estimating the impacts of sea level, and providing warning levels to operational models.

  18. A performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a methodology for performance assessment of deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The applicability of this performance assessment methodology has been demonstrated for disposal in bedded salt and basalt; it has since been modified for assessment of repositories in unsaturated, fractured tuff. Changes to the methodology are primarily in the form of new or modified ground water flow and radionuclide transport codes. A new computer code, DCM3D, has been developed to model three-dimensional ground-water flow in unsaturated, fractured rock using a dual-continuum approach. The NEFTRAN 2 code has been developed to efficiently model radionuclide transport in time-dependent velocity fields, has the ability to use externally calculated pore velocities and saturations, and includes the effect of saturation dependent retardation factors. In order to use these codes together in performance-assessment-type analyses, code-coupler programs were developed to translate DCM3D output into NEFTRAN 2 input. Other portions of the performance assessment methodology were evaluated as part of modifying the methodology for tuff. The scenario methodology developed under the bedded salt program has been applied to tuff. An investigation of the applicability of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to non-linear models indicate that Monte Carlo simulation remains the most robust technique for these analyses. No changes have been recommended for the dose and health effects models, nor the biosphere transport models. 52 refs., 1 fig

  19. Multi-hazard national-level risk assessment in Africa using global approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart; Jongman, Brenden; Simpson, Alanna; Murnane, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In recent years Sub-Saharan Africa has been characterized by unprecedented opportunity for transformation and sustained growth. However, natural disasters such as droughts, floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and extreme temperatures cause significant economic and human losses, and major development challenges. Quantitative disaster risk assessments are an important basis for governments to understand disaster risk in their country, and to develop effective risk management and risk financing solutions. However, the data-scarce nature of many Sub-Saharan African countries as well as a lack of financing for risk assessments has long prevented detailed analytics. Recent advances in globally applicable disaster risk modelling practices and data availability offer new opportunities. In December 2013 the European Union approved a € 60 million contribution to support the development of an analytical basis for risk financing and to accelerate the effective implementation of a comprehensive disaster risk reduction. The World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) was selected as the implementing partner of the Program for Result Area 5: the "Africa Disaster Risk Assessment and Financing Program." As part of this effort, the GFDRR is overseeing the production of national-level multi-hazard risk profiles for a range of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a combination of national and global datasets and state-of-the-art hazard and risk assessment methodologies. In this presentation, we will highlight the analytical approach behind these assessments, and show results for the first five countries for which the assessment has been completed (Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, Niger and Ethiopia). The presentation will also demonstrate the visualization of the risk assessments into understandable and visually attractive risk profile documents.

  20. On the Accuracy of Iranian EFL Students' Reading Self-assessment and their Level of Reading Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Shokr

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reviewing the literature on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessment we find advocates claiming for the accuracy of the students’ self-assessments in general with little focus on their level of proficiency. With an eye on the students’ level of reading proficiency, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between students’ reading self-assessment (as a formative and alternative method of assessment on the one hand, and teacher assessment (as a formative type of assessment as well as students’ final examination scores (as a summative and traditional method of assessment on the other. To this end, 65 students of Islamic Azad University- Tehran South Branch were selected to participate in this study. Initially, participants received PET test as pretest for assigning them into different levels of reading proficiency. Based upon the results of the pretest, participants were assigned to elementary and intermediate levels. Throughout the whole semester self-assessment questionnaire was employed for five times. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation were the data analysis techniques performed. The results of the study revealed a significant relationship between the intermediate learners’ self-ratings and teacher assessments; however, the results indicated no significant relationship between elementary learners’ self-assessments and teacher assessments. Also, the correlations between students’ self-assessments and their final examination scores were not significant for both levels. Therefore, given the teacher assessment as the yardstick, the accuracy of the intermediate levels and the inaccuracy of the elementary learners’ self-assessments could be concluded. Finally, the low correlation between the learners’ self-assessments and their scores on traditional final examination led the researcher to attribute it to the different nature of these two assessment types.

  1. Indium–tin-oxide coatings for applications in photovoltaics and displays deposited using rotary ceramic targets: Recent insights regarding process stability and doping level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippens, Paul, E-mail: paul.lippens@umicore.com [Umicore Thin Film Products, Alte landstrasse 8, FL-9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein); Büchel, Michal [Umicore Thin Film Products, Alte landstrasse 8, FL-9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein); Chiu, David [Umicore Thin Film Products Taiwan, No. 22, Aly 4, Ln. 711, Bo' ai Street, Zhubei City, Hsinchu County 302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Szepesi, Chris [Umicore Thin Film Products USA, 50 Sims Avenue, Providence, 02909 RI (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Several aspects related to high power sputtering with industrial scale sintered ceramic rotary indium–tin-oxide (ITO) targets are presented in the first part of this paper. In particular, the process stability and target integrity upon sputtering with ≥ 20 kW/m power load and the influence of the gap size between cylindrical segments are discussed. Results show that, in order to avoid nodule formation and deposition rate fluctuations, direct current (DC) power load needs to be limited well below 20 kW/m over long sputter runs. Additional work demonstrates that at a gap size at or below 0.15 mm, strongly adhering deposits form readily between cylindrical segments which are not observed with standard 0.35 mm gaps. The influence of Sn doping level on electro-optical properties of thin films targeting an application such as hetero-junction c-Si solar cells is also investigated. Again, rotary targets operated at high power (10 kW/m) are used, including standard grade ITO containing 10 wt.% SnO{sub 2} and another composition with only 3 wt.% SnO{sub 2}. The influence of H{sub 2} and different concentrations of O{sub 2} in the sputter gas is analysed for both target materials. Results indicate that although coatings derived from the lower-doped ITO exhibit considerably less absorption in the NIR due to lower carrier concentrations, their resistivity is nearly 30% higher than that from the standard ITO coating.

  2. Assessment of a career development program for executive amd mid-level managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, James R., Sr.

    1994-01-01

    This project sought to validate the competencies required of mid-level and executive managers at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in order to enable an assessment of the Resident Management Education Program (RMEP). Forty (40) statements describing management competencies were presented to a sample of 37 KSC managers, who judged each as essential, useful but not essential, or not needed at each of two management levels. A content validity ratio (CVR) was calculated for each competency statement at the two management levels. There was general agreement on the validity of 36 or the 40 competency statements. Based on the content validity ratios and comments from respondents, recommendations for improvement of the RMEP were made.

  3. Assessment of Hammocks (Petenes) Resilience to Sea Level Rise Due to Climate Change in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montilla, Mariana C; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel; Posada Vanegas, Gregorio; de Jong, Bernardus H J

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to assess resilience of coastal ecosystems against sea level rise. To develop appropriate response strategies against future climate disturbances, it is important to estimate the magnitude of disturbances that these ecosystems can absorb and to better understand their underlying processes. Hammocks (petenes) coastal ecosystems are highly vulnerable to sea level rise linked to climate change; their vulnerability is mainly due to its close relation with the sea through underground drainage in predominantly karstic soils. Hammocks are biologically important because of their high diversity and restricted distribution. This study proposes a strategy to assess resilience of this coastal ecosystem when high-precision data are scarce. Approaches and methods used to derive ecological resilience maps of hammocks are described and assessed. Resilience models were built by incorporating and weighting appropriate indicators of persistence to assess hammocks resilience against flooding due to climate change at "Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve", in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. According to the analysis, 25% of the study area is highly resilient (hot spots), whereas 51% has low resilience (cold spots). The most significant hot spot clusters of resilience were located in areas distant to the coastal zone, with indirect tidal influence, and consisted mostly of hammocks surrounded by basin mangrove and floodplain forest. This study revealed that multi-criteria analysis and the use of GIS for qualitative, semi-quantitative and statistical spatial analyses constitute a powerful tool to develop ecological resilience maps of coastal ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to sea level rise, even when high-precision data are not available. This method can be applied in other sites to help develop resilience analyses and decision-making processes for management and conservation of coastal areas worldwide. PMID:27611802

  4. Assessment of Hammocks (Petenes) Resilience to Sea Level Rise Due to Climate Change in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montilla, Mariana C; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel; Posada Vanegas, Gregorio; de Jong, Bernardus H J

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to assess resilience of coastal ecosystems against sea level rise. To develop appropriate response strategies against future climate disturbances, it is important to estimate the magnitude of disturbances that these ecosystems can absorb and to better understand their underlying processes. Hammocks (petenes) coastal ecosystems are highly vulnerable to sea level rise linked to climate change; their vulnerability is mainly due to its close relation with the sea through underground drainage in predominantly karstic soils. Hammocks are biologically important because of their high diversity and restricted distribution. This study proposes a strategy to assess resilience of this coastal ecosystem when high-precision data are scarce. Approaches and methods used to derive ecological resilience maps of hammocks are described and assessed. Resilience models were built by incorporating and weighting appropriate indicators of persistence to assess hammocks resilience against flooding due to climate change at "Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve", in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. According to the analysis, 25% of the study area is highly resilient (hot spots), whereas 51% has low resilience (cold spots). The most significant hot spot clusters of resilience were located in areas distant to the coastal zone, with indirect tidal influence, and consisted mostly of hammocks surrounded by basin mangrove and floodplain forest. This study revealed that multi-criteria analysis and the use of GIS for qualitative, semi-quantitative and statistical spatial analyses constitute a powerful tool to develop ecological resilience maps of coastal ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to sea level rise, even when high-precision data are not available. This method can be applied in other sites to help develop resilience analyses and decision-making processes for management and conservation of coastal areas worldwide.

  5. Eco-efficiency of agricultural water systems: Methodological approach and assessment at meso-level scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Mladen; Mehmeti, Andi; Scardigno, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodological framework for the meso-level eco-efficiency assessment of agricultural water systems using a life-cycle system-based approach. The methodology was applied to the Sinistra Ofanto irrigation scheme, located in Southern Italy, where about 28,165 ha are under irrigation. The environmental performance of the system was evaluated through a set of selected mid-point environmental impact categories while the economic performance was measured using the total value added to the system's final products due to water use and the adopted management practices. Both economic performance and environmental performance were measured at different stages and for each stakeholder in the value chain. A distinction was made between foreground and background systems referring, respectively, to the processes that occurred inside the water system boundaries and those used for the production of supplementary resources. The analysis revealed that the major environmental burdens are: i) the freshwater resource depletion (i.e. excessive groundwater pumping), ii) climate change (i.e. direct emissions due to fertilizer use and diesel combustion), and iii) eutrophication (as a result of excessive application of N and P fertilizers). A considerable impact was observed on the background system where energy, fuel and agrochemicals were produced thereby confirming the prominent role of background processes in the comprehensive eco-efficiency assessment. The presented methodology aimed at the quantitative assessment of the eco-efficiency level rather than at the identification of the most affected environmental category. Hence, the results can be used to compare the performance of the system from one year to the next, among different stakeholders (water users) and/or to assess the impact of adopting innovative technologies and management practices. Moreover, the presented approach is useful for comparing the performance among different agricultural water systems and

  6. Eco-efficiency of agricultural water systems: Methodological approach and assessment at meso-level scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Mladen; Mehmeti, Andi; Scardigno, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodological framework for the meso-level eco-efficiency assessment of agricultural water systems using a life-cycle system-based approach. The methodology was applied to the Sinistra Ofanto irrigation scheme, located in Southern Italy, where about 28,165 ha are under irrigation. The environmental performance of the system was evaluated through a set of selected mid-point environmental impact categories while the economic performance was measured using the total value added to the system's final products due to water use and the adopted management practices. Both economic performance and environmental performance were measured at different stages and for each stakeholder in the value chain. A distinction was made between foreground and background systems referring, respectively, to the processes that occurred inside the water system boundaries and those used for the production of supplementary resources. The analysis revealed that the major environmental burdens are: i) the freshwater resource depletion (i.e. excessive groundwater pumping), ii) climate change (i.e. direct emissions due to fertilizer use and diesel combustion), and iii) eutrophication (as a result of excessive application of N and P fertilizers). A considerable impact was observed on the background system where energy, fuel and agrochemicals were produced thereby confirming the prominent role of background processes in the comprehensive eco-efficiency assessment. The presented methodology aimed at the quantitative assessment of the eco-efficiency level rather than at the identification of the most affected environmental category. Hence, the results can be used to compare the performance of the system from one year to the next, among different stakeholders (water users) and/or to assess the impact of adopting innovative technologies and management practices. Moreover, the presented approach is useful for comparing the performance among different agricultural water systems and

  7. Assessment of Hammocks (Petenes) Resilience to Sea Level Rise Due to Climate Change in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada Vanegas, Gregorio; de Jong, Bernardus H. J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to assess resilience of coastal ecosystems against sea level rise. To develop appropriate response strategies against future climate disturbances, it is important to estimate the magnitude of disturbances that these ecosystems can absorb and to better understand their underlying processes. Hammocks (petenes) coastal ecosystems are highly vulnerable to sea level rise linked to climate change; their vulnerability is mainly due to its close relation with the sea through underground drainage in predominantly karstic soils. Hammocks are biologically important because of their high diversity and restricted distribution. This study proposes a strategy to assess resilience of this coastal ecosystem when high-precision data are scarce. Approaches and methods used to derive ecological resilience maps of hammocks are described and assessed. Resilience models were built by incorporating and weighting appropriate indicators of persistence to assess hammocks resilience against flooding due to climate change at “Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve”, in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. According to the analysis, 25% of the study area is highly resilient (hot spots), whereas 51% has low resilience (cold spots). The most significant hot spot clusters of resilience were located in areas distant to the coastal zone, with indirect tidal influence, and consisted mostly of hammocks surrounded by basin mangrove and floodplain forest. This study revealed that multi-criteria analysis and the use of GIS for qualitative, semi-quantitative and statistical spatial analyses constitute a powerful tool to develop ecological resilience maps of coastal ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to sea level rise, even when high-precision data are not available. This method can be applied in other sites to help develop resilience analyses and decision-making processes for management and conservation of coastal areas worldwide. PMID:27611802

  8. Development of sea level rise scenarios for climate change assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Day, Richard H.; Michot, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Rising sea level poses critical ecological and economical consequences for the low-lying megadeltas of the world where dependent populations and agriculture are at risk. The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is one of many deltas that are especially vulnerable because much of the land surface is below mean sea level and because there is a lack of coastal barrier protection. Food security related to rice and shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta is currently under threat from saltwater intrusion, relative sea level rise, and storm surge potential. Understanding the degree of potential change in sea level under climate change is needed to undertake regional assessments of potential impacts and to formulate adaptation strategies. This report provides constructed time series of potential sea level rise scenarios for the Mekong Delta region by incorporating (1) aspects of observed intra- and inter-annual sea level variability from tide records and (2) projected estimates for different rates of regional subsidence and accelerated eustacy through the year 2100 corresponding with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate models and emission scenarios.

  9. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  10. On the assessment of shooting sounds : Loudness-level weightings versus A- and C-weighted sound exposure levels (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Geurtsen, F.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    As an alternative to the A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL) Schomer et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2390-2397 (2001)] used the equal-loudness level contours as a dynamic filter to determine the loudness-level-weighted sound exposure level (LLSEL). From their analyses they concluded that the LLS

  11. Spatially valid data of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen derived by moss surveys for pollution risk assessments of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Schönrock, Simon; Meyer, Michaela; Wosniok, Werner; Harmens, Harry; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Alber, Renate; Aleksiayenak, Julia; Barandovski, Lambe; Carballeira, Alejo; Danielsson, Helena; de Temmermann, Ludwig; Godzik, Barbara; Jeran, Zvonka; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Lazo, Pranvera; Leblond, Sebastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Liiv, Siiri; Magnússon, Sigurður H; Mankovska, Blanka; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Piispanen, Juha; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Popescu, Ion V; Qarri, Flora; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajce; Steinnes, Eiliv; Stihi, Claudia; Thöni, Lotti; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2016-06-01

    For analysing element input into ecosystems and associated risks due to atmospheric deposition, element concentrations in moss provide complementary and time-integrated data at high spatial resolution every 5 years since 1990. The paper reviews (1) minimum sample sizes needed for reliable, statistical estimation of mean values at four different spatial scales (European and national level as well as landscape-specific level covering Europe and single countries); (2) trends of heavy metal (HM) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in moss in Europe (1990-2010); (3) correlations between concentrations of HM in moss and soil specimens collected across Norway (1990-2010); and (4) canopy drip-induced site-specific variation of N concentration in moss sampled in seven European countries (1990-2013). While the minimum sample sizes on the European and national level were achieved without exception, for some ecological land classes and elements, the coverage with sampling sites should be improved. The decline in emission and subsequent atmospheric deposition of HM across Europe has resulted in decreasing HM concentrations in moss between 1990 and 2010. In contrast, hardly any changes were observed for N in moss between 2005, when N was included into the survey for the first time, and 2010. In Norway, both, the moss and the soil survey data sets, were correlated, indicating a decrease of HM concentrations in moss and soil. At the site level, the average N deposition inside of forests was almost three times higher than the average N deposition outside of forests. PMID:27068915

  12. Is. gamma. -camera imaging of platelet deposition useful to assess the effectiveness of prostacyclin (PGI/sub 2/) treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitscha, P.; Kaliman, J.; Sinziger, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria))

    Platelet labelling with /sup 111/In-oxinesulfate allows visualization of platelet deposition in the vascular bed. Scintigraphic studies were performed in 6 patients with 'active' (platelet uptake ratio (PUR) > 1.20) and 8 patients with 'inactive' (PUR < 1.20) atherosclerotic lesions of the femoral artery. Platelet deposition was also studied in 11 patients with implanted prosthetic vascular grafts and in 21 patients with an abnormal aneurysm of the aorta. Infusing 5 ng/kg/min PGI/sub 2/ during 6 hours for 5 days into patients with 'active'-atherosclerosis and aneurysms of the aorta resulted in a significant decrease of platelet deposition even after having stopped the infusion. There was no influence of PGI/sub 2/ on PUR in patients with 'inactive' lesions. The group of patients with implanted prosthetic grafts demonstrated also a significant decrease of PUR values during the PGI/sub 2/ infusion, but reached baseline values soon after stopping the infusion. When platelet deposition is increased ..gamma..-camera imaging provides valuable data on the influence of any kind of therapy on the in-vivo platelet function.

  13. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.

    1986-04-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report.

  14. Level 1 and 2 probabilistic safety assessment for designing a 300 MW NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The software for Level 1, 2 and 3 probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) was developed based on the PSA code by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and independent research. It was applied to integrating the design of a 300 MW nuclear power plant, unit 2 (C-2). It includes the analysis of initiating events, event trees, fault trees,dependency analysis, human reliability analysis, database analysis, event sequence quantification, plant damage state analysis, accident progression and containment response analysis, source term analysis, large early release frequency (LERF) analysis, uncertainty analysis, importance/sensitivity analysis, applications during design phase, etc. The model of Level 1 and 2 PSA was established for the C-2 unit.Several design improvements based on the PSA were implemented in the design, such as the isolation valves on the mini-flow line of the safety injection pump and spray pump, reciprocating charging pump in chemical and volume control system, essential service water system, etc. The unit's internal events at power generation were assessed as 7.25 x 10-6/ry for core damage frequency (CDF) and 3.24 x 10-7/ry for LERF. The C-2 PSA has not only justified the balance of its design, but also provided the probability assessment information for optimizing C-2 design and operation strategies, reducing the risk of severe accidents efficiently. (authors)

  15. National plan for siting high-level radioactive waste repositories and environmental assessment. Public draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Plan for Siting High-Level Radioactive Waste Repositories describes the process the Department of Energy (DOE) is using to find sites suitable for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Potential environmental impacts of implementing the Plan are included in an attached Environmental Assessment. The Plan is one element of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program being conducted by DOE to develop the necessary technology and to qualify sites to establish mined geologic repositories for these wastes. The Plan describes existing and planned activities for screening successively smaller portions of land within the United States to identify suitable candidate sites, and for subsequently selecting one or more of these sites, for permanent disposal of radioctive wastes. Environmental effects of the proposed action, including the anticipated range of field studies to characterize various land areas and reasonable alternative siting strategies, are assessed. The Environmental Assessment provides the basis for a finding of whether or not implementation of this plan will result in signficant environmental impacts

  16. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  17. Assessment of noise levels in clinical and laboratory areas of dental teaching institution, Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal M Parkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To measure and assess the noise levels produced by different dental equipments. Materials and Methods: Measurement of the noise level was performed in preclinics, clinics, and dental laboratory of different departments of Ahmedabad Dental College and Hospital. The noise levels were determined using a Mini sound meter (CEM USA, which was placed at the dentist′s and laboratory technician′s ear level and at a distance of 1 m from a main noise source. The level of noise was measured in decibel (dB while the instruments were at maximum running speed. Results: In dental laboratory, the nosiest dental equipment was gypsum lathe trimmer with the noise level ranging from 87.36 to 98.3 dB. In preclinical area, the sound produced by low-speed air-rotor ranges from 66.68 to 69.28 dB. In clinical areas, the highest noise produced was by high-speed air-rotor (73.36 to 81.8 dB. The noise created by suction pump when in contact with mucosa was in range from 73.1 to 80.32 dB. The noise levels generated during cutting were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those of noncutting, which was proved in the course of the measurements. Conclusion: At the end of the study it can be concluded that the sound levels are below that causes damage to the human ear (85 dB. However, dental technicians and other personnel working all day in noisy laboratories could be at risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss if they did not choose not to wear ear protection.

  18. Risk Assessment of Repetitive Movements in Olive Growing: Analysis of Annual Exposure Level Assessment Models with the OCRA Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, A R; Zimbalatti, G

    2015-10-01

    In Italy, one of the main agricultural crops is represented by the cultivation of olive trees. Olive cultivation characterizes the Italian agricultural landscape and national agricultural economics. Italy is the world's second largest producer of olive oil. Because olive cultivation requires the largest labor force in southern Italy, the aim of this research was to assess the risk of biomechanical overload of the workers' upper limbs. The objective, therefore, was to determine the level of risk that workers are exposed to in each phase of the production process. In Calabria, the second most important region in Italy for both the production of olive oil and cultivated area, there are 113,907 olive farms (83% of all farms) and 250,000 workers. To evaluate the risk of repetitive movements, all of the work tasks performed by workers on 100 farms in Calabria were analyzed. A total of 430 workers were interviewed over the four-year research period. To evaluate the level of exposure to repetitive movements, the OCRA (occupational repetitive actions) checklist was adopted. This checklist was the primary analytical tool during the preliminary risk assessment and in a given working situation. The analysis suggested by the OCRA checklist starts with pre-assigned scores (increasing in value with intensification of risk) for each of four main risk factors and additional factors. Between 2010 and 2013, surveys were conducted using the OCRA checklist with the aim of verifying musculoskeletal risks. The results obtained from the study of 430 workers allowed us to identify the level of exposure to risk. This analysis was conducted in the workplace to examine in detail the repetitive movements performed by the workers. The research was divided into two phases: first to provide preliminary information on the different tasks performed in olive growing, and second to assign a percentage to each task of the total hours worked in a year. Based on the results, this method could well

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of mercury in Antarctica and the role of cryptogams to assess deposition patterns in coastal ice-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2016-11-01

    Mercury in the Antarctic troposphere has a distinct chemistry and challenging long-term measurements are needed for a better understanding of the atmospheric Hg reactions with oxidants and the exchanges of the various mercury forms among air-snow-sea and biota. Antarctic mosses and lichens are reliable biomonitors of airborne metals and in short time they can give useful information about Hg deposition patterns. Data summarized in this review show that although atmospheric Hg concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere are lower than those in the Northern Hemisphere, Antarctic cryptogams accumulate Hg at levels in the same range or higher than those observed for related cryptogam species in the Arctic, suggesting an enhanced deposition of bioavailable Hg in Antarctic coastal ice-free areas. In agreement with the newest findings in the literature, the Hg bioaccumulation in mosses and lichens from a nunatak particularly exposed to strong katabatic winds can be taken as evidence for a Hg contribution to coastal ecosystems by air masses from the Antarctic plateau. Human activities on the continent are mostly concentrated in coastal ice-free areas, and the deposition in these areas of Hg from the marine environment, the plateau and anthropogenic sources raises concern. The use of Antarctic cryptogams as biomonitors will be very useful to map Hg deposition patterns in costal ice-free areas and will contribute to a better understanding of Hg cycling in Antarctica and its environmental fate in terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Environmental assessment approaches and results for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, L.; Lean, C

    2005-09-15

    A Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA) was undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to support the Post-Closure Safety Case produced in September 2002 for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria. The PCRSA provided a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the long-term radiological impacts from disposals at the Drigg site. A structured, iterative approach to the PCRSA was used to define the context and scenarios for consideration, to describe the engineered disposal system and its environment, to assess the impact through calculations and qualitative arguments and to feed back the results to the safety case and forward programme of technical work. The results of the PCRSA have identified that the most important radionuclides in terms of radiological impact are disposed uranium and thorium and their daughter products. The key exposure pathways relating to future impacts are the migration of radionuclides in groundwater and release to future terrestrial environments, exposures resulting from the potential disruption of the site by natural events, such as coastal erosion and glaciation, and speculative inadvertent human intrusion into the site. The PCRSA results have been used to identify areas for potential future work to address key areas of uncertainty, as part of the iterative assessment approach. Further focused analysis has enabled key pessimisms and uncertainties to be identified and assessed in support of the evaluation and development of options for the future management of the Drigg site. (author)

  1. Environmental assessment approaches and results for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment (PCRSA) was undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) to support the Post-Closure Safety Case produced in September 2002 for the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria. The PCRSA provided a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the long-term radiological impacts from disposals at the Drigg site. A structured, iterative approach to the PCRSA was used to define the context and scenarios for consideration, to describe the engineered disposal system and its environment, to assess the impact through calculations and qualitative arguments and to feed back the results to the safety case and forward programme of technical work. The results of the PCRSA have identified that the most important radionuclides in terms of radiological impact are disposed uranium and thorium and their daughter products. The key exposure pathways relating to future impacts are the migration of radionuclides in groundwater and release to future terrestrial environments, exposures resulting from the potential disruption of the site by natural events, such as coastal erosion and glaciation, and speculative inadvertent human intrusion into the site. The PCRSA results have been used to identify areas for potential future work to address key areas of uncertainty, as part of the iterative assessment approach. Further focused analysis has enabled key pessimisms and uncertainties to be identified and assessed in support of the evaluation and development of options for the future management of the Drigg site. (author)

  2. Methods, quality assurance, and data for assessing atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey monitored atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California during two studies in 2001 and 2002–04. The 2001 study sampled wet deposition (rain) and storm-drain runoff in the Modesto, California, area during the orchard dormant-spray season to examine the contribution of pesticide concentrations to storm runoff from rainfall. In the 2002–04 study, the number and extent of collection sites in the Central Valley were increased to determine the areal distribution of organophosphate insecticides and other pesticides, and also five more sample types were collected. These were dry deposition, bulk deposition, and three sample types collected from a soil box: aqueous phase in runoff, suspended sediment in runoff, and surficial-soil samples. This report provides concentration data and describes methods and quality assurance of sample collection and laboratory analysis for pesticide compounds in all samples collected from 16 sites. Each sample was analyzed for 41 currently used pesticides and 23 pesticide degradates, including oxygen analogs (oxons) of 9 organophosphate insecticides. Analytical results are presented by sample type and study period. The median concentrations of both chloryprifos and diazinon sampled at four urban (0.067 micrograms per liter [μg/L] and 0.515 μg/L, respectively) and four agricultural sites (0.079 μg/L and 0.583 μg/L, respectively) during a January 2001 storm event in and around Modesto, Calif., were nearly identical, indicating that the overall atmospheric burden in the region appeared to be fairly similar during the sampling event. Comparisons of median concentrations in the rainfall to those in the McHenry storm-drain runoff showed that, for some compounds, rainfall contributed a substantial percentage of the concentration in the runoff; for other compounds, the concentrations in rainfall were much greater than in the runoff. For example, diazinon concentrations in rainfall were about

  3. Spatial vulnerability assessment : methodology for the community and district level applied to floods in Buzi, Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this thesis a conceptual model is presented which allows for the definition of a vulnerability assessment according to its time and spatial scale and within a multi-dimensional framework, which should help to design and develop appropriate methodologies and adaptation of concepts for the required scale of implementation. Building on past experiences with participatory approaches in community mapping in the District of Buzi in Mozambique, the relevance of such approaches for a community-based disaster risk reduction framework is analysed. Finally, methodologies are introduced which allow the assessment of vulnerability and the prioritisation of vulnerability factors at the community level. At the district level, homogenous vulnerability regions are identified through the application of integrated modelling approaches which build on expert knowledge and weightings. A set of indicators is proposed, which allow the modelling of vulnerability in a data-scarce environment. In developing these different methodologies for the community and district levels, it has been identified that the monitoring of vulnerability and the identification of trends is essential to addressing the objective of a continuous and improved disaster risk management. In addition to the technical and methodological challenges discussed in this thesis, the commitment from different stakeholders and the availability of capacity in different domains is essential for the successful, practical implementation of the developed approaches. (author)

  4. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority

  5. Methodological approaches to assessing the innovativeness level of investment and construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolzhenko Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the existing approaches to innovations evaluation in international and Russian practice. The authors examine the nature of the concept of “innovation”, especially innovation projects, methodological tools to measure various objects’ innovativeness level as well as innovative project economic efficiency assessing methods. It should be noted that at the legislative level up to date in the process of formation and implementation of capital construction projects there are no eligible requirements and assistance from public authorities to the developer for creating innovative products, providing the appropriate level of services. And if the financial indicators of the project are more or less clear, the level of innovativeness of them is much more complicated, although the requirements on the innovativeness of the projects are included in the Strategy of innovative development of Russia. The analysis shows that in Russian and international practice there are many approaches to assessing innovations, but they cannot be considered universal and they are applied differentially depending on the goals and tasks of applying the results of scientific achievements in the form of intellectual property to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of industries, products, services. In this case individual, specific evaluation method is selected and implemented basing on taking into account all the legal, economic, technical and other aspects. As a result, the author concluded that the innovativeness level rating requires development, which is in its analytical capabilities to provide flexible management tool, which can be applied at all the stages of the investment and construction project life cycle.

  6. A Monte Carlo study of energy deposition at the sub-cellular level for application to targeted radionuclide therapy with low-energy electron emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emfietzoglou, D. [Medical Physics Laboratory, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina 451 10 (Greece); Bousis, C. [Medical Physics Laboratory, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina 451 10 (Greece); Hindorf, C. [Joint Department of Physics, The Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Fotopoulos, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina 451 10 (Greece); Pathak, A. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Kostarelos, K. [Nanomedicine Laboratory, Centre for Drug Delivery Research, School of Pharmacy, University of London, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: kostas.kostarelos@pharmacy.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    Optimizing targeted radionuclide therapy for patients with circulating malignant cells (e.g. blood-related cancers) or a micrometastatic spread requires quantification of various dosimetric parameters at the single-cell level. We present results on the energy deposition of monoenergetic electrons of initial energy from 100 eV to 20 keV - relevant to Auger emitting radionuclides - distributed either uniformly or at the surface of spherical volumes of radii from 10 nm to 1 {mu}m which correspond to critical sub-cellular targets. Calculations have been carried out by our detailed-history Monte Carlo (MC) code which simulates event-by-event the complete slowing down (to 1 Ry) of both the primary and all subsequent generations of electrons, as well as, by the continuous-slowing-down-approximation (CSDA) using analytic range-energy relationships. The latter method has been adopted by the MIRD committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine for dosimetry at the cellular level (>1 {mu}m). Differences between the MC and CSDA results are up to {approx}50% and are expected to be even larger at higher energies and/or smaller volumes. They are attributed to the deficiencies of the CSDA method associated with the neglect of straggling and {delta}-ray transport. The results are particularly relevant to targeted radiotherapy at the genome level by Auger emitters.

  7. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  8. Economic assessment on vitrification facility of low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of vitrification technology of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes was demonstrated due to volume reduction and mechanical and chemical stability of final waste forms. Therefore economic assessment that is considering by the economic propriety and predicted cost is needed at the preliminary of facility operation. Economic assessment of vitrification facility that is expected to construct in Ulchin 5 and 6 is established. In this study, characteristics and yearly generation of radioactive wastes are based on Ulchin 5 and 6 PSAR. The present worth analysis is worked through the cost-benefit when the vitrification facility will be installed. In conclusion, it would be good choices if it treats radioactive wastes from more than 4 nuclear power plants

  9. Procedures for conducting probabilistic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (Level 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides guidance for conducting a Level 1 of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), that is a PSA concerned with events leading to core damage. The scope of this report is confined to internal initiating events (excluding internal fires and floods). A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs so as to facilitate external review of the results of such studies. The report is divided into the following major sections: management and organization; identification of sources of radioactive releases and accident initiators; accident sequence modelling; data assessment and parameter estimation; accident sequence quantification; documentation of the analysis: display and interpretation of result. 45 refs, 7 figs, 23 tabs

  10. Assessing climate change and health vulnerability at the local level: Travis County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Natasha; Houghton, Adele; Luber, George

    2016-10-01

    We created a measure to help comprehend population vulnerability to potential flooding and excessive heat events using health, built environment and social factors. Through principal component analysis (PCA), we created non-weighted sum index scores of literature-reviewed social and built environment characteristics. We created baseline poor health measures using 1999-2005 age-adjusted cardiovascular and combined diabetes and hypertension mortality rates to correspond with social-built environment indices. We mapped US Census block groups by linked age-adjusted mortality and a PCA-created social-built environment index. The goal was to measure flooding and excessive heat event vulnerability as proxies for population vulnerability to climate change for Travis County, Texas. This assessment identified communities where baseline poor health, social marginalisation and built environmental impediments intersected. Such assessments may assist targeted interventions and improve emergency preparedness in identified vulnerable communities, while fostering resilience through the focus of climate change adaptation policies at the local level.

  11. Development of a Three-Level Risk Assessment Strategy for Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, N.; Cummins, E.

    The release of nanomaterials and, in particular, free nanoparticles into the environment from secondary sources such as industrial manufacturing and consumer products as well as from intentional environmental application has compelled a need for a broad and pre-emptive analysis of nanomaterial fate and transport in the environment and subsequent potential human exposure pathways. The novel and potentially reactive characteristics of nanomaterials have lead to predictions on potential undesirable ramifications of exposure to these materials on human health. The three-level risk assessment strategy presented in this work has its basis in qualitative model equations that represent the inter-relationships between the different material and process characteristics and environmental behaviors and their relationship to potential exposure scenarios. The factors that influence these behaviors are examined, and the potential application of this risk assessment strategy in a semi-quantitative model is considered.

  12. The disposal of high level radioactive waste and the need for assessing the radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different options for the disposal of high level radioactive waste are being considered in several different countries. When assessing the possible future impact of these disposal concepts, very large uncertainties are associated with the predictions. These uncertainties include scenario representation, conceptual and mathematical modelling, parameter evaluation and finally the interpretation of the results. Some of these uncertainties cannot be eliminated regardless of research efforts, e.g. the evolution of the society and the environment. The paper discusses in general terms to what extent uncertainties in the predictions could be reduced and in the light of this discussion the authors present their point of view regarding the fruitfulness of assessing radiological impact in the far future. (orig.)

  13. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D. [and others

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  14. Quantitative assessment of developmental levels in overarm throwing using wearable inertial sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimpampi, Eleni; Masci, Ilaria; Pesce, Caterina; Vannozzi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Motor proficiency in childhood has been recently recognised as a public health determinant, having a potential impact on the physical activity level and possible sedentary behaviour of the child later in life. Among fundamental motor skills, ballistic skills assessment based on in-field quantitative observations is progressively needed in the motor development community. The aim of this study was to propose an in-field quantitative approach to identify different developmental levels in overarm throwing. Fifty-eight children aged 5-10 years performed an overarm throwing task while wearing three inertial sensors located at the wrist, trunk and pelvis level and were then categorised using a developmental sequence of overarm throwing. A set of biomechanical parameters were defined and analysed using multivariate statistics to evaluate whether they can be used as developmental indicators. Trunk and pelvis angular velocities and time durations before the ball release showed increasing/decreasing trends with increasing developmental level. Significant differences between developmental level pairs were observed for selected biomechanical parameters. The results support the suitability and feasibility of objective developmental measures in ecological learning contexts, suggesting their potential supportiveness to motor learning experiences in educational and youth sports training settings. PMID:26818205

  15. Assessment of modification level of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys by pattern recognition of cooling curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiang; GENG Hui-yuan; LI Yan-xiang

    2005-01-01

    Most evaluations of modification level are done according to a specific scale based on an American Foundry Society (AFS) standard wall chart as qualitative analysis in Al-Si casting production currently. This method is quite dependent on human experience when making comparisons of the microstructure with the standard chart. And the structures depicted in the AFS chart do not always resemble those seen in actual Al-Si castings. Therefore, this qualitative analysis procedure is subjective and can introduce human-caused errors into comparative metallographic analyses. A quantization parameter of the modification level was introduced by setting up the relationship between mean area weighted shape factor of eutectic silicon phase and the modification level using image analysis technology. In order to evaluate the modification level, a new method called "intelligent evaluating of melt quality by pattern recognition of thermal analysis cooling curves" has also been introduced. The results show that silicon modification level can be precisely assessed by comparison of the cooling curve of the melt to be evaluated with the one most similar to it in a database.

  16. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low Level Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-11-15

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  17. Methods, quality assurance, and data for assessing atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey monitored atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California during two studies in 2001 and 2002–04. The 2001 study sampled wet deposition (rain) and storm-drain runoff in the Modesto, California, area during the orchard dormant-spray season to examine the contribution of pesticide concentrations to storm runoff from rainfall. In the 2002–04 study, the number and extent of collection sites in the Central Valley were increased to determine the areal distribution of organophosphate insecticides and other pesticides, and also five more sample types were collected. These were dry deposition, bulk deposition, and three sample types collected from a soil box: aqueous phase in runoff, suspended sediment in runoff, and surficial-soil samples. This report provides concentration data and describes methods and quality assurance of sample collection and laboratory analysis for pesticide compounds in all samples collected from 16 sites. Each sample was analyzed for 41 currently used pesticides and 23 pesticide degradates, including oxygen analogs (oxons) of 9 organophosphate insecticides. Analytical results are presented by sample type and study period. The median concentrations of both chloryprifos and diazinon sampled at four urban (0.067 micrograms per liter [μg/L] and 0.515 μg/L, respectively) and four agricultural sites (0.079 μg/L and 0.583 μg/L, respectively) during a January 2001 storm event in and around Modesto, Calif., were nearly identical, indicating that the overall atmospheric burden in the region appeared to be fairly similar during the sampling event. Comparisons of median concentrations in the rainfall to those in the McHenry storm-drain runoff showed that, for some compounds, rainfall contributed a substantial percentage of the concentration in the runoff; for other compounds, the concentrations in rainfall were much greater than in the runoff. For example, diazinon concentrations in rainfall were about

  18. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.

  19. Assessing atmospheric nitrogen deposition to natural and semi-natural ecosystems – experience from Danish studies using the DAMOS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Geels, Camilla; Frohn, Lise;

    2013-01-01

    Local agricultural emissions contribute significantly to the atmospheric reactive nitrogen loads of Danish terrestrial ecosystems. In the vicinity of the sources this may be up to 6-8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) depending on location and ecosystem type. This contribution arises from dry deposition of gas...... phase ammonia derived from local livestock production. Long-range transport, however, often constitutes the largest contribution to the overall atmospheric terrestrial reactive nitrogen loadings in Denmark. This is often in the range 10-15 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and consists mainly of aerosol phase nitrate...... and ammonium (reaction products of nitrogen oxides and ammonia), but also dry deposition of other reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly nitrogen oxides in the form of gas phase nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide). In Denmark's environmental management of the sensitive terrestrial ecosystems modelling tools...

  20. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, B J; Late, Amul; Nalawade, P M; Chavan, S P; Mule, M B

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level. PMID:20603577

  1. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B J Bhosale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level.

  2. Assessment of Agri-Environmental Externalities at Regional Levels in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhen Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study used a synthetic evaluation method to assess agri-environmental externalities at the regional level in Finland. The article developed a relative measure that made it possible to rank the 15 regions studied for seven agri-environmental indicators, which were based on the preferences of the evaluators. The results indicated significant differences in the provision of public goods between the regions. The provision of public goods tended to increase over the 10-year study period. The results were robust with respect to changes in preferences.

  3. Safety assessment for the bituminization facility of the medium-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment for the home-made bituminization facility of the medium-level waste during hot test is made. The average external dose equivalent per month is 0.136 x 10-2 Sv. The radioactive substance released into the environment is much lower than the permissible limit. The danger of burning and exploding of the bituminized product is avoided because the operation temperature is controlled strictly below 170 C degree. The report also briefly describes the structural characteristic of the facility, the main process and radiation protection and safety measures

  4. Chemical and biological toxicity assessment of simulated Hanford site low-level waste grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defining the potential damage to the biosphere associated with exposure to low-level waste grouting operations at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is difficult and controversial. Combined chemical and biological assessment of grout toxicity is needed to provide information on the potential risks of animal and plant exposure to the grouts. This paper will identify and predict the chemical components of the grout that will have the greatest potential of causing deleterious effects on fish and wildlife indigenous to the Hanford Site. This paper will also determine whether the current grout technology is adequate in controlling toxicant and pollutant releases for regulatory compliance

  5. Performance assessment overview for subseabed disposal of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) was part of an international program that investigated the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments. This report briefly describes the seven-step iterative performance assessment procedures used in this study and presents representative results of the last iteration. The results of the performance are compared to interim standards developed for the SDP, to other conceptual repositories, and to related metrics. The attributes, limitations, uncertainties, and remaining tasks in the SDP feasibility phase are discussed.

  6. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, N.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form.

  7. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  9. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2015-08-01

    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4"X4" NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity concentrations and gamma dose levels around Shorapur, Karnataka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, S.; Avinash, P.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurpbk@rediffmail.com.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University Kalaburagi – 585 106 India (India); Anilkumar, S. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2015-08-28

    This study assesses the level of background radiation around Shorapur. The study region locates the western part of the Yadgir district of Karnataka. Shorapur and Shahapur talukas are mostly composed of clay, shale sandstone, granite rock and part of study area is black soil. Thirty sample locations were selected along the length and breadth of Shorapur and Shahapur taluka. Natural radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were determined using 4'X4' NaI (Tl) gamma spectroscopy. Outdoor gamma dose measurements in air at 1 m above ground level were determined using Rad Eye PRD survey meter. Estimated dose values are compared with the survey meter values and found to be good agreement between them and also with the data obtained from different other areas of Karnataka and India. The average values were found to be slightly higher in the present investigation.

  11. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:16318012

  12. A needs assessment for a graduate level course in optical networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Reisslein, Jana; Klein, James; Reisslein, Martin

    2003-10-01

    To explore the need for a graduate level engineering course in optical networking, a needs assessment consisting of (i) an investigation of 14 existing optical networking courses, (ii) an analysis of online surveys among the networking community and the ASU electrical engineering department, (iii) faculty interviews, and (iv) focus groups was conducted. Survey responses from a total of 61 respondents were received and analyzed. The results support the need for a graduate level course in optical networking. Our analyses indicate that a graduate course in optical networking should (i) focus on the basic mechanisms and current trends in optical networking, (ii) be based on a text book and instructor slides combined with collections of examples and problems. Regarding the optimal delivery method it was found that current students and faculty strongly prefer face-to-face delivery complemented by on-line readings and assignments, whereas working engineering professionals are more open to the idea of online courses.

  13. Estimation of Radiofrequency Power Leakage from Microwave Ovens for Dosimetric Assessment at Nonionizing Radiation Exposure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal contamination, levels in topsoil at selected auto-workshops in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research was conducted to assess the levels of contamination of heavy metals in the topsoil at selected auto-workshops in Accra to determine the anthropogenic and crustal contributions and the human heath risk associated with them. Soil samples collected from four auto-workshops were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Eleven (11) elements: Co, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, As, Hg, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd were identified in each sample collected from the auto-workshops. Pollution indices; contamintion factor (Cf) index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI) were used to assess the contamination levels. It revealed the extent of contamination at the auto-workshops for most of the elements which range from low to considerate contamintion. Lead (Pb) recorded the greatest contamination levels at the auto-electrical location. The results from the index of geoccumulation showed no pollution to highly pollution indicting high variations of pollution levels at different locations. The results of the PLI in almost all locations ranged from moderately to extremely polluted. Noncancer effect on children and adults due to exposure to the topsoil were also estimated with some selected metal elements. The hazard quotient (HQ) evaluation, showed ingestion to be the route of exposure to soil dust that results in a higher risk for heavy metals, followed by dermal contact. The effect due to inhalation of resuspended dust particles through the mouth and nose is relatively low. It was observed that, the auto-workshops are generally polluted with heavy metals and therefore posing ill-health effect to the humans and the environment. (au)

  15. Assessing the level of healthcare information technology adoption in the United States: a snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Blackford

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive knowledge about the level of healthcare information technology (HIT adoption in the United States remains limited. We therefore performed a baseline assessment to address this knowledge gap. Methods We segmented HIT into eight major stakeholder groups and identified major functionalities that should ideally exist for each, focusing on applications most likely to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. We then conducted a multi-site qualitative study in Boston and Denver by interviewing key informants from each stakeholder group. Interview transcripts were analyzed to assess the level of adoption and to document the major barriers to further adoption. Findings for Boston and Denver were then presented to an expert panel, which was then asked to estimate the national level of adoption using the modified Delphi approach. We measured adoption level in Boston and Denver was graded on Rogers' technology adoption curve by co-investigators. National estimates from our expert panel were expressed as percentages. Results Adoption of functionalities with financial benefits far exceeds adoption of those with safety and quality benefits. Despite growing interest to adopt HIT to improve safety and quality, adoption remains limited, especially in the area of ambulatory electronic health records and physician-patient communication. Organizations, particularly physicians' practices, face enormous financial challenges in adopting HIT, and concerns remain about its impact on productivity. Conclusion Adoption of HIT is limited and will likely remain slow unless significant financial resources are made available. Policy changes, such as financial incentivesto clinicians to use HIT or pay-for-performance reimbursement, may help health care providers defray upfront investment costs and initial productivity loss.

  16. Influencing factors on the functional level of haemophilic patients assessed by FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachooei, A R; Badiei, Z; Zandinezhad, M E; Ebrahimzadeh, M H; Mazloumi, S M; Omidi-Kashani, F; Moradi, A; Mahdavian-Naghashzargar, R; Razi, S

    2014-03-01

    Joint destruction in early adulthood brings the patients to the orthopaedic clinics. If a haemophilic patient becomes disabled, it shows a number of factors such as timely diagnosis, availability of appropriate treatment depending on the country, access and affordability to treatments and equally importantly the responsibility of the patient in managing self care by remaining compliant by prescribed treatment regimen. We assessed the functional level by functional independence score in haemophilia (FISH). Overall, 104 patients with haemophilia A and 29 with haemophilia B were evaluated. We assessed the function of the patients by FISH. We divided the sum scores into weak (FISH score 8-16), moderate (17-24), and good (25-32). For evaluating the level of functional deficit in a 2 × 2 table, we categorized the weak and moderate levels into Disordered Group and the good level into Not-Disordered Group. The average age was 26.9 ± 14.24. Each 1 year increase in age can increase 1.07 fold the possibility of being placed in Disordered Function Group. Severe haemophilia can increase 7.34 fold, presence of inhibitor can increase 9.75 fold and home self-care increases 3.89 fold the possibility of being placed in Disordered Function Group. To decrease the burden of the cost on patient, family and the government, education plays the most important role. We suggest that we send a trained team of physician and nurses to the deprived villages and cities instead of waiting for the patient to refer to our Care Center. PMID:24118441

  17. The Assessment of Romanian Customers’ Level of Satisfaction with Pharmaceutical Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Cherecheş Marius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to assess the level of satisfaction towards pharmaceutical services among Romanian customers. Moreover, we were interested in building the socio-demographical profile of a Romanian satisfied customer. The study has a transversal design and uses a quantitative approach. Data was collected at the national level in June 2012 by using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI and resulted in 1,478 valid questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were performed in order to properly present the sample of interest according to socio-demographic characteristics, as well as general attitudes towards pharmaceutical market. According to our analysis, only half of the respondents have a favorite pharmacy (50,4%. Regarding their level of satisfaction, the majority of respondents (53% declared themselves as being quite satisfied with the pharmacy that they usually collaborate with, whereas 42% of respondents are very satisfied with their favorite pharmacies. According to our analysis, the most satisfied customer has the following socio-demographic characteristics: female (N=351, aged between 56 and 70 years old (N=259, having high school as the highest level of education (N=184, living in an urban area (N=343, having a monthly income of 501-1000 RON (N=217, married (N=396, having no chronic disease (N=312, having a family composed of two members (N=185. Customer’s satisfaction represents a personal evaluation on the pharmaceutical services and providers and is an essential part of the quality of health care. Therefore, it is vital to assess the customer’s expectation and satisfaction in order to ensure the success of the pharmaceutical company.

  18. Corporate marketing potential assessment model in the context of operational, tactical and strategic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Potrashkova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this research is to develope the mathematic model structure of result-oriented evaluation of corporate marketing potential in the context of management potential levels (operational, tactical and strategic that takes into account multiple possible uses of marketing resources and various options for the development of corporate environment. The results of the analysis. The new scientific result of this research is represented by the developed structure of the system of analytical mathematic models for assessing marketing potential of the company in the context of its management levels – operational, tactical and strategic. According to the proposed system of models every level of marketing potential (operational, tactical and strategic is described through a set of possible enterprise production sales volumes for different states of the environment parameters and the parameters of a certain level of marketing resources management at corresponding period of time (short, medium and long term. The proposed system of models has the following clue characteristics: marketing potential assessment is based on the result-oriented approach. It characterizes enterprise capability for creating demand for its products in different conditions of corporate environment and for different variants of managerial decisions concerning different parameters of production promotion and distribution (e.g. for different pricing options; different variants of corporate investment and innovations program; marketing potential assessment is implemented in the context of management levels of the potential – operational, tactical and strategic – so, it reflects operational, tactical and strategic capabilities of the company concerning production promotion and distribution; the models for assessing different levels of potential (operational, tactical and strategic differ in such of ways: by specification of the resources` characteristics

  19. Assessing the impact of sea-level rise on a vulnerable coastal community in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Appeaning Addo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated sea-level rise are expected to significantly affect vulnerable coastal communities. Although the extent of the impact will be localised, its assessment will adopt a monitoring approach that applies globally. The topography of the beach, the type of geological material and the level of human intervention will determine the extent of the area to be flooded and the rate at which the shoreline will move inland. Gleefe, a coastal community in Ghana, has experienced frequent flooding in recent times due to the increasing occurrence of storm surge and sea-level rise. This study used available geospatial data and field measurements to determine how the beach topography has contributed to the incidence of flooding at Gleefe. The topography is generally low-lying. Sections of the beach have elevations of around 1 m, which allows seawater to move inland during very high tide. Accelerated sea-level rise as predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC will destroy homes of the inhabitants and inundate the Densu wetlands behind the beach. Destruction of infrastructure will render the inhabitants homeless, whilst flooding of the wetlands will destroy the habitats of migratory birds and some endangered wildlife species such as marine turtle. Effective adaptation measures should be adopted to protect this very important coastal environment, the ecology of the wetlands and the livelihoods of the community dwellers.

  20. Knowledge Level Assessment in e-Learning Systems Using Machine Learning and User Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeeh Ghatasheh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Learning has been one of the foremost trends in education so far. Such importance draws the attention to an important shift in the educational paradigm. Due to the complexity of the evolving paradigm, the prospective dynamics of learning require an evolution of knowledge delivery and evaluation. This research work tries to put in hand a futuristic design of an autonomous and intelligent e-Learning system. In which machine learning and user activity analysis play the role of an automatic evaluator for the knowledge level. It is important to assess the knowledge level in order to adapt content presentation and to have more realistic evaluation of online learners. Several classification algorithms are applied to predict the knowledge level of the learners and the corresponding results are reported. Furthermore, this research proposes a modern design of a dynamic learning environment that goes along the most recent trends in e-Learning. The experimental results illustrate an overall performance superiority of a support vector machine model in evaluating the knowledge levels; having 98.6%of correctly classified instances with 0.0069 mean absolute error.

  1. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nuño Solinís

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care, according to the clinicians' own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service. Methods. The process was carried out in four phases: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach's α and various correlation coefficients. Results. The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: c2 of 45.51 (p = 0.089, RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99. Discussion. The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration. Conclusion. The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care.

  2. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nuño Solinís

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care, according to the clinicians' own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service.Methods. The process was carried out in four phases: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach's α and various correlation coefficients.Results. The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: c2 of 45.51 (p = 0.089, RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99.Discussion. The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration.Conclusion. The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care.

  3. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, S Y; Zalk, D M; Swuste, P

    2008-03-03

    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed, and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  4. Assessing high-level scientific reasoning in a physics exam: Pipe-dream or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David

    2012-02-01

    What do we want students to be able to do when they have finished their introductory physics course? In addition to learning the physics content, we want students to learn to think like physicists. We want students to develop specific scientific reasoning abilities that are the hall-mark of scientific thinking. These include, analyzing and interpreting experimental data, designing an experiment to test different hypotheses, identifying assumptions in a physical model amongst many others. Physics courses such as the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) have been developed to focus specifically on developing students' scientific reasoning abilities. Research has shown that ISLE is successful in achieving its goal. We would like our assessments to directly reflect our learning goals for our students. In order to measure higher-level scientific reasoning, we can, for example, require students to participate in a laboratory practical exam in which they have to engage in experimental design and analysis. However, this assessment method could become very difficult to administer and grade in a large-enrollment class. Is it possible to assess scientific thinking abilities of students using traditional formats such as paper and pencil exams? In this talk I will present some of our latest ideas about how to re-design traditional exam questions to measure a range of scientific reasoning abilities.

  5. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types

  6. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Ishiguro, K. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Nuclear Energy System Incorporated, Tokyo (Japan); Naito, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Geological Isolation Research Project, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, T. [Japan Gas Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Little, R. [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. Considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, some specific reference biospheres' are developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. The models represent the components of the surface environment using compartments between which fluxes of materials (solid/water) and radionuclides are defined by transfer factors. A range of exposure pathways via which such radionuclides enter the food-chain, along with uptake and concentration factors, are also defined. The response to a step function of unit flux from the geosphere is determined for each model. The results show that it is reasonable to use steady-state biosphere responses to a unit-input flux to define nuclide-dependent factors for converting fluxes from the geosphere to doses. This simplifies safety assessment calculations, which then require only look-up tables for such flux to dose conversion rather than fully coupled biosphere models. (author)

  7. Social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Traugott, M.J.; Stone, J.V.; McIntyre, P.D.; Davidson, C.C.; Jensen, F.V.; Coover, G.E. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1990-01-01

    This report presents findings from a social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan. Social assessments derive from direct interaction between researchers and study participants. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter One, Summary of Findings, focuses on key findings from the statewide telephone surveys and the in-depth ethnographic study conducted by the SNR/ISR study team. These and additional findings are discussed in greater detail in the three subsequent chapters. Chapter Two, Statewide Telephone Survey Findings, presents the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs statewide residents have regarding the LLRW project. Chapter Three, Statewide Demographic Findings, presents a detailed examination of differences among various demographic groups and includes regional analysis. Chapter Four, Hillsdale-area Ethnographic Study Findings, discusses perceived impacts of the proposed LLRW storage facility on local residents who mistakenly came to believe that their area had been specially selected as the location for the facility. Specifically, the chapter presents the development, spread, shape and persistence of what is termed a risk perception shadow in the greater Hillsdale area. Possible causes of the shadow also are discussed, and comparisons are made between statewide and Hillsdale-area survey populations. Chapter Five, Research Methods, presents a discussion of the social assessment research methods used to derive these findings.

  8. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel`s expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel`s reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel`s review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management.``

  9. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management.''

  10. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H. (Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.''

  11. Effects of pulsed laser annealing on deep level defects in electrochemically-deposited and furnace annealed CuInSe{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, A. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Meadows, H. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, University of Luxembourg, Belvaux (Luxembourg); Hlaing Oo, W.M. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Dale, P.J. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, University of Luxembourg, Belvaux (Luxembourg); Scarpulla, M.A., E-mail: scarpulla@eng.utah.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2013-03-01

    CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) is a prototype material for the I–III–VI chalcopyrites such as Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} used as absorber layers in thin film photovoltaic cells. Carefully-controlled pulsed-laser annealing (PLA) is a unique annealing process that has been demonstrated to improve the device performance of chalcopyrite solar cells. Here, we investigate the changes in defect populations after PLA of electrochemically-deposited CISe thin films previously furnace annealed in selenium vapor. The films were irradiated in the sub-melting regime at fluences inducing temperatures up to 840 ± 100 K. Deep-level transient spectroscopy on Schottky diodes reveals that the activation energy of the dominant majority carrier trap changes non-monotonically from 215 ± 10 meV for the reference sample, to 330 ± 10 meV for samples irradiated at 20 and 30 mJ/cm{sup 2}, and then back to 215 ± 10 meV for samples irradiated at 40 mJ/cm{sup 2}. A hypothesis involving competing processes of diffusion of Cu and laser-induced generation of In vacancies may explain this behavior. - Highlights: ► Pulsed laser annealing (PLA) effects studied on CuInSe{sub 2} films ► PLA improves crystalline order parameter. ► PLA induces changes in majority carrier defect levels.

  12. Influence of dietary genistein levels on tissue genistein deposition and on the physical, chemical, and sensory quality of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Natasha; Skonberg, Denise I; Camire, Mary E; Guthrie, Kelly E; Malison, Jeffrey; Lima, Lucienne

    2005-05-01

    Genistein, the primary isoflavone in soybean, is one of the chemical components responsible for some of the off-flavors associated with soy-based foods. The potential effects of genistein on the sensory and chemical quality of fish muscle may affect the full utilization of soybean meal as an alternative protein in aquaculture diets. Fingerling trout fed commercial diets containing 0, 500, 1000, or 3000 ppm pure genistein were analyzed after 6 and 12 months of feeding. Genistein was extracted by enzymatic digestions in Tris buffer and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moisture, fat, protein, ash, and tristimulus color of the fillets were determined. The extent of lipid oxidation occurring in fillets harvested after 12 months of feeding was studied by measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 4 and 8 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C. Triangle tests were performed to determine if there were any detectable sensory differences. A dietary genistein content of 3000 ppm led to the deposition of approximately 5.4 pmol of genistein/mg of fillet. Triangle test panelists were unable to detect any significant (p protein content were influenced by time of harvest, while color was unaffected. TBARS levels on days 4 and 8 were significantly (p level than in fillets from fish fed dietary genistein.

  13. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants. PMID:25190554

  14. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants.

  15. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  16. Measuring patient safety culture: an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient s

  17. A quality-assurance assessment for constituents reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and the National Trends Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, R.B.; Schroder, L.J.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    A continuing quality-assurance program has been operated by the U.S. Geographical Survey to evaluate any bias introduced by routine handling, shipping, and laboratory analyses of wet-deposition samples collected in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and National Trends Network (NTN). Blind-audit samples having a variety of constituent concentrations and values were selected. Only blind-audit samples with constituent concentrations and values less than the 95th-percentile concentration for natural wet-deposition samples were included in the analysis. Of the major ions, there was a significant increase of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ SO42+ and Cl- in samples handled according to standard protocols and shipped in NADP/NTN sample-collection buckets. For 1979-1987, graphs of smoothed data showing the estimated contaminations in blind-audit samples indicate a decrease in the median concentration and ranges of Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- contamination of blind-audit samples shipped in sample-collection buckets. Part of the contamination detected in blind-audit samples can be attributed to contact with the sample-collection bucket and lid; however, additional sources also seem to contaminate the blind-audit sample. Apparent decreases in the magnitude and range of sample contamination may be caused by differences in sample-collection bucket- and lid-washing procedures by the NADP/NTN Central Analytical Laboratory. Although the degree of bias is minimal for most constituents, summaries of the NADP/NTN data base may contain overestimates of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na-, K+, SO42- and Cl- concentrations, and underestimates of H+ concentrations.

  18. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  19. Climate uncertainty and implications for U.S. state-level risk assessment through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-10-01

    Decisions for climate policy will need to take place in advance of climate science resolving all relevant uncertainties. Further, if the concern of policy is to reduce risk, then the best-estimate of climate change impacts may not be so important as the currently understood uncertainty associated with realizable conditions having high consequence. This study focuses on one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change - precipitation - to understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and the near-term justification for interventions to mitigate the course of climate change. We show that the mean risk of damage to the economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of one trillion dollars over the next 40 years, with employment impacts of nearly 7 million labor-years. At a 1% exceedance-probability, the impact is over twice the mean-risk value. Impacts at the level of individual U.S. states are then typically in the multiple tens of billions dollar range with employment losses exceeding hundreds of thousands of labor-years. We used results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) climate-model ensemble as the referent for climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, mapped the simulated weather hydrologically to the county level for determining the physical consequence to economic activity at the state level, and then performed a detailed, seventy-industry, analysis of economic impact among the interacting lower-48 states. We determined industry GDP and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effect on personal income, and the consequences for the U.S. trade balance.

  20. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser in the treatment of alveolar osteitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Alveolar osteitis (AO is the extraction wound healing disorder with a presence of severe pain. Low level laser therapy stimulates cell metabolism and microcirculation, have has pronounced analgesic, antiedematous and anti-inflammatory effect and speeds up wound healing process. The aim of this study was to present results of clinical research that examined the effectiveness of low level laser in pain relief and healing of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the lower jaw which was formed on the second day after tooth extraction. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects divided into the study and the control group. In both groups extraction wounds were processed in similar way, except that in the study group was applied daily treatment of low level laser with a total of eight sessions of radiation, while in the control group extraction wounds were dressed with zinc oxide eugenol paste, which was changed every 48 hours up to the pain cessation. Measurement of pain intensity was done with a visual analogue scale (VAS 10 min prior to processing of extraction wounds and daily for the next eight days. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser on healing of extraction wounds was performed on the day eight of the treatment. Results. On the day five after beginning of the treatment of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the patients of the study group a lower average value of pain as compared to the control group was registered. This difference was increased within the following days. Extraction wounds healing in the study group was more successful and faster than in the control group. Conclusion. This study suggested that the reduction of pain was more pronounced in the patients with alveolar osteitis whose extraction wounds were subjected to low level laser radiation in comparison to those in which extraction wounds were treated with zinc oxide eugenol paste.

  1. Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.

  2. Assessment of smoking status based on cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowart Beverly J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cotinine is a principal metabolite of nicotine with a substantially longer half-life, and cotinine levels in saliva, urine or serum are widely used to validate self-reported smoking status. The nasal cavity and olfactory system are directly exposed to tobacco smoke in smokers and in non-smokers who live with or work around smokers. However, despite the potential for a direct impact of tobacco smoke on the nasal epithelium and olfactory neurons, no prior studies have assessed cotinine levels in nasal mucus. We sought to determine whether cotinine levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF would provide a reasonable estimate of smoke exposure. We assayed cotinine using a competitive immunoassay in NLF from 23 smokers, 10 non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke (ETS and 60 non-smokers who did not report smoke exposure. NLF cotinine levels were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, regardless of their exposure to ambient tobacco smoke. Cotinine levels in this small group of exposed non-smokers were not significantly different than those of non-exposed non-smokers. A cutoff of 1 ng/ml provided a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99% for smoking status in this sample. Data were consistent with self-reported smoking status, and a cutoff of 1.0 ng/ml NLF cotinine may be used to classify smoking status. While saliva is the most easily obtained body fluid, NLF can be used to provide an objective and precise indication of smoking status and more directly reflects smoke exposure in the nasal and olfactory mucosa.

  3. Complex assessment of the level and dynamics of innovative capacity of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Hryhoruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the approach to the assessment of the innovative capacity of the region based on the creation of complex index and study its dynamics in order to develop practical recommendations to enhance innovative activity. The results of the analysis. Innovative development of economy determines the need for formation of an effective innovative policy at regional level, the implementation of which is aimed to set priorities and conceptual basis of innovative regional activity. One of the urgent tasks, the solution of which contributes to the goal, is to assess innovative capacity of the region. The results of the assessment of innovative development of Khmelnytskyi region for the period 2009-2014 on the main indicators of innovation show that the costs for execution of scientific and technical activity by research institutions of region in general tended to increase. The number of institutions involved for research and the total number of scientific staff are incremented, but in 2014 the figure dropped slightly. Funding research activity was increasing every year. Herewith, the main part of funds stands out for applied research. However, the relative share of enterprises engaged in innovative activities generally decreased, and compared to 2011 reduced by almost half. A similar pattern occurred for the firms which implement innovations. There is decrement of the share of innovative products in industrial production. Own sources of investment are dominated in the structure of expenditure on innovation activities of enterprises of Khmelnytskyi region. The reasons of this situation are the state of political instability in the country, that increase the risk of innovative activity; uncertainty in long-term credits and high bank rates; reduction in state funding innovation and lack of own funds of enterprises, lack of public procurement and state guarantees against the risk of bankruptcy for the used bank loans to

  4. Assessment of studies and researches on warehousing - High-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This large report first presents the approach adopted for the study and research on the warehousing of high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes. It outlines how reversible storage and warehousing are complementary, discusses the lessons learned from researches performed by the CEA on long duration warehousing, presents the framework of studies and researches performed since 2006, and presents the scientific and technical content of studies and researches (warehousing need analysis, search for technical options providing complementarity with storage, extension or creation of warehousing installations). The second part addresses high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive waste parcels, indicates their origins and quantities. The third part proposes an analysis of warehousing capacities: existing capacities, French industrial experience in waste parcel warehousing, foreign experience in waste warehousing. The fourth part addresses reversible storage in deep geological formation: storage safety functions, storage reversibility, storage parcels, storage architecture, chronicle draft. The fifth part proposes an inventory of warehousing needs in terms of additional capacities for the both types of wastes (high-level, and intermediate-level-long-lived), and discusses warehousing functionalities and safety objectives. The sixth and seventh parts propose a detailed overview of design options for warehousing installations, respectively for high-level and for intermediate-level-long-lived waste parcels: main technical issues, feasibility studies of different concepts or architecture shapes, results of previous studies and introduction to studies performed since 2011, possible evolutions of the HA1, HA2 and MAVL concepts. The eighth chapter reports a phenomenological analysis of warehousing and the optimisation of material selection and construction arrangements. The last part discusses the application of researches to the extension of the

  5. Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

    2006-12-01

    The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that

  6. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Synthetic Instrument Capabilities Assessment and Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of synthetic instruments (SIs) for Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) is to provide an external lower-level diagnostic and functional test capability beyond the built-in-test capabilities of spacecraft electronics. Built-in diagnostics can report faults and symptoms, but isolating the root cause and performing corrective action requires specialized instruments. Often a fault can be revealed by emulating the operation of external hardware. This implies complex hardware that is too massive to be accommodated in spacecraft. The SI strategy is aimed at minimizing complexity and mass by employing highly reconfigurable instruments that perform diagnostics and emulate external functions. In effect, SI can synthesize an instrument on demand. The SI architecture section of this document summarizes the result of a recent program diagnostic and test needs assessment based on the International Space Station. The SI architecture addresses operational issues such as minimizing crew time and crew skill level, and the SI data transactions between the crew and supporting ground engineering searching for the root cause and formulating corrective actions. SI technology is described within a teleoperations framework. The remaining sections describe a lab demonstration intended to show that a single SI circuit could synthesize an instrument in hardware and subsequently clear the hardware and synthesize a completely different instrument on demand. An analysis of the capabilities and limitations of commercially available SI hardware and programming tools is included. Future work in SI technology is also described.

  7. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew [Atomic Energy Licensing Board, MOSTI, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Faizal [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF THE ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL OF CONCENTRATED CONSTRUCTION TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievskiy Leonid Vladimirovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the kinds of the concentrated construction are considered, which differ by types of construction production with account of branch and regional estimate factors. The methods of assessing the level of preparation of the territories taking into account different types of models and the purposes of regional planning are given. Despite the approved postulates, which are available in the theory and practice of organizational preparation of the territories, many questions still have not been solved and are handled using ineffective methods. The authors believe, that during preparation of territories it is necessary to introduce the elements of cycles’ combination of engineering calculations and laying design of communications to a building site. Defining the sequence of these works’ performance for objects is modelled taking into account the cyclic-combined method of preparing the sites for construction. The development of the territory can be provided only in case of annual investment into various objects of cluster construction, in order to uniformly or rhythmically load the construction capacities upon condition of the rhythmical preparation level of the territories of concentrated construction. As the generalizing indicator the criterion of rhythm of means planning can be used. Thus, using a rhythm indicator as a criterion of organizational preparation of territorial clusters it is possible to provide the necessary level of investment of preparation and construction programs for a certain period.

  9. Safety Assessment of the New Very Low-Level Waste Disposal Installation at El Cabril, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish government in 2006, foresees important volumes of wastes with a very low content of radioactivity mainly coming from the dismantling of nuclear power plants, along with the occurrence of some radiological industrial incidents in the past. This fact has boosted the construction of a new disposal installation, specifically designed for this category of waste. This new installation is part of the existing low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility at El Cabril, and includes four cells with a total capacity of around 130,000 m3. The design of the cells is consistent with the European Directive for the disposal of hazardous waste and fulfils the same basic safety criteria as the present facility for LILW. The safety assessment methodology applied for the very low level waste (VLLW) installation is fully coherent with the approach adopted for the existing disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste (concrete vaults disposal system) and takes into account the potential impact of the new installation during both the operational and long-term periods. The license for the VLLW installation was granted by the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce (MITYC) in July 2008, following technical approval by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), and the first disposal operation occurred in October 2008. (authors)

  10. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia. (paper)

  11. The Assessment of Self-Efficacy Level According to University StudentsAND#8217; Smoking Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ozlem Kilinc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT AIM: This essay is made with the aim of assessing of self-efficacy level according to university students’ smoking situation. METHOD: The study that is descriptive type was made in between September 2009-June 2010 in University of Bingol. Totally 920 students who attend Bingol Universty in 2009-2010 academic year consist of the universe of the study. The choice of sample wasn’t used in the study, the study completed with 765 students who were volunteer to join the study data was collected by using the form including socio-demographic data and self-efficacy scale. Evaluating data was made by descriptive tests in computer environment, t test and analysis of variance. RESULTS: The rate of students’ smoking is 6,9 % among girls, 37,4 % among boys and it is totally 44,3 %. It was determined that place that they live, their fathers’ education of smoking students idea quit smoking effect their self-efficacy level. It was determined that family type, marital status, fathers’ education of non-smoking students effect their self-efficacy level. CONCLUSION: It is found that self-efficacy of non-smoking students is higher than the self-efficacy of smoking students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 255-264

  12. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji

    2014-02-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  13. Combining In SITU And Multi-Sensor Satellite Data To Assess The Impact Of Atmospheric Deposition In Lake Garda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Di Nicolantonio, Walter; Cacciari, Alessandra; Matta, Erica; Rampini, Anna; Gianinetto, Marco; Ober, Giovanna

    2013-12-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of the deposition of Saharan dust on the phytoplankton growth (i.e. dust fertilization hypothesis) in Lake Garda, an oligotrophic basin with low nutrient and low chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration, by combining satellite data with in situ measurements. A Saharan dust event has been recognised on 28/07/2005 by: (i) SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) data processing, (ii) a significant increase of PM10 with respect to PM2.5 in a site southern the lake; and (iii) the high values of AOT (aerosol optical thickness) with corresponding low values of the Angstrom parameter measured by AERONET in Ispra. Few days later, an increase of chl-a in the lake was detected from MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer). The images were processed with the Case-2 Regional (C2R) processor that provided values comparable to in situ measurements (r=0.78). Therefore, preliminary results seem to indicate a response of the Lake Garda in terms of increasing of chl-a as a consequence of the Saharan dust event recognised on 28/07/2005. Nevertheless, the analysis of further events is mandatory in order to have confirmation (or no), about the linkage between atmospheric deposition and phytoplankton dynamics in the study area.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS LEVEL OF OWN DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Andreeva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension (AH is the most frequent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and related mortality in all developed countries. Altough therapy with antihypertensive drugs significantly reduces this risk, patients with stable mild hypertension have poor compliance with the treatment. The reasons and levels of inadequacy of antihypertensive therapy in this group of patients are well-known.Aim. To evaluate the awareness level of own disease, adequacy of therapy only in those patients with stable mild arterial hypertension, who are complied with recommendations of physicians concerning AH treatment and changing of mode of life. It was also planned to reveal possible grounds for inadequate secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.Materials and methods. 76 patiens with stable mild arterial hypertension were included into study. They didn’t have any serious concomitant diseases and were complied with the recommendations of physicians concerning secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Questionnaire of State Research Center for Preventive Medicine “Assessment of awareness level of own disease in patients with stable arterial hypertension” was used in the study.Results. It was revealed, that the majority of patients, invoved in the study, were nonsmokers and regularly took antihypertensive drugs. 70% of questioned patients reached the target arterial blood pressure levels, while patients with arterial hypertension in general Russia population received regular and efficient treatment in less than 30-20%. Drugs treatment of questioned patients almost didn’t differ from that, which received patients in out-patient clinics of Moscow: in both cases ACE inhibitors were preferred. Only 29% of questioned patients knew their lipid levels in blood and none of the patients took drugs, reducing levels of lipids in blood. Half of the patients, that took part in our study, had increased level of body mass index.Conclusions. Inadequate

  15. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  16. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  17. Evaluation of strength parameters and quality assessment of different lithotype levels of Edremit (Van) Travertine (Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Onur; Özvan, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Travertine deposits have an economic value due to their chemical composition and widespread use in the construction industry. Travertines reveal different lithotypes depending on their depositional process and this can affect mechanical and engineering properties of travertine. Edremit travertine displays various structural features in lateral and vertical distributions. In this study, Edremit travertine is firstly differentiated into three different levels such as crystalline crust, shrub and reed based on the mechanical, physical properties and field observations. A strength map of different lithotypes is prepared and crystalline crust level is investigated for using in marble industry. For this purpose, the long-term performance/durability of crystalline crust travertine is investigated against various environmental processes by using several accelerated weathering tests. Accordingly, compared to the crystalline crust other levels of travertine (shrub and reed) are much more affected from atmospheric conditions. Among these levels, the crystalline crust level is recommended to be used as marble according to laboratory test results whereas other levels are appropriate for cement industry.

  18. Assessment of medical resident's attention to the health literacy level of newly admitted patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Karsenty

    2013-12-01

    their patients’ health literacy. Our assessment revealed much room for improvement. This checklist can be used as a tool to teach future residents how to better assess and take into consideration their patients’ health literacy level and as a result communicate with patients more effectively.

  19. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  20. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES) of the Cabinet of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 {mu}g/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 {mu}g/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 {mu}g/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 {mu}g/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians.

  1. The assessment of knowledge level about their disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yavuz Karahan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate, the level of knowledge about the disease of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and its relationship with the disease activity. Methods: A total of 50 patients with RA, diagnosed according to 2010 ACR/EULAR Rheumatoid Arthritis classification criteria, included in this study. Demographic features of patients were recorded. Turkish version of Patient Knowledge Questionnaire (PKQ used to evaluate the level of knowledge about the disease of patients with RA. Daily activity score (DAS-28, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to evaluate the activity of the disease. Results: The mean age of patients was 57.2±12.2 (36 females and 14 males. The mean of disease duration was 6.2±5.8 years. The mean was 3.2 (maximum value 9 for etiology, symptom and laboratory components, the mean of medication component: 2.9 (maximum value 7, the mean of exercise component: 2.4 (maximum value 7, the mean of protection of joints and energy component: 2.4 (maximum value 7 of PKQ. The total mean point was 10.9 (maximum value 30. There was no correlation between PKQ points and HAQ, DAS-28 and VAS parameters but there was a positive correlation between disease duration and PKQ points. Conclusion: The results of the study show no relationship between level of knowledge about the disease and disease activity and also functional status. On the other hand the level of knowledge about disease of patients with RA is very low. The results show the need for education programs and informative activities about RA. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 429-434

  2. Soil lead levels in parks and playgrounds: an environmental risk assessment in Newcastle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devey, P; Jingda, L

    1995-04-01

    In June 1993 the National Health and Medical Research Council set a national goal for blood lead of below 10 micrograms/dl. There is a need to know if the lead contamination of the urban environment is so high as to put community health at risk. Decisions, including whether soil should be removed and replaced, will have to be made. During the second half of 1993, an environmental assessment of lead contamination of soil within the City of Newcastle was conducted. Samples, 108 from surface soil and 10 from subsurface soil, were taken from public parks and playgrounds in the city area and analysed for lead content. The proportion within and the proportion above the guidelines for soil contamination were reported. Lead concentrations ranged from 25 to 2400 parts per million (ppm); 21 per cent of samples had concentrations higher than the 300 ppm action level, and the geometric mean was 134 ppm. Both the range and the average lead levels were typically no more than, or were even less than, soil lead levels documented for other cities in Australia, the United States and United Kingdom. Although each sampling site was noted, it was not our intention to focus in on individual sites. Indeed, to draw health-risk implications from any one result may be misleading and inaccurate. The results indicated moderate lead contamination of soil that could be controlled by regular top-dressing of soils, the use of bark chip on playground surfaces and by government initiatives aimed at lowering lead levels in petrol.

  3. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 μg/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 μg/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 μg/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 μg/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians

  4. Methodology for assessment of low level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation parameters in muscle inflammation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Several studies in human and animals show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing some types of pain, treating inflammation and wound healing. However, more scientific evidence is required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT since many aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation of injured tissue with laser remain unknown. Here, we present a methodology that can be used to evaluate the effect of different LLLT irradiation parameters on the treatment of muscle inflammation on animals, through the quantification of four cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6) in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We have used this methodology to assess the effect of LLLT parameters (wavelength, dose, power and type of illumination) in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats. Results obtained for laser dose evaluation with continuous illumination are presented.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  6. JNC thermodynamic database for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Mikazu; Azuma, Jiro; Shibata, Masahiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This report is a summary of status, frozen datasets, and future tasks of the JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB) for assessing performance of high-level radioactive waste in geological environments. The JNC-TDB development was carried out after the first progress report on geological disposal research in Japan (H-3). In the development, thermodynamic data (equilibrium constants at 25degC, I=0) for important radioactive elements were selected/determined based on original experimental data using different models (e.g., SIT, Pitzer). As a result, the reliability and traceability of the data for most of the important elements were improved over those of the PNC-TDB used in H-3 report. For detailed information of data analysis and selections for each element, see the JNC technical reports listed in this document. (author)

  7. JNC thermodynamic database for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of status, frozen datasets, and future tasks of the JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB) for assessing performance of high-level radioactive waste in geological environments. The JNC-TDB development was carried out after the first progress report on geological disposal research in Japan (H-3). In the development, thermodynamic data (equilibrium constants at 25degC, I=0) for important radioactive elements were selected/determined based on original experimental data using different models (e.g., SIT, Pitzer). As a result, the reliability and traceability of the data for most of the important elements were improved over those of the PNC-TDB used in H-3 report. For detailed information of data analysis and selections for each element, see the JNC technical reports listed in this document. (author)

  8. Assessment of the radiological impact of disposal of low and intermediate level wastes on the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes progress in the development of models for use in a radiological assessment of the disposal of low and intermediate level waste on the ocean floor. In particular the report describes the waste package model, the ocean dispersion model and the sedimentation model. Five types of waste package have been identified and models have been developed for them. A flow pattern for the Atlantic Ocean has been derived from the existing distribution of temperature and salinity in the Atlantic Ocean. However a number of discrepancies between the calculated and predicted pattern were found; the model has been extended to include all the world's oceans to correct this. The sedimentation model describes two types of scavenging particles in the water column, a well mixed benthic boundary layer and the top two metres of the bed sediments. Good agreement with the GESAMP ocean model results has been found. (author)

  9. Performance assessment for a high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the EPRI effort in high-level waste repository performance assessment has added capabilities in several important technical areas, over previous models. Gaseous release of C14 is included, as are human intrusion scenarios. The model uses detailed calculations of precipitation events as a function of climate, along with a specific model of surface infiltration that accounts for ground vegetation and topography. The model also makes time-dependent calculations of hydrologic flow, accounting for changes in climate and flux. heat pulse effects are included, specifically the effect of heat on container performance, the response of the host tuff to high temperatures, and the solubility of waste material as a function of temperature. Specific models are used to calculate a source term as a function of saturated, unsaturated, or wet-drip conditions at the location of waste containers, and element solubility as well as waste dissolution are checked to determine the limiting condition on nuclide solution

  10. Assessing browse trend at the landscape level Part 1: Preliminary steps and field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Fager, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    Woody plants are an important component of rangeland habitat, providing food and shelter for animals that range in size from moose to warblers to insects. Because of this importance, land managers are paying increased attention to browse trends. In this two-part article, we describe how browse trend is assessed at the Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area in southwestern Montana. Willows are currently heavily browsed, but there is evidence that browsing pressure was lower in the past. Heavily-browsed 14-inch-tall plants grow in close proximity to 16-foot-tall plants, the tallest stems of which are unbrowsed. The 16-foot-tall stems are older than the 14-inch-tall stems, and apparently grew through the browse zone when browsing pressure was lower than its current level. An increase in browsing pressure would be consistent with the increase in the moose population that occurred over the past 3 decades.

  11. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF LOW LEVEL LASER TREATMENT OF ORAL MUCOSA DECUBITUS ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Lalabonova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Decubitus ulcers in the oral mucosa tend to be very painful causing discomforting sensation in patients in speaking and eating. Low energy lasers can provide an alternative method for the treatment of these ulcers.The aim of the present paper was to assess clinically the healing effect of low level laser irradiation on oral mucosa decubitus ulcers.Material and methods: A total of 90 patients with decubitus ulcers were treated in the present study; they were randomly assigned to three groups: group I included 30 patients treated with low level laser (LLL irradiation (wavelength of irradiation 658 nm; group II - 30 patients treated with laser irradiation of 904 nm; and group III (controls - 30 patients who received a standard conventional treatment with "granofurin" and "solcoseryl".The treatment sessions in all three groups were administered once daily. The patients in groups I and II were irradiated with focused irradiation at an angle from a distance using a conically shaped light probe 3 mm in diameter. The irradiated area was 0.5 cm2. The light was focused on the oral mucosa ulcer and the surrounding inflamed mucosa at a distance of 0.5 to 1 cm. Diode lasers were used in the study. The dosage of irradiation was 1.2 J/cm2.Results and discussion: The treatment effect was evaluated by changes in the studied parameters: pain intensity, erythema, and epithelialization. They were assessed at baseline, and at days 1, 3 and 5. Conclusions: LLLT administered with the proposed methodology manages pain rapidly and accelerates the process of epithelialization of decubitus ulcers in the soft tissues of the mouth.

  12. Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits – fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.; Cleveringa, P.; Kasse, C.; Wolf, H. de; Cohen, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and do

  13. Study on assessment safety of geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Department of Environmental Safety Research of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has conducted the study on safety of geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. The long-term safety of the geological disposal is proposed to be secured by the multi barrier system which consists of engineered and natural barriers. Thus, in order to clarify the performance of the engineered barrier, we have studied on the long-term behaviors of waste forms, canister, overpack, back fill materials. We have developed a new waste form, i.e. ceramic waste form. And in order to clarify the performance of the natural barrier, we have studied on the hydrology, rock properties, geochemistry of actinides, sorption and fixation of radionuclides on and to rocks and/or minerals, alteration of minerals, dispersion behavior of radionuclides. Natural analogue studies and in-situ experiments have also been conducted. According to the methodology for the assessment established, the assessment model has been developed. (J.P.N.).

  14. Analysis of source term modeling for low-level radioactive waste performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site-specific radiological performance assessments are required for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at both commercial and US Department of Energy facilities. This work explores source term modeling of LLW disposal facilities by using two state-of-the-art computer codes, SOURCEI and SOURCE2. An overview of the performance assessment methodology is presented, and the basic processes modeled in the SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes are described. Comparisons are made between the two advective models for a variety of radionuclides, transport parameters, and waste-disposal technologies. These comparisons show that, in general, the zero-order model predicts undecayed cumulative fractions leached that are slightly greater than or equal to those of the first-order model. For long-lived radionuclides, results from the two models eventually reach the same value. By contrast, for short-lived radionuclides, the zero-order model predicts a slightly higher undecayed cumulative fraction leached than does the first-order model. A new methodology, based on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, is developed for predicting intruder scenarios. This method is demonstrated for 137Cs in a tumulus-type disposal facility. The sensitivity and uncertainty analyses incorporate input-parameter uncertainty into the evaluation of a potential time of intrusion and the remaining radionuclide inventory. Finally, conclusions from this study are presented, and recommendations for continuing work are made

  15. Oximetry system performance assessment with POM (acetal) phantoms incorporating hemoglobin calibration standards and customized saturation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyounguk; Singh, Karam; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Pfefer, T. J.; Chen, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Standardized approaches for performance assessment of biophotonic devices have the potential to facilitate system development and intercomparison, clinical trial standardization, recalibration, manufacturing quality control and quality assurance during clinical use. Evaluation of devices based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detection of hemoglobin (Hb) content and oxygenation have often involved tissue-simulating phantoms incorporating artificial dyes or flow systems. Towards the development of simple, effective techniques for objective, quantitative evaluation of basic NIRS system performance, we have developed and evaluated two test methods. These methods are based on cuvette inserts in solid turbid phantoms for measuring commercially-available Hb oximetry standards and custom-formulated oxy/deoxy-Hb solutions. Both approaches incorporate solid acetal, or polyoxymethylene (POM), as a tissue-simulating matrix material. First, inverse-adding-doubling (IAD) based on measurements with a spectrophotometer and an integrating sphere was used to measure POM optical properties and their stability over time. Second, two fiberopticprobe- based NIRS systems were used to measure concentration change of oxy- and deoxy-Hb in standard Hb solutions and customized Hb solutions by adding yeast. Differences in system performance were likely due to differences in light source outputs and fiberoptic probe design. Our preliminary results indicate that simple phantom-based approaches based on commercially available polymers and inclusions containing Hb standards, or controlled oxygenation levels may be useful for benchtop assessment of NIRS device quality for a variety of biophotonic devices.

  16. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neugarten J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury and progressive chronic kidney disease, numerous technical limitations confound interpretation of data derived from this approach. BOLD MRI has been utilized to assess intrarenal oxygenation in numerous experimental models of kidney disease and in human subjects with diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, renal allograft rejection, contrast-associated nephropathy, and obstructive uropathy. However, confidence in conclusions based on data derived from BOLD MRI measurements will require continuing advances and technical refinements in the use of this technique. Keywords: kidney, hypoxia, oxygenation, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, contrast-associated nephropathy, BOLD MRI

  17. Assessment of urban and industrial contamination levels in the bay of Cádiz, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M; López-Ramírez, J A; Benavente, J; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D

    2003-03-01

    Measuring the amount of pollution is of particular importance in assessing the quality and general condition of an ecosystem. In this paper, some of the results obtained as a consequence of the specific agreement between the Environmental Agency (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía) and the University of Cadiz to assess the environmental condition of the marine bottom and waters are showed. Physical and chemical analyses in water and sediments were undertaken at various sampling sites close to urban and industrial locations. Later on, these results were studied under statistical analysis to reveal any possible relationships between the parameters employed, and to identify any analogous behaviour between the sampling sites. Physical-chemical data revealed that sediments and waters analysed were moderately contaminated and, in addition, no great differences were found between in rising and ebbing tide conditions. Finally, considering only the pollution level, from the cluster analysis of sediments two major groups appear, one of which corresponded to those sites located in the outer bay, and the other to those situated in the inner bay. However, number 6 and 14 sampling sites cannot be associated to those groups due to be related to points with important local discharges.

  18. Addressing the challenge of assessing physician-level screening performance: mammography as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Burnside

    Full Text Available Motivated by the challenges in assessing physician-level cancer screening performance and the negative impact of misclassification, we propose a method (using mammography as an example that enables confident assertion of adequate or inadequate performance or alternatively recognizes when more data is required.Using established metrics for mammography screening performance-cancer detection rate (CDR and recall rate (RR-and observed benchmarks from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC, we calculate the minimum volume required to be 95% confident that a physician is performing at or above benchmark thresholds. We graphically display the minimum observed CDR and RR values required to confidently assert adequate performance over a range of interpretive volumes. We use a prospectively collected database of consecutive mammograms from a clinical screening program outside the BCSC to illustrate how this method classifies individual physician performance as volume accrues.Our analysis reveals that an annual interpretive volume of 2770 screening mammograms, above the United States' (US mandatory (480 and average (1777 annual volumes but below England's mandatory (5000 annual volume is necessary to confidently assert that a physician performed adequately. In our analyzed US practice, a single year of data uniformly allowed confident assertion of adequate performance in terms of RR but not CDR, which required aggregation of data across more than one year.For individual physician quality assessment in cancer screening programs that target low incidence populations, considering imprecision in observed performance metrics due to small numbers of patients with cancer is important.

  19. Whole effluent toxicity testing -- Usefulness, level of protection, and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The general status of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests is assessed relative to their generally accepted purpose of identifying, characterizing, and eliminating effects of effluents on aquatic resources. Although WET tests are useful, they are not perfect tools. Imperfections include the innate variability of these tests, due both to biotic and anthropogenic factors; the reality of species differences both between the laboratory and the field and within the field; and differences between the laboratory and the receiving environment. Whole effluent toxicity tests may be overprotective, underprotective, or offer an uncertain level of protection. The implication of hormesis and inverted U-shaped dose responses for WET testing are reviewed in particular detail. Comparisons to field conditions indicate that WET tests are not reliable predictors of effects or lack of effects in the receiving environment. Whole effluent toxicity tests are only the first stage in a risk assessment and as such identify hazard, not risk. Identification of risk requires discarding the concept of independent applicability. The appropriate use of WET tests is identified in the context of their advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Chernobyl case study increases confidence level in radionuclide transport assessments in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from the ongoing international study (i.e., Chernobyl pilot site project) on characterization and modeling of fallout nuclear fuel particles dissolution behavior and subsequent radionuclide transport from the near-surface waste disposal site in Chernobyl zone to the geo-environment. The reported experimental work includes: - characterization of radionuclide physico-chemical speciation inside the waste site (trench); - evaluation of infiltration recharge regime through the trench body; and determination of waste soil matrix sorption parameters. In order to describe radionuclide releases from the waste, the multi-component source term model accounting for several types of fuel particles (UO2, UO2+X, and U-Zr-O matrix) was developed. Application of the source-term model to the Pilot Site data has given satisfactory and encouraging results. The modeling approach has proved to be capable of rather accurately reproducing independent field characterization and monitoring data relevant to 90Sr speciation inside the trench and radionuclide releases from the trench to the aquifer. The developed parameter database and modeling approach are of general value for radiological assessments of Chernobyl contaminated areas, and for possible similar accidental situations in future. Thus, acquired knowledge and data serve to increase the confidence level in radionuclide transport assessments from nuclear fuel source term to soils and geo-sphere. (orig.)

  1. Assessing climate change and health vulnerability at the local level: Travis County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Natasha; Houghton, Adele; Luber, George

    2016-10-01

    We created a measure to help comprehend population vulnerability to potential flooding and excessive heat events using health, built environment and social factors. Through principal component analysis (PCA), we created non-weighted sum index scores of literature-reviewed social and built environment characteristics. We created baseline poor health measures using 1999-2005 age-adjusted cardiovascular and combined diabetes and hypertension mortality rates to correspond with social-built environment indices. We mapped US Census block groups by linked age-adjusted mortality and a PCA-created social-built environment index. The goal was to measure flooding and excessive heat event vulnerability as proxies for population vulnerability to climate change for Travis County, Texas. This assessment identified communities where baseline poor health, social marginalisation and built environmental impediments intersected. Such assessments may assist targeted interventions and improve emergency preparedness in identified vulnerable communities, while fostering resilience through the focus of climate change adaptation policies at the local level. PMID:26748543

  2. Quantitative assessment of the hydraulic role of subglaciofluvial interbeds in promoting deposition of deformation till (Northern Till, Ontario)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriano, Mandana; Eyles, Nick

    2009-04-01

    The Northern Till is a thick (>65 m) deformation till underlying some 7500 km 2 of Southern Ontario, Canada including the Peterborough Drumlin Field. It was deposited below the Lake Ontario ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The till rests on glaciotectonized aquifer sediments and consists of multiple beds of till up to 6 m thick. These are separated by boulder lags, sometimes in the form of striated pavements, with thin (punctuated aggradation' where the subglacial bed was built up incrementally by the repeated 'immobilization' of deforming overpressured till layers. Boulders and sands indicate pauses in subglacial aggradation marked by sluggish sheet flows of water that reworked the top of the underlying till. Interbeds are laterally extensive and correlated using downhole electrical conductivity, core recovery and natural gamma data. A 3-D finite element model (FEFLOW) using data from 200 cored and geophysically logged boreholes, and a large digital water well dataset of 3400 individual records shows that the till functions as a 'leaky aquitard' as a consequence of water flow through interbeds. It is proposed that interbeds played a similar role in the subglacial hydraulic system below the Laurentide Ice Sheet by allowing drainage of excess porewater pressures in deforming sediment and promoting deposition of till. This is in agreement with theoretical studies of deforming bed dynamics and observations at modern glaciers where porewater in the deforming layer is discharged into underlying aquifers. In this way, the presence of interbeds may be fundamental in retarding downglacier transport of deforming bed material thereby promoting the build-up of thick subglacial till successions.

  3. Accuracy assessment of airphoto interpretation of vegetation types and disturance levels on winter seismic trails, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An accuracy assessment was conducted to evaluate the photointerpretation of vegetation types and disturbance levels along seismic trails in the Arctic National...

  4. Accuracy assessment of airphoto interpretation of vegetation types and disturance levels on winter seismic trails, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An accuracy assessment was conducted to evaluate the photo-interpretation of vegetation types and disturbance levels along seismic trails in the Arctic National...

  5. A county level assessment of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing: Where are impacts most likely? [Poster 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess, at the county level, the potential for hydraulic fracturing (HF) water withdrawals to impact the quantity of drinking water resources, and identify where potential impacts may be most frequent or severe.

  6. Integrated Modeling for the Assessment of Ecological Impacts of Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Lewis, G.; Bartel, R.; Batten, B.; Huang, W.; Morris, J.; Slinn, D. N.; Sparks, J.; Walters, L.; Wang, D.; Weishampel, J.; Yeh, G.

    2010-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) has the potential to affect a variety of coastal habitats with a myriad of deleterious ecological effects and to overwhelm human settlements along the coast. SLR should be given serious consideration when more than half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of the coast. SLR effects will be felt along coastal beaches and in estuarine waters, with consequences to barrier islands, submerged aquatic vegetation beds, sand and mud flats, oyster reefs, and tidal and freshwater wetlands. Managers of these coastal resources must be aware of potential consequences of SLR and adjust their plans accordingly to protect and preserve the resources under their care. The Gulf Coast provides critical habitats for a majority of the commercially important species in the Gulf of Mexico, which depend on inshore waters for either permanent residence or nursery area. The ecosystem services provided by these coastal habitats are at risk from rising sea level. Our team will assess the risk to coasts and coastal habitats from SLR in a 5-year project. We will apply existing models of circulation and transport from the watershed to the sea. The ultimate prediction will be of sediment loadings to the estuary as a result of overland flow, shoreline and barrier island erosion, and salinity transport, all of which will be used to model the evolution of intertidal marshes (MEM II). Over the five-year course of our research we will be simulating hydrodynamics and transport for all three NERRS reserves, including: Apalachicola, Weeks Bay and Grand Bay. The project will result in products whereby managers will be able to assess marshes, oyster reefs, submerged aquatic vegetation, predict wetland stability and indentify restoration locations for marsh and oyster habitats. In addition, we will produce Decision Support tools that will enable managers to predict future coastal erosion rates for management-specified shorelines. Project outcomes will enable the management

  7. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-01

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The SRS is proceeding with closure of the 22 tanks located in F-Area. Closure consists of removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. A performance assessment is being performed in support of closure of the F-Tank Farm. Initially, the carbon steel construction materials of the high level waste tanks will provide a barrier to the leaching of radionuclides into the soil. However, the carbon steel liners will degrade over time, most likely due to corrosion, and no longer provide a barrier. The tank life estimation in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. The tank life estimation in support of the F-Tank Farm closure performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. Consumption of the tank steel encased in grouted conditions was determined to occur either due to carbonation of the concrete leading to low pH conditions, or the chloride-induced de-passivation of the steel leading to accelerated corrosion. A deterministic approach was initially followed to estimate the life of the tank liner in grouted conditions or in soil conditions. The results of this life estimation are shown in Table 1 and Table 2 for grouted and soil conditions respectively. The tank life has been estimated under conservative assumptions of diffusion rates. However, the same process of

  8. Assessment of personality-related levels of functioning: A pilot study of clinical assessment of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning based on a semi-structured interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The personality disorder categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV have been extensively criticized, and there is a growing consensus that personality pathology should be represented dimensionally rather than categorically. The aim of this pilot study...... was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale [CALF], a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice...

  9. Determination of furan levels in commercial samples of baby food from Brazil and preliminary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi Arisseto, A; Vicente, E; De Figueiredo Toledo, M C

    2010-08-01

    Commercial baby food samples available on the Brazilian market (n = 31) were analysed for furan content using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method preceded by solid-phase microextraction. A limit of detection of 0.7 microg kg(-1), a limit of quantitation of 2.4 microg kg(-1), mean recoveries varying from 80% to 107%, and coefficients of variation ranging from 5.6% to 9.4% for repeatability and from 7.4% to 12.4% for within-laboratory reproducibility were obtained during an in-house validation. The levels of furan found in the samples were from not detected to 95.5 microg kg(-1). Samples containing vegetables and meat showed higher furan levels as compared with those containing only fruits. An exposure assessment showed furan intakes up to 2.4 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (99th percentile) for babies fed exclusively with commercial baby foods. Margins of exposure obtained from intakes estimated in this work indicated a potential public health concern.

  10. Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment at Bed Rock Level: Case Study for the City of Bhubaneswar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanti Rout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study an updated deterministic seismic hazard contour map of Bhubaneswar (20°12'0"N to 20°23'0"N latitude and 85°44'0"E to 85° 54'0"E longitude one of the major city of India with tourist importance, has been prepared in the form of spectral acceleration values. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area has been divided into small grids of size 30˝×30˝ (approximately 1.0 km×1.0 km, and the hazard parameters in terms of spectral acceleration at bedrock level, PGA are calculated as the center of each of these grid cells by considering the regional Seismo-tectonic activity within 400 km radius around the city center. The maximum credible earthquake in terms of moment magnitude of 7.2 has been used for calculation of hazard parameter, results in PGA value of 0.017g towards the northeast side of the city and the corresponding maximum spectral acceleration as 0.0501g for a predominant period of 0.05s at bedrock level.

  11. Web-Based BFlow System for the Assessment of Streamflow Characteristics at National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghun Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Distinct seasonal characteristics of monsoon climate significantly affect river streamflow in South Korea. The roles of direct runoff and baseflow on streamflow have become more important to ecosystems and human communities in various watersheds of South Korea. Understanding river characteristics, including direct runoff and baseflow, is the first step of river management and can make a significant contribution to maintaining a sustainable and effective river environment. In this regard, this study involves twin objectives: (1 developing the web-based BFlow system to gain advantages in the time and effort required relative to the DOS (Disk Operation System-based BFlow program; and (2 assessing the contributions of baseflow and direct runoff to streamflow for river management at the national level. For this, we investigated all streamflow gauge stations in South Korea and, then, used the BFlow program to separate baseflow from the available streamflow data. The results showed that baseflow index for 254 streamflow gauge stations ranged from 0.28 to 0.89. Gauge stations with a baseflow index greater than 0.5 accounted for 64% of total stations. The web-based system developed in this study is a more MS (Microsoft user-friendly version of BFlow. Furthermore, this study illustrated that high baseflow indexes were generally found at gauge stations with a low coefficient of variation of streamflow. The web-based BFlow system will provide understanding to strategically control rivers and improve the efficiency and safety of river management at the national level.

  12. Psychophysiology to Assess Impact of Varying Levels of Simulation Fidelity in a Threat Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Parsons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many virtual environments found in the serious game community that simulate real world scenarios. There is a broad range of fidelity and experimental controls among these serious games. An important component to most evaluations is the extent to which level of fidelity impacts the persons immersed in the serious game. While a great deal of virtual environment and serious game research has assessed the subjective state or feeling of the participant (e.g., the participant’s sense of presence through the use of questionnaires, the current study examines participant experience by examining psychophysiological responses of participants to their surroundings. The primary goal in this study was evaluative: will a virtual environment with arousing contents result in increased sensory arousal if it is presented in a highly immersive configuration? A secondary goal of this study was to investigate the utility of our environment to offer varying levels of stimulus threat to impact the user’s experience of the virtual environment. Increased simulation fidelity in an arousing environment resulted in faster heart rates and increased startle eyeblink amplitudes, suggesting that higher fidelity scenarios had great efficacy related to sensory arousal.

  13. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  14. p-EMA (II): evaluating ecological risks of pesticides for a farm-level risk assessment system

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Andy; Brown, Colin; Lewis, Kathy; Tzilivakis, John

    2003-01-01

    International audience This paper reports the development of methods for assessing the environmental risks of pesticide use in a farm-level evaluation tool. The basic risk indices that were used, and the criteria used to define different levels of risk, were designed to be consistent with national and EU regulatory risk assessment procedures. They took account of both toxicity and exposure and were responsive to the influence of local conditions and practices, such as pesticide application...

  15. Comparison of different methods to assess natural backgrond levels in groundwater bodies in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Parrone, Daniele; Ghergo, Stefano; Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Oliveira, Juana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the natural background levels (NBLs) of a substance or element is important to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in groundwater bodies. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. Rainfall composition, water-rock interactions in both vadose and saturated zone, exchanges with other water bodies and residence time also contribute to determine the groundwater natural composition. Nowadays there are different methods to assess NBLs but the main concern is that they may provide different results. In the European legislative context, the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) requests to EU Member States to derive appropriate threshold values (TV) for several potentially harmful substances, taking into account NBLs when necessary, in order to assess the chemical status of groundwater bodies. In the framework of a common project between Italy (CNR) and Portugal (FCT), several groundwater bodies were taken into account in different regions of Italy (Latium and Campania) and Portugal. The general objective is the definition of a sound comprehensive methodology for NBL assessment at groundwater body scale, suitable to different hydrogeological settings through comparing diverse case studies and different approaches. The Italian case studies are located in volcanic or volcano-sedimentary geological contexts, where high concentrations of substances such as As, F, Fe, Mn among others in groundwater are well known. The Portuguese case studies are located in carbonate and porous media aquifers. Several data sets were explored with the use of statistical as well as mathematical procedures in order to determine a threshold between natural and anthropogenic concentration. Today essentially two groups of methods are proposed, the first ascribed to the probability plots (PP method), the second based on the selection of the

  16. Performance assessment methodology and preliminary results for low-level radioactive waste disposal in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Taiwan's Institute for Nuclear Energy Research (INER) have teamed together to evaluate several candidate sites for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Taiwan currently has three nuclear power plants, with another under construction. Taiwan also has a research reactor, as well as medical and industrial wastes to contend with. Eventually the reactors will be decomissioned. Operational and decommissioning wastes will need to be disposed in a licensed disposal facility starting in 2014. Taiwan has adopted regulations similar to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) low-level radioactive waste rules (10 CFR 61) to govern the disposal of LLW. Taiwan has proposed several potential sites for the final disposal of LLW that is now in temporary storage on Lanyu Island and on-site at operating nuclear power plants, and for waste generated in the future through 2045. The planned final disposal facility will have a capacity of approximately 966,000 55-gallon drums. Taiwan is in the process of evaluating the best candidate site to pursue for licensing. Among these proposed sites there are basically two disposal concepts: shallow land burial and cavern disposal. A representative potential site for shallow land burial is located on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock and interbedded sedimentary rocks. An engineered cover system would be constructed to limit infiltration for shallow land burial. A representative potential site for cavern disposal is located along the southeastern coast of Taiwan in a tunnel system that would be about 500 to 800 m below the surface. Bedrock at this site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. Performance assessment analyses will be performed to evaluate future performance of the facility and the potential dose/risk to exposed populations. Preliminary performance assessment analyses will be used in the site-selection process and to aid in design of the

  17. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the hospital-level consumer assessment of health plans survey (R) instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Arah; A.H.A. ten Asbroek; D.M.J. Delnoij; J.S. de Koning; P.J.A. Stam; A.H. Poll; B. Vriens; P.F. Schmidt; N.S. Klazinga

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the reliability and validity of a translated version of the American Hospital-level Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (R) (H-CAHPS) instrument for use in Dutch health care. Data Sources/Study Setting. Primary survey data from adults aged 18 years or more who were recen

  19. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 2: Site performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains twelve papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics of this volume include: performance assessment methodology; remedial action alternatives; site selection and site characterization procedures; intruder scenarios; sensitivity analysis procedures; mathematical models for mixed waste environmental transport; and risk assessment methodology. Individual papers were processed separately for the database

  20. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 2: Site performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This document contains twelve papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics of this volume include: performance assessment methodology; remedial action alternatives; site selection and site characterization procedures; intruder scenarios; sensitivity analysis procedures; mathematical models for mixed waste environmental transport; and risk assessment methodology. Individual papers were processed separately for the database. (TEM)

  1. AFL Research in the L2 Classroom and Evidence of Usefulness: Taking Formative Assessment to the Next Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby-Kelly, Christian; Turner, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent trends in classroom evaluation seek innovative formative assessment intended to benefit learning, called assessment for learning (AFL), largely unresearched in the second language (L2) classroom (Rea-Dickins, 2004). This paper calls for taking L2 testing research to the next level, investigating the "usefulness" (Bachman & Palmer, 1996;…

  2. Statements of work for FY 1996 to 2001 for the Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Performance Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The statements of work for each activity and task of the Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Performance Assessment project are given for the fiscal years 1996 through 2001. The end product of this program is approval of a final performance assessment by the Department of Energy in the year 2000

  3. Combining Peer-Assessment with Negotiated Learning Activities on a Day-Release Undergraduate-Level Certificate Course (ECTS Level 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Peer-assessment was used within a negotiated curriculum in a module on training and development at ECTS level 3. The students on the programme were exclusively day-release and all had a major responsibility for the management and delivery of work-based training programmes. Analysis of student evaluations, supplemented by those of university…

  4. Assessment of trace elements levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, M; Morsy, R; Soliman, H; Elnimr, T

    2016-01-01

    The trace elements metabolism has been reported to possess specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of diabetes mellitus. Due to the continuous increase in the population of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), this study aims to assess the levels and inter-relationships of fast blood glucose (FBG) and serum trace elements in Type 2 diabetic patients. This study was conducted on 40 Egyptian Type 2 diabetic patients and 36 healthy volunteers (Hospital of Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt). The blood serum was digested and then used to determine the levels of 24 trace elements using an inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis depended on correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to analysis the data. The results exhibited significant changes in FBG and eight of trace elements, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mg, and As, levels in the blood serum of Type 2 diabetic patients relative to those of healthy controls. The statistical analyses using multivariate statistical techniques were obvious in the reduction of the experimental variables, and grouping the trace elements in patients into three clusters. The application of PCA revealed a distinct difference in associations of trace elements and their clustering patterns in control and patients group in particular for Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn that appeared to be the most crucial factors which related with Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, on the basis of this study, the contributors of trace elements content in Type 2 diabetic patients can be determine and specify with correlation relationship and multivariate statistical analysis, which confirm that the alteration of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26653752

  5. Vulnerability Index to Climate Change and its Application for Community-level Risk Assessment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the vulnerability-led approach, the Prevalent Community-level Vulnerability Index (PCVI was developed as a simple composite index used to represent community-level vulnerability to climate change in the socioeconomic and hazard contexts. The PCVI consists of three major components which are Exposure & hazard, Socioeconomic-ecological fragility and Coping capacity. All of these components are further comprised of different indicators, representing different aspects of biophysical and social vulnerability of grass-root communities. Based on the results analyzed in the provincial pilot sites, the PCVI could represent both spatial patterns and magnitudes of vulnerability of each community in consistence with the local economic-social-environmental contexts. It generally reflects the differences in the local contexts and factors that determine overall vulnerability of each community. For the ease in calculating the PCVI especially for the provincial operating staffs and general public, the PREvalent Community Climate Change Vulnerability Tool (RECCC was further developed as a user-friendly, Excel-based program. In conclusions, the outputs of this study that include the PCVI and its database as well as the RECCC program are useful not only for analyzing vulnerability and assessing risks of community to climate change, but also for supporting decision-making process in developing and implementing adaptation activities at provincial level. These outputs were also designed for further integrating as a supplementary part of Provincial�s Decision Supporting System (DSS, with the purpose of promoting the participation of local organizations and stakeholders in coping with the adverse impacts of climate change. However, additional development of ERCCC program, together with dissemination of the vulnerability framework as well as the use of ERCCC program to local organizations needs to be continued.

  6. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendonça Cavalcante Davino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall. We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated.

  7. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  8. Assessment of personality-related levels of functioning: A pilot study of clinical assessment of the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning based on a semi-structured interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The personality disorder categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV have been extensively criticized, and there is a growing consensus that personality pathology should be represented dimensionally rather than categorically. The aim of this pilot study...... was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale [CALF], a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice....... Methods: The inter-rater reliability of the assessment of the four domains and the total impairment in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale were measured in a patient sample that varied in terms of severity and type of pathology. Ratings were done independently by the interviewer and two experts who...

  9. Depositional architecture and evolution of inner shelf to shelf edge delta systems since the Late Oliocene and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change, Pear River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changsong; Zhang, Zhongtao; liu, Jingyan; Jiang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The Pear River Mouth Basin is located in the northern continent margin of the South China Sea. Since the Late Oligocene, the long-term active fluvial systems (Paleo-Zhujiang) from the western basin margin bebouched into the northern continental margin of the South China Sea and formed widespread deltaic deposits in various depositional geomorphologies and tectonic settings. Based of integral analysys of abundant seismic, well logging and drilling core data, Depositional architecture and evolution of these delta systems and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change are documented in the study. There are two basic types of the delta systems which have been recognized: inner shelf delta deposited in shallow water enviroments and the outer shelf or shelf-edge delta systems occurred in deep water settings. The paleowater depths of these delta systems are around 30 to 80m (inner shelf delta) and 400-1000m (shelf-edge delta) estimated from the thickness (decompaction) of the delta front sequences. The study shows that the inner shelf delta systems are characterized by relatively thin delta forests (20-40m), numereous stacked distributary channel fills, relative coarse river mouth bar deposits and thin distal delta front or distal bar and prodelta deposits. In contrast, the outer shelf or shelf edge delta systems are characteristic of thick (300-800m) and steep (4-60) of deltaic clinoforms, which commonly display in 3D seismic profiles as "S" shape reflection. Large scale soft-sediment deformation structures, slump or debris flow deposits consisting mainly of soft-sediment deformed beds, blocks of sandstones and siltstones or mudstones widely developed in the delta front deposits. The shelf edge delta systems are typically associated with sandy turbidite fan deposits along the prodelta slopes, which may shift basinwards as the progradation of the delta systems. The delta systems underwent several regional cycles of evolution from inner shelf deltas to shelf edge

  10. Mercury Deposition Network Site Operator Training for the System Blank and Blind Audit Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates the external quality assurance project for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network. The project includes the system blank and blind audit programs for assessment of total mercury concentration data quality for wet-deposition samples. This presentation was prepared to train new site operators and to refresh experienced site operators to successfully process and submit system blank and blind audit samples for chemical analysis. Analytical results are used to estimate chemical stability and contamination levels of National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Mercury Deposition Network samples and to evaluate laboratory variability and bias.

  11. Assessing the Performance of Statistical-structural and Geostatistical Methods in Estimating the 3D Distribution of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength Parameter in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Pishbin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS of intact rocks is an important geotechnical parameter required for designing geotechnical and mining engineering projects. Obtaining accurate estimates of the rock mass UCS parameter throughout a 3D geological model of the deposit is vital for determining optimum rock slope stability, designing new exploratory and blast boreholes, mine planning, optimizing the production schedule and even designing the crusher’s feed size. The main objective of this paper is to select the preferred estimator of the UCS parameter based on accuracy performance using all the available geological-geotechnical data at the Sarcheshmeh copper deposit, located 160 km southwest of Kerman City, in south-eastern Iran. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate the spatial distribution of the UCS parameter using commonly-used statistical-structural and geostatistical methods. In order to achieve the aim of the current study, the UCS parameter was measured along with other qualitative geological properties, including the rock type, weathering, alteration type and intensity of core samples taken from 647 boreholes. The 3D distribution of the UCS parameter is obtained using different algorithms including statistical-structural (the nearest-neighbour technique, linear (ordinary Kriging and nonlinear (indicator Kriging geostatistical methods. After estimating the UCS parameter at block centres using the above-mentioned methods, the performance of each method is compared and validated through 21 set aside borehole data. The assessment of selecting best estimator of UCS parameter is based on scatter plots of the observed versus estimated data plus the root mean square error (RMSE statistics of the differences between observed and estimated values for 21 set aside borehole data. Finally, due to the special characteristics of the UCS spatial variability, it is concluded that the nearest-neighbour method is the most appropriate method for

  12. Paleolimnological assessment of riverine and atmospheric pathways and sources of metal deposition at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Wiklund, Johan A; Elmes, Matthew C; Wolfe, Brent B; Hall, Roland I

    2016-02-15

    Growth of natural resource development in northern Canada has raised concerns about the effects on downstream aquatic ecosystems, but insufficient knowledge of pre-industrial baseline conditions continues to undermine ability of monitoring programs to distinguish industrial-derived contaminants from those supplied by natural processes. Here, we apply a novel paleolimnological approach to define pre-industrial baseline concentrations of 13 priority pollutant metals and vanadium and assess temporal changes, pathways and sources of these metals at a flood-prone lake (SD2) in the Slave River Delta (NWT, Canada) located ~500 km north of Alberta's oil sands development and ~140 km south of a former gold mine at Yellowknife, NWT. Results identify that metal concentrations, normalized to lithium concentration, are not elevated in sediments deposited during intervals of high flood influence or low flood influence since onset of oil sands development (post-1967) relative to the 1920-1967 baseline established at SD2. When compared to a previously defined baseline for the upstream Athabasca River, several metal-Li relations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, V) in post-1967 sediments delivered by floodwaters appear to plot along a different trajectory, suggesting that the Peace and Slave River watersheds are important natural sources of metal deposition at the Slave River Delta. However, analysis revealed unusually high concentrations of As deposited during the 1950s, an interval of very low flood influence at SD2, which corresponded closely with emission history of the Giant Mine gold smelter indicating a legacy of far-field atmospheric pollution. Our study demonstrates the potential for paleolimnological characterization of baseline conditions and detection of pollution from multiple pathways in floodplain ecosystems, but that knowledge of paleohydrological conditions is essential for interpretation of contaminant profiles. PMID:26688053

  13. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Assess Situation-Level Predictors of Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Tyler B.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Monti, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has afforded several important advances in the field of alcohol research, including testing prominent models of alcohol abuse etiology in “high resolution.” Using high-tech methods for signaling and/or assessment, such as mobile electronic diaries, personal data assistants, and smartphones, EMA approaches potentially can improve understanding of precipitants of drinking, drinking patterns, and consequences. For example, EMA has been used to study complex ...

  14. Reconstructions of subducted ocean floor along the Andes: a framework for assessing Magmatic and Ore Deposit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdrolias, M.; Müller, R.

    2006-05-01

    The South American-Antarctic margin has been characterised by numerous episodes of volcanic arc activity and ore deposit formation throughout much of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Although its Cenozoic subduction history is relatively well known, placing the Mesozoic arc-related volcanics and the emplacement of ore bodies in their plate tectonic context remains poorly constrained. We use a merged moving hotspot (Late Cretaceous- present) and palaeomagnetic /fixed hotspot (Early Cretaceous) reference frame, coupled with reconstructed spreading histories of the Pacific, Phoenix and Farallon plates to understand the convergence history of the South American and Antarctic margins. We compute the age-area distribution of oceanic lithosphere through time, including subducting oceanic lithosphere and estimate convergence rates along the margin. Additionally, we map the location and migration of spreading ridges along the margin and relate this to processes on the overriding plate. The South American-Antarctic margin in the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous was dominated by rapid convergence, the subduction of relatively young oceanic lithosphere (Rocas Verdes" in southern South America. The speed of subduction increased again along the South American-Antarctic margin at ~105 Ma after another change in tectonic regime. Newly created crust from the Farallon-Phoenix ridge continued to be subducted along southern South America until the cessation of the Farallon-Phoenix ridge in the latest Cretaceous / beginning of the Cenozoic. The age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere along the South American-Antarctic margin has increased steadily through time.

  15. The Colorado Climate Preparedness Project: A Systematic Approach to Assessing Efforts Supporting State-Level Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Gordon, E.

    2010-12-01

    Scholars and policy analysts often contend that an effective climate adaptation strategy must entail "mainstreaming," or incorporating responses to possible climate impacts into existing planning and management decision frameworks. Such an approach, however, makes it difficult to assess the degree to which decisionmaking entities are engaging in adaptive activities that may or may not be explicitly framed around a changing climate. For example, a drought management plan may not explicitly address climate change, but the activities and strategies outlined in it may reduce vulnerabilities posed by a variable and changing climate. Consequently, to generate a strategic climate adaptation plan requires identifying the entire suite of activities that are implicitly linked to climate and may affect adaptive capacity within the system. Here we outline a novel, two-pronged approach, leveraging social science methods, to understanding adaptation throughout state government in Colorado. First, we conducted a series of interviews with key actors in state and federal government agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and other entities engaged in state issues. The purpose of these interviews was to elicit information about current activities that may affect the state’s adaptive capacity and to identify future climate-related needs across the state. Second, we have developed an interactive database cataloging organizations, products, projects, and people actively engaged in adaptive planning and policymaking that are relevant to the state of Colorado. The database includes a wiki interface, helping create a dynamic component that will enable frequent updating as climate-relevant information emerges. The results of this project are intended to paint a clear picture of sectors and agencies with higher and lower levels of adaptation awareness and to provide a roadmap for the next gubernatorial administration to pursue a more sophisticated climate adaptation agenda

  16. Office workers' objectively assessed total and prolonged sitting time: Individual-level correlates and worksite variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgraft, Nyssa T; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Lynch, Brigid M; Sethi, Parneet; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Moodie, Marj; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Wiesner, Glen; Willenberg, Lisa; Dunstan, David W

    2016-12-01

    Sedentary behavior is highly prevalent in office-based workplaces; however, few studies have assessed the attributes associated with this health risk factor in the workplace setting. This study aimed to identify the correlates of office workers' objectively-assessed total and prolonged (≥ 30 min bouts) workplace sitting time. Participants were 231 Australian office workers recruited from 14 sites of a single government employer in 2012-13. Potential socio-demographic, work-related, health-related and cognitive-social correlates were measured through a self-administered survey and anthropometric measurements. Associations with total and prolonged workplace sitting time (measured with the activPAL3) were tested using linear mixed models. Worksites varied significantly in total workplace sitting time (overall mean [SD]: 79% [10%] of work hours) and prolonged workplace sitting time (42% [19%]), after adjusting for socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Organisational tenure of 3-5 years (compared to tenure > 5 years) was associated with more time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time, while having a BMI categorised as obese (compared to a healthy BMI) was associated with less time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Significant variations in sitting time were observed across different worksites of the same employer and the variation remained after adjusting for individual-level factors. Only BMI and organisational tenure were identified as correlates of total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Additional studies are needed to confirm the present findings across diverse organisations and occupations. PMID:27413681

  17. Using Competencies to Assess Entry-Level Knowledge of Students Graduating from Parks and Recreation Academic Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Amy R.; Elkins, Daniel J.; Beggs, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    To address the Council on Accreditation of Parks, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions accreditation standard 7.01.01, the Entry Level Competency Assessment was developed to measure 46 competencies in four categories needed by entry level professionals. Students rated their competence prior to beginning their senior internship. The results…

  18. Assessing the Level of Performance of Sign Language Interpreters from Impaired Hearing Students' Perspectives at Public and Private Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanikat, Feryal Abdel-Hadi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the level of performance of sign language interpreters in both public and private Jordanian universities, as well as to recognize the effect of the study variables specifically gender and qualifications for acoustically disabled and interpreter, and the experience of the interpreter on the level of the performance…

  19. KNEE AND SHOULDER INJURY RISK ASSESSMENT IN SCHOOL LEVEL FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS: A CROSS – SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deebak Kumar Srinivasan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the common reasons for talent not being converted in the big stage is career ending injuries. The best way out is preventing these injuries which is the easiest and most effective solution. Hence, this study was done to evaluate the injury risk among school level basketball players. Materials and Methods: Total of 107 school level female basketball players were assessed for 1. Functional Movement Screen (FMS – To assess risk of injury and functional ability. 2. VO2 max by questionnaire – to assess the maximum endurance level of the athlete. 3. Jump alignment on landing by HD slow motion video analysis - to assess risk of knee injury. 4. Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD & Total Range Of Motion Deficit (TROMD by Goniometer to assess risk of shoulder injury. Results: In our study even though the FMS scores were good for majority of the players, the risk of shoulder injury was high TROMD (50.46% compared to GIRD (11.21%. Jump alignment results showed that majority of players landed in internal rotation (62.61%. VO2 max assessment revealed superior results for all athletes. Majority of athletes had a good (79.43% FMS score. Conclusion: To prevent performance declining or career ending injury to talented athletes, early intervention at school level is the essential. So we recommend structured stretching exercise programme including sleepers stretches for shoulders and hip abductors and external rotators strengthening along with proper landing drills for athletes from school level itself.

  20. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  1. Communication subjective assessments of patients undergoing compulsory treatment with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanov T.N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the relationship of subjective assessments of the mentally ill with the severity of negative symptoms and cognitive functioning level. The features of patients perception of various aspects of compulsory treatment and subjective satisfaction with treatment. In a study of 94 male patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia was used diagnostic system, consisting of patopsihologicheskogo study, formal survey map, the scale of assessment of negative symptoms SANS, questionnaire symptom levels SCL-90, self-existing problems, as well as - in Test authoring tool sheet to treatment and hospital stay (VG Bulygin, Kabanov, TN, 2011. The differences in subjective assessments of aspects of compulsory treatment and social functioning of patients with varying degrees of severity of negative symptoms and dependence of subjective assessments of the level of cognitive functioning.

  2. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  3. Exposure levels, environmental fate modelling and human health risk assessment of lindane in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis discusses an innovative approach of combining chemical trace analysis including the use of 13C-labelled isotopes as internal and recovery standards) with multi-media modelling for assessing health risks of Lindane which is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) and a commercial formulated insecticide also known as Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH). Samples studied were background air, human breast milk, and edible fish (tilapia and catfish). The investigations focused on the exposure of the general population. For the first time levels and seasonal variation of Lindane, α-HCH and β-HCH in background air of Lake Bosumtwi, Kwabenya and East Legon in Ghana were studied with polyurethane foam based passive air samplers. Lindane (average concentration 53 pg m-3) was measured in all samples with (i) gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and (ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometer operated in electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). Agricultural application and revolatilisation from soils were main primary and secondary sources of HCH releases. Levels and variation of Lindane, α-HCH and β-HCH in pooled and individual human breast milk samples collected from lactating mothers countrywide were determined using a high-resolution gas chromatography interfaced with a high-resolution gas chromatography interfaced with a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS). This constitutes the first comprehensive nationwide human breast milk study of assessing risks of HCHs for the general population of Ghana. Mothers were selected from three major cities (Accra, Kumasi and Tamale) and three rural communities (Ada, Jachie/Pramso and Tolon) representing the Southern, Middle and Northern sectors respectively. The results of the study showed that the general population of Ghana is widely exposed to HCHs although the current levels are generally low; and also suggest that the usage pattern and exposure levels of Lindane vary among the various regions in Ghana.

  4. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone. PMID:17690924

  5. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  6. Assessing the Nutritional Status and Blood Glutathione Level for Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Elsayed * and Amr Abd El-Hafez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assessment nutrition status and blood glutathione (GSH level for preschool children. Subjects and methods: The study included 70 (boys and girls preschool children at aged from 2-5 years. Children was randomly selected from the out patients clinic at the National Nutrition Institute Cairo. Weigh and height were measured for them to evaluate the effect of nutrients on bodies, dietary intake was collected for the children were subjected to estimation of (Energy, Protein, Fat, Carbohydrate, vitamins A, folic acid and minerals iron, zinc and selenium in their daily diet. Blood samples were collected to determine hemoglobin, glutathione and total protein concentration. Results: The dietary analysis showed that, every nutrient was lower than the requirement except total protein was higher than the recommend. Stunting showed (25.5% of boys and (20% of girls, underweight (23% of boys and 14% of girls were the problems among preschool children. A glutathione deficiency was found among 97% of boys and 100% of girls. The hemoglobin ratio 77.1% from children was equal or less than normal concentration. Total protein noticed 82.9% of boys and 85.7 of girls in normal value. Conclusion: There was little quantity of nutrients intake, glutathione level and growth. The study can be recommended to improve their daily dietary intake and nutrition habits by education programs for their parents or supplement of studied cases with special ferrous and protein specially contains sulphur amino acids in daily diet to cover Recommended Dietary Allowances and can improve tissue GSH concentration

  7. An initial needs assessment of science inquiry curriculum practices at a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Susan M.

    Frequently, students learn in science classes taught like traditional reading courses in which reading texts and answering questions is the main activity. The problem at one southern middle school is that students are not developing an understanding of science concepts and are doing poorly on standardized testing. Students are seldom given the opportunity model scientific inquiry methods that promote experiential learning in the classroom. The purpose of this project was to create a curriculum for inquiry science (IS) instruction at the seventh-grade level to increase student understanding of science concepts after conducting an initial needs assessment to guide deploying the intervention. Research guiding the IS movement at the national level suggests that many teachers use only the textbook and students do not apply what they have learned. Factors affecting this problem include a lack of integrated curricula for IS learning and teacher understanding and confidence in IS skills. A constructivist view of student learning served as the conceptual framework. The needs analysis for the project questioned if teachers were willing to adopt the IS method and prepared to conduct it through a quantitative survey research design. Results indicated that all teachers supported the IS approach, however it was infrequently used in instruction and only two of five teachers were somewhat comfortable with their IS skills. The local IS project draws from empirically tested elements to develop an integrated IS curricula aligned to the state science criterion. The curricula will be supported through a concurrently deployed professional learning community to support teacher professional development and confidence. This project can positively impact social change by increasing science related academic performance, and ultimately, interest in careers in science among middle school students.

  8. Energy Performance Assessment of Radiant Cooling System through Modeling and Calibration at Component Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Yasin [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a case study of an information technology office building with a radiant cooling system and a conventional variable air volume (VAV) system installed side by side so that performancecan be compared. First, a 3D model of the building involving architecture, occupancy, and HVAC operation was developed in EnergyPlus, a simulation tool. Second, a different calibration methodology was applied to develop the base case for assessing the energy saving potential. This paper details the calibration of the whole building energy model to the component level, including lighting, equipment, and HVAC components such as chillers, pumps, cooling towers, fans, etc. Also a new methodology for the systematic selection of influence parameter has been developed for the calibration of a simulated model which requires large time for the execution. The error at the whole building level [measured in mean bias error (MBE)] is 0.2%, and the coefficient of variation of root mean square error (CvRMSE) is 3.2%. The total errors in HVAC at the hourly are MBE = 8.7% and CvRMSE = 23.9%, which meet the criteria of ASHRAE 14 (2002) for hourly calibration. Different suggestions have been pointed out to generalize the energy saving of radiant cooling system through the existing building system. So a base case model was developed by using the calibrated model for quantifying the energy saving potential of the radiant cooling system. It was found that a base case radiant cooling system integrated with DOAS can save 28% energy compared with the conventional VAV system.

  9. Assessing the value of the ATL13 inland water level product for the Global Flood Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Pappenberger, F.; Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports on the activities and first results of an our ICESat-2 Early Adopter (EA) project for inland water observations. Our team will assess the value of the ICESat-2 water level product using two flood model use cases, one over the California Bay Delta and one over the Niger Inland Delta. Application of the ALT13 product into routine operations will be ensured via an ALT13 database integrated into the pillar "Global Flood Service and Toolbox" (GFST) of the Global Flood Partnership (GFP). GFP is a cooperation framework between scientific organizations and flood disaster managers worldwide to develop flood observational and modelling infrastructure, leveraging on existing initiatives for better predicting and managing flood disaster impacts and flood risk globally. GFP is hosted as an Expert Working Group by the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS). The objective of this EA project is to make the ICESat-2 water level data available to the international GFP community. The EA team believes that the ALT13 product, after successful demonstration of its value in model calibration/validation and monitoring of large floodplain inundation dynamics, should be made easily accessible to the GFP. The GFST will host data outputs and tools from different flood models and for different applications and regions. All these models can benefit from ALT13 if made available to GFP through GFST. Here, we will introduce both test cases and their model setups and report on first preliminary "capabilities" test runs with the Niger model and ICESat-1 as well as radar altimeter data. Based on our results, we will also reflect on expected capabilities and potential of the ICESat-2 mission for river observations.

  10. Assessment level of anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnetsova D.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In patients with multiple sclerosis observed polymorphism of the emergency psychiatric disorders with a wide range of psychopathological phenomena — from neurotic and personality disorders to psychotic states and epileptiform syndrome. However, the problems of mental health problems in people with MS for a long time little attention was paid. The aim of our study was to analyze the level of anxiety and depression severity in patients with multiple sclerosis. According to this objective have been identifed objectives of the study: to determine the level of depression and anxiety in MS patients according to sex, age, course, duration of disease. For our work was selected group of patients with documented diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, Charles Poser criteria, consisting of 79 persons, with a disease duration of more than 2 years. We used a specially designed questionnaire, which included a table to assess complaints, anamnesis, the neurological status of the patient, and standard questionnaires (test anxiety, Taylor Depression Scale Research psychoneurology them. Spondylitis, the index of overall psychological well-being. The study found that mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, often occurs in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, they are expressed in groups of patients receiving and not receiving DMD, in many ways. Thus, it should be recommended  Vat practical neurologists in the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients to pay attention to whether or not they have a certain range of mental disorders, and above all, anxious-depressive syndrome, which is in need of medical and non-pharmacological correction.

  11. Salivary thiol levels and periodontal parameters assessed with a chromogenic strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khocht, Ahmed; Seyedain, Merriam; Hardan, Samia; Gaughan, John; Suzuki, Jon B

    2013-08-01

    Periodontitis tends to be associated with bacteria that use sulfate as an energy source and produce thiol compounds that contain sulfhydryl (-SH) groups. This study used a chromogenic thiol-detecting strip to investigate whole saliva -SH concentration (SS) in subjects with and without periodontal disease. Ninety-six subjects were enrolled; all underwent periodontal evaluations, including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth measurements (PD), and attachment levels (AL). Subjects were divided into 3 groups: those who were periodontally healthy (n = 17), those with gingivitis (n = 54), and those with periodontitis (n = 25). Of the 96 subjects, 33% (n = 32) were cigarette smokers. A chromogenic strip was used to collect a whole saliva sample from the mouth. Color reaction was scored based on a color chart. Good-to-moderate correlations were found between SS scores and PI (r = 0.47, P = 0.0001), GI (r = 0.45, P = 0.0001), PD (r = 0.42, P = 0.0001), and AL (r = 0.30, P = 0.002). Analysis of variance showed significant differences in SS scores among the 3 study groups (P = 0.0001); post-hoc analysis showed higher SS scores in subjects with periodontitis than in those without (P = 0.05). Logistic regression, adjusting for smoking, showed the odds ratio of periodontitis increased by a factor of 12.76 for each increase of one unit of measure of SS. These results indicate that assessing whole saliva thiol levels with a chromogenic strip could be used as a screening test for periodontal diseases. PMID:23928440

  12. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, M; Mabit, L; Nouira, A; Moussadek, R; Bouksirate, H; Duchemin, M; Benkdad, A

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation - mainly caused by soil erosion - is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42' W, 33° 47' N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of (137)Cs, (210)Pb(ex) as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 12.1 ha(-1) yr(-1) for (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the (137)Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion.

  13. Contamination and risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediments in a medium-sized city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Wu, Hai suo

    2015-02-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is a valuable environmental medium for characterizing contamination of metals in urban areas and the associated risks to human health. A total of 62 RDS samples were collected for metal test in four urban areas in a medium size city in eastern China. The areas that represented different land uses consisted of intense traffic area (ITA), commercial area (CA), residential area (RA), and riverside park area (RPA). The effects of particle size and different land uses on metal contamination and health risk were the major focus in this study. The test results showed that RDS in ITA appeared to have higher metal content, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (RI), and the non-cancer and cancer risks than in the other areas. The metal contamination and health risk increased inversely with particle size. The particles less than 63 μm were found to be most critical in development of metal contamination and health risk. The EF was measured to be greater than 2.0 in the four areas, indicating a moderate enrichment. The measured RI ranged between 50 and 200, indicating considerable to moderate risks. The non-cancer risk for children was high in the four areas but was low for adults in all test areas except in ITA. The cancer risk of Cr for children was high in all test areas. Based on the test results, the contamination control and management for metals in RDS shall focus on the effects from such factors as particles (<63 μm) and the land use for intense traffic (ITA). PMID:25463858

  14. Deposition patterns with Turbuhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, L

    1994-01-01

    The degree of lung deposition is an important factor in the evaluation of different inhalation flow driven dry powder inhalers. A number of studies using radioactive and non-radioactive methods have been performed with Turbuhaler to assess lung deposition under different conditions. Mean total lung deposition of terbutaline sulfate or budesonide via Turbuhaler in healthy volunteers ranged from 21-32% of the dose when a normal inhalation flow (60L/min) was used. At a low flow (30L/min) a mean 15% of the dose was deposited in the lungs, a similar value as for a well-performed inhalation via a pressurized metered dose inhaler. Regional deposition of inhaled drug can be expressed as the ratio between the amount of drug deposited in the more peripheral parts of the lung relative to the more central parts. In a comparative study, budesonide and terbutaline sulfate were given by inhalation via Turbuhaler to healthy volunteers. The ratio of peripheral to central deposition was 2.03 for terbutaline and 1.72 for budesonide. Thus, both the water-soluble terbutaline sulfate and the non-water soluble budesonide seemed to behave in the same way when inhaled via Turbuhaler. In conclusion, Turbuhaler delivers over 20% of a metered dose to the lungs when inhaled at a normal inhalation flow rate. The regional deposition pattern in the lungs was the same for terbutaline sulfate and budesonide, in spite of differences in water solubility. PMID:10147081

  15. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using Total Reflection Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 month old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn Kα. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed

  16. Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

  17. Impact Assessment of Effective Parameters on Drivers' Attention Level to Urban Traffic Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mojtaba; Rahimi, Amir Masoud; Roshankhah, Sheida

    2016-03-01

    Traffic signs are one of the oldest safety and traffic control equipments. Drivers' reaction to installed signs is an important issue that could be studied using statistical models developed for target groups. There are 527 questionnaires have been filled up randomly in 45 days, some by drivers passing two northern cities of Iran and some by e-mail. Therefore, minimum sample size of 384 is fulfilled. In addition, Cronbach Alpha of more than 90 % verifies the questionnaire's validity. Ordinal logistic regression is used for 5-level answer variables. This relatively novel method predicts probability of different cases' considering other effective independent variables. There are 18 parameters of factor, man, vehicle, and environment are assessed and 5 parameters of number of accidents in last 5 years, occupation, driving time, number of accidents per day, and driving speed are eventually found as the most important ones. Age and gender, that are considered as key factors in other safety and accident studies, are not recognized as effective ones in this paper. The results could be useful for safety planning programs.

  18. Assessing Reclamation Levels of Coastal Saline Lands with Integrated Stepwise Discriminant Analysis and Laboratory Hyperspectral Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At different times over the past 30 years in Zhejiang Province, China, the coastal tidelands have been successively enclosed and reclaimed for agricultural land use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether laboratory hyperspectral data might be used to estimate the physicochemical characteristics of these reclaimed saline soils. A coastal region of Shangyu City (Zhejiang Province), which was grouped into four subzones according to reclamation history, was used as the study area, and soil samples were collected in each subzone. Physicochemical analyses showed that the soils were characterized by high electrical conductivity and sand content with low organic matter; the longer the saline lands had been reclaimed, the lower were the electrical conductivity and sand content and the higher the organic matter content.These changing trends of soil chemical and physical properties were found in laboratory reflectance spectra of soil samples and their first-order derivative curves. Stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) identified six salient spectral bands at 488,530, 670, 880, 1 400, and 1 900 nm. Using derived discriminant functions for saline lands with different historical years of reclamation, classification revealed an overall accuracy from a self-test of 86.6% and from cross-validation of 89.3%.Therefore, as opposed to time-consuming field investigations, this study suggested that remotely sensed hyperspectral data could serve as a promising measure to assess the reclamation levels of coastal saline lands.

  19. Biosphere modeling with climate changes for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system, it is required to estimate radiological impacts on future human beings arising from potential radionuclide releases from a deep repository into the surface environment. In order to estimate the impacts, a biosphere model is developed by reasonably assuming radionuclide migration processes in the surface environment and relevant human lifestyles. Releases from the repository might not occur for many thousands of years after disposal. Over such timescales, it is anticipated that the considerable climatic change, for example, induced by the next glaciation period expected to occur in around ten thousand years from now, will have a significant influence on the near surface environment and associated human lifestyles. In case of taking these evolution effects into account in modeling, it is reasonable to develop several alternative models on biosphere evolution systems consistent with possible future conditions affected by expected climatic changes. In this study, alternative biosphere models were developed taking effects of possible climatic change into account. In the modeling, different climatic states existing in the world from the present climate condition in Japan are utilized as an analogy. Estimation of net effects of the climatic change on biosphere system was made by comparing these alternative biosphere models with a constant biosphere model consistent with the present climatic state through flux to dose conversion factors derived from each one. (author)

  20. Heavy metal pollution in sediments and mussels: assessment by using pollution indices and metallothionein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Oya S; Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Yılmaz, Atilla; Yakan, Sevil D; Karacık, Burak; Tutak, Bilge; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the concentration of eight metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in the sediments and transplanted and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The study was conducted in Turkish marinas, shipyards, and shipbreaking yards. The effect of metal pollution was evaluated by determining the levels of metallothionein (MT) in the mussels. The extent of contamination for each single metal was assessed by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). Whereas, to evaluate the overall metal pollution and effect, the pollution load index (PLI), modified contamination degree (mC d), potential toxicity response index (RI), mean effects range median (ERM) quotient (m-ERM-Q), and mean PEL quotient (m-PEL-Q) were calculated. The influence of different background values on the calculations was discussed. The results indicated a significant metal pollution caused by Cu, Pb, and Zn especially in shipyard and shipbreaking sites. Higher concentrations of MT were observed in the ship/breaking yard samples after the transplantation. PMID:27188302