Sample records for assessing deposition levels

  1. Assessing deposition levels of 55Fe, 60Co and 63Ni in the Ignalina NPP environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudelis, A.; Druteikienė, R.; Lukšienė, B.


    . Non-destructive analysis by the HPGe gamma-spectrometry was followed by radiochemical separation. Radiochemical analysis was based on anion-exchange and extraction chromatography. 55Fe and 63Ni activities were measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The results indicate that the deposition...

  2. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.


    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  3. Impact of nitrogen deposition at the species level (United States)

    Payne, Richard J.; Dise, Nancy B.; Stevens, Carly J.; Gowing, David J.; Duprè, Cecilia; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Bleeker, Albert; Diekmann, Martin; Alard, Didier; Bobbink, Roland; Fowler, David; Corcket, Emmanuel; Mountford, J. Owen; Vandvik, Vigdis; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Muller, Serge


    In Europe and, increasingly, the rest of the world, the key policy tool for the control of air pollution is the critical load, a level of pollution below which there are no known significant harmful effects on the environment. Critical loads are used to map sensitive regions and habitats, permit individual polluting activities, and frame international negotiations on transboundary air pollution. Despite their fundamental importance in environmental science and policy, there has been no systematic attempt to verify a critical load with field survey data. Here, we use a large dataset of European grasslands along a gradient of nitrogen (N) deposition to show statistically significant declines in the abundance of species from the lowest level of N deposition at which it is possible to identify a change. Approximately 60% of species change points occur at or below the range of the currently established critical load. If this result is found more widely, the underlying principle of no harm in pollution policy may need to be modified to one of informed decisions on how much harm is acceptable. Our results highlight the importance of protecting currently unpolluted areas from new pollution sources, because we cannot rule out ecological impacts from even relatively small increases in reactive N deposition. PMID:23271811

  4. Technology Performance Level Assessment Methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Malins, Robert Joseph; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber


    The technology performance level (TPL) assessments can be applied at all technology development stages and associated technology readiness levels (TRLs). Even, and particularly, at low TRLs the TPL assessment is very effective as it, holistically, considers a wide range of WEC attributes that determine the techno-economic performance potential of the WEC farm when fully developed for commercial operation. The TPL assessment also highlights potential showstoppers at the earliest possible stage of the WEC technology development. Hence, the TPL assessment identifies the technology independent “performance requirements.” In order to achieve a successful solution, the entirety of the performance requirements within the TPL must be considered because, in the end, all the stakeholder needs must be achieved. The basis for performing a TPL assessment comes from the information provided in a dedicated format, the Technical Submission Form (TSF). The TSF requests information from the WEC developer that is required to answer the questions posed in the TPL assessment document.

  5. Nickel-cobalt laterites: a deposit model: Chapter H in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric J.; Gray, Floyd


    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are supergene enrichments of Ni±Co that form from intense chemical and mechanical weathering of ultramafic parent rocks. These regolith deposits typically form within 26 degrees of the equator, although there are a few exceptions. They form in active continental margins and stable cratonic settings. It takes as little as one million years for a laterite profile to develop. Three subtypes of Ni-Co laterite deposits are classified according to the dominant Ni-bearing mineralogy, which include hydrous magnesium (Mg)-silicate, smectite, and oxide. These minerals form in weathering horizons that begin with the unweathered protolith at the base, saprolite next, a smectite transition zone only in profiles where drainage is very poor, followed by limonite, and then capped with ferricrete at the top. The saprolite contains Ni-rich hydrous Mg-silicates, the Ni-rich clays occur in the transition horizon, and Ni-rich goethite occurs in the limonite. Although these subtypes of deposits are the more widely used terms for classification of Ni-Co laterite deposits, most deposits have economic concentrations of Ni in more than one horizon. Because of their complex mineralogy and heterogeneous concentrations, mining of these metallurgically complex deposits can be challenging. Deposits range in size from 2.5 to about 400 million tonnes, with Ni and Co grades of 0.66–2.4 percent (median 1.3) and 0.01–0.15 percent (median 0.08), respectively. Modern techniques of ore delineation and mineralogical identification are being developed to aid in streamlining the Ni-Co laterite mining process, and low-temperature and low-pressure ore processing techniques are being tested that will treat the entire weathered profile. There is evidence that the production of Ni and Co from laterites is more energy intensive than that of sulfide ores, reflecting the environmental impact of producing a Ni-Co laterite deposit. Tailings may include high levels of

  6. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.


    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.


    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  8. Assessing the Emission Sources of Atmospheric Mercury in Wet Deposition Across Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratz L. E.


    Full Text Available From August 2007 to August 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg and trace element analysis at four sites in Illinois, USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify the levels of Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. The measurement sites were located in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. We were not able to identify a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition among the sites. At all four locations we frequently observed Hg concentrations in precipitation > 25 ng/L, while each site received > 10 μg/m2 of Hg wet deposition annually, suggesting a substantial impact from local and regional anthropogenic emission sources. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. The results suggested that 60-83% of total Hg deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. Although we identified other source signatures in the precipitation composition, including cement manufacturing, metal smelting / waste incineration, and iron-steel production, these sources contributed substantially less to the measured amounts of Hg wet deposition. We also applied the hybrid receptor model Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA to the Hg wet deposition data from each site to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. Results suggested that sources in the Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and Ohio River Valley urban/industrial areas had a substantial impact on Hg wet deposition, strongly supporting the conclusion that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois.

  9. Definition and Reliability Assessment of Elementary Ultrasonographic Findings in Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippou, Georgios; Scirè, Carlo A; Damjanov, Nemanja


    OBJECTIVE: To define the ultrasonographic characteristics of calcium pyrophosphate crystal (CPP) deposits in joints and periarticular tissues and to evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of expert ultrasonographers in the assessment of CPP deposition disease (CPPD) according to the new...... definitions. METHODS: After a systematic literature review, a Delphi survey was circulated among a group of expert ultrasonographers, who were members of the CPPD Ultrasound (US) Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) subtask force, to obtain definitions of the US characteristics of CPPD at the level...... of fibrocartilage (FC), hyaline cartilage (HC), tendon, and synovial fluid (SF). Subsequently, the reliability of US in assessing CPPD at knee and wrist levels according to the agreed definitions was tested in static images and in patients with CPPD. Cohen's κ was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: HC and FC...

  10. Comparative assessment of regionalisation methods of monitored atmospheric deposition loads (United States)

    Reinstorf, Frido; Binder, Maja; Schirmer, Mario; Grimm-Strele, Jost; Walther, Wolfgang

    The objective of this investigation is to assess the suitability of well-known regionalisation methods of data from existing deposition monitoring networks for use in water resources management. For this purpose a comparison of the applicability and accuracy of various regionalisation methods was made. A crucial point is the data demand of the various methods. In this investigation the deterministic and geostatistical methods inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK) and external drift kriging (EDK) as well as the chemical transport models METRAS-MUSCAT, EMEP, EDACS and EUTREND have been characterised and evaluated. The methods IDW and OK have been applied to the investigation areas—the German Federal States of Lower Saxony and Saxony. An evaluation of these methods was carried out with a cross-validation procedure. The result was in most cases a higher accuracy for the OK method. The EDK method has been investigated in order to find suitable drift variables from the parameters precipitation amount, altitude and wind direction. With help of a correlation analysis a suitable drift variable could not be found. After the application of OK, verification was carried out by a comparison of the estimated data set with an independently determined data set. The result was a relatively smaller deviation of the estimated data set. The investigation considers data from routine monitoring networks as well as networks for special applications and has been carried out on the basis of monitoring networks of the two states. The investigated database was wet and bulk deposition of the substances NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Na +, Pb 2+, and Cd 2+ in Lower Saxony and SO 42- in Saxony. From this, a consistent database of bulk deposition data was built. From all applied methods OK proved to cope best with the data deficiencies that were found.

  11. Aboveground persistence of vascular plants in relationship to the levels of airborne nutrient deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, R.J.J.; Ozinga, W.A.; Berg, van den L.J.L.; Noordwijk, E.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Groenendael, van J.M.


    This paper examines whether high atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects aboveground persistence of vascular plants. We combined information on local aboveground persistence of vascular plants in 245 permanent plots in the Netherlands with estimated level of nitrogen deposition at the time of

  12. Effects of dietary digestible lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in the carcass of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F de C Tavernari


    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in the diets of male and female broilers on protein and fat deposition. A total of 2160 Avian Farms broilers. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, and treatments consisted of the effects of three digestible lysine levels nested within each sex, with 12 replicates and 30 birds per experimental unit. The adopted digestible lysine levels corresponded to 92.5, 100.0, and 107.5% of the nutritional requirements of phases 1 to 21 days, 22 to 42 days, and 43 to 56 days of age, respectively. In each phase, the experimental diets contained similar calorie and protein levels within each sex. No significant effects of lysine levels were found on dry matter and fat percentages in the carcass of birds during the evaluated periods. Also, there were no significant effects of lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in males or females. However, males presented higher protein deposition and lower fat deposition than females during the total experimental period. Gompertz equations showed that females deposit more fat and less protein than males, and that this affected the fall in the curve of protein deposition, when the curve of fat deposition was still rising. Therefore, it was concluded that the older the broilers at slaughter, the higher their body fat content and the lower their body protein content, particularly in females.

  13. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing]. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua


    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  14. Assessment of bauxite, clay, and laterite deposits in Afghanistan (United States)

    Renaud, Karine M.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.


    Bauxite-bearing rocks are present in several regions of Afghanistan; specifically, the southeast segment of the North Afghanistan Platform, the eastern parts of South Afghanistan, and within the Afghanistan-North and -South Pamir Fold Regions. Bauxite-bearing rocks occur at various stratigraphic levels, in lithologically different sequences of sedimentary rocks. The bauxites are paleosols and represent previous, rather than recent, weathering events. Bauxites and bauxite-type horizons are most common at the base of carbonate rock units, where they form the basal horizons of sedimentary rock sequences separated by erosion and stratigraphic unconformity surfaces. Less common are zones in redeposited weathering developed on igneous rocks. At present there are five known stratigraphic intervals with significant bauxite and bauxite-type deposits and occurrences: the lower Permian, the upper Permian, the Upper Triassic, the Lower Jurassic, and the base of the Upper Jurassic.

  15. Impact of nitrogen deposition at the species level


    Payne, Richard J.; Dise, Nancy B.; Stevens, Carly J.; Gowing, David J.; Duprè, Cecilia; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Bleeker, Albert; Diekmann, Martin; Alard, Didier; Bobbink, Roland; Fowler, David; Corcket, Emmanuel; Mountford, J. Owen; Vandvik, Vigdis


    In Europe and, increasingly, the rest of the world, the key policy tool for the control of air pollution is the critical load, a level of pollution below which there are no known significant harmful effects on the environment. Critical loads are used to map sensitive regions and habitats, permit individual polluting activities, and frame international negotiations on transboundary air pollution. Despite their fundamental importance in environmental science and policy, there has been no system...

  16. Preliminary Groundwater Assessment using Electrical Method at Quaternary Deposits Area (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Raqib, A. G. A.; Aziman, M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Khaidir, A. T. M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Rosli, S.; Fakhrurrazi, I. M.; Izzaty, R. A.


    Alternative water sources using groundwater has increasingly demand in recent years. In the past, proper and systematic study of groundwater potential was varies due to several constraints. Conventionally, tube well point was drilled based on subjective judgment of several parties which may lead to the uncertainties of the project success. Hence, this study performed an electrical method to investigate the groundwater potential at quaternary deposits area particularly using resistivity and induced polarization technique. Electrical method was performed using ABEM SAS4000 equipment based on pole dipole array and 2.5 m electrode spacing. Resistivity raw data was analyzed using RES2DINV software. It was found that groundwater was able to be detected based on resistivity and chargeability values which varied at 10 - 100 Ωm and 0 - 1 ms respectively. Moreover, suitable location of tube well was able to be proposed which located at 80 m from the first survey electrode in west direction. Verification of both electrical results with established references has shown some good agreement thus able to convince the result reliability. Hence, the establishment of electrical method in preliminary groundwater assessment was able to assist several parties in term groundwater prospective at study area which efficient in term of cost, time, data coverage and sustainability.

  17. Assessment of the effect of acid deposition on forest soils in Stockholm County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odlare, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils


    The objective of this study was to assess how the acidity in the upper layer of forest soils in Stockholm County is affected by acid deposition. The acidity balance in a long-term perspective was assessed by a steady state mass balance model approach. The model involved a procedure where all significant acidifying processes were weighted against the neutralizing process. If the acidity balance reached a value higher than zero, the critical load of the soil has been exceeded. The acidity balance was calculated for 91 forest sample sites throughout Stockholm County. Two different data sets were used: 22 sites from the National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation, and 69 sites from the Forestry Board. The acidity balance was assessed in relation to four different scenarios: (1) Present deposition, whole tree harvesting; (2) Present deposition, stem harvesting; (3) 30% reduction in deposition, whole tree harvesting; and (4) 30% reduction in deposition, stem harvesting. A majority of the sites reached a positive acidity balance in all scenarios, i.e. they had exceeded the critical load. However, the values decreased with stem harvesting and 30% reduction in deposition. A 30% reduction together with stem harvesting gave the result that 59% of the sites from the National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation and 55% of the sites from the forestry Board achieved a positive balance. That is, almost half of the sites did not exceed the critical load. It is therefore likely that scenario 4 is close to the 50 percentile of exceeding the critical load. After studying the different parameters in the model, it seems that the most important factors for the difference between sites are base cation uptake and weathering. The sample sites that did not reach excessive levels had a low base cation uptake in comparison with other parameters and a relatively high weathering rate. It seems that acidification on the 91 sample sites is less dependent on acid deposition and more on tree

  18. Assessing the Sources of Atmospheric Mercury Wet Deposited in Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvonch J. T.


    Full Text Available From October 2008 through August 2010, event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg, trace elements, and major ions analysis were collected at six monitoring sites in Florida, USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify the levels of Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources in support of a Hg Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL project. The measurement sites were located in Pensacola, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, Davie, and Everglades National Park. For the period April 2009 through August 2010, Hg wet deposition rates ranged from 26.8 to 38.7 μg/m2 across the six sites. We observed a strong seasonal pattern, with increases in measured Hg concentrations and Hg wet deposition occurring during the summer months, which was further pronounced at the southern sites. We also observed a clear overall spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition, increasing across sites from north to south.

  19. The Influence of Strategic Alternatives on the Increasing Level Value of the Term Deposits

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    Mirela Catalina Turkes


    Full Text Available This article analyses the influence of the strategic alternative on the value level increase of the term deposits attracted from the Romanian’s population households, during the period 2012 – Q1/2015, depending on the change of the standards related to deposits granting in RON, EURO and other currencies, but also depending on the aggregate volume of deposits demand at a national level. One-way ANOVA represents the ideal model to emphasize that the average of the term deposits attracted from the population’s households during the last four years is influenced by the strategic alternative used by the credit institutions. The results of this analysis underlined the fact that there is a strong link between the strategic alternative adopted by the banks and the change of the value level of the term deposits intended for the population. The strategies to attract RON deposits proved to be more efficient compared to the strategies adopted by the banks for other currencies.

  20. Lithostratigraphy, depositional history and sea level changes of the Cauvery Basin, southern India

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    Muthuvairvasamy Ramkumar


    Full Text Available The sedimentary sequence exposed in the erstwhile Tiruchirapalli district hosts a more or less complete geological record of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary period. Systematic field mapping, collation of data on the micro-meso scale lithology, sedimentary structures, petrography, faunal assemblage and facies relationships of these rocks, in the light of modern stratigraphic concepts, helped to enumerate the lithostratigraphic setup and depositional history of the basin. Spatial and temporal variations of the lithologies and revised stratigraphic units are presented in this paper. Many high frequency sea level cycles (presumably fourth or higher order which stack up to form third order sea level cycles (six in number, which in turn form part of second order cycles (two in number, including seven eustatic sea level peaks, have been recorded in this basin. Trend analysis of sea level curves indicates a gradual increase of the sea level from Barremian to Coniacian and a gradual decrease from Coniacian to Danian. Such lasting sea level trends had their influence on the sedimentation pattern and facies association. It is inferred that depositional bathymetry was maintained at a shallow-moderate level, primarily influenced by a lack of major subsidence during the depositional history of this basin. The study also revealed a prevalent simple basin filling process and dominant control by sea level changes, rather than tectonic movements over the depositional regime.

  1. Assessing Research Data Deposits and Usage Statistics within IDEALS

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    Christie A. Wiley


    Full Text Available Objectives:This study follows up on previous work that began examining data deposited in an institutional repository. The work here extends the earlier study by answering the following lines of research questions: (1 What is the file composition of datasets ingested into the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC campus repository? Are datasets more likely to be single-file or multiple-file items? (2 What is the usage data associated with these datasets? Which items are most popular? Methods: The dataset records collected in this study were identified by filtering item types categorized as “data” or “dataset” using the advanced search function in IDEALS. Returned search results were collected in an Excel spreadsheet to include data such as the Handle identifier, date ingested, file formats, composition code, and the download count from the item’s statistics report. The Handle identifier represents the dataset record’s persistent identifier. Composition represents codes that categorize items as single or multiple file deposits. Date available represents the date the dataset record was published in the campus repository. Download statistics were collected via a website link for each dataset record and indicates the number of times the dataset record has been downloaded. Once the data was collected, it was used to evaluate datasets deposited into IDEALS. Results: A total of 522 datasets were identified for analysis covering the period between January 2007 and August 2016. This study revealed two influxes occurring during the period of 2008-2009 and in 2014. During the first timeframe a large number of PDFs were deposited by the Illinois Department of Agriculture. Whereas, Microsoft Excel files were deposited in 2014 by the Rare Books and Manuscript Library. Single-file datasets clearly dominate the deposits in the campus repository. The total download count for all datasets was 139,663 and the average downloads per month per

  2. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.


    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  3. Continuous Classroom Assessment at Primary Level (United States)

    Ali, Imtiaz; Shah, Syed Manzoor Hussein; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed


    This study was designed to analyze the continuous classroom assessment at primary level in Pakistan. Findings of the study revealed that the students' achievement of single class teacher in the subject of English, General science, Urdu and mathematics were almost on average and rubric observation during continuous classroom assessment ranked…

  4. Effects on prolific petroleum source rocks and major coal deposits caused by sea-level changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, B.


    This paper compares global cycles of sea-level changes with the times at which coal and oil reserves were formed. Most important coal occurrences were formed in coastal or paralic basins. The age of major coal deposits is frequently correlated with periods of worldwide regression of the sea.

  5. Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis (United States)

    R. Bobbink; K. Hicks; J. Galloway; T. Spranger; R. Alkemade; M. Ashmore; M. Bustamante; S. Cinderby; E. Davidson; F. Dentener; B. Emmett; J.-W. Erisman; M. Fenn; F. Gilliam; A. Nordin; L. Pardo; W. De Vries


    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a recognized threat to plant diversity in temperate and northern parts of Europe and North America. This paper assesses evidence from field experiments for N deposition effects and thresholds for terrestrial plant diversity protection across a latitudinal range of main categories of ecosystems, from arctic and boreal systems to...

  6. Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbink, R.; Hicks, K.; Galloway, J.; Spranger, T.; Alkemade, R.; Ashmore, M.R.; Bustamante, M.; Cinderby, S.; Davidson, E.; Dentener, F.; Emmett, B.; Erisman, J.W.; Fenn, M.; Gilliam, F.; Nordin, A.; Pardo, L.; Vries, de W.


    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a recognized threat to plant diversity in temperate and northern parts of Europe and North America. This paper assesses evidence from field experiments for N deposition effects and thresholds for terrestrial plant diversity protection across a latitudinal range

  7. Concept of economic readiness levels assessment (United States)

    Yuniaristanto, Sutopo, W.; Widiyanto, A.; Putri, A. S.


    This research aims to build a concept of Economic Readiness Level (ERL) assessment for incubation center. ERL concept is arranged by considering both market and business aspects. Every aspect is divided into four phases and each of them consists of some indicators. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to develop the ERL in calculating the weight of every single aspect and indicator. Interval scale between 0 and 4 is also applied in indicator assessment. In order to calculate ERL, score in every indicator and the weight of both the aspect and indicator are considered. ERL value is able to show in detail the innovative product readiness level from economic sight, market and business aspect. There are four levels in Economic Readiness Level scheme which are investigation, feasibility, planning and introduction.

  8. Improving Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Lessons from Deposits from Seven Modern Tsunamis (United States)

    Lunghino, B.; Jaffe, B. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Watt, S.; La Selle, S.; Buckley, M. L.


    Terrestrial paleotsunami deposits are studied to understand the timing and inundation extent of past tsunamis. Developing techniques to extract more information, such as flow depth, from paleotsunami deposits will improve understanding of the tsunami history in vulnerable areas and provide data for tsunami hazard assessment and planning. The analysis of deposits from recent tsunamis enables the comparison between deposit characteristics and event processes because data on the source and hydrodynamics of the tsunami can be collected. We compile and analyze data on tsunami hydrodynamics, deposits, and depositional environments collected in field studies over the last 16 years from 50 study sites from 7 tsunami events, including Papua New Guinea 1998, Peru 2001, Indian Ocean 2004, Sumatra 2005, Samoa 2009, Chile 2010, and Japan 2011. This approach allows comparisons of tsunami deposit characteristics across events and depositional environments. We find a moderate positive correlation between the mean grain size of a deposit and the flow depth of the tsunami, likely because more coarse material is transported by faster tsunami flows that are typical of greater flow depths. We also find that the local deposit thickness is not primarily controlled by flow depth and is strongly influenced by the contributions of bedload, variations in sediment supply, and local topography. We find that deposits often thicken when local topographic slope decreases and vice versa. Further study will investigate if the thicknesses of individual suspension graded layers within deposits are controlled by tsunami flow depth. By ignoring the portions of the deposit formed by bedload transport or spatial flow deceleration, the parts of the deposit formed from sediment falling out of suspension during the temporal flow deceleration of each tsunami wave may be identified. Focusing on individual layers of tsunami deposits, hypothetically formed by a single process and wave, may reveal relationships

  9. Qualitative Assessment of Ilmenite From Chavara Deposit, Southwest Coast of India (United States)

    Nair, A. G.; Damodaran, K.; Suresh Babu, D.


    The famous Chavara placer deposit of India is known for its huge reserves of heavy minerals (127 MT) particularly ilmenite of industrial grade. In spite of the commercial implications of the deposit due to its high quality ilmenite and its exploitation from the beginning of the twentieth century, a systematic and detailed study on the alteration patterns of ilmenite has not been attempted hitherto, except for limited work on the weathering of bulk ilmenite. The qualitative variation noticed in terms of properties like trace element chemistry, magnetism, mineral phases present and the crystal structure of the mineral from deposit to deposit is dependent on a host of factors like the nature of the source rocks, weathering environments, the age of deposits etc. The assessment of the chemical and physical properties of the ore has an important influence on the quality of the ore and the choice of techniques to be adopted for its industrial processing. The ilmenite from the deposits of Chavara (CH) was split into differently magnetic fractions as such an approach yields ilmenite fractions belonging to the entire spectrum of alteration, ranging from those rich in iron to the leucoxenised varieties and thus is a suitable method to trace out the road map of the alteration patterns in the mineral. The fractions were subjected to mineralogical and compositional analyses to assess the range of their physical and chemical variation with weathering to gauge the quality of the ore. The magnetic fractions of the CH ilmenite separated below 0.4 A forms a high quality grade of titanium ore containing about 64% TiO2. This forms about 32% of the weight of the total fractions of the bulk ilmenite of Chavara deposit. XRD and TGA patterns indicate the progressive dominance of altered phases like pseudorutile and rutile in the low magnetic fractions. Moderately weathered ilmenite fractions are found to be more magnetic than least altered grains of the mineral. No evidence of the

  10. Geologic Criteria for the Assessment of Sedimentary Exhalative (Sedex) Zn-Pb-Ag Deposits (United States)

    Emsbo, Poul


    Sedex deposits account for more than 50 percent of the world's zinc and lead reserves and furnish more than 25 percent of the world's production of these two metals. This report draws on previous syntheses as well as on topical studies of deposits in sedex basins to determine the characteristics and processes that produced sedex deposits. This analysis also uses studies of the tectonic, sedimentary, and fluid evolution of modern and ancient sedimentary basins and mass balance constraints to identify the hydrothermal processes that are required to produce sedex deposits. This report demonstrates how a genetic model can be translated into geologic criteria that can be used in the U.S. Geological Survey National Assessments for sedex zinc-lead-silver deposits to define permissive tracts, assess the relative prospectivity of permissive tracts, and map favorability within permissive tracts.

  11. A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores: Chapter A in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Fey, David L.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Saltus, Richard W.


    This report is a descriptive model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits that presents their geological, mineralogical and geochemical attributes and is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new models that will be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment. This deposit modeling effort by the USGS is intended to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Included in this report are geological, geophysical and geochemical assessment guides to assist in mineral resource estimation. The deposit attributes, including grade and tonnage of the deposits described in this report are based on a new mineral deposits data set of all known MVT deposits in the world.

  12. Energy deposition study of low-energy cosmic radiation at sea level (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Pushpa

    In this dissertation work, a computer simulation model based on the Geant4 simulation package has been designed and developed to study the energy deposition and track structures of cosmic muons and their secondary electrons in tissue-like materials. The particle interactions in a cubic water volume were first simulated. To analyze the energy deposition and tracks in small structures, with the intention of studying the energy localization in nanometric structures such as DNA, the chamber was sliced in three dimentions. Validation studies have been performed by comparing the results with experimental, theoretical, and other simulation results to test the accuracy of the simulation model. A human body phantom in sea-level muon environment was modeled to measure the yearly dose to a human from cosmic muons. The yearly dose in this phantom is about 22 millirems. This is close to the accepted value for the yearly dose from cosmic radiation at sea level. Shielding cosmic muons with a concrete slab from 0 to 2 meters increased the dose received by the body. This dissertation presents an extensive study on the interactions of secondary electrons created by muons in water. Index words. Radiation Dosimetry Simulation, Track Structures, Sea-Level muon Flux, Energy Deposition

  13. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser


    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  14. Methodology for quantifying uncertainty in coal assessments with an application to a Texas lignite deposit (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Luppens, J.A.; Tewalt, S.J.


    A common practice for characterizing uncertainty in coal resource assessments has been the itemization of tonnage at the mining unit level and the classification of such units according to distance to drilling holes. Distance criteria, such as those used in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 891, are still widely used for public disclosure. A major deficiency of distance methods is that they do not provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Additionally, relying on distance between data points alone does not take into consideration other factors known to have an influence on uncertainty, such as spatial correlation, type of probability distribution followed by the data, geological discontinuities, and boundary of the deposit. Several geostatistical methods have been combined to formulate a quantitative characterization for appraising uncertainty. Drill hole datasets ranging from widespread exploration drilling to detailed development drilling from a lignite deposit in Texas were used to illustrate the modeling. The results show that distance to the nearest drill hole is almost completely unrelated to uncertainty, which confirms the inadequacy of characterizing uncertainty based solely on a simple classification of resources by distance classes. The more complex statistical methods used in this study quantify uncertainty and show good agreement between confidence intervals in the uncertainty predictions and data from additional drilling. ?? 2010.

  15. A global assessment of forest surface albedo and its relationships with climate and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. (United States)

    Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; Nolè, Angelo; Van Noije, Twan; Borghetti, Marco


    We present a global assessment of the relationships between the short-wave surface albedo of forests, derived from the MODIS satellite instrument product at 0.5° spatial resolution, with simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates (Ndep ), and climatic variables (mean annual temperature Tm and total annual precipitation P), compiled at the same spatial resolution. The analysis was performed on the following five forest plant functional types (PFTs): evergreen needle-leaf forests (ENF); evergreen broad-leaf forests (EBF); deciduous needle-leaf forests (DNF); deciduous broad-leaf forests (DBF); and mixed-forests (MF). Generalized additive models (GAMs) were applied in the exploratory analysis to assess the functional nature of short-wave surface albedo relations to environmental variables. The analysis showed evident correlations of albedo with environmental predictors when data were pooled across PFTs: Tm and Ndep displayed a positive relationship with forest albedo, while a negative relationship was detected with P. These correlations are primarily due to surface albedo differences between conifer and broad-leaf species, and different species geographical distributions. However, the analysis performed within individual PFTs, strengthened by attempts to select 'pure' pixels in terms of species composition, showed significant correlations with annual precipitation and nitrogen deposition, pointing toward the potential effect of environmental variables on forest surface albedo at the ecosystem level. Overall, our global assessment emphasizes the importance of elucidating the ecological mechanisms that link environmental conditions and forest canopy properties for an improved parameterization of surface albedo in climate models. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Plant volatiles induced by herbivore egg deposition affect insects of different trophic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina E Fatouros

    Full Text Available Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae. Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant's volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels.

  17. Fermi Level Tuning of ZnO Films Through Supercycled Atomic Layer Deposition (United States)

    Huang, Ruomeng; Ye, Sheng; Sun, Kai; Kiang, Kian S.; de Groot, C. H. (Kees)


    A novel supercycled atomic layer deposition (ALD) process which combines thermal ALD process with in situ O2 plasma treatment is presented in this work to deposit ZnO thin films with highly tunable electrical properties. Both O2 plasma time and the number of thermal ALD cycles in a supercycle can be adjusted to achieve fine tuning of film resistivity and carrier concentration up to six orders of magnitude without extrinsic doping. The concentration of hydrogen defects are believed to play a major role in adjusting the electrical properties of ZnO films. Kelvin probe force microscopy results evidently show the shift of Fermi level in different ZnO films and are well associated with the changing of carrier concentration. This reliable and robust technique reported here clearly points towards the capability of using this method to produce ZnO films with controlled properties in different applications.

  18. Nebulized cyclosporine in the rat: assessment of regional lung and extrapulmonary deposition. (United States)

    Blot, F; Faurisson, F; Bernard, N; Sellam, S; Friard, S; Tavakoli, R; Carbon, C; Stern, M; Bisson, A; Pocidalo, J J; Caubarrere, I


    Nebulized cyclosporine (CsA) has been shown to limit lung allograft rejection as well as intramuscular (IM) CsA, with limited blood diffusion. The present study determined the pharmacokinetic parameters of nebulized CsA, by the assessment of regional lung deposition and extrapulmonary diffusion of CsA. CsA was given either by IM injection (10 mg/kg) or by aerosol (at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses); 70 rats were killed at 25 and 50 min, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, or 48 hr after CsA administration. CsA levels were measured in the whole lung, in central and peripheral parts of the lung, in whole blood, kidney, and heart. The areas under the concentration time curves (AUCs) were determined. In blood, kidney, and heart, CsA levels were significantly higher for IM than for aerosol administrations at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses. In the whole lung, the AUC was greater for the aerosol route at 25 mg/kg doses (588 ng x hr/mg) than for the low-dose (200 ng x hr/mg) or IM administration (200 ng x hr/mg). The central to peripheral index of CsA (ratio of AUC central/peripheral part of the lung) was not significantly different for both aerosol administrations (0.63 and 0.69, respectively) and for the IM route (0.81). Nebulized CsA allows better pulmonary concentration than IM administration, with equivalent central and peripheral deposition whatever the mode of administration, and results in lower levels in blood, kidney, and heart.

  19. Environmental and geochemical assessment of surface sediments on irshansk ilmenite deposit area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Олеговна Крюченко


    Full Text Available It is revealed the problem of pollution of surface sediments of Irshansk ilmenite deposit area of various chemical elements hazard class (Mn, V, Ba, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn. It is determined its average content in surface sediments of various functional areas (forest and agricultural land, flood deposits, reclaimed land, calculated geochemical criteria, so given ecological and geochemical assessment of area


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna KISS


    Full Text Available This paper is intended to clarify the phenomenon that lower achieving students tend to evaluate their own academic performance less accurately than those who do better in their studies. Previous studies have found that lower performers generally overestimate while higher performers underestimate their performance. The current study analyses self-assessment behaviour and efficiency among Hungarian higher vocational education students. We found that the lowest level of higher education students typically overestimate their performance. Our results strengthen the empirical evidences from previous studies that showed that higher-achieving students evaluate their performance more accurately than their lower achieving fellows. Furthermore we found that higher-achieving students tend to over-assess their examination results to a lesser degree than low-achieving students. We also analysed the difference between the two genders. Compared to female students, males tend to overestimate their own performance.

  1. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, C.L.; Byrne, M.A.; Andersson, K.G.; Bell, K.F.; Roed, J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Vollmair, D.V.; Hotchkiss, S.A.M


    In the past, very little thought has been given to the processes and implications of deposition of potentially hazardous aerosol directly onto humans. This state of unpreparedness is unsatisfactory and suitable protocols have been developed and validated for tracer experiments to investigate the deposition and subsequent fate of contaminant aerosol on skin, hair and clothing. The main technique applied involves the release and subsequent deposition on volunteers in test rooms of particles of different sizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers. Experiments indicate that the deposition velocity to skin increases linearly with the particle size. A wind tunnel experiment simulating outdoor conditions showed a dependence on skin deposition velocity of wind speed, indicating that outdoor deposition velocities may be great. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted, and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. The dynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. This technique was also applied to estimate the fraction of aerosol dust transferred to skin by contact with a contaminated surface. The various parameters determined were applied to establish a model for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses from deposition on skin may be expected to be of the same order of magnitude as the gamma doses received over the first year from contamination on outdoor surfaces. According to the calculations, beta doses from skin deposition to individuals in areas of Russia, where dry deposition of Chernobyl fallout led to very high levels of contamination, may have amounted to several Sievert and may thus be responsible for a significant cancer risk. (au)

  2. Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India: Sea level and environmental changes during the Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    precisely be used as proxy indicators of sea level. Other shallow water deposits if not useful as a proxy indicators for sea level may otherwise indicate environmental conditions at the time of their formation. Using age and depth of occurrence... nodules, the others were formed in shallow marine conditions and serve as sea level indicators (Vander Plache., 1986). Radiocarbon dates were measured for 62 relic deposits covering the entire margin (Fig. 1). The age versus depth plot of the samples...

  3. Environmental hazard assessment of a marine mine tailings deposit site and potential implications for deep-sea mining. (United States)

    Mestre, Nélia C; Rocha, Thiago L; Canals, Miquel; Cardoso, Cátia; Danovaro, Roberto; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Regoli, Francesco; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Bebianno, Maria João


    Portmán Bay is a heavily contaminated area resulting from decades of metal mine tailings disposal, and is considered a suitable shallow-water analogue to investigate the potential ecotoxicological impact of deep-sea mining. Resuspension plumes were artificially created by removing the top layer of the mine tailings deposit by bottom trawling. Mussels were deployed at three sites: i) off the mine tailings deposit area; ii) on the mine tailings deposit beyond the influence from the resuspension plumes; iii) under the influence of the artificially generated resuspension plumes. Surface sediment samples were collected at the same sites for metal analysis and ecotoxicity assessment. Metal concentrations and a battery of biomarkers (oxidative stress, metal exposure, biotransformation and oxidative damage) were measured in different mussel tissues. The environmental hazard posed by the resuspension plumes was investigated by a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE) model that integrated all the data. The resuspension of sediments loaded with metal mine tails demonstrated that chemical contaminants were released by trawling subsequently inducing ecotoxicological impact in mussels' health. Considering as sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) those indicated in Spanish action level B for the disposal of dredged material at sea, the WOE model indicates that the hazard is slight off the mine tailings deposit, moderate on the mine tailings deposit without the influence from the resuspension plumes, and major under the influence of the resuspension plumes. Portmán Bay mine tailings deposit is a by-product of sulphide mining, and despite differences in environmental setting, it can reflect the potential ecotoxic effects to marine fauna from the impact of resuspension of plumes created by deep-sea mining of polymetallic sulphides. A similar approach as in this study could be applied in other areas affected by sediment resuspension and for testing future deep-sea mining sites in

  4. Benefits of deposition reduction for nature management; a nation-wide assessment of the relation between atmospheric deposition, ecological quality and avoidable management costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.J.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Dobben, van H.F.; Wijk, van M.N.


    Alterra was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to estimate the additional costs made by nature reserve managers to mitigate the effects of atmospheric deposition. The costs of increasing deposition levels - or the benefits of reducing

  5. Human health risk assessment of lead pollution in atmospheric deposition in Baoshan District, Shanghai. (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jun; Shi, Guitao; Sun, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan


    The lead (Pb) content in atmospheric deposition was determined at 42 sampling sites in Baoshan District of Shanghai, China. Based on exposure and dose-response assessments, the health risk caused by Pb exposure in atmospheric deposition was investigated. The results indicated that Pb was significantly accumulated in atmospheric deposition. The spatial distribution of Pb was mapped by geostatistical analysis, and the results showed that pollution hotspots were present at traffic and industrial zones. Ingestion was the main route of Pb exposure in both adults and children. For children the risk value was above 1, whereas it was below 1 for the adult group. Therefore, children belong to the high-risk group for Pb exposure from atmospheric deposition in the observed area of Shanghai, China.

  6. Volcanogenic Uranium Deposits: Geology, Geochemical Processes, and Criteria for Resource Assessment (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas


    Felsic volcanic rocks have long been considered a primary source of uranium for many kinds of uranium deposits, but volcanogenic uranium deposits themselves have generally not been important resources. Until the past few years, resource summaries for the United States or the world generally include volcanogenic in the broad category of 'other deposits' because they comprised less than 0.5 percent of past production or estimated resources. Exploration in the United States from the 1940s through 1982 discovered hundreds of prospects in volcanic rocks, of which fewer than 20 had some recorded production. Intensive exploration in the late 1970s found some large deposits, but low grades (less than about 0.10 percent U3O8) discouraged economic development. A few deposits in the world, drilled in the 1980s and 1990s, are now known to contain large resources (>20,000 tonnes U3O8). However, research on ore-forming processes and exploration for volcanogenic deposits has lagged behind other kinds of uranium deposits and has not utilized advances in understanding of geology, geochemistry, and paleohydrology of ore deposits in general and epithermal deposits in particular. This review outlines new ways to explore and assess for volcanogenic deposits, using new concepts of convection, fluid mixing, and high heat flow to mobilize uranium from volcanic source rocks and form deposits that are postulated to be large. Much can also be learned from studies of epithermal metal deposits, such as the important roles of extensional tectonics, bimodal volcanism, and fracture-flow systems related to resurgent calderas. Regional resource assessment is helped by genetic concepts, but hampered by limited information on frontier areas and undiscovered districts. Diagnostic data used to define ore deposit genesis, such as stable isotopic data, are rarely available for frontier areas. A volcanic environment classification, with three classes (proximal, distal, and pre-volcanic structures

  7. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, J.G.; Bell, K.F.; Byrne, M.A.; Fogh, C.L.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Vollmair, D.V.


    The deposition to human body surfaces of potentially hazardous aerosol has been investigated through tracer experiments. Particles of different sizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers were released in test rooms and deposited on volunteers. Various sampling techniques to examine the clearance and retention of the aerosol to skin, hair and clothing were investigated, and a protocol for the most efficient procedure was established and validated. Experiments indicate that the deposition velocity to skin increases linearly with the particle size. A wind tunnel experiment simulating outdoor conditions showed outdoor deposition velocities to be almost an order of magnitude higher than those recorded indoors. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted, and the influence of various factors, such as surface type, air flow, heating and electrostatics were examined. The dynamics of particle removal from human skin were studied by fluorescence scanning. Using the experimentally determined parameters, a model was established for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses that could be expected from deposition on skin were of the same order of magnitude as the gamma doses received over several years from contamination on outdoor surfaces. Assuming very high dry contamination levels, as were recorded in some areas of Russia after the Chernobyl accident, it was found that beta doses from skin deposition may amount to several Sievert and thus be responsible for a significant cancer risk. (au). 12 tabs., 9 ills., 43 refs.

  8. Mapping of depositional and non-depositional areas in Salinas, California streams with concurrent pyrethroid and benthic macroinvertebrate assessments. (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D


    This study used sediment mapping to determine the spatial extent of depositional and non-depositional areas in the wetted stream bed of four urban streams in Salinas, California. After the stream mapping was completed, 8 pyrethroids were analytically measured from randomly selected sites in 12 depositional and 12 non-depositional areas in the four Salinas streams. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected and identified from depositional and non-depositional areas where pyrethroids were measured. In addition, physical habitat was also evaluated at each site where benthic communities were collected. Based on a random sampling design, 24 % of the 96 sediment sampling sites in the Salinas streams were classified as predominately depositional areas. Mean total pyrethroid concentrations were approximately 2× to 61× times higher in depositional areas of the Salinas streams when compared to non-depositional areas. Physical habitat scores from the 12 depositional and 12 non-depositional areas in the Salinas stream sites were extremely low compared with other California streams thus demonstrating that impaired physical habitat is a critical stressor in these streams. Approximately 6,300 individual macroinvertebrates were picked and identified from 70 taxa from the 24 Salinas stream sites. The most dominant taxa collected were all considered tolerant of environmental stressors and dominant taxa from both depositional and non-deposition areas were similar. Ten different benthic metrics for the Salinas streams were similar for the depositional areas, where pyrethroid concentrations consistently exceeded laboratory based toxicity thresholds, and non-depositional areas where pyrethroid concentrations were much lower. These results suggest that factors other than pyrethroids are responsible for impacting resident benthic communities in these urban Salinas streams.

  9. The impact of atmospheric dust deposition and trace elements levels on the villages surrounding the former mining areas in a semi-arid environment (SE Spain) (United States)

    Sánchez Bisquert, David; Matías Peñas Castejón, José; García Fernández, Gregorio


    It is understood that particulate matter in the atmosphere from metallic mining waste has adverse health effects on populations living nearby. Atmospheric deposition is a process connecting the mining wasteswith nearby ecosystems. Unfortunately, very limited information is available about atmospheric deposition surrounding rural metallic mining areas. This article will focus on the deposition from mining areas, combined with its impact on nearby rural built areas and populations. Particle samples were collected between June 2011 and March 2013. They were collected according to Spanish legislation in ten specialised dust collectors. They were located near populations close to a former Mediterranean mining area, plus a control, to assess the impact of mining waste on these villages. This article and its results have been made through an analysis of atmospheric deposition of these trace elements (Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). It also includes an analysis of total dust flux. Within this analysis it has considered the spatial variations of atmospheric deposition flux in these locations. The average annual level of total bulk deposition registered was 42.0 g m-2 per year. This was higher than most of the areas affected by a Mediterranean climate or in semi-arid conditions around the world. Regarding the overall analysis of trace elements, the annual bulk deposition fluxes of total Zn far exceeded the values of other areas. While Mn, Cd and Pb showed similar or lower values, and in part much lower than those described in other Mediterranean mining areas. This study confirmed some spatial variability of dust and trace elements, contained within the atmospheric deposition. From both an environmental and a public health perspective, environmental managers must take into account the cumulative effect of the deposition of trace elements on the soil and air quality around and within the villages surrounding metallic mining areas.

  10. Assessing pesticide wet deposition risk within a small agricultural watershed in the Southeastern Coastal Plain (USA). (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Coffin, Alisa W


    Pesticide volatilization and deposition with precipitation is widely documented and has been connected to adverse ecological impact. Here we describe a 3-yr study of current use and legacy pesticides in event-based rain samples within a 123-ha agricultural watershed. Crops in farm fields were documented quarterly with data used to estimate target compound use. The median number of pesticide detections in samples was 6. The fungicide, chlorothalonil which was used most intensively was detected in nearly all samples. It had the highest mean and peak concentrations with total deposition ≈0.1% of the estimated amount applied. The insecticide endosulfan also had relatively high use with behavior mirroring chlorothalonil. There was strong seasonal variation in concentration and depositional dynamics with the highest values measured during growing seasons. Similar behavior was observed with other compounds detected in rain samples with a general decrease in deposition and mean concentrations as use decreased. Comparison of measured concentrations to values associated with toxic impact on aquatic organisms indicated that chlorothalonil, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, malathion and atrazine may contribute to adverse impact. The number of samples exceeding risk endpoints ranged from 1 to 77%. The highest value was for endosulfan; however its on-going phase-out is expected to reduce risks. Another finding was that the wet deposition of the herbicide, metolachlor exceeded measured runoff rates in the watershed by 5-fold. The study has demonstrated that localized pesticide wet deposition may present ecological risks and that volatilization and wet deposition is an important pesticide transport pathway at the local scale. Findings point to the need to include wet deposition in assessments of pesticide ecological risk and environmental fate. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. [The effect of the level of total sodium deposited in the myocardium on its stiffness]. (United States)

    Arutyunov, G P; Dragunov, D O; Arutyunov, G P; Sokolova, A V; Papyshev, I P; Kildyushov, E M; Negrebetsky, V V; Fedorova, V N

    To determine a relationship between the level of total sodium in the myocardium to its stiffness. The investigation enrolled 18 hypertensive patients who had suddenly died; their mean age was 40±10 years; mean waist circumference, 102±12.5 cm; height, 170±7.7 cm; myocardial mass, 319±53 g. The variation in the myocardial level of total sodium averaged 211.7±37.5 (min, 71.5; max, 226.17) mmol/l. The sodium level was ascertained to be affected to the greatest extent by myocardial mass (SS=3615.56; p=0.00029) and age at death (SS=1965.568; p=0.0029), whereas gender and smoking had a considerably lower impact (SS=778.584; p=0.03). A univariate regression analysis showed that there was a relationship between myocardial sodium levels and the thickness of the anterior wall of the left ventricle (β=0.94; p=0.000001; r2=0.88), that of the anterior wall of the right ventricle (β=0.82; p=0.000021; r2=0.66), and that of the interventricular septum (β=0.94; p=0.000001; r2=0.89). The wall thickness of the myocardium was established to depend on its sodium level (SS=21813.89; p=0.000001; r2=0.88): the higher sodium amount in the myocardium, the thicker its walls. The average velocity of acoustic wave propagation was 6.24±0.51 m/sec. A significant correlation was observed between sodium concentrations in the myocardium and its stiffness (β=0.72; p=0.00062; r2=0.49). The level of sodium deposited in the myocardium, which is directly related to dietary sodium intake, is significantly correlated with myocardial stiffness. It can be assumed that the elevated level of sodium deposited in the myocardium is an independent factor that changes the stiffness of the myocardium and appears to influence the development of its diastolic dysfunction.

  12. Post-fire primary production and plant community dynamics in chaparral stands exposed to varying levels of nitrogen deposition. (United States)

    Pasquini, Sarah C; Vourlitis, George L


    High levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to southern California chaparral shrublands may interact with fire to affect biomass production and plant species composition during secondary succession. To determine the potential interactions between post fire recovery and N deposition we compared rates of aboveground net primary production (ANPP), shrub growth, and the relative abundance of Adenostoma fasciculatum, other sub-dominant shrubs, and herbaceous species of three chaparral stands exposed to different levels of atmospheric N deposition over the first 3 years of post-fire succession. Our data suggest that rates of ANPP (gdw m(-2) month(-1)) and aboveground N storage (gN m(-2) month(-1)) for these chaparral stands were not related to N deposition even though sites exposed to high levels of N deposition had significantly higher rates of shrub growth (gdw plant(-1) month(-1)) and N uptake (gN plant(-1) month(-1)). However, high-N stands were composed of larger shrubs with a lower density, and this trade-off between shrub size and density may explain the low correlation between N deposition and post-fire ANPP. Differences in relative plant species abundance between sites were significantly correlated with N deposition exposure, where stands exposed to high N deposition had a lower relative abundance of A. fasciculatum and a higher relative abundance of other shrub and herbaceous species. While many factors can affect rates and patterns of post-fire recovery, these results suggest that chronic exposure to N deposition may significantly alter plant growth and species composition in successional chaparral stands.

  13. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David


    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  14. Uncertainties in different level assessments of domestic ventilation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokel, R.M.J.; Yang, Z.; Cauberg, J.J.M.


    In order to improve the quality of ventilation systems, assessments are widely used. In this paper, 3 main assessment levels are distinguished based on the number of ventilation systems to be assessed and the assessment objective. The main assessment levels distinguished in this paper are global

  15. Accounting of 131l decomposition under retrospective assessment of its deposition on the basis of determination of 129l deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilin Yu.l.


    given article aimed a justification of approaches to account of radioactive decay of 131l in the course of determination of its ground deposition density on the basis of determination of the ground deposition density of 129l at the late stage after the accident.

  16. Holocene depositional environments and surface-level changes at Lake Fryxell, Antarctica (United States)

    Whittaker, T.E.; Hall, B.L.; Hendy, C.H.; Spaulding, S.A.


    We report on Holocene surface-level variations of Lake Fryxell, Antarctica, as determined from multi-proxy analyses of 18 sediment cores. During this time accumulating sediments were predominantly aeolian sand with algal and carbonate laminae. Based on stratigraphy, mineralogy and diatom assemblages we suggest some carbonate laminae were deposited when lake level dropped, leading to concentration and subsequent precipitation of salts. Although lake level appears to have remained relatively stable throughout the Holocene, minor (<4.5 m below present) lowstands occurred at approximately 6400, 4700, 3800 and ??? 1600 cal. yr BP. The stability of Lake Fryxell during the Holocene contrasts with large-scale variability at other Dry Valleys lakes (eg, Lake Vanda) and with suggestions from chemical diffusion models of a near-desiccation at ???1200 cal. yr BP. The reason for the comparative stability of Lake Fryxell is uncertain, but may be the result of basin morphology and the number, aspect and proximity of meltwater sources. ?? 2008 SAGE Publications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić


    Full Text Available Deep geological disposal is internationally recognized as the safest and most sustainable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. Mainly, clay rock, salt rock and crystalline rock are being considered as possible host rocks. Different geological environment in different countries led to the various repository concepts. Main feature of the most matured repository concept is that canisters with spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in vertical or horizontal large diameter deposition holes. Drilling technology of the deposition holes depends on repository concept and geological and geomechanical characteristics of the rock. The deposition holes are mechanically excavated since drill & blast is not a possible method due to requirements on final geometry like surface roughness etc. Different methods of drilling large diameter boreholes for deposition of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel are described. Comparison of methods is made considering performance and particularities in technology.

  18. Inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss nitrogen utilization: Implications for nitrogen deposition assessment. (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xue-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chao; Song, Wei; Zheng, Xu-Dong; Li, Rui; Liu, Cong-Qiang


    Moss nitrogen (N) concentrations and natural 15N abundance (δ15N values) have been widely employed to evaluate annual levels and major sources of atmospheric N deposition. However, different moss species and one-off sampling were often used among extant studies, it remains unclear whether moss N parameters differ with species and different samplings, which prevented more accurate assessment of N deposition via moss survey. Here concentrations, isotopic ratios of bulk carbon (C) and bulk N in natural epilithic mosses (Bryum argenteum, Eurohypnum leptothallum, Haplocladium microphyllum and Hypnum plumaeforme) were measured monthly from August 2006 to August 2007 at Guiyang, SW China. The H. plumaeforme had significantly (P < 0.05) lower bulk N concentrations and higher δ13C values than other species. Moss N concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in warmer months than in cooler months, while moss δ13C values exhibited an opposite pattern. The variance component analyses showed that different species contributed more variations of moss N concentrations and δ13C values than different samplings. Differently, δ15N values did not differ significantly between moss species, and its variance mainly reflected variations of assimilated N sources, with ammonium as the dominant contributor. These results unambiguously reveal the influence of inter-species and intra-annual variations of moss N utilization on N deposition assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois. (United States)

    Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy


    From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10μgm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32μgm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois

  20. Effect of the pulmonary deposition and in vitro permeability on the prediction of plasma levels of inhaled budesonide formulation. (United States)

    Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh; Wu, Shengqian; Mercuri, Annalisa; Meindl, Claudia; Stranzinger, Sandra; Fröhlich, Eleonore


    The growing interest in the inhalable pharmaceutical products requires advanced approaches to safe and fast product development, such as in silico tools that can be used for estimating the bioavailability and toxicity of developed formulation. GastroPlus™ is one of the few available software packages for in silico simulation of PBPK profile of inhalable products. It contains a complementary module for calculating the lung deposition, the permeability and the systemic absorption of inhalable products. Experimental values of lung deposition and permeability can also be used. This study aims to assess the efficiency of simulation by applying experimental permeability and deposition values, using budesonide as a model substance. The lung deposition values were obtained from the literature, the lung permeability data were experimentally determined by culturing Calu-3 cells under air-liquid interface and submersed conditions to morphologically resemble bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, respectively. A two-compartment PK model was created for i.v. administration and used as a background for the in silico simulation of the plasma profile of budesonide after inhalation. The predicted plasma profile was compared with the in vivo data from the literature and the effects of experimental lung deposition and permeability on prediction were assessed. The developed model was significantly improved by using realistic lung deposition data combined with experimental data for peripheral permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits: Chapter J in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R.; McCafferty, Anne E.


    Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. A wide variety of other commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks including niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other elements enriched in these deposits include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium. Carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are presented together in this report because of the spatial, and potentially genetic, association between carbonatite and alkaline rocks. Although these rock types occur together at many locations, carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are not generally found together.

  2. Technical Guidelines on Performing a Sediment Erosion and Deposition Assessment (SEDA) at Superfund Sites (United States)


    ER D C TR -1 4- 9 Technical Guidelines on Performing a Sediment Erosion and Deposition Assessment (SEDA) at Superfund Sites En gi ne er... Superfund Sites Earl Hayter and Karl Gustavson Environmental Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road...Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Steve Ells Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation US Environmental Protection Agency, OSRTI 1200

  3. Assessment of erosion and deposition in steep mountain basins by differencing sequential digital terrain models (United States)

    Cavalli, Marco; Goldin, Beatrice; Comiti, Francesco; Brardinoni, Francesco; Marchi, Lorenzo


    Digital elevation models (DEMs) built from repeated topographic surveys permit producing DEM of Difference (DoD) that enables assessment of elevation variations and estimation of volumetric changes through time. In the framework of sediment transport studies, DEM differencing enables quantitative and spatially-distributed representation of erosion and deposition within the analyzed time window, at both the channel reach and the catchment scale. In this study, two high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from airborne LiDAR data (2 m resolution) acquired in 2005 and 2011 were used to characterize the topographic variations caused by sediment erosion, transport and deposition in two adjacent mountain basins (Gadria and Strimm, Vinschgau - Venosta valley, Eastern Alps, Italy). These catchments were chosen for their contrasting morphology and because they feature different types and intensity of sediment transfer processes. A method based on fuzzy logic, which takes into account spatially variable DTMs uncertainty, was used to derive the DoD of the study area. Volumes of erosion and deposition calculated from the DoD were then compared with post-event field surveys to test the consistency of two independent estimates. Results show an overall agreement between the estimates, with differences due to the intrinsic approximations of the two approaches. The consistency of DoD with post-event estimates encourages the integration of these two methods, whose combined application may permit to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the two estimations. The comparison between 2005 and 2011 DTMs allowed to investigate the relationships between topographic changes and geomorphometric parameters expressing the role of topography on sediment erosion and deposition (i.e., slope and contributing area) and describing the morphology influenced by debris flows and fluvial processes (i.e., curvature). Erosion and deposition relations in the slope-area space display substantial

  4. Critical loads of sulphur and nitrogen for freshwaters in Great Britain and assessment of deposition reduction requirements with the First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Curtis


    Full Text Available The critical loads approach is widely used within Europe to assess the impacts of acid deposition on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Recent work in Great Britain has focused on the national application of the First-order Acidity Balance (FAB model to a freshwaters dataset of 1470 lake and stream water chemistry samples from sites across Britain which were selected to represent the most sensitive water bodies in their corresponding 10 km grid square. A ``Critical Load Function' generated for each site is compared with the deposition load of S and N at the time of water chemistry sampling. The model predicts that when catchment processes reach steady-state with these deposition levels, increases in nitrate leaching will depress acid neutralizing capacity (ANC below the critical threshold of 0 μeql-1 at more than a quarter of the sites sampled, i.e. the critical load of acid deposition is exceeded at these sites. The critical load exceedances are generally found in upland regions of high deposition where acidification has been previously recognised, but critical loads in large areas of western Scotland are also exceeded where little biological evidence of acidification has yet been found. There is a regional variation in the deposition reduction requirements for protection of the sampled sites. The FAB model indicates that in Scotland, most of the sampled sites could be protected by sufficiently large reductions in S deposition alone. In the English and Welsh uplands, both S and N deposition must be reduced to protect the sites. Current international commitments to reduce S deposition throughout Europe will therefore be insufficient to protect the most sensitive freshwaters in England and Wales. Keywords: critical loads; acidification; nitrate; FAB model; acid deposition

  5. Assessment of Customers' Level of Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Shan, C.; Wiggers, P.


    Surveillance systems in shopping malls or supermarkets are usually designated for assuring safety and detecting abnormal behavior. We used the distributed video cameras system to design digital shopping assistants which assess the behavior of customers while shopping, detect when they need

  6. Nebulization during spontaneous breathing, CPAP, and bi-level positive-pressure ventilation: a randomized analysis of pulmonary radioaerosol deposition. (United States)

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Savi, Augusto; de Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; Machado, André Sant'ana; Tonietto, Tulio Frederico; Ludwig, Eduardo; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimermann; Knorst, Marli Maria


    There have been few reports of factors affecting aerosol delivery during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Nebulization is a standard practice, and our objective was to determine the effect of spontaneous breathing (SB) and NIV mode on lung technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) deposition in subjects with normal lungs. Thirteen health care volunteers were submitted to a randomized radioaerosol nebulization with (99m)Tc during SB, CPAP (10 cm H2O), and bi-level positive-pressure ventilation (bi-level; inspiratory-expiratory pressures of 15/5 cm H2O). NIV was performed via a ventilator (VPAP II ST-A, ResMed, Sydney, Australia). The radioaerosol deposition was evaluated by pulmonary scintigraphy after 10 min of inhalation. Regions of interest (ROIs) were outlined on the left lung (LL), right lung (RL), and trachea (TRQ). The average number of counts/pixel in each ROI was determined, and the ratio of lung and trachea was calculated. The three techniques showed comparable lung deposition. Analysis of radioaerosol deposition in the lungs showed a mean count at RL of 108.7 ± 40 with CPAP, 111.5 ± 15 with bi-level, and 196.6 ± 167 with SB. At LL, the values were 92.7 ± 15 with CPAP, 98.4 ± 14 with bi-level, and 225.0 ± 293 with SB. There was no difference between the means of radioaerosol deposition in RL, LL, or TRQ, as well as the lung calculated ratio (LCR = [RL + LL]/TRQ), which was similar in comparing ventilatory strategies. Based on our data, there is an equivalent deposition of inhaled substances in individuals with healthy lungs when SB, CPAP, and bi-level are compared.

  7. Discrimination of hot versus cold avalanche deposits: Implications for hazard assessment at Mount Meager, B.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Stewart


    Full Text Available The surficial deposits surrounding the Mount Meager volcanic complex include numerous avalanche deposits. These deposits share many attributes: (a they are nearly monolithologic and comprise mainly intermediate volcanic rock clasts, (b they lack internal structure, and (c they are very poorly sorted. Despite these similarities, the avalanche deposits represent two distinct processes. Mass wasting of the Mount Meager volcanic edifice has produced cold rock avalanche deposits, whereas gravitational collapse of active lava domes and flows has produced hot block and ash avalanche deposits. The ability to discriminate between these "hot" and "cold" avalanche deposits is a critical component in the assessment of hazards in volcanic terranes. Hot block and ash avalanche deposits can be distinguished by the presence of radially-oriented joints, breadcrust textures, and incipient welding, which are features indicative of high emplacement temperatures. Conversely, rock avalanche deposits resulting from mass wasting events may be distinguished by the presence of clasts that preserve pre-depositional weathering and jointing surfaces. Volcanic avalanches are mechanically similar to rock avalanches but pose a greater hazard due to high temperatures, increased fluidization from degassing and the potential to decouple highly mobile elutriated ash clouds. The increasing use of hazardous regions such as the Lillooet River valley requires more reliable risk assessment in order to minimize losses from future hazardous events.

  8. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.


    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  9. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites: Chapter K in Mineral Deposit Models for Resource Assessment (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.


    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V).

  10. Scintigraphic Assessment of Deposition of Radiolabeled Fluticasone Delivered from a Nebulizer and Metered Dose Inhaler in 10 Healthy Dogs. (United States)

    Chow, K E; Tyrrell, D; Yang, M; Abraham, L A; Anderson, G A; Mansfield, C S


    Aerosolized medications are increasingly being used to treat respiratory diseases in dogs. No previous studies assessing respiratory tract deposition of radiolabeled aerosols have been performed in conscious dogs. Assess respiratory tract deposition of radiolabeled, inhalant corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate labeled with (99m) Tc) delivered from a nebulizer and metered dose inhaler (MDI) to healthy dogs. Ten healthy Foxhounds. Prospective, randomized, cross-over pilot study. Initial inhalation method (nebulizer or MDI) was randomly assigned. Treatments were crossed over after a 7-day washout period. Treatments initially were performed using sedation. Dogs were imaged using 2-dimensional planar scintigraphy, with respiratory tract deposition quantified by manual region-of-interest analysis. Deposition calculated as percentage of delivered dose. Six of 10 dogs were randomly selected and reassessed without sedation. Inhalation method had significant effect on respiratory tract deposition (P = 0.027). Higher deposition was achieved by nebulization with mean deposition of 4.2% (standard deviation [SD], 1.4%; range, 1.9-6.1%); whereas MDI treatment achieved a mean of 2.3% (SD, 1.4%; range, 0.2-4.2%). Nebulization achieved higher respiratory tract deposition than MDI in 7 of 10 dogs. No statistical difference (P = 0.68) was found between mean respiratory tract deposition achieved in dogs when unsedated (3.8%; SD, 1.5%) or sedated (3.6%; SD, 1.7%). Study confirms respiratory tract deposition of inhalant medications delivered from a nebulizer and MDI in healthy dogs, breathing tidally with and without sedation. Respiratory tract deposition in these dogs was low compared to reported deposition in adult humans, but similar to reported deposition in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou]. (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren


    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  12. Low-Volatility Model Demonstrates Humidity Affects Environmental Toxin Deposition on Plastics at a Molecular Level. (United States)

    Hankett, Jeanne M; Collin, William R; Yang, Pei; Chen, Zhan; Duhaime, Melissa


    Despite the ever-increasing prevalence of plastic debris and endocrine disrupting toxins in aquatic ecosystems, few studies describe their interactions in freshwater environments. We present a model system to investigate the deposition/desorption behaviors of low-volatility lake ecosystem toxins on microplastics in situ and in real time. Molecular interactions of gas-phase nonylphenols (NPs) with the surfaces of two common plastics, poly(styrene) and poly(ethylene terephthalate), were studied using quartz crystal microbalance and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. NP point sources were generated under two model environments: plastic on land and plastic on a freshwater surface. We found the headspace above calm water provides an excellent environment for NP deposition and demonstrate significant NP deposition on plastic within minutes at relevant concentrations. Further, NP deposits and orders differently on both plastics under humid versus dry environments. We attributed the unique deposition behaviors to surface energy changes from increased water content during the humid deposition. Lastly, nanograms of NP remained on microplastic surfaces hours after initial NP introduction and agitating conditions, illustrating feasibility for plastic-bound NPs to interact with biota and surrounding matter. Our model studies reveal important interactions between low-volatility environmental toxins and microplastics and hold potential to correlate the environmental fate of endocrine disrupting toxins in the Great Lakes with molecular behaviors.

  13. Modeling Alternative Assessment for Pre-Service Middle Level Teachers (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, Robert G.


    College assessment models for our future middle school teachers must be varied, on-going, engaging, equitable and empowering. Traditional assessments do not often model the critical components of what makes assessment appropriate for middle level students. To provide the appropriate model for future middle level teachers, the establishment of…

  14. Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (United States)

    Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov


    One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic

  15. SEM/EDS characterisation of dusty deposits in precipitation and assessment of their origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Miler


    Full Text Available Detailed scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS analysis of dusty material in rainfall residue, deposited and collected on February 19th 2014 in Ljubljana, was carried out with the intention to characterise it according to its chemical and mineral composition and to assess its origin. The material consists of poorly sorted and sharp-edged particles of mostly very fine-grained silt and clay fractions, which is consistent with long-range aerial transport. Particles are represented by illite, chlorite and kaolinite group clay minerals, quartz, feldspars, carbonates, accessory minerals and secondary Fe-oxy-hydroxide minerals. Quantities of minerals and illite/ kaolinite ratio (4.5 correspond to dusts in rainfall residues originating from Moroccan Atlas, while chlorite/kaolinite ratio (2.8 agrees better with dust from central Libya. The element ratios Al/Si, Ca/Al, K/Ca, Mg/Al, Fe/Al and (Ca+Mg/Fe in the studied dusty deposit are in good agreement with ratios in dusts from rainfall residues originating from Morocco and northern Mauritania. This was also confirmed by the trajectories of cloud movement that caused precipitation with dusty deposit, although the back trajectory HYSPLIT simulation of air masses indicated northern Mauritania, central Niger, southern Algeria, southwestern and central Libya as the most possible source regions.

  16. Assessment of level-walking aperiodicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zok Mounir


    Full Text Available Abstract Background: In gait analysis, walking is assumed to be periodic for the sake of simplicity, despite the fact that, strictly speaking, it can only approximate periodicity and, as such, may be referred to as pseudo-periodic. This study aims at: 1 quantifying gait pseudo-periodicity using information concerning a single stride; 2 investigating the effects of walking pathway length on gait periodicity; 3 investigating separately the periodicity of the upper and lower body parts movement; 4 verifying the validity of foot-floor contact events as markers of the gait cycle period. Methods: Ten young healthy subjects (6 males, 23 ± 5 years were asked to perform various gait trials, first along a 20-m pathway that allowed reaching a steady-state condition, and then along an 8-m pathway. A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct the 3D position of reflective markers distributed over the subjects' body. Foot contact was detected using an instrumented mat. Three marker clusters were used to represent the movement of the whole body, the upper body (without upper limbs, and the lower body, respectively. Linear and rotational kinetic, and gravitational and elastic potential "energy-like" quantities were used to calculate an index J(t that described the instantaneous "mechanical state" of the analysed body portion. The variations of J(t in time allowed for the determination of the walking pseudo-period and for the assessment of gait aperiodicity. Results: The suitability of the proposed approach was demonstrated, and it was shown that, for young, healthy adults, a threshold of physiological pseudo-periodicity of walking at natural speed could be set. Higher pseudo-periodicity values were found for the shorter pathway only for the upper body. Irrespective of pathway length, the upper body had a larger divergency from periodicity than the lower body. The error that can be made in estimating the gait cycle duration for the upper body from the

  17. Deposition of the Early to Late Permian Whitehill Formation during a sea-level highstand in a juvenile foreland basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.N.J. (Orange Free State University, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Geology)


    The black, laminated, carbonaceous shales of the Whitehill Formation were deposited in a very young, underfilled foreland basin under anoxic bottom conditions. A sea-level highstand, basin tectonics, and climate were the controlling factors - interplay of which resulted in bounding conditions for organic-rich mud deposition during a specific time slot in the history of the basin. Coal-forming environments along the steep palaeo-eastern basin margin were the source of mud and organic matter transported as fresh-water plumes in an offshore direction during episodic flooding and erosion of the organic-rich deposits. Air-borne volcanic ash deposited together with the muds as well as in discrete layers was derived from a tectonic arc in the palaeo-west. The high concentration of organic matter in the water body and the restricted oceanic circulation in the morphologically complex basin created anoxia in the water column. Preservation of organic matter in the absence of benthonic fauna was high. Less anoxic conditions prevailed in the shallow marginal regions where deposition of siltstone and carbonate rocks interbedded with the black shales took place. Continuous inflow of fresh-water plumes in the restricted basin progressively caused brackish conditions suitable for the proliferation of aquatic fauna. 67 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Summary Report: Risk Assessment Forum Technical Workshop on Population-level Ecological Risk Assessment (United States)

    2008 technical workshop regarding development of additional guidelines or best practices for planning, implementing and interpreting ecological risk assessments that involve population-level assessment endpoints.

  19. Plant Volatiles Induced by Herbivore Egg Deposition Affect Insects of Different Trophic Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Lucas-Barbosa, D.; Weldegergis, B.T.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.; Huigens, M.E.


    Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their

  20. Estimation of aerial deposition and foliar uptake of xenobiotics: Assessment of current models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Droppo, J.G.; Van Voris, P.


    This report reviews existing mathematical and/or computer simulation models that estimate xenobiotic deposition to and transport through (both curricular and stomatal) vegetative surfaces. The report evaluates the potential for coupling the best of those models to the existing Uptake, Translocation, Accumulation, and Biodegradation model to be used for future xenobiotic exposure assessments. Here xenobiotic compounds are defined as airborne contaminants, both organic and gaseous pollutants, that are introduced into the environment by man. Specifically this document provides a detailed review of the state-of-the-art models that addressed aerial deposition of particles and gases to foliage; foliar and cuticular transport, metabolism, and uptake of organic xenobiotics; and stomatal transport of gaseous and volatile organic xenobiotic pollutants. Where detailed information was available, parameters for each model are provided on a chemical by chemical as well as species by species basis. Sufficient detail is provided on each model to assess the potential for adapting or coupling the model to the existing UTAB plant exposure model. 126 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens (United States)

    Boamponsem, L. K.; Adam, J. I.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Essumang, D. K.


    In situ lichens ( Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

  2. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus (United States)

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina


    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  3. Electrospark Deposition for Depot- and Field-Level Component Repair and Replacement of Hard Chromium Plating (United States)


    grooves. The process was characterized for deposition rate and coating quality – hardness, porosity and discontinuities. The following data were...the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company, in Richland, Washington, and Washington State... 300 400 500 Manual Automated No UIT Automated with UIT Substrate M ic ro ha rd ne ss (K no op ) Figure 3-20 Hardness Versus Application Procedure


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize dry atmospheric deposition after the washing of broad leaves and conifer foliage. To assess this method different sites chosen on the basis of different exposure to both point (e.g. waste incinerator plant (WIP, local crafts and widespread (e.g. roads, agricultural practices sources of anthropogenic pollution.The principal components analysis (PCA, performed on the major and trace elements identified after leaf washing, extracted four factors. F2 was lithogenic while the other three were anthropogenic. The enrichment factor (EF highlights that Cd, Cu and Zn had a purely anthropogenic origin. The sites were grouped according to the predominant source of exposure and the synthetic index of enrichment (SIE showed a decrease as follows: downwind from WIP > max exposure to WIP > min exposure to WIP > road > craft > rural zone.The leaf area allows to calculate the annual flow of elements and the deposition flux in the study area varied for Cd from 0.07 to 0.55 mg m-2, for Co from 0.1 to 0.48 mg m-2, for Cr from 0.63 to 3.7 mg m-2, for Cu from 14.5 to 32.27 mg m-2. The Cd flux in the Bologna area was lower than in some industrial zones of the World and the lowest values were found in the rural zones and under a minimum exposure to the incinerator plant, while the highest values were near the roads and under maximum exposure to the incinerator. The direct analysis of the leaf-washing water allows to discriminate the anthropogenic or geogenic metals deposited on the leaves using multivariate statistical analysis. It is also possible to predict the flow of metals in different areas of investigation.

  5. Nitrogen distribution and cycling through water flows in a subtropical bamboo forest under high level of atmospheric deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Tu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hydrological cycle is an important way of transportation and reallocation of reactive nitrogen (N in forest ecosystems. However, under a high level of atmospheric N deposition, the N distribution and cycling through water flows in forest ecosystems especially in bamboo ecosystems are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate N fluxes through water flows in a Pleioblastus amarus bamboo forest, event rainfall/snowfall (precipitation, PP, throughfall (TF, stemflow (SF, surface runoff (SR, forest floor leachate (FFL, soil water at the depth of 40 cm (SW1 and 100 cm (SW2 were collected and measured through the whole year of 2009. Nitrogen distribution in different pools in this ecosystem was also measured. Mean N pools in vegetation and soil (0-1 m were 351.7 and 7752.8 kg ha(-1. Open field nitrogen deposition at the study site was 113.8 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, which was one of the highest in the world. N-NH4(+, N-NO3(- and dissolved organic N (DON accounted for 54%, 22% and 24% of total wet N deposition. Net canopy accumulated of N occurred with N-NO3(- and DON but not N-NH4(+. The flux of total dissolved N (TDN to the forest floor was greater than that in open field precipitation by 17.7 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1, due to capture of dry and cloudwater deposition net of canopy uptake. There were significant negative exponential relationships between monthly water flow depths and monthly mean TDN concentrations in PP, TF, SR, FFL and SW1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The open field nitrogen deposition through precipitation is very high over the world, which is the main way of reactive N input in this bamboo ecosystem. The water exchange and N consume mainly occurred in the litter floor layer and topsoil layer, where most of fine roots of bamboo distributed.

  6. Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loading by atmospheric dry deposition to the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. (United States)

    Olayinka, Kehinde O; Oladosu, Najeem O; Abayomi, Akeem A; Alo, Babajide I


    Surface water pollution has been found to be considerably driven by the contributions of airborne particles, open-air waste burning and fossil fuel combustion, ammonia volatilization from excreta, fertilizer and derivatives from explosive factories. Atmospheric deposition into the Lagos Lagoon is suspected to be a major contributor to the nutrient levels of the lagoon. Atmospheric dry nutrient deposition was monitored at six stations around the Lagos Lagoon from January to June 2012 in order to estimate the contribution of atmospheric deposits into the lagoon's nutrient cycles. Species of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the lagoon water were analyzed by colorimetric methods. Mean [NO(-) 3 + NO(-) 2]-N was 3.08 ± 2.10 mg m(-2) day(-1) (0.55-8.73 mg m(-2) day(-1)). The (NO(-) 3 + NO(-) 2)-N was only about 2 % of total N but [NH(+) 4 + organic]-N was approximately 38 % of total N. Particulate N was about 60 % of total N. Average total N was 144 ± 94.9 mg m(-2) day(-1) (48.0-285 mg m(-2) day(-1)). Average soluble reactive P was significantly lower than [NO(-) 3 + NO(-) 2]-N averaging about 0.12 ± 0.12 mg m(-2) day(-1). Soluble reactive P (SRP) was less than 2 % of total P but soluble organic P was about 86 % of total P. Particulate P accounted for about 12 % of total P. Average total P was 4.56 ± 10.1 mg m(-2) day(-1) (0.48-31.6 mg m(-2) day(-1)). This study shows that atmospheric deposition of nutrients into the Lagos Lagoon is taking place and this may represent a considerable proportion of the total nutrient loading of the lagoon.

  7. Assessing atmospheric nitrogen deposition to natural and semi-natural ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Geels, Camilla; Frohn, Lise Marie


    phase ammonia derived from local livestock production. Long-range transport, however, often constitutes the largest contribution to the overall atmospheric terrestrial reactive nitrogen loadings in Denmark. This is often in the range 10-15 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and consists mainly of aerosol phase nitrate...... and ammonium (reaction products of nitrogen oxides and ammonia), but also dry deposition of other reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly nitrogen oxides in the form of gas phase nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide). In Denmark's environmental management of the sensitive terrestrial ecosystems modelling tools...... are required that account for both the local and the long-range transported contributions. This motivated development of the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS) that has been successfully applied to the assessment of atmospheric nitrogen loadings to sensitive Danish ecosystems. We present here three...

  8. Atmospheric deposition levels of chosen elements in the Czech Republic determined in the framework of the International Bryomonitoring Program 1995. (United States)

    Sucharová, J; Suchara, I


    In order to determine the atmospheric loads of 13 elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, V, Zn), samples of Pleurozium schreberi (81.1%), Hypnum cupressiforme (11.2%) and Pseudoscleropodium purum (7.7%) bryophytes (mosses) were taken and analysed from an approx. 20 x 20-km grid extending over the entire territory (78,864 km2) of the Czech Republic (abbreviated 'the CZ' in this study). The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Five hot spots indicating relatively high deposition levels were identified in the CZ. The marginal hot spots are the following: the CZ part of the so-called Black Triangle I territory in northwestern CZ; the CZ part of the Black Triangle II territory in northeastern CZ; and the CZ part of the Sudeten mountains (Jizerské Mts and Giant Mts) and their foothills in northern CZ. Inland hot spots were found in the southwestern industrial part of central Bohemia and in the southern Moravian industrial district. The average element contents in CZ bryophytes were comparable with the respective average values obtained in Germany and Poland. However, the CZ average bryophyte values were higher and lower in comparison to the average Austrian and Slovak values, respectively. The CZ average relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements were found to be 2-3 times higher than the respective loads in the cleanest parts of Europe (e.g. clean parts of Nordic countries). A comparison of the analytical results obtained repeatedly at 20 identical localities in the CZ showed a significant decrease in the relative deposition loads of all of the investigated elements in 1995 as compared to 1991. This decrease has been caused by the dramatic restriction of the industrial production, mainly that of the metallurgical and chemical industries, in the CZ. Desulphurisation programs and the effective trapping of flying dust particles in CZ power plants

  9. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes; Criterios de aceitacao para deposicao de rejeitos radioativos de baixo e medio niveis de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels.

  10. Risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediment along an urban-rural gradient. (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong


    We applied the traditional risk assessment methods originally designed for soils and river sediments to evaluation of risk associated with metals in road-deposited sediment (RDS) along an urban-rural gradient that included central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas in the Beijing metropolitan region. A new indicator RI(RDS) was developed which integrated the RDS characteristics of mobility, grain size and amount with the potential ecological risk index. The risk associated with metals in RDS in urban areas was generally higher than that in rural areas based on the assessment using traditional methods, but the risk was higher in urban and rural village areas than the areas with higher administration units based on the indicator RI(RDS). These findings implied that RDS characteristics variation with the urban-rural gradient must be considered in metal risk assessment and RDS washoff pollution control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified


    Shaun Turney; Elyssa R. Cameron; Cloutier, Christopher A.; Buddle, Christopher M.


    Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologi...

  12. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Turney


    Full Text Available Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%, whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations.

  13. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified. (United States)

    Turney, Shaun; Cameron, Elyssa R; Cloutier, Christopher A; Buddle, Christopher M


    Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%), whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations.

  14. Quantitative measurement of aerosol deposition on skin, hair and clothing for dosimetric assessment. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Byrne, M.A.; Andersson, Kasper Grann


    the deposition and subsequent fate of contaminant aerosol on skin, hair and clothing. The main technique applied involves the release and subsequent deposition on volunteers in test rooms of particles of differentsizes labelled with neutron activatable rare earth tracers. Experiments indicate that the deposition...... with a contaminated surface. The various parameters determined wereapplied to establish a model for calculation of radiation doses received from deposition of airborne radioactive aerosol on human body surfaces. It was found that the gamma doses from deposition on skin may be expected to be of the same order...

  15. Mild to moderate increase of serum calcitonin levels only in presence of large medullary thyroid cancer deposits. (United States)

    Pelizzo, M R; Torresan, F; Da Roit, A; Merante Boschin, I; Chondrogiannis, S; Rampin, L; Colletti, P M; Vinjamury, S; Perkins, A J; Rubello, D


    Many open questions remain to be elucidated about the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). The most intriguing concerns the outcome of MTC patients after surgery. Great importance is usually given to serum calcitonin (Ct) and carcinoembryonic (CEA) levels. It is commonly believed that the higher are the levels of these tumor markers and their kinetics (double time and velocity of markers levels) the worst is the prognosis. However, this is not the rule, as there are huge MTC metastatic deposits characterized by low serum Ct and CEA levels, and this condition is not closely related to the outcome of the disease during post-surgical follow-up. A series is reported here of patients who have these characteristics, as well as a description of their prognosis and clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectral Unmixing Modeling of the Aristarchus Pyroclastic Deposit: Assessing Eruptive History and Exploration Potential of Glass-Rich Regional Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits (United States)

    Jawin, E. R.; Head, J. W.; Cannon, K. M.


    Spectral modeling of the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit shows that the Moon's largest explosive volcanic deposit is rich in high-titanium volcanic glass. This lunar pyroclastic deposit is of importance for both scientific and exploration purposes.

  17. Assessing Static and Dynamic Influences on Inmate Violence Levels (United States)

    Steiner, Benjamin


    Inmate misconduct creates problems for other inmates as well as correctional staff. Most empirical assessments of the correlates of inmate misconduct have been conducted at the individual level; however, a facility's level of misconduct may be of equal importance to prison management and state officials because these numbers can reflect order, or…

  18. Assessment of the level of chromium species in the discharged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the level of chromium species in the discharged effluents of selected tanneries in the Amhara Region; Haik and Debre Berhan tanneries. The level of total chromium, and hexavalent chromium in the discharged effluent of the studied tanneries were determined using the ICP-OES, and ...

  19. Assessment of personality-related levels of functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline


    BACKGROUND: The personality disorder categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV have been extensively criticized, and there is a growing consensus that personality pathology should be represented dimensionally rather than categorically. The aim of this pilot study...... was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale, a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice. METHODS......: The inter-rater reliability of the assessment of the four domains and the total impairment in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale were measured in a patient sample that varied in terms of severity and type of pathology. Ratings were done independently by the interviewer and two experts who watched...

  20. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.


    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single- and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and its performance as early as possible in the project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  1. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.


    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  2. After the Storm: Assessing the carbon and nitrogen leaching potential from sediments deposited in aquatic ecosystems (United States)

    Johnson, E. R.; Krieg, C.; Canning, C.; Inamdar, S. P.; Rowland, R. D.


    The erosive energy of large storms can mobilize, and subsequently deposit large amounts of sediment in receiving aquatic ecosystems. Depending on the character of the sediments there is potential for leaching or sequestration of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from the sediments. This could have significant implications for water quality, aquatic metabolism, and global cycling of C and N. This study examines the fate of these sediments by: (1) determining the amount and quality of organic matter that can be leached into the surrounding water from coarse, medium and fine particle classes (2) assessing the C and N contents of various particles classes and the sources of the sediment through isotopic composition. Bed sediment samples were collected along a 1-2nd order stream (eight locations) in a forested catchment in the Piedmont region of Maryland following a large storm event. Samples were sieved into three particle classes - coarse (2mm-1mm), medium (1mm-250µm) and fine (Organic matter composition for the extracts was characterized using fluorescence. Stable isotopes of 13C and 15N were determined for bed sediment classes and upland source sediments to identify the origins of the eroded sediments. Extracts with low C:N ratios that also exhibit a higher percent protein and lower percent humic carbon content are considered most labile. Within the bed sediment deposits, differences were found in the distribution of labile compounds between each particle class size. Generally, course particle size exhibited the most labile characteristics, closely followed by medium particle size. Fine particle size exhibited the most refractory characteristics in all locations. These results are critical since climate-change predictions reveal more intense and large storms for the northeast US, with potentially greater impacts on aquatic ecosystems from eroded upland sediments.

  3. Study on the dependence of electrical properties on dislocation levels in InSb films vacuum deposited on glass (United States)

    Iida, Shosan


    The absorption coefficient, as a function of photon energy, of vacuum-deposited indium antimonide (InSb) films on a glass substrate produced by varying the evaporation source material temperature and flash evaporation time interval was determined with Kramers-Kronig analysis developed by Roessler [D. M. Roessler, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1119 (1965)]. The absorption coefficients can be determined by the analysis without restriction due to a glass substrate which is opaque to below around 0.31 eV of infrared rays (InSb band gap around 0.2 eV is in this opaque region) because the analysis can determine the coefficients from only reflectance data without transmittance data of the film. Therefore, the analysis was conducted with measured reflectance of the films at room temperature. Results of the analysis showed that dislocation levels, which are in good agreement with both the Read and Broudy models for In and Sb dislocations, exist in the films. The Hall coefficient and Hall mobility of the films at room temperature decrease with an increase of the number of transitions between levels, such as transitions from the valence band to a dislocation level, from a dislocation level to any other dislocation level, and from a dislocation level to the conduction band. Deposition conditions for producing high-quality InSb film should be given so that the generation of dislocation levels is suppressed or eliminated from the results. From the above analytical results, the analysis may give more detailed information, such as peaks that correspond to the energy of carrier transitions in the absorption coefficient as a function of photon energy, in comparison with a method of straight determination of the transition energies from only reflectance or transmittance data. Other wide applications of this analytical method are expected.

  4. Quantitative assessment of gadolinium deposition in dentate nucleus using quantitative susceptibility mapping. (United States)

    Hinoda, Takuya; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Liu, Chunlei; Yamamoto, Akira; Okada, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori


    Gadolinium deposition in dentate nucleus (DN) has been reported after serial administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Gadolinium complexes have paramagnetic properties; therefore, we evaluated susceptibility changes of gadolinium deposition in DN using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for patients after serial administration of GBCAs. In all, 48 patients with brain tumors, who had had serial GBCA administrations (GBCA group), and 48 healthy volunteers without any history of GBCA administrations (non-GBCA group) were enrolled in this study. Susceptibility values in DN on QSM and DN-to-cerebellum signal intensity ratios on unenhanced T1 -weighted images (T1 ratios) on 3T were analyzed. The relationship between the number of times of GBCA administrations and susceptibility values or T1 ratios were evaluated in the GBCA group. Susceptibility values at DN in the GBCA group were 0.107 ± 0.029 ppm, and significantly higher than those of the non-GBCA group (0.079 ± 0.025 ppm) (P T1 ratios in DN of the GBCA group were 1.059 ± 0.070, and also significantly higher than that of the non-GBCA group (0.993 ± 0.016) (P T1 ratios and the number of times of linear GBCA administration, as reported previously (ρ = 0.76, P < 0.0001). Susceptibility values on QSM in DN of the GBCA group, after serial administration of GBCAs, were significantly higher than those of the non-GBCA group. Evidence Level: 3 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1352-1358. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Assessment of deposition for power-plant molten-carbonate fuel cells (United States)

    Wenglarz, R. A.


    Particulate deposition in molten carbonate fuel cell anodes is addressed for operation with future coal gasification power plants. Power plant systems factors affecting deposition are explored such as gas cleanup requirements for particulate removal and gasifier product gas composition differences for various gasifier types and operational modes (air blown versus oxygen blown). Effects of fuel cell characteristics (including average cell current density and fuel utilization) on anode deposition are also quantified. Particulate effects on molten carbonate fuel cell anode performance may not be as detrimental as perhaps perceived in the past. Gas cleanup to remove virtually all particles larger than one micron in diameter is expected to prevent or at least greatly reduce anode deposition. However, cathode deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells should be evaluated in the future since cathodes are likely more prone to deposition than anodes even though cathode channel particle concentrations are much lower.

  6. Attribute-Level and Pattern-Level Classification Consistency and Accuracy Indices for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Song, Lihong; Chen, Ping; Meng, Yaru; Ding, Shuliang


    Classification consistency and accuracy are viewed as important indicators for evaluating the reliability and validity of classification results in cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA). Pattern-level classification consistency and accuracy indices were introduced by Cui, Gierl, and Chang. However, the indices at the attribute level have not yet…

  7. Sea level and geostrophic current control on carbonate shelf-slope depositional sequences and erosional patterns, south Florida platform margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C. (Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg (United States)); Shinn, E.A. (U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL (United States))


    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles across the shelf-slope margin between the Dry Tortugas and Key West, Florida, indicate that sea-level fluctuations and the eastward flowing Florida Current are major controls on late Quaternary sequence stratigraphy. The study area, a transition zone between the open south Florida shelf and the lower Florida Keys island/reef system, is typified by a shallow shelf with reef margin adjacent to a deeper lower-shelf/slope. The lower-shelf/slope is composed of stacked or prograding sequences that downlap and pinchout on the Pourtales Terrace. Strike oriented stratigraphic sections exhibit many sea-level controlled features such as lowstand erosion, transgressive unconformities, and highstand system tracts. Lowstand reefs, notches, or barriers are observed as deep as 150 m below present sea level. Depositional styles change along-slope from west to east. The western portion of the study area is characterized by thick, low-amplitude, prograding sequences related to abundant supply of sediment through off-shelf transport during high sea-levels as well as along-slope reworking by Florida current. Part of this section has been severely eroded by along-slope currents producing localized cut-and-fill structures and widespread erosional unconformities. To the east, a thinner section of high-amplitude reflections is common seaward of the lower Florida Keys reef tract system. This study provides a new evidence of how strong geostrophic boundary currents along with fluctuating sea levels have interacted to control depositional sequences on a carbonate slope in the Florida/Bahamas platform complex.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered resources in calcrete uranium deposits, Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, 2017 (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.


    The U.S. Geological Survey estimates a mean of 40 million pounds of in-place uranium oxide (U3O8) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in the Southern High Plains region of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method specific to calcrete uranium deposits.

  9. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment (United States)

    R. Ochoa-Hueso; E.B. Allen; C. Branquinho; C. Cruz; T. Dias; Mark Fenn; E. Manrique; M.E. Pérez-Corona; L.J. Sheppard; W.D. Stock


    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N...

  10. Compound depositions from the BOPEC fires on Bonaire : Measurements and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D; Bodar CWM; Boshuis ME; de Groot AC; de Zwart D; Hoffer SM; Janssen PJCM; Mooij M; de Groot GM; Peijnenburg WJGM; Verbruggen EMJ; IMG; SEC; LER; mev


    Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some perfluorinated fire fighting foam constituents (especially perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) were found in deposited soot and in water on Bonaire due to the BOPEC oil depot fires in September 2010. The soot deposition did not result in elevated

  11. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul, E-mail: [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Allen, Edith B. [Department of Botany and Plant Sciences and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Branquinho, Cristina; Cruz, Cristina; Dias, Teresa [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Campo Grande, Bloco C4, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Fenn, Mark E. [US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Manrique, Esteban [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Corona, M. Esther [Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Jose Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sheppard, Lucy J. [Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Stock, William D. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)


    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: > N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. > Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. > Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. > Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  12. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia


    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  13. Characterization of a rock avalanche deposit for risk assessment in the town of Celano (Fucino Basin, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rinaldini


    Full Text Available This paper describes multidisciplinary investigations carried out in the urban centre of Celano, a small town located at the northern edge of the Fucino Basin (Central Italy. The town lies upon a wide debris body that was recognized in this study as a rock avalanche deposit estimated to date to the Holocene. Geomorphologic studies and geophysical investigations led to a detailed characterization of the landslide deposit and the surrounding units. The information obtained was used to assess the vulnerability of the Celano municipal area, by evaluating the stability of the landslide body and the behaviour of its lithologies under seismic loads.

  14. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following oral administration of an aqueous ethanol ...

  15. An assessment of the concentration levels of toxic chemicals within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ingestion of crop produce from the dumpsite area and its vicinity is likely to put lives at risk. This paper assesses the concentration levels of toxic chemicals lead (pb), cadmium (cd) and sulphides (so2) within and around Gweru dumpsite. Sampling points for soil were randomly selected using Arcview GIS along each transect ...

  16. An assessment of the hygiene level in animal product processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess hygiene level in the 20 local animal product processing plants. Questionnaire based interviews with managers and food handlers gave an overview of perception of hygiene and practices related to it. Checklists using a scoring system, were designed for objective hygiene inspection.

  17. Integrating urbanization into landscape-level ecological assessments. (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; Ralph J. Alig


    Economists and ecologists are often asked to collaborate on landscape-level analyses designed to jointly assess economic and ecological conditions resulting from environmental policy scenarios. This trend toward multidisciplinary projects, coupled with the growing use of geographic information systems, has led to the development policy scenarios. This trend toward...

  18. Assessing Students' Levels of Understanding Multiplication through Problem Writing (United States)

    Drake, Jill Mizell; Barlow, Angela T.


    When the word problems of forty-five sixth-grade students were examined, multiple levels of understanding and misunderstanding multiplication were exposed. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of problem writing as a technique for assessing the depths of students' mathematical understandings. Discussions include sample…

  19. An Assessment of Users' Level of Satisfaction with Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess users' level of satisfaction with circulation policy in university libraries in North Central zone of Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population comprised of all the undergraduate registered users in the university libraries in the zone. The stratified ...

  20. Repeatability of leaf disc test for assessing resistance levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing efficient and reliable screening tests to assess the level of resistance of a perennial crop such as cocoa to diseases is essential to reduce the length of the breeding cycle. The resistance of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves to two species of Phytophthora was investigated in 25 genotypes of cacao using the ...

  1. Assessment of participation and poverty levels of IFAD/NDDC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation and poverty levels of IFAD/NDDC/Community-Based Natural Resource Management Programme farmers in Abia State were studied and assessed in 2012. Purposive and multistage random sampling techniques were used in the selection of Local Government Areas, participating communities, farmer groups ...

  2. Assessment of the levels of communication between youth, parents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Objective: To assess levels of communication between the youth and their parents, peers and teachers about reproductive health issues and .... obtained from the Nekemte town local government and the respective sub-city officials. The participants were informed that participation was voluntary. Strict confidentiality was ...

  3. Assessment of Serum Levels of Magnesium and Manganese among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnant women in developing countries have been reported to consume diets with low density of minerals and essential trace elements. Therefore, this study aims to assess the serum levels of magnesium and manganese and its trimester correlates among pregnant women in Ika community of Delta state, Nigeria.

  4. Assessment of testosterone level among infertile Sudanese ladies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the level of serum testosterone among infertile ladies and to assess its role in female infertility. Materials and Methods A case-controlled study of 150 Sudanese ladies suffering from infertility was compared to 50 fertile subjects as a control group with a mean age of 31 years.

  5. An assessment of the level of knowledge about diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rural areas, with an estimated 65% literacy rate and unemployment standing at over 50%. The patients at the rural .... Information can help people assess their ..... This reflects that patients who are more knowledgeable about their blood glucose levels are more likely to have a better general knowledge of diabetes mellitus.

  6. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 3, 2008 ... The study was aimed at evaluating the safety and hypoglycaemic effects of Parinari curatellifolia seeds used in the treatment of diabetes. The plasma glucose level and other biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart, renal and acute toxicities were assessed following oral administration of an.

  7. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten


    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  8. Depositional and sea-level history from MIS 6 (Termination II) to MIS 3 on the southern continental shelf of South Africa (United States)

    Cawthra, H. C.; Jacobs, Z.; Compton, J. S.; Fisher, E. C.; Karkanas, P.; Marean, C. W.


    Pleistocene shoreline deposits comprised of calcified shallow marine (palaeobeach) and aeolian (palaeodune) facies found along mid-latitude coastlines can be useful indicators of past sea levels. Here, we describe a succession of such deposits that are presently exposed both above (subaerial) and below (submerged) mean sea level along the southern Cape coast of South Africa, 18 km east of the town of Mossel Bay. The submerged units provide a window on Late Pleistocene coastal processes, as palaeoshoreline deposits in this study extend to water depths of up to 55 m on the mid-shelf. Five sedimentary facies were identified in the strata and were compared to modern depositional environments of the local littoral zone, which include aeolian dune, upper shoreface, foreshore, intertidal swash and back-barrier settings. Twenty-two geological units were observed and mapped. Some of these units were directly dated with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. OSL ages were obtained for ten samples from the subaerial and twelve samples from the submerged deposits. Those geological units not directly dated were interpreted based on sedimentology and field/stratigraphic relationships to dated units. The stratigraphy and chronology of the succession indicates a record of initial deposition during Termination II (T-II) meltwater events, preceding and leading to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. Indicators for multiple sea-level fluctuations between MIS 5d and MIS 4, and sediment deposition at the end of MIS 4 and start of MIS 3 are also found. Both regressive and transgressive depositional cycles are well-preserved in the succession. We propose that palaeodune and palaeobeach deposits along the South Coast of South Africa have no clear preference for deposition during sea-level transgressions or regressions. Sediment deposition more closely mirrors the rate of sea level change, with deposition and preservation either during times of rapid sea-level movement, or oscillation

  9. Volcanogenic massive sulfide occurrence model: Chapter C in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Koski, Randolph A.; Mosier, Dan L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Slack, John F.; Ridley, W. Ian; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Thurston, Roland


    Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, also known as volcanic-hosted massive sulfide, volcanic-associated massive sulfide, or seafloor massive sulfide deposits, are important sources of copper, zinc, lead, gold, and silver (Cu, Zn, Pb, Au, and Ag). These deposits form at or near the seafloor where circulating hydrothermal fluids driven by magmatic heat are quenched through mixing with bottom waters or porewaters in near-seafloor lithologies. Massive sulfide lenses vary widely in shape and size and may be podlike or sheetlike. They are generally stratiform and may occur as multiple lenses.

  10. Beta-amyloid deposition in patients with major depressive disorder with differing levels of treatment resistance: a pilot study. (United States)

    Li, Peng; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Huang, She-Yao; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Lin, Kun-Ju


    Lack of treatment response in patients with late-life depression is common. The role of brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in treatment outcome in subjects with late-life depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate brain Aβ deposition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with differing treatment outcomes in vivo using (18)F-florbetapir imaging. This study included 62 MDD patients and 18 healthy control subjects (HCs).We first employed the Maudsley staging method (MSM) to categorize MDD patients into two groups according to treatment response: mild treatment resistance (n = 29) and moderate-to-severe treatment resistance (n = 33).The standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) of each volume of interest was analysed, and voxel-wise comparisons were made between the MDD patients and HCs. Vascular risk factors, serum homocysteine level, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also determined. The MDD patients with moderate-to-severe treatment resistance had higher (18)F-florbetapir SUVRs than the HCs in the parietal region (P depressive symptoms may represent prodromal manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Depressive symptomatology in old age, particularly in subjects with a poor treatment response, may underscore early changes of AD-related pathophysiology.

  11. Communicating uncertainties in assessments of future sea level rise (United States)

    Wikman-Svahn, P.


    How uncertainty should be managed and communicated in policy-relevant scientific assessments is directly connected to the role of science and the responsibility of scientists. These fundamentally philosophical issues influence how scientific assessments are made and how scientific findings are communicated to policymakers. It is therefore of high importance to discuss implicit assumptions and value judgments that are made in policy-relevant scientific assessments. The present paper examines these issues for the case of scientific assessments of future sea level rise. The magnitude of future sea level rise is very uncertain, mainly due to poor scientific understanding of all physical mechanisms affecting the great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, which together hold enough land-based ice to raise sea levels more than 60 meters if completely melted. There has been much confusion from policymakers on how different assessments of future sea levels should be interpreted. Much of this confusion is probably due to how uncertainties are characterized and communicated in these assessments. The present paper draws on the recent philosophical debate on the so-called "value-free ideal of science" - the view that science should not be based on social and ethical values. Issues related to how uncertainty is handled in scientific assessments are central to this debate. This literature has much focused on how uncertainty in data, parameters or models implies that choices have to be made, which can have social consequences. However, less emphasis has been on how uncertainty is characterized when communicating the findings of a study, which is the focus of the present paper. The paper argues that there is a tension between on the one hand the value-free ideal of science and on the other hand usefulness for practical applications in society. This means that even if the value-free ideal could be upheld in theory, by carefully constructing and hedging statements characterizing

  12. Assessing the risk of nitrogen deposition to natural resources in the Four Corners area (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne; Floyd-Hanna, Lisa; Crews, Tim; Herring, Jack; Hanna, Dave; Miller, Mark E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Roybal, Carla M.


    Nitrogen (N) deposition in the western U.S. is on the rise and is already dramatically affecting terrestrial ecosystems. For example, N deposition has repeatedly been shown to lower air and water quality, increase greenhouse gas emissions, alter plant community composition, and significantly modify fire regimes. Accordingly, the effects of N deposition represent one of our largest environmental challenges and make difficult the National Park Service’s (NPS) important mission to “preserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife… unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations”. Due to increased population growth and energy development (e.g., natural gas wells), the Four Corners region has become a notable ‘hotspot’ for N deposition. However, our understanding of how increased N deposition will affect these unique ecosystems, as well as how much deposition is actually occurring, remains notably poor. Here we used a multi-disciplinary approach to gathering information in an effort to help NPS safeguard the Four Corners national parks, both now and into the future. We applied modeling, field, and laboratory techniques to clarify current N deposition gradients and to help elucidate the ecosystem consequences of N deposition to the national parks of the Four Corners area. Our results suggest that NOx deposition does indeed represent a significant source of N to Mesa Verde National Park and, as expected, N deposition significantly affects coupled biogeochemical cycling (N, carbon, and phosphorus) of these landscapes. We also found some surprising results. For example, perhaps due to the low nutrient availability in these (and other) dryland ecosystems, although most other research suggests that adding N reduces N fixation rates, N additions did not consistently reduce natural N inputs via biological N2 fixation at our dryland sites. While the timeline of this pilot project is too brief to elucidate all the potential insight from

  13. Biostratigraphic correlation of Pleistocene marine deposits and sea levels, Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.


    Marine ostracodes from 50 localities were studied to determine the age and elevation of Pleistocene sea levels in the Atlantic coastal plain from Maryland to northern Florida. Using ostracode taxon and concurrent ranges, published planktic biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and radiometric data, ostracode assemblage zones representing early (1.8-1.0 my), middle (0.7-0.4 my), and late (0.3-0.01 my) Pleistocene deposition were recognized and used as a basis for correlation. Ostracode biofacies signifying lagoonal, oyster bank, estuarine, open sound, and inner sublittoral environments provided estimated ranges of paleodepths for each locality. From these data the following minimum and maximum Pleistocene sea-level estimates were determined for the southeastern coastal plain: late Pleistocene, 2-10 m from Maryland to northern Florida; middle Pleistocene, 6-15 m in northern South Carolina; early Pleistocene, 4-22 m in central North Carolina, 13-35 m in southern North Carolina, and 6-27 m in South Carolina. Climatically induced glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations adequately account for the late Pleistocene sea-level data, but other factors, possibly differential crustal uplift, may have complicated the early Pleistocene record. ?? 1980.

  14. Use of artificial trees to assess dry deposition in spruce stands (United States)

    Dambrine, E.; Pollier, B.; Bonneau, M.; Ignatova, N.

    In order to quantify the contribution of dry deposition to net throughfall composition in spruce, plastic Christmas trees were set up next to real spruce trees of approximately similar height in clearings of the Strengbach catchment (Vosges Mountains, France). Bulk precipitation and throughfall chemistry under the artificial trees, the real spruce trees, and in 3 spruce stands aged 15, 35 and 90 yr were monitored for 8.5 months. Fluxes of base cations in net throughfall below plastic trees were, on average, 1.5 times higher (Ca, Mg), 1.3 times higher (Na) or close (K, Mn) to those in bulk precipitation. Ratios in net throughfall between the fluxes of Ca, Mg, K and Mn, on the one hand, and Na on the other hand, were considered as representative of the composition of dry deposition. Assuming that foliar leaching of Na was negligible, the ratio between Na fluxes in net throughfall under living and plastic canopies was used as a particle deposition index. Using this index, particulate deposition was computed for the real spruce trees in the clearings as well as in the 3 closed stands. Results confirmed that the Ca and Mg flux in net throughfall was mainly supplied by dry deposition whereas K and Mn originated from foliar leaching. The increase in net throughfall fluxes of Ca and Mg with stand age appeared mainly related to an increase in dry deposition.

  15. Indices using external measurements for assessing fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. (United States)

    Kato, Takuya; Uno, Taiki; Fujioka, Yoshiyuki; Hayama, Shin-Ichi


    We examined the use of external measurements and relative fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) to develop relative indices of body fat deposition in post-growth feral raccoons. From March 2006 to March 2010, 288 adult raccoon carcasses (110 males, 178 females) collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, which were determined to be 24 months old, were subjected to external measurements of body weight (BW), girth measurement (GM), and body mass index (BMI). To assess relative body fat deposition, we visually classified abdominal subcutaneous fat into three grades (Visible Fat Index [VFI]: I-III). Significant differences in the means of BW (both sexes:P<0.01), GM (females: P<0.05, males: P<0.01), and BMI (both sexes: P<0.01) were detected between seasons. Notably, the means of BW, GM, and BMI (all, both sexes: P<0.01) differed significantly between VFI grades. However, by discriminant analysis with BW, GM, and BMI as independent variables, we obtained a significant discriminant function (both sexes: P<0.01) for distinguishing VFI I from higher VFI grades, but no significant equation was obtained for distinguishing between VFI II and VFI III. Based on the obtained structure matrix of discriminant analysis, BMI was the most valuable component for the discrimination of VFI grades. Thus, we conclude that BMI is a suitable complementary index for assessing relative body fat deposition of adult feral raccoons in Kanagawa Prefecture and may be generalizable to populations in other areas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich


    Full Text Available Currently, prospecting and design-related works are performed prior to the upcoming launch of mining operations at Klen gold and silver deposit in Chukot Autonomous District. The anthropogenic impact of the geological exploration in this intact territory has been produced since 1984. A considerable amount of borehole drilling, prospecting, road building, and temporary housing development has been performed. The engineering research, including ecological surveys, has been completed to assess the ecological impact of upcoming exploratory and mining operations at the deposit. Assessment of the geochemical condition of the landscape constituents, including the soil, ground and bottom sediments is of special importance in terms of their engineering protection and rational management of the natural environment. The above assessments were based on the field sampling made by «Sibgeoconsulting», CJSC (Krasnoyarsk and the laboratory research made by accredited laboratories of Federal State Unitary Geological Enterprise «Urangeolograzvedka» (Irkutsk and «Krasnoyarskgeologiya» (Krasnoyarsk. The analysis of the chemical pollution of soils, ground and bottom sediments is based on the examination of 30 samples. Peculiarities of the chemical composition of samples extracted at the deposit were identified. It has been discovered that pH values of the soil vary from 5.1 to 7.3. The concentration of metal in bottom sediments exceeds its concentration in the soil by far. Almost all irregular features of the sample water in the whole territory of the deposit are caused by the anthropogenic impact. In general, the metal content in soils, ground and bottom sediments within the territory of the deposit is slightly different from the regular clarke.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Razvan CRISAN


    Full Text Available Transparency in the public sector is of paramount importance for the general sentiment of trust in the system itself, as public servants are publicly accountable for the use of and effects on public resources. In this respect, ensuring an increase in transparency would allow these public servants to discharge accountability accordingly and would provide the necessary frame for assessment of public resource use from stakeholders. This paper aims to determine whether transparency levels are adequate in the case of Romanian public universities, using a refined assessment tool which consists of multiple criteria based on principles and required elements for the reduction of information asymmetry. Our findings show that overall, in the case of Romanian public universities, the transparency level is high and there is a prerequisite to ensure the fair judgement from stakeholders.

  18. Screening-Level Ecological Risk Assessment Methods, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirenda, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document provides guidance for screening-level assessments of potential adverse impacts to ecological resources from release of environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The methods presented are based on two objectives, namely: to provide a basis for reaching consensus with regulators, managers, and other interested parties on how to conduct screening-level ecological risk investigations at the Laboratory; and to provide guidance for ecological risk assessors under the Environmental Programs (EP) Directorate. This guidance promotes consistency, rigor, and defensibility in ecological screening investigations and in reporting those investigation results. The purpose of the screening assessment is to provide information to the risk managers so informed riskmanagement decisions can be made. This document provides examples of recommendations and possible risk-management strategies.

  19. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail:


    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  20. Sinks and sources: Assessing microplastic abundance in river sediment and deposit feeders in an Austral temperate urban river system. (United States)

    Nel, Holly A; Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J


    Microplastics are important novel pollutants in freshwaters but their behaviour in river sediments is poorly understood due to the large amounts of coloured dissolved organic matter that impede sample processing. The present study aimed to 1.) estimate the microplastic pollution dynamics in an urban river system experiencing temporal differences in river flow, and 2.) investigate the potential use of chironomids as indicators of microplastic pollution levels in degraded freshwater environments. Microplastic levels were estimated from sediment and Chironomus spp. larvae collected from various sites along the Bloukrans River system, in the Eastern Cape South Africa during the summer and winter season. River flow, water depth, channel width, substrate embeddedness and sediment organic matter were simultaneously collected from each site. The winter season was characterised by elevated microplastic abundances, likely as a result of lower energy and increased sediment deposition associated with reduced river flow. In addition, results showed that particle distribution may be governed by various other external factors, such as substrate type and sediment organic matter. The study further highlighted that deposit feeders associated with the benthic river habitats, namely Chironomus spp. ingest microplastics and that the seasonal differences in sediment microplastic dynamics were reflected in chironomid microplastic abundance. There was a positive, though weakly significant relationship between deposit feeders and sediment suggesting that deposit feeders such as Chironomus spp. larvae could serve as an important indicator of microplastic loads within freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of multiple geophysical techniques for the characterization of municipal waste deposit sites (United States)

    Gaël, Dumont; Tanguy, Robert; Nicolas, Marck; Frédéric, Nguyen


    In this study, we tested the ability of geophysical methods to characterize a large technical landfill installed in a former sand quarry. The geophysical surveys specifically aimed at delimitating the deposit site horizontal extension, at estimating its thickness and at characterizing the waste material composition (the moisture content in the present case). The site delimitation was conducted with electromagnetic (in-phase and out-of-phase) and magnetic (vertical gradient and total field) methods that clearly showed the transition between the waste deposit and the host formation. Regarding waste deposit thickness evaluation, electrical resistivity tomography appeared inefficient on this particularly thick deposit site. Thus, we propose a combination of horizontal to vertical noise spectral ratio (HVNSR) and multichannel analysis of the surface waves (MASW), which successfully determined the approximate waste deposit thickness in our test landfill. However, ERT appeared to be an appropriate tool to characterize the moisture content of the waste, which is of prior information for the organic waste biodegradation process. The global multi-scale and multi-method geophysical survey offers precious information for site rehabilitation studies, water content mitigation processes for enhanced biodegradation or landfill mining operation planning.

  2. Deep repository - engineered barrier systems. Assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, David; Moren, Lena; Sellin, Patrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Keto, Paula [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)


    The main objectives of this report are to: 1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, 2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, 3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, 4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, 5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling project can be divided into three main categories: 1. Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 230), and one high and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The high-grade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. 2. Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (0, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The relationships between dry densities and hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and compressibility in saturated state for these materials were investigated. Most of the tests were performed with a groundwater salinity of 3.5%. This salinity is comparable to sea water and can be expected to be at the high end of salinities occurring during the assessment period. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the dry densities required to meet the function indicator criteria. These densities are referred to as the density criteria. However throughout the assessment period a loss of material and thus

  3. Comparison of motor competence levels on two assessments across childhood. (United States)

    Ré, Alessandro H N; Logan, Samuel W; Cattuzzo, Maria T; Henrique, Rafael S; Tudela, Mariana C; Stodden, David F


    This study compared performances and motor delay classifications for the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition (TGMD-2) and the Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder (KTK) in a sample of 424 healthy children (47% girls) between 5 and 10 years of age. Low-to-moderate correlations (r range = 0.34-0.52) were found between assessments across age. In general, both boys and girls demonstrated higher raw scores across age groups. However, percentile scores indicated younger children outperformed older children, denoting a normative percentile-based decrease in motor competence (MC) in the older age groups. In total, the TGMD-2 and KTK classified 39.4% and 18.4% children, respectively, as demonstrating very low MC (percentile ≤5). In conclusion, the TGMD-2 classified significantly more children with motor delays than the KTK and the differences between children's motor skill classification levels by these assessments became greater as the age groups increased. Therefore, the TGMD-2 may demonstrate more susceptibility to sociocultural influences and be more influenced by cumulative motor experiences throughout childhood. Low-to-moderate correlations between assessments also suggest the TGMD-2 and KTK may measure different aspects of MC. As such, it may be important to use multiple assessments to comprehensively assess motor competence.

  4. Multimodular assessment of a calcified extraradicular deposit on the root surfaces of a mandibular molar. (United States)

    Petitjean, E; Mavridou, A; Li, X; Hauben, E; Cotti, E; Lambrechts, P


    To achieve a better understanding of a calcified extraradicular deposit on the apical root surfaces of a mandibular first molar associated with a radicular cyst and a sinus tract. A multimodular approach was applied using a combination of multiple investigation methods. This case report presents a mandibular first molar with a calcified extraradicular deposit on the apical root surfaces of both roots. An apical periodontitis lesion was present and a sinus tract served as the only communication with the oral cavity. Diagnosis and treatment planning were based on clinical, radiographic (two- and three-dimensional) and ultrasound examination. The tooth was further analysed after extraction using microscopic imaging, nano-computed tomography (nano-CT), hard- and soft tissue histology and electron probe microanalysis. This multimodular approach revealed the calculus-like appearance and mineral composition of the extraradicular deposit. Multiple hypotheses about its aetiology are discussed. Calcified extraradicular deposits can develop on the apical root surfaces of teeth with apical periodontitis in association with a radicular cyst and sinus tract. A sinus tract can serve as the only communication between the apical lesion and the oral cavity whilst no periodontal defects are present. The interplay of intra-oral radiography, high resolution CBCT, nano-CT, hard tissue histology and EPMA can reveal the calculus-like appearance and composition of the extraradicular deposit. Calcified extraradicular deposits appear hyperechoic on ultrasound imaging and can lead to the occurrence of twinkling artefacts due to their rough mineralized surface. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. State-of-the-art science and environmental assessments: the case of acid deposition (United States)

    Culhane, Paul J.; Armentano, Thomas V.; Friesema, H. Paul


    Scientific quality in a technical policy document is defined in terms of the proportion of contemporary scientific principles on a subject that the document competently discusses. As a case study of the scientific quality of such documents, this articles examines the treatment of acid deposition effects in 126 environmental impact statements on fossil-fuel power plants. On average, the relevant environmental statements cover only a quarter of the eligible scientific principles. Bureaucratic and political factors influence the quality of discussion of acid deposition more than do strictly objective or scientific factors. In particular, public participation and interagency review processes foster relatively thorough consideration of scientific information in environmental impact statements.

  6. Diversity, variation and fairness: Equivalence in national level language assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Weideman


    Full Text Available The post-1994 South African constitution proudly affirms the language diversity of the country, as do subsequent laws, while ministerial policies, both at further and higher education level, similarly promote the use of all 11 official languages in education. However, such recognition of diversity presents several challenges to accommodate potential variation. In language education at secondary school, which is nationally assessed, the variety being promoted immediately raises issues of fairness and equivalence. The final high-stakes examination of learners’ ability in home language at the exit level of their pre-tertiary education is currently contentious in South Africa. It is known, for example, that in certain indigenous languages, the exit level assessments barely discriminate among learners with different abilities, while in other languages they do. For that reason, the Council for Quality Assurance in General and Further Education, Umalusi, has commissioned several reports to attempt to understand the nature of the problem. This article will deal with a discussion of a fourth attempt by Umalusi to solve the problem. That attempt, undertaken by a consortium of four universities, has already delivered six interim reports to this statutory body, and the article will consider some of their content and methodology. In their reconceptualisation of the problem, the applied linguists involved first sought to identify the theoretical roots of the current curriculum in order to articulate more sharply the construct being assessed. That provides the basis for a theoretical justification of the several solutions being proposed, as well as for the preliminary designs of modifications to current, and the introduction of new assessments. The impact of equivalence of measurement as a design requirement will be specifically discussed, with reference to the empirical analyses of results of a number of pilots of equivalent tests in different languages.

  7. Linking Organic Matter Deposition And Iron Mineral Transformations to Groundwater Arsenic Levels in the Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quicksall, A.N.; Bostick, B.C.; Sampson, M.L.


    Enriched As in drinking water wells in south and Southeast Asia has increased the risk of cancer for nearly 100 million people. This enrichment is generally attributed to the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides; however, the complex expression of As enrichment in these areas is not yet well understood. Here, the coupled sedimentological and geochemical factors that contribute to the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater As concentrations in the Mekong River delta, Cambodia in an avulsed scroll bar sequence are examined. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine Fe and As speciation in redox preserved sediment collected from drilled cores. Dissolved As, Fe and S solution concentrations in existing and newly drilled wells (cores) differed considerably depending on their source sedimentology. The rapid burial of organic matter in the scroll bar sequence facilitated the development of extensive Fe-reducing conditions, and As release into the aquifer. In older features organic C levels are high enough to sustain extensive Fe reduction and provide ample SO{sub 4} which is reduced to sulfide. This S reduction impacts As levels; As is sequestered in sulfide minerals outside of the scrollbar sequence, decreasing pore water concentrations. In contrast, As is depleted in sediments from the scroll sequence, and associated with elevated pore water aqueous concentrations. The concentration and form of organic C in the scrollbar sequence is related to depositional environment, and can facilitate Fe and S mineral transformations, distinct sedimentary environments explain a portion of the inherent heterogeneity of aquifer As concentrations.

  8. High performance few-layer MoS2 transistor arrays with wafer level homogeneity integrated by atomic layer deposition (United States)

    Zhang, Tianbao; Wang, Yang; Xu, Jing; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Hao; Sun, Qingqing; Ding, Shijin; Zhang, David Wei


    Wafer-level integration of 2D transition metal disulfide is the key factor for future large-scale integration of the continuously scaling-down devices, and has attracted great attention in recent years. Compared with other ultra-thin film growth methods, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has the advantages of excellent step coverage, uniformity and thickness controllability. In this work, we synthesized large-scale and thickness-controllable MoS2 films on sapphire substrate by ALD at 150 °C with molybdenum hexcarbonyl and hexamethyldisilathiane (HMDST) as precursors followed by high-temperature annealing in sulfur atmosphere. HMDST is introduced for the first time to enable a toxic-free process without hazardous sulfur precursors such as H2S and CH3SSCH3. The synthesized MoS2 retains the inherent benefits from the ALD process, including thickness controllability, reproducibility, wafer-level thickness uniformity, and high conformity. Finally, field-effect transistor (FET) arrays were fabricated based on the large-area ALD MoS2 films. The top-gate FETs exhibited excellent electrical performance such as high on/off current ratio over 103 and peak room-temperature mobility up to 11.56 cm2 V‑1 s‑1. This work opens up an attractive approach to realize the application of high-quality 2D materials with wafer scale homogeneity.

  9. How to Assess the Biomechanical Risk Levels in Beekeeping. (United States)

    Maina, G; Rossi, F; Baracco, A


    Beekeepers are at particular risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders, but many of the studies lack detailed exposure assessment. To evaluate the biomechanical overload exposure in a specific farming activity, a multitasking model has been developed through the characterization of 37 basic operational tasks typical of the beekeeping activity. The Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) Checklist and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Index methodologies have been applied to these elementary tasks to evaluate the exposure, and the resulting risk indices have been time-weighted averaged. Finally, an easy access, computer-assisted toolkit has been developed to help the beekeepers in the biomechanical risk assessment process. The risk of biomechanical overload for the upper limbs ranges from acceptable (maintenance and recovery of woody material and honey packaging with dosing machine tasks) to high (distribution of the top supers) risk level. The risk for back injury is always borderline in women and increases with exposure time, whereas it ranges from acceptable to borderline in men. The definition of the biomechanical risk levels allows for planning of corrective actions aimed at preventing and reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders through engineering, administrative, and behavioral interventions. The methodology can be used for risk assessment in other mainly manual agricultural activities.

  10. Thoracic hyperkyphosis: assessment of the distal fusion level. (United States)

    Lundine, Kristopher; Turner, Peter; Johnson, Michael


    Study Design This is a retrospective study. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the sagittal stable vertebra (SSV) versus the first lordotic vertebra (FLV) as the inferior fusion level in patients undergoing spinal surgery for thoracic hyperkyphosis. The main outcome of interest was the development of distal junctional kyphosis (DJK). Summary of Background Data Prior research has pointed to selection of the FLV for the distal instrumentation level in fusion for thoracic hyperkyphosis. In 2009, Cho et al introduced the concept of the SSV after recognizing the development of DJK despite fusion to the FLV. Methods Patients were reviewed who had undergone spinal fusion for thoracic hyperkyphosis. Preoperative radiographs were reviewed to assess thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, SSV, and FLV. Postoperative radiographs were reviewed to assess curve correction and whether patients developed DJK or implant failure. Results We reviewed 22 patients with a mean age at surgery of 18 (range 14 to 22). Mean preoperative kyphosis was 85 ± 14 degrees, and mean postoperative kyphosis at final follow-up was 59 ± 12 degrees for a mean correction of 26 ± 12 degrees. Eleven patients developed DJK and four patients experienced hardware failure. In 12 patients, the SSV was inferior to the FLV. Rates of DJK when the instrumentation included the SSV or FLV were 13 and 38%, respectively. Conclusions Fusion to the SSV is superior at preventing DJK when compared with fusion to the FLV.

  11. Results of potential exposure assessments during the maintenance and cleanout of deposition equipment (United States)

    Zimmermann, E.; Derrough, S.; Locatelli, D.; Durand, C.; Fromaget, J. L.; Lefranc, E.; Ravanel, X.; Garrione, J.


    This study is a compilation of results obtained during the cleanout of deposition equipment such as chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition The measurement campaigns aimed to evaluate the potential exposure to nanoaerosols in the occupational environment and were conducted in the workspace. The characterization of aerosols includes measurements of the concentration using condensation particle counters and measurements of the size distribution using fast mobility particle sizer, scanning mobility particle sizer, and electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Particles were sampled using collection membranes placed on the ELPIs stages. The samples were analyzed with an SEM-EDS to provide information including size, shape, agglomeration state, and the chemical composition of the particles. The majority of the time, no emission of nanoparticles (NPs) was measured during the use of the molecular deposition equipment or when opening the chambers, mainly due to the enclosed processes. On the other hand, the maintenance of the equipment, and especially the cleanout step, could induce high concentrations of NPs in the workplace following certain processes. Values of around 1 million particles/cm3 were detected with a size distribution including a high concentration of particles around 10 nm.

  12. Results of potential exposure assessments during the maintenance and cleanout of deposition equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, E., E-mail:; Derrough, S.; Locatelli, D.; Durand, C.; Fromaget, J. L.; Lefranc, E.; Ravanel, X.; Garrione, J. [Nanosafety Platform, CEA, DRT (France)


    This study is a compilation of results obtained during the cleanout of deposition equipment such as chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition The measurement campaigns aimed to evaluate the potential exposure to nanoaerosols in the occupational environment and were conducted in the workspace. The characterization of aerosols includes measurements of the concentration using condensation particle counters and measurements of the size distribution using fast mobility particle sizer, scanning mobility particle sizer, and electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Particles were sampled using collection membranes placed on the ELPIs stages. The samples were analyzed with an SEM-EDS to provide information including size, shape, agglomeration state, and the chemical composition of the particles. The majority of the time, no emission of nanoparticles (NPs) was measured during the use of the molecular deposition equipment or when opening the chambers, mainly due to the enclosed processes. On the other hand, the maintenance of the equipment, and especially the cleanout step, could induce high concentrations of NPs in the workplace following certain processes. Values of around 1 million particles/cm{sup 3} were detected with a size distribution including a high concentration of particles around 10 nm.

  13. Solution and vapour deposited lead perovskite solar cells: Ecotoxicity from a life cycle assessment perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Urbina, Antonio


    We present a life cycle analysis (LCA) and an environmental impact analysis (EIA) of lead based perovskite solar cells prepared according to the two most successfully reported literature methods that comprise either vapour phase deposition or solution phase deposition. We have developed the inven......We present a life cycle analysis (LCA) and an environmental impact analysis (EIA) of lead based perovskite solar cells prepared according to the two most successfully reported literature methods that comprise either vapour phase deposition or solution phase deposition. We have developed...... in the analysis and further present a sensitivity analysis with the operational lifetime as a basis. We find that the major impact comes from the preparation of the perovskite absorber layer due to the electrical energy required in the manufacture and also make the striking observation that the impact of toxic...... lead(II)halides is very limited compared to methylammoniumhalides employed. This applies during the raw materials extraction, synthesis of the starting materials and manufacture of the perovskite solar cells and from these points of view the lead based perovskite solar cells do not pose extra concerns...

  14. Bioprinting: an assessment based on manufacturing readiness levels. (United States)

    Wu, Changsheng; Wang, Ben; Zhang, Chuck; Wysk, Richard A; Chen, Yi-Wen


    Over the last decade, bioprinting has emerged as a promising technology in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. With recent advances in additive manufacturing, bioprinting is poised to provide patient-specific therapies and new approaches for tissue and organ studies, drug discoveries and even food manufacturing. Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) is a method that has been applied to assess manufacturing maturity and to identify risks and gaps in technology-manufacturing transitions. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is used to evaluate the maturity of a technology. This paper reviews recent advances in bioprinting following the MRL scheme and addresses corresponding MRL levels of engineering challenges and gaps associated with the translation of bioprinting from lab-bench experiments to ultimate full-scale manufacturing of tissues and organs. According to our step-by-step TRL and MRL assessment, after years of rigorous investigation by the biotechnology community, bioprinting is on the cusp of entering the translational phase where laboratory research practices can be scaled up into manufacturing products specifically designed for individual patients.

  15. Objectively assessed physical activity levels in Spanish cancer survivors. (United States)

    Ruiz-Casado, Ana; Verdugo, Ana Soria; Solano, María J Ortega; Aldazabal, Itziar Pagola; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Alejo, Lidia Brea; del Hierro, Julio R Padilla; Palomo, Isabel; Aguado-Arroyo, Oscar; Garatachea, Nuria; Cebolla, Héctor; Lucia, Alejandro


    To objectively assess physical activity (PA) levels in a cohort of Spanish cancer survivors. Descriptive, cross-sectional. The Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada and two healthcare centers in Madrid, Spain. 204 cancer survivors and 115 adults with no history of cancer. Participants wore a triaxial accelerometer for seven or more consecutive days to assess PA levels. Body mass index (BMI), indirect indicators of adiposity (waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio), and cardiorespiratory fitness also were determined. Light, moderate, vigorous, and total PA (sum of the former). Most (94%) of the cancer survivors met international recommendations for moderate PA, but very few (3%) fulfilled those (75 minutes or more per week) for vigorous PA. Except for lower total (minute per day, p=0.048) and vigorous PA levels (p0.05). A high percentage of the survivors (33%) were obese (BMI greater than 30 kg/m2), and many also showed poor cardiorespiratory fitness (45% were below the 8 metabolic equivalent threshold). Although cancer survivors overall met international PA recommendations for a healthy lifestyle, their BMI and cardiorespiratory profiles were not within the healthy range. Cancer survivors need to be informed about healthy lifestyle habits and should be regularly monitored.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others


    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project.

  17. Quantification of vertical movement of low elevation topography combining a new compilation of global sea-level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, western France) (United States)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Braun, Jean; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel


    A wide range of methods are available to quantify Earth's surface vertical movements but most of these methods cannot track low amplitude (5 Ma, e.g. cosmogenic isotope studies) vertical movements characteristic of plate interiors. The difference between the present-day elevation of ancient sea-level markers (deduced from well dated marine deposits corrected from their bathymetry of deposition) and a global sea-level (GSL) curve are sometimes used to estimate these intraplate vertical movements. Here, we formalized this method by re-assessing the reliability of published GSL curves to build a composite curve that combines the most reliable ones at each stage, based on the potential bias and uncertainties inherent to each curve. We suggest i) that curves which reflect ocean basin volume changes are suitable for the ca. 100 to 35 Ma ;greenhouse; period ii) whereas curves that reflects ocean water volume changes are better suited for the ca. 35 to 0 Ma ;icehouse; interval and iii) that, for these respective periods, the fit is best when using curves that accounts for both volume changes. We used this composite GSL curve to investigate the poorly constrained Paleogene to Neogene vertical motions of the Armorican Massif (western France). It is characterized by a low elevation topography, a Variscan basement with numerous well dated Cenozoic marine deposits scattered upon it. Using our method, we identify low amplitude vertical movements ranging from 66 m of subsidence to 89 m of uplift over that time period. Their spatial distribution argues for a preferred scale of deformation at medium wavelengths (i.e., order 100 km), which we relate to the deformation history of northwestern European lithosphere in three distinct episodes. i) A phase of no deformation between 38 and 34 Ma, that has been previously recognized at the scale of northwestern Europe, ii) a phase of low subsidence between 30 and 3.6 Ma, possibly related to buckling of the lithosphere and iii) a phase of

  18. Task-Level vs. Segment-Level Quantitative Metrics for Surgical Skill Assessment. (United States)

    Vedula, S Swaroop; Malpani, Anand; Ahmidi, Narges; Khudanpur, Sanjeev; Hager, Gregory; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace


    Task-level metrics of time and motion efficiency are valid measures of surgical technical skill. Metrics may be computed for segments (maneuvers and gestures) within a task after hierarchical task decomposition. Our objective was to compare task-level and segment (maneuver and gesture)-level metrics for surgical technical skill assessment. Our analyses include predictive modeling using data from a prospective cohort study. We used a hierarchical semantic vocabulary to segment a simple surgical task of passing a needle across an incision and tying a surgeon's knot into maneuvers and gestures. We computed time, path length, and movements for the task, maneuvers, and gestures using tool motion data. We fit logistic regression models to predict experience-based skill using the quantitative metrics. We compared the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for task-level, maneuver-level, and gesture-level models. Robotic surgical skills training laboratory. In total, 4 faculty surgeons with experience in robotic surgery and 14 trainee surgeons with no or minimal experience in robotic surgery. Experts performed the task in shorter time (49.74s; 95% CI = 43.27-56.21 vs. 81.97; 95% CI = 69.71-94.22), with shorter path length (1.63m; 95% CI = 1.49-1.76 vs. 2.23; 95% CI = 1.91-2.56), and with fewer movements (429.25; 95% CI = 383.80-474.70 vs. 728.69; 95% CI = 631.84-825.54) than novices. Experts differed from novices on metrics for individual maneuvers and gestures. The AUCs were 0.79; 95% CI = 0.62-0.97 for task-level models, 0.78; 95% CI = 0.6-0.96 for maneuver-level models, and 0.7; 95% CI = 0.44-0.97 for gesture-level models. There was no statistically significant difference in AUC between task-level and maneuver-level (p = 0.7) or gesture-level models (p = 0.17). Maneuver-level and gesture-level metrics are discriminative of surgical skill and can be used to provide targeted feedback to surgical trainees. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program

  19. An assessment ofvitamin D serum levels in allergic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rustecka


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a worldwide increase in the incidence of allergy, particularly in the paediatric population. The most common allergic conditions include asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergies and urticaria. There are a number of publications showing the importance of serum vitamin D levels in atopic diseases. The effects of vitamin D on the balance between Th1 and Th2 lymphocyte-mediated immune response as well as the antiinflammatory effects by limiting TNF-α overproduction are emphasised. The role of vitamin D in the formation of natural endogenous antibiotics and antimicrobials, such as defensins and cathelicidins, is also known. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to assess serum vitamin D levels in allergic children. Material and methods: Children diagnosed with allergy and/or monitored for atopic disease as well as children with recurrent respiratory infections were included in the study. The children were diagnosed and treated at the Department of Paediatrics, Paediatric Nephrology and Allergology of the Military Institute of Medicine in the period from September 2011 to August 2013. A total of 60 children were qualified to a group with allergy diagnosis (group I, and 49 children formed a group with recurrent respiratory infections (group II. Vitamin D levels were measured in 109 children aged from 2 months to 18 years. Results: Low levels of vitamin D (below the normal limit were shown in both paediatric groups. No statistically significant (p = 0.25 effects of the season on vitamin D levels were found in the whole evaluated population of children. A statistically significant (p < 0.0001 negative correlation was shown between vitamin D serum levels and the age of the assessed children (vitamin D levels decreased with age.

  20. Assessment of Communication Skills Level among Healthcare Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barati


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Communication skills are the most important characteristics for healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to assess communication skills level and its related factors among healthcare practitioners in Bahar-Hamadan.Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 309 employees in Bahar health care system. Data-gathering tools consisted of a 3-part questionnaire: communication skills level measuring feedback, listening, and verbal communication. Subjects’ demographic variables such as age, gender, education level and job were also recorded. The obtained data was analyzed by means of the statistical software SPSS-13 using coefficient correlation, liner regression, t-test, and One-way Anova.Results: The subjects reported 62.2, 57.1, and 60.2% of receivable scores of verbal, listening, and feedback communication, respectively. Overall communication skills of 27.8% of the participants were evaluated at the desired level. Significant differences were observed in average score of communication skills related to age, gender, education degree, employment status, workhouse, and experience (P<0.05. In liner regression, factors influencing communication skills were age, gender, and education degree (P< 0.05.Conclusion: The results reveal that the communication skills of more than half of the medical practitioners are weak and moderate. It is recommended to design some program to improve medical practitioners' communication skills. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:62-69

  1. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods. (United States)

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan


    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions.

  2. Assessment of soy aeroallergen levels in different work environments. (United States)

    Gómez-Ollés, S; Cruz, M J; Bogdanovic, J; Wouters, I M; Doekes, G; Sander, I; Morell, F; Rodrigo, M J


    Airborne soybean hull proteins are known causes of asthma epidemics around harbours and soy processing plants. Soy flour dust proteins may cause occupational allergy in food and feed industries. To compare enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for soy hull and soy flour aeroallergens, exposure assessment in various work environments. Airborne dust samples (n=324) from soy unloading and/or processing plants, the animal feed industry and pig stables were analysed by two soy flour assays: one assay for measuring complete soy hull proteins and two assays for measuring the purified low-molecular-weight (LMW) soy hull allergens. Immunoblotting confirmed strong differences between antibody specificities and soy preparations. The results of the two soy flour assays and the assay for measuring complete soy hull proteins were highly correlated (r>0.85). The two LMW soy hull assays also showed a strong mutual correlation (r=0.91), but much less correlation with assays for measuring soy flour and complete soy hull. The levels of LMW soy hull proteins were the highest at sites of soybean unloading or processing, while soy flour levels were particularly high in the soy and animal feed industry. The optimal EIA procedure for soy aeroallergen exposure assessment depends on the type of work environment and the local soy dust composition. Thus, the type of work environment should always be taken into account in future soy allergy studies in order to prevent a possible underestimation of the workers' actual risk of developing soy allergy.

  3. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others


    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project.

  4. Low-level doping of nitrogen to multilayered graphene by chemical vapor deposition of methane including melamine vapor (United States)

    Bandow, Shunji; Yoshida, Takahiro


    Growth of graphene doped with the low level of nitrogen is carried out on the copper foil by conventional chemical vapor deposition. Melamine is used as nitrogen source. Melamine vapor is generated by heating and carried by an argon flow (carrier flow) to a main flow of Ar including methane. Ratio of the number of molecules, melamine/methane, is controlled by changing the mixing rate of the carrier flow and the main flow. Measurements of Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and sheet resistance clarify the feature of prepared sample. At low melamine/methane ratio in the order of 10-3, quaternary N doped graphene is grown. Then the growth of pyridinic N doped graphene is going to start as increasing the melamine/methane ratio in the order of 10-2. Magnitude of the sheet resistance per one graphene layer decreases by 75% when the nitrogen is in the quaternary site, while it increases twice or more when the pyridine-like configuration increases.

  5. Assessment of atmospheric trace metal deposition in urban environments using direct and indirect measurement methodology and contributions from wet and dry depositions (United States)

    Omrani, Mehrazin; Ruban, Véronique; Ruban, Gwenaël; Lamprea, Katerine


    Bulk Atmospheric Deposition (BAD), Wet Atmospheric Deposition (WAD) and Dry Atmospheric Deposition (DAD) were all measured within an urban residential area in Nantes (France) over a 9-month period (27 February - 10 December 2014). The objectives of this study were to compare 2 methods for measuring dry and wet atmospheric depositions in the urban environment (DAD and WAD: direct method; BAD and WAD: indirect one), and to characterize as well the variations and relative contributions of these depositions. Trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pt and V) were used to carry out these comparison and quantification. BAD was collected with two open polyethylene containers (72 × 54 × 21 cm), while WAD was collected by means of an automated rainwater collector and DAD was determined from both air measurements (recorded by an air sampler) and 7Be deposition velocities. The comparison based on a detailed evaluation of uncertainties showed a significant difference between the direct and indirect methods. Dry and wet depositions varied widely from one month to the next. Zn and Cu were the most abundant elements in both dry and wet depositions. The mean contribution of DAD to the bulk atmospheric deposition during this 9-month study was significant for Zn, Cu and V (about 25%) as well as for Pb (approx. 60%). For this relatively unpolluted urban residential catchment, the contribution of atmospheric deposition to global load at the catchment outlet was low, between 10% and 20% for Zn, Cu, V and Pb, 25% for Cr and about 30% for Ni. For other urban sites exhibiting high atmospheric pollution however, the atmospheric contribution to the global pollution load could be much greater. An accurate and representative estimation of DAD thus proves critical.

  6. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition improves memory and reduces total tau levels in a mouse model of tau deposition. (United States)

    Selenica, Maj-Linda; Benner, Leif; Housley, Steven B; Manchec, Barbara; Lee, Daniel C; Nash, Kevin R; Kalin, Jay; Bergman, Joel A; Kozikowski, Alan; Gordon, Marcia N; Morgan, Dave


    Tau pathology is associated with a number of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Few treatments have been demonstrated to diminish the impact of tau pathology in mouse models and none are yet effective in humans. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an enzyme that removes acetyl groups from cytoplasmic proteins, rather than nuclear histones. Its substrates include tubulin, heat shock protein 90 and cortactin. Tubastatin A is a selective inhibitor of HDAC6. Modification of tau pathology by specific inhibition of HDAC6 presents a potential therapeutic approach in tauopathy. We treated rTg4510 mouse models of tau deposition and non-transgenic mice with tubastatin (25 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) from 5 to 7 months of age. Cognitive behavior analysis, histology and biochemical analysis were applied to access the effect of tubastatin on memory, tau pathology and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume). We present data showing that tubastatin restored memory function in rTg4510 mice and reversed a hyperactivity phenotype. We further found that tubastatin reduced the levels of total tau, both histologically and by western analysis. Reduction in total tau levels was positively correlated with memory improvement in these mice. However, there was no impact on phosphorylated forms of tau, either by histology or western analysis, nor was there an impact on silver positive inclusions histologically. Potential mechanisms by which HDAC6 inhibitors might benefit the rTg4510 mouse include stabilization of microtubules secondary to increased tubulin acetylation, increased degradation of tau secondary to increased acetylation of HSP90 or both. These data support the use of HDAC6 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents against tau pathology.

  7. Determination of low levels of cadmium ions by the under potential deposition on a self-assembled monolayer on gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyhouzer, Tomer [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mandler, Daniel, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)


    The electrochemical determination of low levels of Cd using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified Au electrode is reported. Determination was based on the stripping of Cd, which was deposited by under potential deposition (UPD). A series of short alkanethiol SAMs bearing different end groups, i.e., sulfonate, carboxylate and ammonium, were examined. Lowest level of detection (ca. 50 ng L{sup -1}) was achieved with a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) monolayer using subtractive anodic square wave voltammetry (SASV). Additional surface methods, namely, reductive desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were applied to determine the interfacial structure of the electrodeposited Cd on the modified electrodes. We conclude that the deposited Cd forms a monoatomic layer, which bridges between the gold surface and the alkanethiol monolayer associating with both the gold and the sulfur atoms.

  8. Assessment method for epithermal gold deposits in Northeast Washington State using weights-of-evidence GIS modeling (United States)

    Boleneus, D.E.; Raines, G.L.; Causey, J.D.; Bookstrom, A.A.; Frost, T.P.; Hyndman, P.C.


    The weights-of-evidence analysis, a quantitative mineral resource mapping tool, is used to delineate favorable areas for epithermal gold deposits and to predict future exploration activity of the mineral industry for similar deposits in a four-county area (222 x 277 km), including the Okanogan and Colville National Forests of northeastern Washington. Modeling is applied in six steps: (1) building a spatial digital database, (2) extracting predictive evidence for a particular deposit, based on an exploration model, (3) calculating relative weights for each predictive map, (4) combining the geologic evidence maps to predict the location of undiscovered mineral resources and (5) measuring the intensity of recent exploration activity by use of mining claims on federal lands, and (6) combining mineral resource and exploration activity into an assessment model of future mining activity. The analysis is accomplished on a personal computer using ArcView GIS platform with Spatial Analyst and Weights-of-Evidence software. In accord with the descriptive model for epithermal gold deposits, digital geologic evidential themes assembled include lithologic map units, thrust faults, normal faults, and igneous dikes. Similarly, geochemical evidential themes include placer gold deposits and gold and silver analyses from stream sediment (silt) samples from National Forest lands. Fifty mines, prospects, or occurrences of epithermal gold deposits, the training set, define the appropriate a really-associated terrane. The areal (or spatial) correlation of each evidential theme with the training set yield predictor theme maps for lithology, placer sites and normal faults. The weights-of-evidence analysis disqualified the thrust fault, dike, and gold and silver silt analyses evidential themes because they lacked spatial correlation with the training set. The decision to accept or reject evidential themes as predictors is assisted by considering probabilistic data consisting of weights and

  9. Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    Satish, B N V S; Srikala, P; Maharudrappa, B; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M; Kumar, Prashant; Hugar, Deepa


    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting people worldwide, which require constant monitoring of their glucose levels. Commonly employed procedures include collection of blood or urine samples causing discomfort to the patients. Hence the need for an alternative non invasive technique is required to monitor glucose levels. Saliva present in the oral cavity not only maintains the health of the oral cavity but plays a important role in diagnosis of cancers of the oral cavity, periodontal diseases, HIV, heart diseases etc. The aim of the present study was undertaken to correlate the glucose levels in saliva and blood of diabetic and healthy non diabetic individuals and to determine the efficacy of saliva as a diagnostic tool. A total of 30 individuals of which 20 patients were diabetic patients and on medication and 10 patients were healthy non diabetic individuals were included in the study. Blood and saliva were collected under resting conditions and were subjected to glucose estimation. Salivary and blood glucose concentrations were determined in non diabetic healthy individuals (n=10) and Type II Diabetes mellitus patients (n=20). Glycosylated haemoglobin A1c was also determined in both Type II diabetic patients and Control group and a significant correlation (r=0.73) and (r=0.46) was found between HbA1c and serum glucose concentrations in diabetic and control group respectively. A significant correlation (r=0.54) and (r=0.45) was found between fasting blood glucose and fasting salivary glucose for diabetic group and control group respectively. A positive correlation (r=0.39) and (r=0.38) was found between fasting salivary glucose and HbA1c for diabetic and control group respectively. These findings suggest that the saliva can be used in the assessment of the blood glucose concentration in diabetes mellitus patients. How to cite the article: Satish BN, Srikala P, Maharudrappa B, Awanti M, Kumar P, Hugar D. Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in

  10. Reply to "Critical assessment of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric nitrogen deposition in China" (United States)

    Gu, Fengxue; Zhang, Yuandong; Huang, Mei; Tao, Bo; Yan, Huimin; Guo, Rui; Li, Jie


    In their assessment, Pan et al. (2016) criticize that our estimation of 2.32 g N m-2 yr-1 in 2010 underestimates the total nitrogen (N) deposition amounts by a factor around two by comparing with the estimation of Xu et al. (2015). Our paper entitled "Nitrogen deposition and its effect on carbon storage in Chinese forests during 1981-2010" aims to evaluate the influence of elevated N deposition in China on carbon storage in forest ecosystems by using a process-based model. As limited by observed N deposition dataset availability, we developed a simple algorithm to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations in N deposition based on the relationships among N deposition, precipitation, N fertilizer use, and fuel consumption with reference to the method of Lin et al. (2000). Our results show that the rate of N deposition increased by 0.058 g N m-2 yr-1 between 1981 and 2010. The N deposition rate in 2010 was 2.32 g N m-2 yr-1, and it showed a large spatial variation from 0 to 0.25 g N m-2 yr-1 on the northwestern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to over 4.5 g N m-2 yr-1 in the southeastern China. We really underestimated the total N deposition in China because we were lack of dry deposition observation dataset in our research. However, we think Pan et al. (2016) overestimated the difference between our estimation and that in Xu et al. (2015). It should be encouraged to discuss the past and current status of N deposition in China based on both observation and simulation. All comments, assessments and suggestions contribute to promote the scientific understanding of N deposition and its influence on ecosystems.

  11. Assessing the paleoenvironmental potential of Pliocene to Holocene tufa deposits along the Ghaap Plateau escarpment (South Africa) using stable isotopes (United States)

    Doran, Taylor Louise; Herries, Andy I. R.; Hopley, Philip J.; Sombroek, Hank; Hellstrom, John; Hodge, Ed; Kuhn, Brian F.


    The tufa deposits of the Ghaap Plateau escarpment provide a rich, yet minimally explored, geological archive of climate and environmental history coincident with hominin evolution in South Africa. This study examines the sedimentary and geochemical records of ancient and modern tufas from Buxton-Norlim Limeworks, Groot Kloof, and Gorrokop, to assess the potential of these sediments for providing reliable chronologies of high-resolution, paleoenvironmental information. Chronometric dating demonstrates that tufa formation has occurred from at least the terminal Pliocene through to the modern day. The stable isotope records show a trend toward higher, more variable δ18O and δ13C values with decreasing age from the end of the Pliocene onwards. The long-term increase in δ18O values corresponds to increasingly arid conditions, while increasing δ13C values reflect the changing proportion of C3/C4 vegetation in the local environment. Analysis of the Thabaseek Tufa, in particular, provides valuable evidence for reconstructing the depositional and chronological context of the enigmatic Taung Child (Australopithecus africanus). Collectively, the results of the present study demonstrate the potential of these deposits for developing high-precision records of climate change and, ultimately, for understanding the causal processes relating climate and hominin evolution.

  12. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.


    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  13. Late Quaternary sea level and environmental changes from relic carbonate deposits of the western margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rajagopalan, G.; Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India occur as dolomite crusts, aragonite sands (pelletal / oolitic) and aragonite-cemented limestones, oyster shells, corals, encrusted coralline algal and foraminiferal-dominated nodules...

  14. Atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides: An assessment of current knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pul, W.A.J. van; Bidleman, T.F.; Brorström-Lunden, E.


    there is a shortage of measurement data to evaluate the deposition and reemission processes. It was concluded that the mechanisms of transport and dispersion of pesticides can be described similarly to those for other air pollution components and these mechanisms are rather well-known. Large uncertainties are present...... in the exchange processes at the interface between air and soil/water/vegetation. In all process descriptions the uncertainty in the physicochemical properties play an important role. Particularly those in the vapour pressure, Henry's law constant and its temperature dependency. More accurate data...

  15. Assessment of stress level of forestry experts with academic education. (United States)

    Landekić, Matija; Martinić, Ivan; Lovrić, Marko; Sporcić, Mario


    This paper provides the results of an applied research of forests engineers connected to their risk of mental stress occurrence in everyday work. This paper also has a component of a basic research, in which the adequacy and reliability of applied methodology in this kind of researches is examined. The mental stress induced risk is tested by usage of an e-mail survey which consists out of 23-part ERI (Effort-Reward Imbalance) questionnaire. For the assessment of mental stress exposure level following indicators have been used: 1) ERI--ratio of devoted effort and achieved reward, and 2) overcommitment. These indicators have been analyzed in comparison to the demographic parameters (gender, age) and the complexity of assigned jobs of the interviewees. The interview was applied on a randomly sampled forestry experts employed in public and private sector. The analysis of reliability of the three components of ERI questionnaire has showed satisfactory internal consistency. Descriptive statistics has been done regarding gender and the complexity of assigned jobs. The testing of the "devoted effort/achieved reward" variable (E/R index) has shown a statistically significant difference of the index value between male interviewees on managerial and standard expert positions. The value of E/R index was x > or = 1 at 18.97% of the sampled interviewees, which indicates a divergence between devoted effort and achieved reward, and also points to a possibility of mental stress occurrence risk. Multiple response tables have shown that female interviewees with less than 20 years of professional experience manifest stress related symptoms earlier than their male colleagues with similar professional experience do. Regression analysis has shown a significant correlation of E/R index to gender, internship and overcommitment. This research also assesses the viability of the applied method as an instrument of forestry experts' mental stress level determination.

  16. Aggregation of estimated numbers of undiscovered deposits: an R-script with an example from the Chu Sarysu Basin, Kazakhtan: Chapter B in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Schuenemeyer, John H.; Zientek, Michael L.; Box, Stephen E.


    Mineral resource assessments completed by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past three decades express geologically based estimates of numbers of undiscovered mineral deposits as probability distributions. Numbers of undiscovered deposits of a given type are estimated in geologically defined regions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, these undiscovered deposit estimates are combined with tonnage and grade models to derive a probability distribution describing amounts of commodities and rock that could be present in undiscovered deposits within a study area. In some situations, it is desirable to aggregate the assessment results from several study areas. This report provides a script developed in open-source statistical software, R, that aggregates undiscovered deposit estimates of a given type, assuming independence, total dependence, or some degree of correlation among aggregated areas, given a user-specified correlation matrix.

  17. Late Pleistocene sea-level changes recorded in tidal and fluvial deposits from Itaubal Formation, onshore portion of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Salém Alves Azevedo Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe Pleistocene deposits exposed in the Amapá Coastal Plain (onshore portion of the Foz do Amazonas Basin, northeastern South America were previously interpreted as Miocene in age. In this work, they were named as "Itaubal Formation" and were included in the quaternary coastal history of Amazonia. The study, through facies and stratigraphic analyses in combination with optically stimulated luminescence (single and multiple aliquot regeneration, allowed interpreting this unit as Late Pleistocene tidal and fluvial deposits. The Itaubal Formation, which unconformably overlies strongly weathered basement rocks of the Guianas Shield, was subdivided into two progradational units, separated by an unconformity related to sea-level fall, here named as Lower and Upper Units. The Lower Unit yielded ages between 120,600 (± 12,000 and 70,850 (± 6,700 years BP and consists of subtidal flat, tide-influenced meandering stream and floodplain deposits, during highstand conditions. The Upper Unit spans between 69,150 (± 7,200 and 58,150 (± 6,800 years BP and is characterized by braided fluvial deposits incised in the Lower Unit, related to base-level fall; lowstand conditions remained until 23,500 (± 3,000 years BP. The studied region was likely exposed during the Last Glacial Maximum and then during Holocene, covered by tidal deposits influenced by the Amazon River.

  18. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment. Volume 3, Appendices C, D, E, F, and G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others


    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the third of a three-volume document describing the project and contains descriptions of the probability assessment principles; the expert identification and selection process; the weighting methods used; the inverse modeling methods; case structures; and summaries of the consequence codes.

  19. Assessing enigmatic boulder deposits in NE Aegean Sea: importance of historical sources as tool to support hydrodynamic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vacchi


    Full Text Available Due to their importance in the assessment of coastal hazards, several studies have focused on geomorphological and sedimentological field evidence of catastrophic wave impacts related to historical tsunami events. Among them, many authors used boulder fields as important indicators of past tsunamis, especially in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism of deposition of clusters of large boulders, consisting of beachrock slabs, which were found on the southern coasts of Lesvos Island (NE Aegean Sea. Methods to infer the origin of boulder deposits (tsunami vs. storm wave are often based on hydrodynamic models even if different environmental complexities are difficult to be incorporated into numerical models. In this study, hydrodynamic equations did not provide unequivocal indication of the mechanism responsible for boulder deposition in the study area. Further analyses, ranging from geomorphologic to seismotectonic data, indicated a tsunami as the most likely cause of displacement of the boulders but still do not allow to totally exclude the extreme storm origin. Additional historical investigations (based on tsunami catalogues, historical photos and aged inhabitants interviews indicated that the boulders are likely to have been deposited by the tsunami triggered by the 6.7 Ms Chios-Karaburum earthquake of 1949 or, alternatively, by minor effects of the destructive tsunami produced by 1956's Amorgos Island earthquake. Results of this study point out that, at Mediterranean scale, to flank numerical models with the huge amount of the available historical data become a crucial tool in terms of prevention policies related to catastrophic coastal events.

  20. Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part III. estimation of critical deposition and concentration levels and their exceedances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Reinds, G.J.; Klap, J.M.; Leeuwen, van E.P.; Erisman, J.W.


    The stress by air pollution at the systematic Pan-European 16 x 16 km(2) forest (crown) condition monitoring network, is discussed by comparing site-specific estimates of critical and present concentration and deposition levels for S and N compounds and ozone. Results indicate that the exceedance of

  1. Assessment of air pollutant sources in the deposit on monuments by multivariate analysis. (United States)

    Ozga, Izabela; Ghedini, Nadia; Giosuè, Chiara; Sabbioni, Cristina; Tittarelli, Francesca; Bonazza, Alessandra


    A proper recognition of the pollutant sources in atmospheric deposit is a key problem for any action aiming at reducing their emission, being this an important issue with implications both on human health safeguard and on the cultural heritage conservation in urban sites. This work presents the results of a statistical approach application for the identification of pollutant sources in deposits and damage layers on monuments located in different European sites: Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence (Italy), Cologne Cathedral, Cologne (Germany), Ancient ramparts, Salè (Morocco), National Museum, Cracow (Poland) and National Gallery, Oslo (Norway). For this aim, the surface damage layers on monuments and historical buildings of the selected sites were collected and analyzed, in terms of ionic and elemental composition, through application of ion chromatography and induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The achieved results were processed by multivariate analyses such as correlation matrix and principal component analysis in order to identify the possible origin of pollutants affecting the state of conservation of the monuments. This allowed us to assume that in all case studies the traffic emission is the main pollutant source. In the case of Ancient ramparts, Salè (Morocco), and National Gallery, Oslo (Norway), the surfaces are also under influence of marine aerosols. Moreover, concerning the Cologne Cathedral, the strong impact of the pollutants emitted by railway station was also revealed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)


    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on deposited material and external doses, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  3. Methodology to assess and map the potential development of forest ecosystems exposed to climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition: A pilot study in Germany. (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Jenssen, Martin; Riediger, Jan


    A methodology for mapping ecosystems and their potential development under climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition was developed using examples from Germany. The methodology integrated data on vegetation, soil, climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. These data were used to classify ecosystem types regarding six ecological functions and interrelated structures. Respective data covering 1961-1990 were used for reference. The assessment of functional and structural integrity relies on comparing a current or future state with an ecosystem type-specific reference. While current functions and structures of ecosystems were quantified by measurements, potential future developments were projected by geochemical soil modelling and data from a regional climate change model. The ecosystem types referenced the potential natural vegetation and were mapped using data on current tree species coverage and land use. In this manner, current ecosystem types were derived, which were related to data on elevation, soil texture, and climate for the years 1961-1990. These relations were quantified by Classification and Regression Trees, which were used to map the spatial patterns of ecosystem type clusters for 1961-1990. The climate data for these years were subsequently replaced by the results of a regional climate model for 1991-2010, 2011-2040, and 2041-2070. For each of these periods, one map of ecosystem type clusters was produced and evaluated with regard to the development of areal coverage of ecosystem type clusters over time. This evaluation of the structural aspects of ecological integrity at the national level was added by projecting potential future values of indicators for ecological functions at the site level by using the Very Simple Dynamic soil modelling technique based on climate data and two scenarios of nitrogen deposition as input. The results were compared to the reference and enabled an evaluation of site-specific ecosystem changes over time

  4. Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic age determination of upper Cretaceous Santonian, Campanian and Maastrichtian chondrichthyan teeth of the Atlantic and Eastern Gulf Coastal Plains: Implications for sea level cyclicity and macrofossil time-averaging in depositional sequence lag deposits (United States)

    Becker, Martin Andrew


    Unconformities and fossil rich layers are common elements in the stratigraphic architecture of upper Cretaceous sediments exposed on both the Atlantic and Eastern Gulf Coastal Plains. Contacts between the Eutaw Formation and Tombigbee Sands Member in Alabama, the Blufftown Formation and Cusseta Sands in Georgia and the Wenonah- Mt. Laurel and Navesink Formations in New Jersey are marked by erosional surfaces with overlying blankets and lenses of macrofossil residuum. These contacts correspond to bounding unconformities and transgressive lags separating Santonian-Campanian, lower Campanian-upper Campanian and Campanian-Maastrichtian depositional sequences. Regression and subsequent transgression of sea level at the top of these depositional sequences resulted in hydrodynamic sorting of sediments and fossils that had previously accumulated in shelf and lower shoreface paleoenvironments. Remobilization of sediments by shoreface retreat reworked fossil hard-parts which became concentrated above erosional surfaces as sea level rose. Because of the abundance of chondrichthyan, pelecypod and ammonite fossils, these lags have great biostratigraphic significance and provide a basis for examining time averaging in macrofossil zonation. Chondrichthyan teeth are composed of extremely durable and highly insoluble, biogenic apatite. This tooth apatite accurately records the Sr87/Sr86 isotopic signature of seawater, from which the numerical age of the teeth can be calculated using published age/concentration data. Teeth (e.g. Squalicorax kaupi, Scapanorhynchus texanus) from Santonian-Campanian lag deposits at the contact of the Eutaw Formation and Tombigbee Sands Member in Alabama yield approximate ages of 85-81 Ma. Teeth from lower-upper Campanian lag deposits at the contact of the Blufftown Formation and Cusseta Sands in Georgia yield approximate ages of 83-75 Ma. Teeth from Campanian-Maastrichtian lag deposits at the contact of the Wenonah-Mt. Laurel and Navesink Formations in

  5. Diapiric uplift of an MIS 3 marine deposit in SW Spain: Implications for Late Pleistocene sea level reconstruction and palaeogeography of the Strait of Gibraltar (United States)

    Gracia, F. J.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Cáceres, L. M.; Belluomini, G.; Benavente, J.; Alonso, C.


    In the Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain) an Upper Pleistocene beach deposit (31.5 ka BP) has been recognised at about 1-3 m above m.s.l. The deposit is affected by a set of joints and fractures filled by calcretes and other subaerial sediments, dated at 19.9 ka BP. Deformation and uplift of this level is related to the moderate activity of a diapiric structure. The resulting uplift produced local emersion of the deposit and a transition from marine to continental conditions during the Late Quaternary. The deformational style and tectonic location of the deposit argue against strong vertical motion. Regional comparisons between this diapir and other similar and coeval structures near the zone suggest a vertical uplift of about 25 m. Therefore, between 30 and 20 ka BP the sea level can be supposed to have been placed near to its present-day position, probably less than 30 m below. These results confirm other regional data indicating that during MIS 3 several relative sea level rises took place, reaching heights of only several tens of metres below the present m.s.l. The palaeogeographical implications of these results include the existing controversy about the possible crossing of the Strait of Gibraltar by Neanderthals between ca 40 and 30 ka. The palaeogeographical reconstruction of the Strait for this period suggests that its width and depth were very similar to the present ones.

  6. Transport and Deposition of Micro-and Nano-Particles in Human Tracheobronchial Tree by an Asymmetric Multi-Level Bifurcation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tian


    Full Text Available Transport and deposition of particles in the upper tracheobronchial tree were analyzed using a multi-level asymmetric lung bifurcation model. The first three generations of tracheobronchial tree were included in the study. The laryngeal jet at the trachea entrance was modeled as an effective turbulence disturbance, and the study was focused on how to accurately simulate the airflow and predict the motion of the inhaled particles. Downstream in the lower level of the bronchial region, a laminar flow model was used, as smoother flow condition was expected. Transport and deposition of nano- and micro-scale spherical particles in the range of 0.01 μm to 30 μm were evaluated. The particle local deposition pattern and deposition rate in the lung bifurcation was discussed. The proposed multi-level asymmetric lung bifurcation model was found to be flexible, easy to use and computationally highly efficient. It was also shown that the selection of the anisotropic Reynolds stress transport turbulence model (RSTM was appropriate, and the use of the enhanced two-layer model boundary treatment was needed for accurate simulation of the turbulent airflow conditions in the upper airways.

  7. Assessing recent smoking status by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnSofi Sandberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke causes both acute and chronic changes of the immune system. Excluding recent smoking is therefore important in clinical studies with chronic inflammation as primary focus. In this context, it is common to ask the study subjects to refrain from smoking within a certain time frame prior to sampling. The duration of the smoking cessation is typically from midnight the evening before, i.e. 8 hours from sampling. As it has been shown that a proportion of current smokers underestimates or denies smoking, objective assessment of recent smoking status is of great importance. Our aim was to extend the use of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO(breath, a well-established method for separating smokers from non-smokers, to assessment of recent smoking status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The time course of CO(breath decline was investigated by hourly measurements during one day on non-symptomatic smokers and non-smokers (6+7, as well as by measurements on three separate occasions on non-smokers (n = 29, smokers with normal lung function (n = 38 and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 19 participating in a clinical study. We used regression analysis to model the decay, and receiver operator characteristics analysis for evaluation of model performance. The decline was described as a mono-exponential decay (r(2 = 0.7 with a half-life of 4.5 hours. CO decline rate depends on initial CO levels, and by necessity a generic cut-off is therefore crude as initial CO(breath varies a lot between individuals. However, a cut-off level of 12 ppm could classify recent smokers from smokers having refrained from smoking during the past 8 hours with a specificity of 94% and a sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSIONS: We hereby describe a method for classifying recent smokers from smokers having refrained from smoking for >8 hours that is easy to implement in a clinical setting.

  8. Electro-Deposition Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  9. A history of health technology assessment at the European level. (United States)

    Banta, David; Kristensen, Finn Børlum; Jonsson, Egon


    This study summarizes the experience with health technology assessment (HTA) at the European level. Geographically, Europe includes approximately fifty countries with a total of approximately 730 million people. Politically, twenty-seven of these countries (500 million people) have come together in the European Union. The executive branch of the European Union is named the European Commission, which supports several activities, including research, all over Europe and in many other parts of the world. The European Commission has promoted HTA by several policy positions and has funded a series of projects aimed at strengthening HTA in Europe. Around fifteen of the European countries now have formal national programs on HTA and some also have regional public programs. All countries that are members of the European Union and do not have a national approach to HTA have an interest in becoming more involved. The HTA projects sponsored by the European Commission have focused on networking and collaboration among established agencies and institutions for HTA, however, also on capacity building, support, and facilitation in creating mechanisms for HTA in European countries that still do not have any program in the field.

  10. Assessing state-level active living promotion using network analysis. (United States)

    Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Taniguchi, Nicole; Iskandar, Livia; Maddock, Jay


    Physical inactivity is a growing problem in the United States, one that is being addressed through the development of active living communities. However, active living promotion requires collaboration among organizations that may not have previously shared goals. A network analysis was conducted to assess Hawaii's active living promotion network. Twenty-six organizations playing a significant role in promoting active living in Hawaii were identified and surveyed about their frequency of contact, level of collaboration, and funding flow with other agencies. A communication network was identified linking all agencies. This network had many long pathways, impeding information flow. The Department of Health (DOH) and the State Nutrition and Physical Activity Coalition (NPAC) were central nodes, but DOH connected state agencies while NPAC linked county and voluntary organizations. Within the network, information sharing was common, but collaboration and formal partnership were low. Linkages between county and state agencies, between counties, and between state agencies with different core agendas were particularly low. Results suggest that in the early stages of development, active living networks may be divided by geography and core missions, requiring work to bridge these divides. Network mapping appears helpful in identifying areas for network development.

  11. A Potential Biomarker in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Can Assessment of Brain Iron Deposition with SWI and Corticospinal Tract Degeneration with DTI Help? (United States)

    Sheelakumari, R; Madhusoodanan, M; Radhakrishnan, A; Ranjith, G; Thomas, B


    Iron-mediated oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to assess iron deposition qualitatively and quantitatively by using SWI and microstructural changes in the corticospinal tract by using DTI in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Seventeen patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 15 age- and sex-matched controls underwent brain MR imaging with SWI and DTI. SWI was analyzed for both signal-intensity scoring and quantitative estimation of iron deposition in the anterior and posterior banks of the motor and sensory cortices and deep gray nuclei. The diffusion measurements along the corticospinal tract at the level of pons and medulla were obtained by ROI analysis. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis showed reduced signal-intensity grades in the posterior bank of the motor cortex bilaterally. Quantitative analysis confirmed significantly higher iron content in the posterior bank of the motor cortex in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In contrast, no significant differences were noted for the anterior bank of the motor cortex, anterior and posterior banks of the sensory cortex, and deep nuclei. Receiver operating characteristic comparison showed a cutoff of 35μg Fe/g of tissue with an area under the curve of 0.78 (P = .008) for the posterior bank of the motor cortex in discriminating patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls. Fractional anisotropy was lower in the pyramidal tracts of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at the pons and medulla on either side, along with higher directionally averaged mean diffusivity values. The combination of SWI and DTI revealed an area under the curve of 0.784 for differentiating patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls. Measurements of motor cortex iron deposition and diffusion tensor parameters of the corticospinal tract may be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of clinically suspected

  12. Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendse, F.; Breemen, van N.; Rydin, H.; Buttler, A.; Heijmans, M.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Lee, J.A.; Mitchell, E.; Saarinen, T.; Vasander, H.; Wallen, B.


    Part of the missing sink in the global CO2 budget has been attributed to the positive effects of CO2 fertilization and N deposition on carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems. The genus Sphagnum is one of the most important groups of plant species sequestrating carbon in

  13. Development of Cotton Fabrics with Durable UV Protective and Self-cleaning Property by Deposition of Low TiO2 Levels through Sol-gel Process. (United States)

    Mishra, Anu; Butola, Bhupendra Singh


    In this article, the deposition of TiO2 on cotton fabric using sol-gel techniques has been described. Various process routes (pad-dry-cure, pad-dry-hydrothermal and pad-dry-solvothermal) were examined to impart a stable coating of TiO2 on fabric. The role of pre-cursor concentration, process temperature and time of treatment were studied to aim at a wash durable, UV protective and self-cleaning property in the treated fabric. EDX and ICP-MS techniques were used to examine the add-on % of TiO2 on cotton fabrics treated via different routes. It has been found that the TiO2 remains largely amorphous and non-durable if it is given a short thermal treatment. To convert the deposited TiO2 to its anatase crystal form, a prolonged hydrothermal treatment for at least three hours needs to be given. TiO2 deposition levels of less than 0.1% were found to be effective in imparting reasonable degree of UV protection and self-cleaning property to the cotton fabric. The self-cleaning ability of the treated fabric against coffee stain was also studied and was found to be related to the process route and the deposition levels of TiO2 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Seismic risk assessment at local level taking into account possible technological accidents (United States)

    Frolova, N.; Larionov, V.; Bonnin, J.


    Seismic safety of population and urban territories is one of the most complicated problems of seismology and earthquake engineering worldwide. It is especially vital for the earthquake prone regions with high level of seismicity and high density of population. The paper contains the results of the recent study that was done by Seismological Center of IGE, Russian Academy of Sciences, Extreme Situations Research Center and "Rosstrojizyskaniya" Ltd aimed at verification of engineering geological conditions, updating of previous map of seismic microzonation and seismic risk assessment for the Sochi City territory. The City is located in the Krasnodar area, which is characterized by a high density population and a rather high level of seismic hazard. According to maps of review seismic zoning of the Russian Federation territory, earthquakes with intensities I = 6-10 according to the MMSK-86 scale may occur here. The City territory is located along the Black Sea shore and characterized by different level potential of landslides, mudflow, erosion and other geological hazardous processes. The Imeretinskaya valley, where future Olympic Games' facilities are under construction, are located within the marine terrace composed predominantly by gravel-pebble deposits with sand and clay with thickness more than 30 m; the bedrock at the depth of about 70 -90 m, the groundwater level encountered at depths of 0.2-4 m from the surface. According to recent seismic risk assessment at regional level for more that 60% of the Krasnodar area territory, the values of seismic risk computed taking into account the secondary technological accidents exceed the value of 1.0×10-5 1/year. Regional estimation of risk obtained for the Sochi City is equal to 35.0×10-5; contribution of technological risk to seismic one is about 5.0×10-5. The work is under way within the Russian Federal Program "Development of the Sochi City as a mountain resort in 2006 - 2014". The paper will present the results

  15. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.


    . GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate

  16. Assessing the variation in mercury deposition around the North Atlantic during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (United States)

    Jones, Morgan; Percival, Lawrence; Frieling, Joost; Mather, Tamsin; Svensen, Henrik


    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a widely studied extreme global warming event that occurred 55.8 Ma. The PETM is marked by a sharp and sustained negative δ13C excursion, indicating a voluminous and rapid release of isotopically light carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system. The source(s) of carbon that instigated this global warming event remain heavily debated. The PETM is broadly contemporaneous with the second major pulse of activity (56-54 Ma) from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP), suggesting a possible causal relationship. This may have been driven by direct volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or thermogenic volatiles (e.g. CH4 and CO2) through contact metamorphism of organic-rich sedimentary layers affected by igneous intrusions. An emerging field in geochemistry that could shed light on the possible link between large igneous province emplacements and hyperthermal events is the use of mercury (Hg) preserved in the sedimentary record as a far field proxy for periods of major volcanic activity. Significant emissions of Hg could be sourced from both volcanic gases and from contact metamorphism, which are transported globally prior to deposition if released directly to the atmosphere. In marine settings, organic matter and clay minerals scavenge Hg and bury it in sediments; spikes in Hg/TOC (total organic carbon) ratios represent increases in Hg loading. Therefore, this method may be able to differentiate between magmatic and other sources as triggers for the PETM and the general activity through time. Here we present new Hg and C data from selected cores around Europe and North America to assess the variability of Hg deposition across the PETM with geographic location. The results indicate that while there is a slight background increase in Hg deposition during the PETM, there is significant variability between cores and extreme peaks within individual sections. This suggests that the behaviour of the Hg cycle during the PETM

  17. Teaching Strategies for Personality Assessment at the Undergraduate Level. (United States)

    Roche, Michael J; Jacobson, Nicholas C; Roche, Carley A


    Personality assessment is a crucial component of clinical practice, and the training and proficiency criteria to develop competence are complex and multifaceted. Like many advanced topics, the field of personality assessment would benefit from early exposure in undergraduate classroom settings. This research evaluates how an undergraduate personality course can be enhanced through 2 enrichment activities (self-assessments and a personality project). Students completed several self-assessments of their personality and wrote a comprehensive and integrative personality assessment about themselves. Results demonstrated that these activities increased interest in personality assessment, deepened understanding of course material, and promoted student growth and self-exploration. We discuss the benefits of these enrichment activities for the student, instructor, and field of personality science.

  18. Gold mineralisation and orogenic metamorphism in the Lena province of Siberia as assessed from Chertovo Koryto and Sukhoi Log deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Yudovskaya


    Full Text Available The Chertovo Koryto gold deposit (80 t Au at 1.84 g/t in the Lena world-class province, Siberia, is hosted in a metamorphosed sequence of the Paleoproterozoic Mikhailovsk Formation that comprises the oldest black shale strata of the Baikal-Patom region. The mineralisation is confined to the thrust zone complicated with a conjugate anticline fold, zones of shearing and dislocation. The structural position of the mineralisation is similar to that at the giant Sukhoi Log deposit in the neighbouring Mama-Bodaibo zone. In the latter, the isotope age data suggest that Khomolkho black shales, hosts to Sukhoi Log mineralisation, are of Ediacaran age and underwent prograde metamorphism during early Paleozoic. The geochemical composition of the terrigenous rocks that host Sukhoi Log, Chertovo Koryto, and a number of other deposits at the various stratigraphic levels throughout the Proterozoic sequence have much in common. They do not show elevated metal contents above the common black shale abundances, except for Au and As, which is at variance with the accepted view on diagenetic enrichment of black shales in the Lena province. The occurrence of sagenitic rutile in quartz and chlorite pseudomorphs after biotite and other petrographic observations provide evidence on a retrograde nature of the metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Mikhailovsk rocks. The sulphides are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite with very minor pyrite at Chertovo Koryto, whereas pyrite is the predominant sulphide in the Sukhoi Log ore. Fluid inclusion data on both deposits emphasise a high-temperature nature of the mineralisation albeit revealing great contrast in the fluid composition. Sukhoi Log mineralisation was formed at mixing between low-salinity aqueous solutions and dense gaseous carbonic fluids, which facilitated effective gold scavenging and precipitation, as demonstrated by thermodynamic simulation. The precursory devolatilisation of the Mikhailovsk sediments at the prograde

  19. Assessing the geochemical variability of oil shale in the Attarat Um Ghudran deposit, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margus Voolma


    Full Text Available The Cretaceous to Palaeogene oil shale (OS of Jordan is predominantly calcareous mudstone with intervals of mostly siliceous minerals, quartz and cristobalite–tridymite. Oil shale is rich in organic sulphur and trace elements. According to preliminary micropalaeontological data, the OS succession of the studied area, the south-central part of the Attarat Um Ghudran (AUG deposit in central Jordan, is of Maastrichtian age. A representative collection of 392 samples from 9 drill cores reliably characterizes the sequence of the OS seam, on average 70 m thick. The composition of AUG OS varies significantly. The major compounds CaO and SiO2 range within 3–70 wt% and 10–50 wt%, respectively, and also the contents of organic matter, MgO, P2O5, Al2O3 and S change. The concentrations of metals (especially Zn, V, Cr, Ni and Mo change many dozens of times in the cross section. The aim of our statistical analysis was to determine the most significant OS types and their positions in the OS sequence. Two multivariate statistical analysis methods, principal components analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering of PCA groups, gave an interpretable result. Four principal components account for 88.6% of data variability. Variation in six main chemical components or groups of components is reflected in parameters of the four principal components. The component PC1 accounts for 47% of the data variance, expressing the highest correlation with organic matter, S, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mo, and PC2 accounts for 22.82% of the data variability, being strongly correlated with TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2 and K2O and negatively correlated with CaO. The next two significant component groups express covariance with CaO and MgO. The applied statistical analysis proves to be a powerful tool for the interpretation of the chemically variable structure of the OS unit when using a representative enough sample collection. In the complex study of the OS unit, variation in the chemical

  20. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements around point sources and human health risk assessment. I: Impact zones around a lead source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, L.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Andersen, B.


    The deposition of lead was monitored over 8 years in the area around a car battery factory north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The area also has heavy traffic. Deposition was measured by in-situ grown vegetables, transplant grass culture biomonitors, bulk deposition and soil samples. Three impact zones...

  1. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for skarn deposits of gold, silver, copper, tungsten, and iron in the Butte 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Antweiler, J.C.; Lidke, D.J.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.; Trautwein, C.M.; Dwyer, J.L.; Moll, S.H.


    The purpose of this report is to assess the potential for undiscovered skarn deposits of gold, silver, copper, tungsten, and iron in the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. Other deposit types have been assessed and reports for each of the following have been prepared: Vein and replacement deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, ·manganese, and tungsten; porphyry-stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten; stockwork-disseminated deposits of gold and silver; placer deposits of gold; and miscellaneous deposit types including strata-bound deposits of copper and silver in rocks of the Middle Proterozoic Belt Supergroup, phosphate deposits in the Permian Phosporia Formation, and deposits of barite and fluorite. The Butte quadrangle, in west-central Montana, is one of the most mineralized and productive mining regions in the U.S. Its mining districts, including the world famous Butte or Summit Valley district, have produced a variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities valued at more than $6.4 billion (at the time of production). Because of its importance as a mineral producing region, the Butte quadrangle was selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Under this program, new data on geology, geochemistry, geophysics, geochronology, mineral resources, and remote sensing were collected and synthesized. The field and laboratory studies were supported, in part, by funding from the Geologic Framework and Synthesis Program and the Wilderness Program. The methods used in resource assessment include a compilation of all data into data sets, the development of an occurrence model for skarn deposits in the quadrangle, and the analysis of data using techniques provided by a Geographic Information System (GIS). This map is one of a number of reports and maps on the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. Other publications resulting from this study include U.S. Geological Survey (USGS

  2. Using Monte Carlo for the Assessment of a Brokered Bank Deposit Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vlachý


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of a cost-benefit analysis when considering the use of third-party distribution channels for saving accounts. Whilst static budgeting methods seem to be generally appropriate for conventional banking projects based on branching or internet, they provide grossly misleading estimates of commissioning expenses, which can lead to completely unrealistic project assessment and poorly designed commission schedules. Using a case study based on actual project experience in the Czech Republic, the author applies a numerical statistical simulation model serving as a potent tool for strategic decision-making as well as business negotiation.

  3. Variability in endotoxin exposure levels and consequences for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Schinkel, J.; Wouters, I.M.; Preller, L.; Tielemans, E.; Nij, E.T.; Heederik, D.


    Objectives: Workers in many industries are exposed to endotoxins, which may cause adverse health effects. In exposure assessment, information about exposure variability is essential. However, variability in exposure has rarely been investigated for biological agents and more specifically for

  4. Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd) were determined in soils from a major automobile repair workshop located in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This was carried out to evaluate the potential occupational risk to operators working in and around the site. The mean of trace metal levels were: lead (14.52 mg/kg); ...

  5. Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 1, 2015 ... The levels of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd) were determined in soils from a major automobile repair workshop located in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This was carried out to evaluate the potential occupational risk to operators working in and around the site. The mean of trace metal levels were: lead.

  6. Assessment of Pesticide Residue Levels in Vegetables sold in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pesticide residue levels in the two vegetables commonly eaten in Lagos state Nigeria. The vegetables (Telfairia occidentalis and Celosia argentea) were purchased from six markets (Oyingbo, Mile 12, Mushin, Ajah, Agege and Festac) in Lagos. The pesticide residue levels were determined using gas ...

  7. Acid deposition and assessment of its critical load for the environmental health of waterbodies in a subtropical watershed, China (United States)

    Jia, Junjie; Gao, Yang


    Atmospheric acidic deposition in subtropical watersheds poses an environmental risk of causing acidification of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of acid deposition in a subtropical forest ecosystem and the associated critical loads of acidity for a sensitive aquatic ecosystem. We found that out of 132 rainfall events, 33(25%) were acidic rainfall occurrences. Estimated wet acid deposition (2282.78 eq·ha-1·yr-1), consistent with SO42- and NH4+ deposition, was high in spring and summer and low in autumn and winter. Waterbodies surrounded by mixed wood and citrus orchard experience severe acidification, mostly from S deposition because acidic deposition exceeds the corresponding critical loads of acidity. Modifications that take acid rain deposition into consideration are needed for land-use and agricultural management strategies to improve the environmental health of waterbodies in subtropical watersheds.

  8. Contemporary deposition and long-term accumulation of sediment and nutrients by tidal freshwater forested wetlands impacted by sea level rise (United States)

    Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Krauss, Ken W.


    Contemporary deposition (artificial marker horizon, 3.5 years) and long-term accumulation rates (210Pb profiles, ~150 years) of sediment and associated carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) were measured in wetlands along the tidal Savannah and Waccamaw rivers in the southeastern USA. Four sites along each river spanned an upstream-to-downstream salinification gradient, from upriver tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW), through moderately and highly salt-impacted forested wetlands, to oligohaline marsh downriver. Contemporary deposition rates (sediment, C, N, and P) were greatest in oligohaline marsh and lowest in TFFW along both rivers. Greater rates of deposition in oligohaline and salt-stressed forested wetlands were associated with a shift to greater clay and metal content that is likely associated with a change from low availability of watershed-derived sediment to TFFW and to greater availability of a coastal sediment source to oligohaline wetlands. Long-term accumulation rates along the Waccamaw River had the opposite spatial pattern compared to contemporary deposition, with greater rates in TFFW that declined to oligohaline marsh. Long-term sediment and elemental mass accumulation rates also were 3–9× lower than contemporary deposition rates. In comparison to other studies, sediment and associated nutrient accumulation in TFFW are lower than downriver/estuarine freshwater, oligohaline, and salt marshes, suggesting a reduced capacity for surface sedimentation (short-term) as well as shallow soil processes (long-term sedimentation) to offset sea level rise in TFFW. Nonetheless, their potentially large spatial extent suggests that TFFW have a large impact on the transport and fate of sediment and nutrients in tidal rivers and estuaries.

  9. The Development and Validation of an In Vitro Airway Model to Assess Realistic Airway Deposition and Drug Permeation Behavior of Orally Inhaled Products Across Synthetic Membranes. (United States)

    Huynh, Bao K; Traini, Daniela; Farkas, Dale R; Longest, P Worth; Hindle, Michael; Young, Paul M


    Current in vitro approaches to assess lung deposition, dissolution, and cellular transport behavior of orally inhaled products (OIPs) have relied on compendial impactors to collect drug particles that are likely to deposit in the airway; however, the main drawback with this approach is that these impactors do not reflect the airway and may not necessarily represent drug deposition behavior in vivo. The aim of this article is to describe the development and method validation of a novel hybrid in vitro approach to assess drug deposition and permeation behavior in a more representative airway model. The medium-sized Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) mouth-throat (MT) and tracheal-bronchial (TB) realistic upper airway models were used in this study as representative models of the upper airway. The TB model was modified to accommodate two Snapwell® inserts above the first TB airway bifurcation region to collect deposited nebulized ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride (CIP-HCL) droplets as a model drug aerosol system. Permeation characteristics of deposited nebulized CIP-HCL droplets were assessed across different synthetic membranes using the Snapwell test system. The Snapwell test system demonstrated reproducible and discriminatory drug permeation profiles for already dissolved and nebulized CIP-HCL droplets through a range of synthetic permeable membranes under different test conditions. The rate and extent of drug permeation depended on the permeable membrane material used, presence of a stirrer in the receptor compartment, and, most importantly, the drug collection method. This novel hybrid in vitro approach, which incorporates a modified version of a realistic upper airway model, coupled with the Snapwell test system holds great potential to evaluate postairway deposition characteristics, such as drug permeation and particle dissolution behavior of OIPs. Future studies will expand this approach using a cell culture-based setup instead of synthetic membranes, within a

  10. Assessment of accident rate at lithuanian railways level crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas Liudvinavichius


    Full Text Available Purpose. The most pressing problem facing the rail traffic safety experts is an accident rate at the railway level crossings. The purpose is to investigate the circumstances, which affect traffic safety at the level crossings, and to offer effective tools for experts to improve the safety the problems of these dangerous spaces of railway infrastructure. Methodology. This paper observes the logistic regression as a method to estimate the accident rate at level crossings in Lithuania. The authors have studied and evaluated the key factors affecting the safety of railway crossings. These factors are the intensity of trains and road transport means through the railway level crossing, the visibility of the approaching train from both sides of the traffic, the maximum permissible speed of the trains, the number of tracks (single track, double track, and multi-track, the level of installed alarm and automatic equipment, a density of population in this area, etc. Finally, only the factors, which might be described by mathematical expressions (numbers, were identified. Findings. By using logistic regression method, it was found that the most determinant factors at level crossings are the maximum speed of trains, poor visibility crossing (less than 1,000 m, intensity of the road traffic at crossings, and inappropriate implementation of roads crossing the rails. Based on the study results, the conclusions and recommendations were formulated which primary measures to prevent accidents at level crossing and on what level crossing should be taken urgently. Originality.Revealed trends and major causes of accidents at railway crossings of Lithuania for 2004-2011 year. The necessity of implementation of progressive technical measures for the prevention accidents on railway level crossing is proved. Practical value. About 50% of Lithuanian railway crossings do not meet the requirements of the level crossing legislation. This parameter is one of the key risk

  11. Assessment of cobalt levels in wastewater, soil and vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okra) samples collected on seasonal basis from January, 2013 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results show cobalt levels in wastewater were in the range of ...

  12. Assessment of older driver performance under low level alcohol impairment. (United States)


    This report summarizes the outcomes, to date, of the work undertaken to examine : the effects of low level alcohol impairment, especially for older drivers, based on : on-road driving studies. Some of the questions the project initially sought answer...

  13. Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in Diabetes Mellitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satish, B N V S; Srikala, P; Maharudrappa, B; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M; Kumar, Prashant; Hugar, Deepa


    .... The aim of the present study was undertaken to correlate the glucose levels in saliva and blood of diabetic and healthy non diabetic individuals and to determine the efficacy of saliva as a diagnostic...

  14. Microscale sample deposition onto hydrophobic target plates for trace level detection of neuropeptides in brain tissue by MALDI-MS. (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Dean, Stacey L; Parkin, Mark C; Nolkrantz, Kerstin; O'Callaghan, James P; Kennedy, Robert T


    A sample preparation method that combines a modified target plate with a nanoscale reversed-phase column (nanocolumn) was developed for detection of neuropeptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A gold-coated MALDI plate was modified with an octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayer to create a hydrophobic surface that could concentrate peptide samples into a approximately 200-500-microm diameter spot. The spot sizes generated were comparable to those obtained for a substrate patterned with 200-microm hydrophilic spots on a hydrophobic substrate. The sample spots on the ODT-coated plate were 100-fold smaller than those formed on an unmodified gold plate with a 1-microl sample and generated 10 to 50 times higher mass sensitivity for peptide standards by MALDI-TOF MS. When the sample was deposited on an ODT-modified plate from a nanocolumn, the detection limit for peptides was as low as 20 pM for 5-microl samples corresponding to 80 amol deposited. This technique was used to analyze extracts of microwave-fixed tissue from rat brain striatum. Ninety-eight putative peptides were detected including several that had masses matching neuropeptides expected in this brain region such as substance P, rimorphin, and neurotensin. Twenty-three peptides had masses that matched peaks detected by capillary liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization MS. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. On the compliance method and the assessment of three-dimensional seafloor gas hydrate deposits (United States)

    Latychev, K.; Edwards, R. N.


    Marine gas hydrates, prevalent in offshore sediments in Canada and Japan, are a possible hydrocarbon resource, a hazard to drilling and the source of a major greenhouse gas. Quantitative estimates of hydrate concentrations in deep sea sediment are difficult to obtain by conventional methods. Our group has sought novel techniques specifically designed for assessment such as the compliance method where ocean surface gravity waves are used as a source. Compliance is the transfer function between the vertical displacement of the seafloor and the corresponding pressure expressed as a function of wavelength. It is sensitive to the elastic parameters of the underlying sediments, particularly the shear modulus which is probably increased in zones containing hydrate due to cementation. Our group has demonstrated a connection between a compliance measurement and the amount of hydrate present in the hydrate stability zone for layered models. Here, we develop a 3-D numerical finite-difference code using control volume discretization to predict the compliance response over non-layered structures. Among the features of the algorithm are an ability to handle sharp contrasts in elastic moduli with a low usage of computer memory. The compliance `anomaly' over such structures has a signature and resolution not unlike the corresponding gravity anomaly. The average response over heterogeneous structures is sensitive to the bulk hydrate content but not the connectivity pattern. Gravity waves with different polarizations crossing markedly anisotropic structures produce statistically the same average stiffness value.

  16. Deposition behavior, risk assessment and source identification of heavy metals in reservoir sediments of Northeast China. (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Liu, Jianwei; Xu, Shiguo; Xie, Zaigang


    Sediment cores from five reservoirs, located in the Liaoning and Jilin Provinces in Northeast China, were collected to investigate the accumulation and potential toxicity of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cr) during a sampling campaign in February, 2015. The results showed that all the detected metals accumulated significantly, especially Cd, compared to their respective background values. Among these reservoirs, Biliuhe Reservoir had markedly increasing trends for organic matter and all the metals, among which Mn was elevated by 280% to 3411mg/kg in a core of only 18cm in depth. Xinlicheng Reservoir was characterized by heavy siltation and varying metal distribution due to its regular geometric features and pulsed flood events. The Enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) indicated Cd was strongly enriched by anthropogenic inputs, with the values of EF and Igeo greater than 8 and 3, respectively. The toxicity assessment calculated using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) implied the whole cores of Tanghe and Dahuofang and the upper cores of Biliuhe, Xinlicheng and Fengman exhibited toxicity to sediment-dwelling organisms. Cr contributed more to Qm-PEC than the other heavy metals, because only Cr exceeded the probable effect concentration (PEC) despite its low enrichment. According to the results of correlation analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA), mining industries and agricultural activities within the basin were the main anthropogenic pollution sources for these heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of a numerical model to reproduce event‐scale erosion and deposition distributions in a braided river (United States)

    Measures, R.; Hicks, D. M.; Brasington, J.


    Abstract Numerical morphological modeling of braided rivers, using a physics‐based approach, is increasingly used as a technique to explore controls on river pattern and, from an applied perspective, to simulate the impact of channel modifications. This paper assesses a depth‐averaged nonuniform sediment model (Delft3D) to predict the morphodynamics of a 2.5 km long reach of the braided Rees River, New Zealand, during a single high‐flow event. Evaluation of model performance primarily focused upon using high‐resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of Difference, derived from a fusion of terrestrial laser scanning and optical empirical bathymetric mapping, to compare observed and predicted patterns of erosion and deposition and reach‐scale sediment budgets. For the calibrated model, this was supplemented with planform metrics (e.g., braiding intensity). Extensive sensitivity analysis of model functions and parameters was executed, including consideration of numerical scheme for bed load component calculations, hydraulics, bed composition, bed load transport and bed slope effects, bank erosion, and frequency of calculations. Total predicted volumes of erosion and deposition corresponded well to those observed. The difference between predicted and observed volumes of erosion was less than the factor of two that characterizes the accuracy of the Gaeuman et al. bed load transport formula. Grain size distributions were best represented using two φ intervals. For unsteady flows, results were sensitive to the morphological time scale factor. The approach of comparing observed and predicted morphological sediment budgets shows the value of using natural experiment data sets for model testing. Sensitivity results are transferable to guide Delft3D applications to other rivers. PMID:27708477

  18. Los Alamos low-level waste performance assessment status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Purtymun, W.D.; Dewart, J.M.; Rodgers, J.E. (comps.)


    This report reviews the documented Los Alamos studies done to assess the containment of buried hazardous wastes. Five sections logically present the environmental studies, operational source terms, transport pathways, environmental dosimetry, and computer model development and use. This review gives a general picture of the Los Alamos solid waste disposal and liquid effluent sites and is intended for technical readers with waste management and environmental science backgrounds but without a detailed familiarization with Los Alamos. The review begins with a wide perspective on environmental studies at Los Alamos. Hydrology, geology, and meteorology are described for the site and region. The ongoing Laboratory-wide environmental surveillance and waste management environmental studies are presented. The next section describes the waste disposal sites and summarizes the current source terms for these sites. Hazardous chemical wastes and liquid effluents are also addressed by describing the sites and canyons that are impacted. The review then focuses on the transport pathways addressed mainly in reports by Healy and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. Once the source terms and potential transport pathways are described, the dose assessment methods are addressed. Three major studies, the waste alternatives, Hansen and Rogers, and the Pantex Environmental Impact Statement, contributed to the current Los Alamos dose assessment methodology. Finally, the current Los Alamos groundwater, surface water, and environmental assessment models for these mesa top and canyon sites are described.

  19. Assessing Higher Level Learning: Developing Rubrics for Case Analysis (United States)

    Rochford, Linda; Borchert, Patricia S.


    Case study analyses allow students to demonstrate proficiency in executing authentic tasks in marketing and management, facilitating faculty evaluation of higher order learning outcomes. Effective and consistent assessment of case analyses depends in large part on the development of sound rubrics. The authors explored the process of rubric…

  20. Assessment of acidity levels in Eucalyptus Camaldulensis barks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis obtained from Bauchi and Gombe States were analysed spectrophotometrically for their sulphate-sulphur content. The aim was to assess the extent of sulphur pollution in the environment. The results showed that S concentration ranged from 0.79 to 1.70mg/g for samples from ...

  1. Continuous assessment for tertiary-level language teaching: an aid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2004, based on the findings of scholarlyenquiry, the French Section of theUniversity of Cape Town decided to prioritise continuous assessment to measurelanguage acquisition, partly with a view to enabling students to monitor their progressmore effectively. In a spirit of quality control (De Ketele, 2003), the purpose of ...

  2. Assessment of runout path and deposition area of potential landslide in Lushan Settlement, Central Taiwan (United States)

    Tung, Ying-Hung; Hu, Jyr-Ching


    Our study focused on the Lushan Settlement, located in the slate belt of Central Range in Taiwan. We adopted L-band ALOS SAR data to generate the line of sight (LOS) velocities in study area using PS-InSAR technique constrained by continuous GPS data in the period from 2007 to 2010. The result revealed a subsidence rate in LOS up to -15 mm/yr. In addition, the borehole inclinometers, installed by Central Geological Survey, recorded a slip depth more than 120 m just in the northeastern of the village. Based on the results of PS-InSAR, records of inclinometers and field geological study, we adopt 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations by using Particle Flow Code to investigate scenario-based runout paths, particle velocities and landslide-affected area, which are useful information for decision support and future landslide hazard assessment. We analyzed different scenarios based on a dipping of the potential sliding surface varying from 20 to 5 degree. In each scenario, sliding of the unstable slope with a high frictional coefficient of the subsurface implied that the sliding surface of this creeping slope has still been developing. Furthermore, with 3-dimentaion models we analyzed the runout paths of rock mass, velocities of movement, and catastrophic landslide-impact area in the scenario that once the sliding surface fully develops or shear failure happens. Generally, the total runout distance could be more than 400 m, and the largest debris thickness might reach 100 m. Because of a low dipping angle of the sliding surface, the movement could last several minutes with a maxima velocity about 2 m/s. Moreover, a landslide-dam will form and capacity of dam could be predicted. In the worst case, the settlement, which is on the slope crown, might be destroyed and buried by debris.

  3. Assessment of Stress Level of Forestry Experts with Academic Education


    Landekić, Matija; Martinić, Ivan; Lovrić, Marko; Šporčić, Mario


    This paper provides the results of an applied research of forests engineers connected to their risk of mental stress occurrence in everyday work. This paper also has a component of a basic research, in which the adequacy and reliability of applied methodology in this kind of researches is examined. The mental stress induced risk is tested by usage of an e-mail survey which consists out of 23-part ERI (Effort-Reward Imbalance) questionnaire. For the assessment of mental stress expo...

  4. Property-level environmental assessment tools for outdoor areas


    Myhr, Ulla


    There is an increasing interest for building environmental assessment tools in the society. These tools simultaneously consider differing aspects in the built environment although when the aspects most often are of various environmental significance. The structures of the tools i.e. offer a framework to deal with a lot of aspects at the same time. Many actors regard tools to be valuable support for decision making, marketing purposes, communication, and for gaining information. This thesis is...

  5. Assessment of hand hygiene levels among healthcare professionals in India


    Rameswarapu, Rohin; K, Surendranath Sai; Valsangkar, Sameer


    IntroductionHand hygiene, either by hand disinfection or hand washing remains to be most pivotal in controlling infection in healthcare settings. Simple preventive measures have been proven effective to contain infections. The exiguity on studies done in healthcare settings in India has galvanized us to undertake this study on hand hygiene assessment among nurses in a healthcare setting in IndiaMaterials and methodsA cross sectional study was done in one of leading organization in preventive ...

  6. Assessment of some physicochemical properties and levels of Pb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some physicochemical properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (OC) and particle size analysis) and levels of Pb, Cu and Zn in soil samples collected from particular dumpsites within Kano Metropolis were analyzed with the view to evaluating the impact of solid wastes on ...

  7. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.


    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  8. an assessment of the hygiene level in animal product processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1997) due to a poor local disease surveillance system. Moreover, if other indicators related to the field of food hygiene are considered, there is cause for concern. ..... Visits of sanitary officers and hygiene status of plants. Level of hygiene. Visits from sanitary officers. Total in the plant. Yes. No. Outstanding. 1. 0. 1. Good. 5. 0.

  9. An Assessment Of The Level Of Entrepreneurial Aspiration Of Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the level of entrepreneurial aspiration of tertiary institution students in Ogun State. A total of 204 students selected through the purposive sampling technique from Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago- Iwoye, University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Tai Solarin University of Agriculture and Moshood Abiola ...

  10. Navigation forces during wrist arthroscopy: assessment of expert levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obdeijn, Miryam; Horeman, Tim; de Boer, Lisanne L.; van Baalen, Sophie Jacobine; Liverneaux, Philippe; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J.M.


    Purpose To facilitate effective and efficient training in skills laboratory, objective metrics can be used. Forces exerted on the tissues can be a measure of safe tissue manipulation. To provide feedback during training, expert threshold levels need to be determined. The purpose of this study was to

  11. Navigation forces during wrist arthroscopy: assessment of expert levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obdeijn, Miryam C.; Horeman, Tim; de Boer, Lisanne L.; van Baalen, Sophie J.; Liverneaux, Philippe; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.


    To facilitate effective and efficient training in skills laboratory, objective metrics can be used. Forces exerted on the tissues can be a measure of safe tissue manipulation. To provide feedback during training, expert threshold levels need to be determined. The purpose of this study was to define

  12. Glycyrrhizic acid: the assessment of a no effect level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, C. E.; Bijlsma, J. A.; van Dokkum, W.; Savelkoul, T. J.


    Because from earlier experiments in rats and a pilot study in humans a no-effect level of glycyrrhizic acid could not be established, a second experiment was performed in healthy volunteers. The experiment was performed in females only, because the effects were most marked in females in the pilot

  13. Assessing Maize Foliar Water Stress Levels Under Field Conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initially, plant water stress has been measured through destructive approaches that are limited in spatial extent as a result of being labour intensive (Graeff & Claupein,. 2007). The basis of detecting water stress with remote sensing relates to the difference in reflectance properties of plants under different water stress levels ...

  14. Exposure to toxicants in soil and bottom ash deposits in Agbogbloshie, Ghana: human health risk assessment. (United States)

    Obiri, S; Ansa-Asare, O D; Mohammed, S; Darko, H F; Dartey, A G


    Recycling of e-waste using informal or crude techniques poses serious health risk not only to the workers but also to the environment as whole. It is against this background that this paper sought to measure health risk faced by informal e-waste workers from exposure to toxicants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc and cobalt via oral and dermal contact with bottom ash and soil. Using random sampling techniques, 3 separate sites each (where burning and manual dismantling of e-wastes are usually carried) were identified, and a total of 402 samples were collected. The samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical analysis prescribed by the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Sn, Zn and Co in bottom ash samples from location ASH1 are 5388 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Pb), 2.39 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cd), 42 ± 0.05 mg/kg (Cr), 7940 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cu), 20 ± 0.07 mg/kg (As), 225 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Sn), 276 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Zn) and 123 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Co), while concentrations of the aforementioned toxicants in soil samples at location ASG1 are as follows: 1685 ± 0.14 mg/kg (Pb), 26.89 ± 0.30 mg/kg (Cd), 36.86 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Cr), 1427 ± 0.08 mg/kg (Cu), 1622 ± 0.12 mg/kg (As), 234 ± 0.25 mg/kg (Sn), 783 ± 0.31 mg/kg (Zn) and 135 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Co); used as input parameters in assessing health risk faced by workers. The results of cancer health risk faced by e-waste workers due to accidental ingestion of As in bottom ash at ASH1 is 4.3 × 10 -3 (CTE) and 6.5 × 10 -2 (RME), i.e. approximately 4 out of 1000 e-waste workers are likely to suffer from cancer-related diseases via central tendency exposure (CTE parameters), and 7 out of every 100 e-waste worker is also likely to suffer from cancer cases by reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters, respectively. The cancer health risk results for the other sampling sites were found to have exceeded the acceptable

  15. The composite indicators used in assessing innovation at national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela HINCU


    Full Text Available The purpose of present paper is to present some recent developments in constructing composite innovation (or even, science and technology S&T indicators on a national level. Measuring innovation at the national level is crucial in developing appropriate long term strategies for economic growth, because it is widely believed technological innovation is one of the main drivers of sustained economic-social welfare, if not the single most important driver of economic growth. Our purpose is to present a mapping exercise of metrics – based on composite indicators - found in the STI literature, pointing out those used in practice, with a view to corresponding values in the case of Romania. It has become standard practice to combine several indicators for science, technology, and innovation to form composite numbers. Composite indicators are increasingly being used to make cross-national comparisons of country performance in specified areas such as competitiveness, globalisation, innovation, etc.

  16. Assessment of Metal Levels In Some Plants From Giresun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Türkmen


    Full Text Available The study performed the metal bioaccumulations in seven plant species from Giresun city. A total 140 specimens were collected from two stations (Station A; 40° 48’ N, 38° 19’ E, Station B; 50° 54’ N, 38° 26’ E from March 2012 to September 2012. Plant samples were dissected, homogenized and dried at 105°C for 24 hours. An approximately 0.25 g sample of each plant leaf was digested with Cem Mars 5 microwave oven. After cooling, the residue was transferred to 50 ml volumetric flasks and diluted to level with deionized water. Before analysis, the samples were filtered through a 0.45 µm filter. All samples were analyzed (as mg kg-1 dry weight three times for cobalt chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc by ICP-MS. A logarithmic transformation was done on the data to improve normality. One way ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range tests were performed to test the differences among metal levels of species. Concentrations of metals in the examined species ranged from 0.05 to 1.80 for cobalt, 0.14 to 3.24 for chromium, 2.33 to 28.1 for copper, 38.9 to 533 for iron, 1.81 to 64.6 for manganese, 0.81 to 18.9 for nickel, 0.32 to 6.22 for lead and 14.3 to 536 for zinc, in mg kg-1 respectively. Iron had the highest concentrations in all examined plant species in both stations except Zn for Sambucus ebulus in Station B. Second highest metal was zinc after iron. On the other hand, cobalt had lowest levels than other metals. The differences among metal levels in plant species were statistically significant. Maximum Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWI in edible plant species were calculated.

  17. Economic assessment of utilizing protective properties of level coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, A.F.; Batmanov, Yu.K.; Gainutdinov, I.A.


    Increasing mining depth negatively influences mining efficiency and safety. At depths to 600 m 10% of coal comes from seams prone to rock bursts. At depths exceeding 600 m proportion of coal from seams prone to rock bursts increases to 40%. Investigations carried out in Ukrainian coal mines show that coal losses (due to rock burst hazard) in level seams mined by a longwall system amount to 4.6 Mt per year. Cost of rock burst prevention and repairs after rock bursts amounts to 12 million rubles per year. About 68% of coal from level coal seams comes from long coal pillars mined by a longwall system. In level coal seams prone to rock bursts this proportion is 40% lower (proportion of longwall mining is reduced due to increased rock burst hazards). Only 10% of coal seams prone to rock bursts are mined using a system of stress relaxation by cutting another overlying or underlying coal seam (utilizing protective properties of a coal seam). A method for economic analysis of protective properties of coal seams in seam groups is described. Using the method the optimum order of mining coal seams in a seam group is determined. Examples of the method's use are analyzed. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  18. The level of diagnostic assessment in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bulow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Bodtger, Uffe


    .3%) patients fulfilled the criteria for having severe asthma. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed objectively in 53/98 patients (54.1%). In total, 83.7% underwent at least one diagnostic test for asthma: reversibility test: 63.3%, PEF: 52% and bronchial challenge test: 21.4%. Among patients eligible...... for a bronchial challenge test (FEV1 ≥ 70%; negative PEF measurement/reversibility test), only 23.1% had such a test performed. Inhalation technique and adherence were assessed in 19.4 and 30.6% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Among patients managed for severe asthma in a specialist setting, only half had...

  19. Late Pennsylvanian depositional cycles and fusulinid zonations for the Salt Creek reef of the Horseshoe Atoll of west Texas - Implications for a sea level curve and regional correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc., Midland, TX (United States))


    The Salt Creek reef is one of a number of carbonate reef-mound complexes that makes up the Horseshoe Atoll. At least eleven depositional cycles have been delineated from the Strawn Formation (Late Desmoinesian) through the Canyon Limestone (Missourian) to the Cisco Formation (Early Virgilian). A typical cycle consists of a basal unit of intraclastic and skeletal grainstone to dark-gray lime-mudstone with black shale laminations, chert nodules, and scattered crinoid fragments; an intermediary unit of crinoid wackestone and packstone grading up to interbedded skeletal packstone and algal baffle-boundstone; and a capping unit of skeletal and oolitic grainstone. The cycle is bounded by unconformities. These cycles were deposited in a starved basin as a fringing reef-mound complex on an isolated, drowned platform. Nine fusulinid biostratigraphy zones established for the Permian basin are recognized in Salt Creek: one Strawn zone; seven zones in the Canyon, and one in the Cisco. These zones coincide with the eleven major depositional cycles at Salt Creek. The authors have correlated these eleven lithostratigraphic-biostratigraphic units to a series of 14 major transgressive sequences in north Texas and 16 sequences in the mid-continent of North America. These correlations suggest that glacial eustasy is the basic control of these cycles. Differences in the correlation between the cycles may be due to the unique setting of the Salt Creek reef, variations in sea level fluctuations and basin subsidence, or variations in sedimentation rates between carbonate platforms and cratonic shelves with mixed lithologies.

  20. Sequential simulation approach to modeling of multi-seam coal deposits with an application to the assessment of a Louisiana lignite (United States)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Luppens, James A.


    There are multiple ways to characterize uncertainty in the assessment of coal resources, but not all of them are equally satisfactory. Increasingly, the tendency is toward borrowing from the statistical tools developed in the last 50 years for the quantitative assessment of other mineral commodities. Here, we briefly review the most recent of such methods and formulate a procedure for the systematic assessment of multi-seam coal deposits taking into account several geological factors, such as fluctuations in thickness, erosion, oxidation, and bed boundaries. A lignite deposit explored in three stages is used for validating models based on comparing a first set of drill holes against data from infill and development drilling. Results were fully consistent with reality, providing a variety of maps, histograms, and scatterplots characterizing the deposit and associated uncertainty in the assessments. The geostatistical approach was particularly informative in providing a probability distribution modeling deposit wide uncertainty about total resources and a cumulative distribution of coal tonnage as a function of local uncertainty.

  1. Integrating atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Bout, Bastian Van den; Jetten, V.G.; Chebbo, Ghassan


    For the first time, this paper develops an integrated and spatially-distributed modelling approach, linking atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models, to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas. The modelling system is applied to a small urban catchment

  2. Interplay of salt dynamics, sea-level change and climate on the depositional evolution of a Paleogene economic coal bearing salt rim syncline, Schoeningen, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A.; Pollok, L.; Brandes, C.; Winsemann, J. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie


    The Paleogene basin fill (maximum 300 m thick) of the Schoeningen rim syncline in northern Germany is well known for its economic lignitic coal deposits. The fill provides an example of the interaction of basin subsidence, sea-level, and climate changes on depositional environment and gives insight into the development of the coal seams within a sequence stratigraphic context. The rim syncline records thirteen Lower to Middle Eocene coal seams with intervening clastic layers that were deposited during a long-lived transgression of the Central German Estuary, which lasted until the Late Oligocene (Standke, 2008). The previous analysis of the rim syncline fill has primarily focused on coal deposits, their lateral extent and paleo-botanical habitat. In this work, 357 lithologic logs were calibrated to outcrop profiles and integrated with previous studies to provide a facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy interpretation of the syncline fill. This improves understanding of the depositional environments of the lesser-studied clastics that intervene the coals (Osman et al., in review). Four 3{sup rd} order sequences are recorded in the Lower to Middle Eocene basin fill. Sequences 1 and 2 document the interplay of sands and coals within a transgressive estuarine phase. The sands show a regime change from tide- to more wave-dominated estuarine conditions before a turnaround to a regressive deltaic phase. This succession typifies an incised valley fill. However, the accommodation space generated for the initial estuary development is thought to have originated via continual salt withdrawal (Brandes et al. 2012) instead of by incision during relative sea-level fall. The observed tide to wave estuary regime change is linked to increased subsidence rates at 57 Ma that generated a higher tidal prism. As the subsidence rates slowed and the syncline broadened, the tidal prism decreased, leading to the development of more wave-dominated facies. The intervening coal seams

  3. The absence of ABCA1 decreases soluble ApoE levels but does not diminish amyloid deposition in two murine models of Alzheimer disease.




    J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 30;280(52):43243-56. Epub 2005 Oct 5. The absence of ABCA1 decreases soluble ApoE levels but does not diminish amyloid deposition in two murine models of Alzheimer disease. Hirsch-Reinshagen V, Maia LF, Burgess BL, Blain JF, Naus KE, McIsaac SA, Parkinson PF, Chan JY, Tansley GH, Hayden MR, Poirier J, Van Nostrand W, Wellington CL. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V4Z 5H5, Canada. ...

  4. Assessment of Nitrogen deposition effects and empirical critical loads of Nitrogen for ecoregions of the United States (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; M.J. Robin-Abbott; C.T., eds. Driscoll


    This report synthesizes current research relating atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the United States and to identify empirical critical loads for atmospheric N deposition. The report evaluates the following receptors: freshwater diatoms, mycorrhizal fungi and other soil microbes, lichens, herbaceous plants, shrubs...

  5. Sea level ECV quality assessment via global ocean model assimilation (United States)

    Scharffenberg, Martin; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef


    In the ocean modeling community satellite data, especially SSH fields, are assimilated on a regular basis. SSH fields are very important in this context because of their dynamical relevance for constraining the ocean's flow field. However, assimilating SSH data into an ocean model does not only improve the quality of model but in addition, can also help testing the quality and the consistency of the input data as well. In our work we aim to quantify improvements in Sea Level (SL) data through the ESA - Climate Change Initiative (cci) effort and we aim to test the consistency of the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) of Sea Level (SL_ECV) with other ECVs through the assimilation process and to investigate where remaining inconsistencies exist and why. For this purpose the GECCO2 assimilation approach assimilates SSH jointly with in situ data over the ocean. The dynamically consistent ocean state estimation adjusts only uncertain model parameters to bring the model into consistency with ocean observations. Improvements in data products can be investigated by studying the residuals between the different data products and the constrained model. PHASE 1: With this approach we could demonstrate, that in many regions the SL_ECV has been improved from version V0 (AVISO product) to version V1 (SL_cci product). However, there are regions where SL_ECV_V1 is further away from the model "truth". In that sense it is important to understand that the model assimilated SL_ECV_V0 (origianl AVISO product) and therefore has tried to adapt to the SL_ECV_V0. Therefore, inconsistencies existed when comparing the synthesis results to the updated version SL_ECV_V1! These deviations between the model "truth" and the improved data product (SL_ECV_V1) increased mostly in low energetic areas. PHASE 2: Two GECCO2-assimilation-runs (5 additional iterations) have been performed to date: 1) assimilating the original AVISO SL-product (V0) and 2) assimilating the updated-improved sea level estimate

  6. Towards a holistic perspective on city-level vulnerability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    The deliverable introduces a map of the vulnerability to flooding in Dar es Salaam at the resolution of the finest administrative level (the subward/mtaa; comprising approx. 5-15 000 residents). Overlaying a hydrological model, representing the areas of the city most likely to become flooded......, the high-risk areas may be identified. That is, where the flood-prone areas coincide with the highly vulnerable subwards. The deliverable explores in a step-by-step manner how to capture, measure and process spatial data of multiple dimensions and integrating them into a Geographical Information System...... (GIS). The overall approach is a spatial multiple criteria evaluation (S-MCE) process, following a series of steps, whereby the most important multi-dimensional indicators of vulnerability to flooding are selected, measured and analyzed. Eventually the output is presented as a product in one...

  7. Are general surgeons able to accurately self-assess their level of technical skills? (United States)

    Rizan, C; Ansell, J; Tilston, T W; Warren, N; Torkington, J


    Self-assessment is a way of improving technical capabilities without the need for trainer feedback. It can identify areas for improvement and promote professional medical development. The aim of this review was to identify whether self-assessment is an accurate form of technical skills appraisal in general surgery. The PubMed, MEDLINE(®), Embase(™) and Cochrane databases were searched for studies assessing the reliability of self-assessment of technical skills in general surgery. For each study, we recorded the skills assessed and the evaluation methods used. Common endpoints between studies were compared to provide recommendations based on the levels of evidence. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria from 22,292 initial papers. There was no level 1 evidence published. All papers compared the correlation between self-appraisal versus an expert score but differed in the technical skills assessment and the evaluation tools used. The accuracy of self-assessment improved with increasing experience (level 2 recommendation), age (level 3 recommendation) and the use of video playback (level 3 recommendation). Accuracy was reduced by stressful learning environments (level 2 recommendation), lack of familiarity with assessment tools (level 3 recommendation) and in advanced surgical procedures (level 3 recommendation). Evidence exists to support the reliability of self-assessment of technical skills in general surgery. Several variables have been shown to affect the accuracy of self-assessment of technical skills. Future work should focus on evaluating the reliability of self-assessment during live operating procedures.

  8. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency. A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okwen, Roland [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Frailey, Scott [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Leetaru, Hannes [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Moulton, Sandy [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)


    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to

  9. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and

  10. Assessing Education Needs at Tertiary Level: The Focus Group Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Mirela Samfira


    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to point out the advantages and disadvantages of the focus group method in assessing the education needs of teachers and students in veterinary medicine. It is the first stage of a wider research aiming at developing problem-based teaching and learning methodologies in the field of veterinary medicine. The materials used consisted of literature documents on focus group as a research method in social sciences. The authors studied the literature available in the field and synthesised its main advantages and disadvantages. The paper is the first of this kind in Romania. Results show that there is no agreement yet on the advantages and disadvantages of this method. The research limitation is that there is almost no Romanian literature on focus group as a method. The usefulness of the paper is obvious: it allows other researchers in the field of education see the benefits of using such a research method. The originality of the paper consists in the fact that there has been no such research so far in Romanian higher education. Based on the results of the focus groups organised, the authors will design and implement a problem-based learning methodology for the students in veterinary medicine.

  11. Assessing nurses’ knowledge levels in the nutritional management of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mogre


    Full Text Available Although nutrition education for diabetes patients is the responsibility of dieticians and/or nutritionist, nurses have an important role to play. This study measured the knowledge level of nurses’ and associated factors in the nutritional management of diabetes. In this cross-sectional study a sample of 200 nurses completed a 21-item nutritional management of diabetes knowledge test developed based on the ADA and WHO guidelines for the nutritional management of diabetes. Using Cronbach's alpha, reliability was 0.62. The nurses (n = 200 had almost a 1:1 male to female ratio (n = 99, 49.5% and n = 101, 50.5% and a mean age of 27.24 ± 3.66 years. Total mean score was 12.13 ± 3.17 (44.9% correct. Over 70% of the nurses said diabetes patients could exclude any of the major nutrients from their meals. Almost 90% (n = 179 of the nurses did not know the recommended daily caloric intake of carbohydrates for diabetes patients. Higher mean scores were found in nurses who have ever had a refresher course in nutrition, ever counseled a diabetes patient and took 2–3 nutrition courses during school. Nurses’ knowledge in the nutritional management of diabetes was poor. It raises questions about the adequacy of nurses’ knowledge in the nutritional management of diabetes.

  12. Capsule influences the deposition of critical complement C3 levels required for the killing of Burkholderia pseudomallei via NADPH-oxidase induction by human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Woodman

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis and is a major mediator of sepsis in its endemic areas. Because of the low LD(50 via aerosols and resistance to multiple antibiotics, it is considered a Tier 1 select agent by the CDC and APHIS. B. pseudomallei is an encapsulated bacterium that can infect, multiply, and persist within a variety of host cell types. In vivo studies suggest that macrophages and neutrophils are important for controlling B. pseudomallei infections, however few details are known regarding how neutrophils respond to these bacteria. Our goal is to describe the capacity of human neutrophils to control highly virulent B. pseudomallei compared to the relatively avirulent, acapsular B. thailandensis using in vitro analyses. B. thailandensis was more readily phagocytosed than B. pseudomallei, but both displayed similar rates of persistence within neutrophils, indicating they possess similar inherent abilities to escape neutrophil clearance. Serum opsonization studies showed that both were resistant to direct killing by complement, although B. thailandensis acquired significantly more C3 on its surface than B. pseudomallei, whose polysaccharide capsule significantly decreased the levels of complement deposition on the bacterial surface. Both Burkholderia species showed significantly enhanced uptake and killing by neutrophils after critical levels of C3 were deposited. Serum-opsonized Burkholderia induced a significant respiratory burst by neutrophils compared to unopsonized bacteria, and neutrophil killing was prevented by inhibiting NADPH-oxidase. In summary, neutrophils can efficiently kill B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis that possess a critical threshold of complement deposition, and the relative differences in their ability to resist surface opsonization may contribute to the distinct virulence phenotypes observed in vivo.

  13. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP. Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes <68 km for all locations, above which WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  14. Spatially valid data of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen derived by moss surveys for pollution risk assessments of ecosystems. (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Schönrock, Simon; Meyer, Michaela; Wosniok, Werner; Harmens, Harry; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Alber, Renate; Aleksiayenak, Julia; Barandovski, Lambe; Carballeira, Alejo; Danielsson, Helena; de Temmermann, Ludwig; Godzik, Barbara; Jeran, Zvonka; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Lazo, Pranvera; Leblond, Sebastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Liiv, Siiri; Magnússon, Sigurður H; Mankovska, Blanka; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Piispanen, Juha; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Popescu, Ion V; Qarri, Flora; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajce; Steinnes, Eiliv; Stihi, Claudia; Thöni, Lotti; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Zechmeister, Harald G


    For analysing element input into ecosystems and associated risks due to atmospheric deposition, element concentrations in moss provide complementary and time-integrated data at high spatial resolution every 5 years since 1990. The paper reviews (1) minimum sample sizes needed for reliable, statistical estimation of mean values at four different spatial scales (European and national level as well as landscape-specific level covering Europe and single countries); (2) trends of heavy metal (HM) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in moss in Europe (1990-2010); (3) correlations between concentrations of HM in moss and soil specimens collected across Norway (1990-2010); and (4) canopy drip-induced site-specific variation of N concentration in moss sampled in seven European countries (1990-2013). While the minimum sample sizes on the European and national level were achieved without exception, for some ecological land classes and elements, the coverage with sampling sites should be improved. The decline in emission and subsequent atmospheric deposition of HM across Europe has resulted in decreasing HM concentrations in moss between 1990 and 2010. In contrast, hardly any changes were observed for N in moss between 2005, when N was included into the survey for the first time, and 2010. In Norway, both, the moss and the soil survey data sets, were correlated, indicating a decrease of HM concentrations in moss and soil. At the site level, the average N deposition inside of forests was almost three times higher than the average N deposition outside of forests.

  15. Assessing grain-size correspondence between flow and deposits of controlled floods in the Colorado River, USA (United States)

    Draut, Amy; Rubin, David M.


    Flood-deposited sediment has been used to decipher environmental parameters such as variability in watershed sediment supply, paleoflood hydrology, and channel morphology. It is not well known, however, how accurately the deposits reflect sedimentary processes within the flow, and hence what sampling intensity is needed to decipher records of recent or long-past conditions. We examine these problems using deposits from dam-regulated floods in the Colorado River corridor through Marble Canyon–Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A., in which steady-peaked floods represent a simple end-member case. For these simple floods, most deposits show inverse grading that reflects coarsening suspended sediment (a result of fine-sediment-supply limitation), but there is enough eddy-scale variability that some profiles show normal grading that did not reflect grain-size evolution in the flow as a whole. To infer systemwide grain-size evolution in modern or ancient depositional systems requires sampling enough deposit profiles that the standard error of the mean of grain-size-change measurements becomes small relative to the magnitude of observed changes. For simple, steady-peaked floods, 5–10 profiles or fewer may suffice to characterize grain-size trends robustly, but many more samples may be needed from deposits with greater variability in their grain-size evolution.

  16. Method to Correlate CFD Discriminator Level and Energy Deposition by Neutrons and Photons in a Fast Plastic Scintillating Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, L G


    This paper presents an experimental approach to determine the neutron and gamma ray thresholds in fast, organic scintillating detectors. Neutron threshold energy is determined using a time-of-flight technique, while gamma ray threshold is inferred by locating the Compton edge for various reference gamma sources. These energy thresholds are then related to the Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD) levels used in these experiments.

  17. Atomic Layer Deposition of Ultrathin Nickel Sulfide Films and Preliminary Assessment of Their Performance as Hydrogen Evolution Catalysts. (United States)

    Çimen, Yasemin; Peters, Aaron W; Avila, Jason R; Hoffeditz, William L; Goswami, Subhadip; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T


    Transition metal sulfides show great promise for applications ranging from catalysis to electrocatalysis to photovoltaics due to their high stability and conductivity. Nickel sulfide, particularly known for its ability to electrochemically reduce protons to hydrogen gas nearly as efficiently as expensive noble metals, can be challenging to produce with certain surface site compositions or morphologies, e.g., conformal thin films. To this end, we employed atomic layer deposition (ALD), a preeminent method to fabricate uniform and conformal films, to construct thin films of nickel sulfide (NiSx) using bis(N,N'-di-tert-butylacetamidinato)nickel(II) (Ni(amd)2) vapor and hydrogen sulfide gas. Effects of experimental conditions such as pulse and purge times and temperature on the growth of NiSx were investigated. These revealed a wide temperature range, 125-225 °C, over which self-limiting NiSx growth can be observed. In situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies revealed conventional linear growth behavior for NiSx films, with a growth rate of 9.3 ng/cm2 per cycle being obtained. The ALD-synthesized films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. To assess the electrocatalyitic activity of NiSx for evolution of molecular hydrogen, films were grown on conductive-glass supports. Overpotentials at a current density of 10 mA/cm2 were recorded in both acidic and pH 7 phosphate buffer aqueous reaction media and found to be 440 and 576 mV, respectively, with very low NiSx loading. These results hint at the promise of ALD-grown NiSx materials as water-compatible electrocatalysts.

  18. Characterization of a rock avalanche deposit for risk assessment in the town of Celano (Fucino Basin, Central Italy)


    Rinaldini, A.; Marino, A.; Ciucci, M.


    International audience; This paper describes multidisciplinary investigations carried out in the urban centre of Celano, a small town located at the northern edge of the Fucino Basin (Central Italy). The town lies upon a wide debris body that was recognized in this study as a rock avalanche deposit estimated to date to the Holocene. Geomorphologic studies and geophysical investigations led to a detailed characterization of the landslide deposit and the surrounding units. The information obtai...

  19. MELCOR 1.8.5 modeling aspects of fission product release, transport and deposition an assessment with recommendations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.


    from the fuel to the gas stream. A formal model is needed. Deposition patterns in the Phebus FPT-1 circuit were also significantly improved by using the modified ORNL-Booth parameters, where retention of lower volatile Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is now predicted in the heated exit regions of the FPT-1 test, bringing down depositions in the FPT-1 steam generator tube to be in closer alignment with the experimental data. This improvement in 'RCS' deposition behavior preserves the overall correct release of cesium to the containment that was observed even with the default CORSOR-M model. Not correctly treated however is the release and transport of Ag to the FPT-1 containment. A model for Ag release from control rods is presently not available in MELCOR. Lack of this model is thought to be responsible for the underprediction by a factor of two of the total aerosol mass to the FPT-1 containment. It is suggested that this underprediction of airborne mass led to an underprediction of the aerosol agglomeration rate. Underprediction of the agglomeration rate leads to low predictions of the aerosol particle size in comparison to experimentally measured ones. Small particle size leads low predictions of the gravitational settling rate relative to the experimental data. This error, however, is a conservative one in that too-low settling rate would result in a larger source term to the environment. Implementation of an interim Ag release model is currently under study. In the course of this assessment, a review of MELCOR release models was performed and led to the identification of several areas for future improvements to MELCOR. These include upgrading the Booth release model to account for changes in local oxidizing/reducing conditions and including a fuel oxidation model to accommodate effects of fuel stoichiometry. Models such as implemented in the French ELSA code and described by Lewis are considered appropriate for MELCOR. A model for ruthenium release under air



    Trpimir Kujundžić; Tomislav Korman; Marija Macenić


    Deep geological disposal is internationally recognized as the safest and most sustainable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. Mainly, clay rock, salt rock and crystalline rock are being considered as possible host rocks. Different geological environment in different countries led to the various repository concepts. Main feature of the most matured repository concept is that canisters with spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in vertical or horizontal large diameter...

  1. An accurate derivation of the air dose-rate and the deposition concentration distribution by aerial monitoring in a low level contaminated area (United States)

    Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Sugita, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo


    Since 2011, MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) have been conducting aerial monitoring to investigate the distribution of radioactive cesium dispersed into the atmosphere after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), Tokyo Electric Power Company. Distribution maps of the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition concentration on the ground are prepared using spectrum obtained by aerial monitoring. The radioactive cesium deposition is derived from its dose rate, which is calculated by excluding the dose rate of the background radiation due to natural radionuclides from the air dose-rate at 1 m above the ground. The first step of the current method of calculating the dose rate due to natural radionuclides is calculate the ratio of the total count rate of areas where no radioactive cesium is detected and the count rate of regions with energy levels of 1,400 keV or higher (BG-Index). Next, calculate the air dose rate of radioactive cesium by multiplying the BG-Index and the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher for the area where the radioactive cesium is distributed. In high dose-rate areas, however, the count rate of the 1,365-keV peak of Cs-134, though small, is included in the integrated count rate of 1,400 keV or higher, which could cause an overestimation of the air dose rate of natural radionuclides. We developed a method for accurately evaluating the distribution maps of natural air dose-rate by excluding the effect of radioactive cesium, even in contaminated areas, and obtained the accurate air dose-rate map attributed the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground. Furthermore, the natural dose-rate distribution throughout Japan has been obtained by this method.

  2. Assessing the Transition between School and University: Differences in Assessment between A Level and University in English (United States)

    Wilson, Frances; Child, Simon; Suto, Irenka


    High stakes assessments are commonly used at the end of secondary school to select students for higher education. However, growing concerns about the preparedness of new undergraduates for university study have led to an increased focus on the form of assessments used at upper secondary level. This study compared the structure and format of…

  3. Multi-Level Model of Contextual Factors and Teachers' Assessment Practices: An Integrative Review of Research (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Lee, Iris C. H.; Tan, Kelvin H. K.


    We present a multi-level model of contextual factors that may influence teachers' assessment practices, and use this model in a selected review of existing literature on teachers' assessment knowledge, views and conceptions with respect to these contextual factors. Adapting Kozma's model, we distinguish three levels of influence on teachers'…

  4. An Analysis of the Text Complexity of Leveled Passages in Four Popular Classroom Reading Assessments (United States)

    Toyama, Yukie; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David


    This study investigated the complexity of leveled passages used in four classroom reading assessments. A total of 167 passages leveled for Grades 1-6 from these assessments were analyzed using four analytical tools of text complexity. More traditional, two-factor measures of text complexity found a general trend of fairly consistent across-grade…

  5. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Gejiu Tin Ore and Other Metal Deposits of Yunnan Province (United States)

    Yang, Shuran; Danek, Tomas; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui


    This paper aims to study three main metal mining areas in Yunnan Province, to summarize and analyze the heavy metal pollution situation in each mining area, and to assess the ecological risk of the mining areas. The results showed that heavy metal pollution existed in different regions of the three mining areas with pollution elements of Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn. Risk level, besides Zhen Yuan mining area (class C), for the other two areas was class D, with Beichang mining area in Lanping as the most serious polluted mining area.

  6. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)


    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  7. Atomic force microscopy and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer technique to assess contact lens deposits and human meibum extracts. (United States)

    Hagedorn, Sarah; Drolle, Elizabeth; Lorentz, Holly; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Leonenko, Zoya; Jones, Lyndon


    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the differences in meibomian gland secretions, contact lens (CL) lipid extracts, and CL surface topography between participants with and without meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Meibum study: Meibum was collected from all participants and studied via Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition with subsequent Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) visualization and surface roughness analysis. CL Study: Participants with and without MGD wore both etafilcon A and balafilcon A CLs in two different phases. CL lipid deposits were extracted and analyzed using pressure-area isotherms with the LB trough and CL surface topographies and roughness values were visualized using AFM. Meibum study: Non-MGD participant meibum samples showed larger, circular aggregates with lower surface roughness, whereas meibum samples from participants with MGD showed more lipid aggregates, greater size variability and higher surface roughness. CL Study: Worn CLs from participants with MGD had a few large tear film deposits with lower surface roughness, whereas non-MGD participant-worn lenses had many small lens deposits with higher surface roughness. Balafilcon A pore depths were shallower in MGD participant worn lenses when compared to non-MGD participant lenses. Isotherms of CL lipid extracts from MGD and non-MGD participants showed a seamless rise in surface pressure as area decreased; however, extracts from the two different lens materials produced different isotherms. MGD and non-MGD participant-worn CL deposition were found to differ in type, amount, and pattern of lens deposits. Lipids from MGD participants deposited irregularly whereas lipids from non-MGD participants showed more uniformity. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. San Luis Valley - Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, Konstance L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brown, Jeff [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Cantwell, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dicks, Merrill [Bureau of Land Management, Taos, NM (United States); Fredericks, Brian [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Krall, Angie [US Forest Service, Creede, CO (United States); Rollins, Katherine E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Valdez, Arnie [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verhaaren, Bruce [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vieira, Joseph [Bureau of Land Management, Monte Vista, CO (United States); Walston, Lee [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The San Luis Valley – Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment (hereafter referred to as cultural assessment) is a BLM pilot project designed to see whether the Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) framework (already established and implemented throughout many ecoregions in the West) can be applied to the cultural environment.

  9. Indium–tin-oxide coatings for applications in photovoltaics and displays deposited using rotary ceramic targets: Recent insights regarding process stability and doping level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippens, Paul, E-mail: [Umicore Thin Film Products, Alte landstrasse 8, FL-9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein); Büchel, Michal [Umicore Thin Film Products, Alte landstrasse 8, FL-9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein); Chiu, David [Umicore Thin Film Products Taiwan, No. 22, Aly 4, Ln. 711, Bo' ai Street, Zhubei City, Hsinchu County 302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Szepesi, Chris [Umicore Thin Film Products USA, 50 Sims Avenue, Providence, 02909 RI (United States)


    Several aspects related to high power sputtering with industrial scale sintered ceramic rotary indium–tin-oxide (ITO) targets are presented in the first part of this paper. In particular, the process stability and target integrity upon sputtering with ≥ 20 kW/m power load and the influence of the gap size between cylindrical segments are discussed. Results show that, in order to avoid nodule formation and deposition rate fluctuations, direct current (DC) power load needs to be limited well below 20 kW/m over long sputter runs. Additional work demonstrates that at a gap size at or below 0.15 mm, strongly adhering deposits form readily between cylindrical segments which are not observed with standard 0.35 mm gaps. The influence of Sn doping level on electro-optical properties of thin films targeting an application such as hetero-junction c-Si solar cells is also investigated. Again, rotary targets operated at high power (10 kW/m) are used, including standard grade ITO containing 10 wt.% SnO{sub 2} and another composition with only 3 wt.% SnO{sub 2}. The influence of H{sub 2} and different concentrations of O{sub 2} in the sputter gas is analysed for both target materials. Results indicate that although coatings derived from the lower-doped ITO exhibit considerably less absorption in the NIR due to lower carrier concentrations, their resistivity is nearly 30% higher than that from the standard ITO coating.

  10. Assessment of multi-trophic changes in a shallow boreal lake simultaneously exposed to climate change and aerial deposition of contaminants from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Canada. (United States)

    Summers, Jamie C; Kurek, Joshua; Rühland, Kathleen M; Neville, Erin E; Smol, John P


    The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) has been intensely developed for industrial bitumen extraction and upgrading since the 1980s. A paucity of environmental monitoring prior to development raises questions about baseline conditions in freshwater systems in the region and ecological responses to industrial activities. Further, climatic changes prompt questions about the relative roles of climate and industry in shaping aquatic ecosystems through time. We use aquatic bioindicators from multiple trophic levels, concentrations of petrogenic contaminants (dibenzothiophenes), and spectrally-inferred chlorophyll-a preserved in well-dated sediments of a closed-basin, shallow lake ~50km away from the main area of industry, in conjunction with climate observations, to assess how the biotic assemblages of a typical AOSR lake have changed during the past ~75years. We examine the contributions of the area's stressors in structuring aquatic communities. Increases in sedimentary measures of petrogenic contaminants provide clear evidence of aerial contaminant deposition from local industry since its establishment, while climate records demonstrate consistent warming and a recent period of reduced precipitation. Quantitative comparisons of biological assemblages from before and after the establishment of regional industry find significant (pchanges are not consistent with a threshold-type shift in response to the onset of regional industry. Rather, biotic assemblages from multiple trophic levels suggest transitions to an increasingly complex benthic environment and relatively warmer waters, which, like the increasing trends in inferred primary production, are consistent with a changing climate. These findings highlight the important role of climate conditions in regulating primary production and structuring aquatic communities in these shallow systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled modification of electrochemical microsystems with polyethylenimine/reduced graphene oxide using electrophoretic deposition: Sensing of dopamine levels in meat samples. (United States)

    Kahlouche, Karima; Jijie, Roxana; Hosu, Ioana; Barras, Alexandre; Gharbi, Tijani; Yahiaoui, Reda; Herlem, Guillaume; Ferhat, Marhoun; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah


    Microsystems play an important role in many biological and environmental applications. The integration of electrical interfaces into such miniaturized systems provides new opportunities for electrochemical sensing where high sensitivity and selectivity towards the analyte are requested. This can be only achieved upon controlled functionalization of the working electrode, a challenge for compact microsystems. In this work, we demonstrate the benefit of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of reduced graphene oxide/polyethylenimine (rGO/PEI) for the selective modification of a gold (Au) microelectrode in a microsystem comprising a Pt counter and a Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The functionalized microsystem was successfully applied for the sensing of dopamine with a detection limit of 50nM. Additionally, the microsystem exhibited good performance for the detection of dopamine levels in meat samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ALS-based hummock size-distance relationship assessment of Mt Shasta debris avalanche deposit, Northern California, USA (United States)

    Tortini, Riccardo; Carn, Simon; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin


    The failure of destabilized volcano flanks is a likely occurrence during the lifetime of a stratovolcano, generating large debris avalanches and drastically changing landforms around volcanoes. The significant hazards associated with these events in the Cascade range were demonstrated, for example, by the collapse of Mt St Helens (WA), which triggered its devastating explosive eruption in 1980. The rapid modification of the landforms due to these events makes it difficult to estimate the magnitude of prehistoric avalanches. However, the widespread preservation of hummocks along the course of rockslide-debris avalanches is highly significant for understanding the physical characteristics of these landslides. Mt Shasta is a 4,317 m high, snow-capped, steep-sloped stratovolcano located in Northern California. The current edifice began forming on the remnants of an ancestral Mt Shasta that collapsed ~300-380k years ago producing one of the largest debris avalanches known on Earth. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) covers a surface of ~450 km2 across the Shasta valley, with an estimated volume of ~26 km3. We analyze ALS data on hummocks from the prehistoric Shasta valley DAD in northern California (USA) to derive the relationship between hummock size and distance from landslide source, and interpret the geomorphic significance of the intercept and slope coefficients of the observed functional relationships. Given the limited extent of the ALS survey (i.e. 40 km2), the high-resolution dataset is used for validation of the morphological parameters extracted from freely available, broader coverage DTMs such as the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The ALS dataset also permits the identification of subtle topographic features not apparent in the field or in coarser resolution datasets, including a previously unmapped fault, of crucial importance for both seismic and volcanic hazard assessment in volcanic areas. We present evidence from the Shasta DAD of neotectonic

  13. Radioactivity assessment of the waste deposited in Candonga's lake after the FundÃO Dam's collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini; Cuccia, Valeria; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Talita Oliveira, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Sales, Gabriel Lopes, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Química


    The collapse of the Fundão dam on November 5{sup th} 2015 caused impacts along the hydrographic basin of Rio Doce. Renova Foundation has the mission to repair, restore and reconstruct the regions affected by this disaster. After the collapse, a huge amount of waste was deposited in Risoleta Neves Hydroelectric Power Plant’s lake (Candonga). This waste has been dredged out from the lake and deposited in a nearby pile. The use of the waste from this pile is being considered for civil construction. Samples of this waste pile were collected and they were characterized by X-rays diffraction and EDS analyses, which showed that it consists of 80% quartz, 11% hematite, 8% goethite and 1% clays, mainly kaolinite. There is also organic matter consisting of branches, roots and leaves of trees and plants. Previous radiological analyses made before the collapse showed that the radionuclide content of the waste deposited in Fundão dam was very low. However, the waste deposited in Candonga's lake has a new composition and it is important to evaluate its radioactivity assessment. The analyses results of the Candonda's waste samples will be presented and compared to the results obtained in the Fundão dam samples, before its collapse. (author)

  14. A Monte Carlo study of energy deposition at the sub-cellular level for application to targeted radionuclide therapy with low-energy electron emitters (United States)

    Emfietzoglou, D.; Bousis, C.; Hindorf, C.; Fotopoulos, A.; Pathak, A.; Kostarelos, K.


    Optimizing targeted radionuclide therapy for patients with circulating malignant cells (e.g. blood-related cancers) or a micrometastatic spread requires quantification of various dosimetric parameters at the single-cell level. We present results on the energy deposition of monoenergetic electrons of initial energy from 100 eV to 20 keV - relevant to Auger emitting radionuclides - distributed either uniformly or at the surface of spherical volumes of radii from 10 nm to 1 μm which correspond to critical sub-cellular targets. Calculations have been carried out by our detailed-history Monte Carlo (MC) code which simulates event-by-event the complete slowing down (to 1 Ry) of both the primary and all subsequent generations of electrons, as well as, by the continuous-slowing-down-approximation (CSDA) using analytic range-energy relationships. The latter method has been adopted by the MIRD committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine for dosimetry at the cellular level (>1 μm). Differences between the MC and CSDA results are up to ∼50% and are expected to be even larger at higher energies and/or smaller volumes. They are attributed to the deficiencies of the CSDA method associated with the neglect of straggling and δ-ray transport. The results are particularly relevant to targeted radiotherapy at the genome level by Auger emitters.

  15. Use of dynamic soil–vegetation models to assess impacts of nitrogen deposition on plant species composition: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Dobben, van H.F.; Kros, J.; Reinds, G.J.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Smart, S.M.; Evans, D.R.; Rowe, E.; Belyazid, S.; Sverdrup, H.; Hinsberg, van A.; Posch, M.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Spranger, T.; Bobbink, R.


    Field observations and experimental data of effects of nitrogen (N) deposition on plant species diversity have been used to derive empirical critical N loads for various ecosystems. The great advantage of such an approach is the inclusion of field evidence, but there are also restrictions, such as

  16. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Mathematics Anxiety Levels among College Students


    Baloğlu, Mustafa


    The study investigated the relationship between college students’ subjective and objective assessment of mathematics anxiety levels. Students rated their general and current mathematics anxiety levels, mathematical ability levels, and confidence in doing mathematics. The Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale was used as an objective measure of their mathematics anxiety levels. Participants were 559 students, 406 (72.6%) women and 151 (27.0%) men. Results showed that perceived general mathe...

  17. Atmospheric chemistry of mercury in Antarctica and the role of cryptogams to assess deposition patterns in coastal ice-free areas. (United States)

    Bargagli, R


    Mercury in the Antarctic troposphere has a distinct chemistry and challenging long-term measurements are needed for a better understanding of the atmospheric Hg reactions with oxidants and the exchanges of the various mercury forms among air-snow-sea and biota. Antarctic mosses and lichens are reliable biomonitors of airborne metals and in short time they can give useful information about Hg deposition patterns. Data summarized in this review show that although atmospheric Hg concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere are lower than those in the Northern Hemisphere, Antarctic cryptogams accumulate Hg at levels in the same range or higher than those observed for related cryptogam species in the Arctic, suggesting an enhanced deposition of bioavailable Hg in Antarctic coastal ice-free areas. In agreement with the newest findings in the literature, the Hg bioaccumulation in mosses and lichens from a nunatak particularly exposed to strong katabatic winds can be taken as evidence for a Hg contribution to coastal ecosystems by air masses from the Antarctic plateau. Human activities on the continent are mostly concentrated in coastal ice-free areas, and the deposition in these areas of Hg from the marine environment, the plateau and anthropogenic sources raises concern. The use of Antarctic cryptogams as biomonitors will be very useful to map Hg deposition patterns in costal ice-free areas and will contribute to a better understanding of Hg cycling in Antarctica and its environmental fate in terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.


    The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

  19. Assessing coupling between lakes and layered aquifers in a complex Pleistocene landscape based on water level dynamics (United States)

    Lischeid, Gunnar; Natkhin, Marco; Steidl, Jörg; Dietrich, Ottfried; Dannowski, Ralf; Merz, Christoph


    The biosphere reserve Schorfheide-Chorin is a scenic region with many lakes. Hydraulic coupling between lakes and groundwater is difficult to assess due to the very heterogeneous Pleistocene deposits with a complex layering of different aquifers, part of them being confined. Thus, a principal component analysis of time series of groundwater and lake water levels was performed. The first two principal components provided a quantitative measure of damping of the input signal, i.e., the extent to which time series of groundwater pressure heads or lake water levels are smoothed and delayed with respect to the input signal, i.e., groundwater recharge or precipitation minus evapotranspiration, respectively. The lakes differed substantially with respect to damping behaviour, indicating different impacts of deep groundwater contribution. For most of the groundwater wells, damping increased linearly with mean depth to water table. In contrast, some wells exhibited nearly identical behaviour independent of depth. High-pass filtered data of water table level from these wells were strongly and inversely correlated with those of barometric pressure fluctuations, pointing to a confined aquifer which was evidently not connected to the adjacent lake.

  20. Methods, quality assurance, and data for assessing atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.


    The U.S. Geological Survey monitored atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California during two studies in 2001 and 2002–04. The 2001 study sampled wet deposition (rain) and storm-drain runoff in the Modesto, California, area during the orchard dormant-spray season to examine the contribution of pesticide concentrations to storm runoff from rainfall. In the 2002–04 study, the number and extent of collection sites in the Central Valley were increased to determine the areal distribution of organophosphate insecticides and other pesticides, and also five more sample types were collected. These were dry deposition, bulk deposition, and three sample types collected from a soil box: aqueous phase in runoff, suspended sediment in runoff, and surficial-soil samples. This report provides concentration data and describes methods and quality assurance of sample collection and laboratory analysis for pesticide compounds in all samples collected from 16 sites. Each sample was analyzed for 41 currently used pesticides and 23 pesticide degradates, including oxygen analogs (oxons) of 9 organophosphate insecticides. Analytical results are presented by sample type and study period. The median concentrations of both chloryprifos and diazinon sampled at four urban (0.067 micrograms per liter [μg/L] and 0.515 μg/L, respectively) and four agricultural sites (0.079 μg/L and 0.583 μg/L, respectively) during a January 2001 storm event in and around Modesto, Calif., were nearly identical, indicating that the overall atmospheric burden in the region appeared to be fairly similar during the sampling event. Comparisons of median concentrations in the rainfall to those in the McHenry storm-drain runoff showed that, for some compounds, rainfall contributed a substantial percentage of the concentration in the runoff; for other compounds, the concentrations in rainfall were much greater than in the runoff. For example, diazinon concentrations in rainfall were about

  1. Zhilinskaya L. Modern approaches to assessing the level of development of industrial enterprises


    Жилінська, Л. О.


    The analysis of the main approaches to assessing the level of development of industrial enterprises. Revealed that a number of scientists identifies the concept of "effective development" and "effective functioning". Defined three main positions of contemporary scientists and economists for assessing the level of industrial enterprises (competitive status and competitiveness that make enterprise potential, lifecycle enterprise) and identifies their main advantages and disadvantages. It is pro...

  2. Assessing the Conceptual Understanding about Heat and Thermodynamics at Undergraduate Level (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vasudeo Digambar; Tambade, Popat Savaleram


    In this study, a Thermodynamic Concept Test (TCT) was designed to assess student's conceptual understanding heat and thermodynamics at undergraduate level. The different statistical tests such as item difficulty index, item discrimination index, point biserial coefficient were used for assessing TCT. For each item of the test these indices were…

  3. Aligned assessment in support of high-level learning: A critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes the form of a critical appraisal of a formative assessment task given to students in an entry-level English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course in an ... construct meaning from learning tasks and the extent to which the assessment is synchronised with learning outcomes and learning activities of the course.

  4. Self and Teacher Assessment as Predictors of Proficiency Levels of Turkish EFL Learners (United States)

    Ünaldi, Ihsan


    Although self-assessment of foreign language skills is not a new topic, it has not yet been widely explored in the Turkish English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context. The current study investigates the potential of self-assessment of foreign language skills in determining proficiency levels of Turkish learners of EFL: 239 learners participated in…

  5. Perceptions of Classroom Assessment Tasks: An Interplay of Gender, Subject Area, and Grade Level (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain Ali; Al-Hosni, Salim


    This study investigates students' perceptions of classroom assessment tasks as a function of gender, subject area, and grade level. Data from 2753 students on Dorman and Knightley's (2006) Perceptions of Assessment Tasks Inventory (PATI) were analyzed in a MANOVA design. Results showed that students tended to hold positive perceptions of their…

  6. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris


    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  7. Assessments of Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Beech Forests: Results from the Pan-European Intensive Monitoring Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eichhorn


    Full Text Available The article reviews effects of nitrogen (N deposition on beech forest ecosystems in Europe. On the basis of beech plots of the Pan-European Monitoring Programme of ICP Forests and the EU, the deposition of N compounds as well as input-output budgets are listed and compared with studies in North America. The authors also discuss the critical threshold for N leaching. At present, N is leached in 10% of the plots evaluated. An in-depth evaluation of a beech plot in central Germany is presented. The high N leaching results in a considerable increase (four times higher N content in 2000 compared to 1965 in the export of nitrate from the beech forests from a nearby source. Finally, ecophysiological indicators (N content in beech leaves, fine root system, N content, root/shoot ratios are discussed as a result of high N input.

  8. Chemical and biological status of lakes and streams in the upper midwest: assessment of acidic deposition effects (United States)

    Wiener, J.G.; Eilers, J.M.


    Many lakes in three areas in the Upper Midwest - northeastern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan - have low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and may be susceptible to change by acidic deposition. Northcentral Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan together contain about 150-300 acidic lakes (ANC ≤ 0), whereas none have been found in Minnesota. These acidic lakes are precipitation-dominated, Clearwater seepage lakes having small surface area, shallow depth, and low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. The spatial distribution of these acidic lakes parallels a west to east gradient of increasing sulfate and hydrogen ion deposition. Several of these acidic lakes exhibit chemical characteristics and biological changes consistent with those observed elsewhere in waters reported to be acidified by acidic deposition. However, an hypothesis of recent lake acidification is not supported by analyses of either historical chemical data or diatom remains in lake sediments, and natural sources of acidity and alternative ecological processes have not been conclusively eliminated as causative factors. Streams in this three-state region have high ANC and appear to be insensitive to acidic deposition. The species richness and composition of lacustrine fish communities in the region are partly related to pH and associated chemical factors. Sport fishes considered acid-sensitive and of primary concern with regard to acidification include walleye, smallmouth bass, and black crappie. The fishery in at least one lake, Morgan Lake in Wisconsin (pH 4.6), may have declined because of acidification. Given the general lack of quantitative fishery data for acidic Wisconsin and Michigan lakes, however, more general conclusions concerning impacts or the absence of impacts of acidification on the region's fishery resources are not possible.

  9. Mineral Resource Prediction and Assessment of Copper Multi-mineral Deposit Based on GIS Technology in the North of Sanjiang Region, China (United States)

    WANG, Gongwen; CHEN, Jianping

    On the basis of the multi-information on geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and remote sensing, mineral resource prediction and assessment is one of the keystones and popular topics in quantificational geosciences both in China and abroad, for it can not only be used to extract metallogenetic information and delineate metallogenetic targets, but provide important data for the quantitative assessment of mineral resources. This article takes the northern part of Sanjiang region in the south of Qinghai Province, China, as a case study area. On the basis of the conventional mineralized factors of mineral resource prediction and assessment, combined with the research on post-ore change and preservation, a new insight into mineral resource prediction and assessment, in terms of regional mineralization, change, and preservation factors, is built on account of the features of deposits at high altitudes, big slopes, emergence in surface, and denudation in the study area. According to the 24 copper complex deposits and geological settings in the study area, 29 variations, including mineralized factors, change factors, and preservation factors have been extracted by Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. To show the effect of the new insight, two mineral resource prediction models have been built with the 29 variations and 20 mineralized variations, respectively. Weight-of-evidence modeling is applied to map copper complex potential areas in this study area. The posterior probability maps of copper complex deposits delineated by weights of evidence method are made by contrasting mineralized factors with mineralization, and also changed factors with preservation factors. The results of the latter is better than that of the former: on one hand, the latter eliminates the nonmineralized area that is produced by glacier, water, or wind denudation; on the other hand, it can delineate mineral prospects that have concealed mineralized stratum or magma.

  10. Stratiform chromite deposit model (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.


    Stratiform chromite deposits are of great economic importance, yet their origin and evolution remain highly debated. Layered igneous intrusions such as the Bushveld, Great Dyke, Kemi, and Stillwater Complexes, provide opportunities for studying magmatic differentiation processes and assimilation within the crust, as well as related ore-deposit formation. Chromite-rich seams within layered intrusions host the majority of the world's chromium reserves and may contain significant platinum-group-element (PGE) mineralization. This model of stratiform chromite deposits is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. The model focuses on features that may be common to all stratiform chromite deposits as a way to gain insight into the processes that gave rise to their emplacement and to the significant economic resources contained in them.

  11. Guidelines for Preparing Psychological Specialists: An Entry-Level Course on Intellectual Assessment (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Wechsler, Solange Muglia


    This article provides guidelines for an entry-level course that prepares psychology students and practitioners to acquire entry-level skills, abilities, knowledge, and attitudes important to the individual assessment of intellectual abilities of children and youth. The article reviews prominent international, regional, and national policies,…

  12. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.


    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  13. Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.; Kasse, C.; Cleveringa, P.; de Wolf, H.; Cohen, K.M.


    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and

  14. Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits - Fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.; Cleveringa, P.; Kasse, C.; Wolf,; Cohen, K.M.


    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and

  15. Sedimentary architecture and optical dating of Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse deposits – fluvial response to climate change, sea-level fluctuation and glaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busschers, F.S.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Wallinga, J.; Cleveringa, P.; Kasse, C.; De Wolf, H.; Cohen, K.M.


    Eight continuous corings in the west-central Netherlands show a 15 to 25 m thick stacked sequence of sandy to gravelly channel-belt deposits of the Rhine-Meuse system. This succession of fluvial sediments was deposited under net subsiding conditions in the southern part of the North Sea Basin and

  16. Assessing reading levels of health information: uses and limitations of flesch formula. (United States)

    Jindal, Pranay; MacDermid, Joy C


    Written health information is commonly used by health-care professionals (HCPs) to inform and assess patients in clinical practice. With growing self-management of many health conditions and increased information seeking behavior among patients, there is a greater stress on HCPs and researchers to develop and implement readable and understandable health information. Readability formulas such as Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKRGL) are commonly used by researchers and HCPs to assess if health information is reading grade appropriate for patients. In this article, we critically analyze the role and credibility of Flesch formula in assessing the reading level of written health information. FRE and FKRGL assign a grade level by measuring semantic and syntactic difficulty. They serve as a simple tool that provides some information about the potential literacy difficulty of written health information. However, health information documents often involve complex medical words and may incorporate pictures and tables to improve the legibility. In their assessments, FRE and FKRGL do not take into account (1) document factors (layout, pictures and charts, color, font, spacing, legibility, and grammar), (2) person factors (education level, comprehension, health literacy, motivation, prior knowledge, information needs, anxiety levels), and (3) style of writing (cultural sensitivity, comprehensiveness, and appropriateness), and thus, inadequately assess reading level. New readability measures incorporate pictures and use complex algorithms to assess reading level but are only moderately used in health-care research and not in clinical practice. Future research needs to develop generic and disease-specific readability measures to evaluate comprehension of a written document based on individuals' literacy levels, cultural background, and knowledge of disease.

  17. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastaugh, Chris S.; Potzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenaueur, Hubert


    The purpose of this study is to determine if the climate change has had an apparent impact in Austrian forests. This research has been conducted on Norway spruce forests as this is the predominant species in Austria. Growth data between regions which have different temperature and precipitation trendsw was then compared, with results showing increased productivity in all regions thus implying that growth of the forest is driven by other factors than climate. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies supporting that forest growth is mainly driven by increasing nitrogen deposition.

  18. Assessing the Role of Sewers and Atmospheric Deposition as Nitrate Contamination Sources to Urban Surface Waters using Stable Nitrate Isotopes (United States)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.


    Excess nitrate (NO3-) contributes to the overall degraded quality of streams in many urban areas. These systems are often dominated by impervious surfaces and storm sewers that can route atmospherically deposited nitrogen, from both wet and dry deposition, to waterways. Moreover, in densely populated watersheds there is the potential for interaction between urban waterways and sewer systems. The affects of accumulated nitrate in riverine and estuary systems include low dissolved oxygen, loss of species diversity, increased mortality of aquatic species, and general eutrophication of the waterbody. However, the dynamics of nitrate pollution from each source and it’s affect on urban waterways is poorly constrained. The isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate have been proven effective in helping to distinguish contamination sources to ground and surface waters. In order to improve our understanding of urban nitrate pollution sources and dynamics, we examined nitrate isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) in base- and stormflow samples collected over a two-year period from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Nine Mile Run drains a 1,600 hectare urban watershed characterized by 38% impervious surface cover. Prior work has documented high nitrate export from the watershed (~19 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). Potential nitrate sources to the watershed include observed sewer overflows draining directly to the stream, as well as atmospheric deposition (~23 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). In this and other urban systems with high percentages of impervious surfaces, there is likely minimal input from nitrate derived from soil or fertilizer. In this presentation, we examine spatial and temporal patterns in nitrate isotopic composition collected at five locations along Nine Mile Run characterized by both sanitary and combined-sewer cross-connections. Preliminary isotopic analysis of low-flow winter streamwater samples suggest nitrate export from Nine Mile Run is primarily influenced by

  19. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) — A new assessment tool for evaluating the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason, E-mail:


    Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study — Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. - Highlights: • A new assessment tool called the Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) described. • GAM evaluates the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability. • GAM demonstrated by application to Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (CCA). • Part 1 of CCA has significant flaws in achieving a sustainable pathway. • GAM offers a potentially useful tool for quantitatively evaluating sustainability.

  20. Uncertainty analysis for low-level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.; Yambert, M.W.; Kocher, D.C.


    A performance assessment of the operating Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) facility for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been prepared to provide the technical basis for demonstrating compliance with the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A, Chapter 111.2 An analysis of the uncertainty incorporated into the assessment was performed which addressed the quantitative uncertainty in the data used by the models, the subjective uncertainty associated with the models used for assessing performance of the disposal facility and site, and the uncertainty in the models used for estimating dose and human exposure. The results of the uncertainty analysis were used to interpret results and to formulate conclusions about the performance assessment. This paper discusses the approach taken in analyzing the uncertainty in the performance assessment and the role of uncertainty in performance assessment.

  1. Rapid assessment of mid-infrared refractive index anisotropy using a prism coupler: chemical vapor deposited ZnS. (United States)

    Qiao, H A; Lipschultz, Kristen A; Anheier, N C; McCloy, J S


    A state-of-the-art mid-infrared prism coupler was used to study suspected anisotropy in the refractive index of forward-looking-infrared grade chemical vapor deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide. Samples were prepared with columnar grain structure in and perpendicular to the sample plane, as well as from different depths in the CVD growth body. This study was motivated by the growing industry concern among optical design engineers, as well as developers of mid-infrared systems, over the reliability of historically accepted index data. Prior photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction measurements have suggested that refractive index may vary according to sample orientation with respect to the grain structure. Measurements were conducted to provide optical dispersion and thermal index (dn/dT) data at discrete laser wavelengths between 0.633 and 10.591 μm at two temperature set points (30 °C and 90 °C). Refractive index measurements between samples exhibited an average standard deviation comparable to the uncertainty of the prism coupler measurement (0.0004 refractive index units), suggesting that the variation in refractive index as a function of sample orientation and CVD deposition time is negligible and should have no impact on subsequent optical designs. Measured dispersion data at mid-infrared wavelengths were also found to agree well with prior published measurements.

  2. Significance of relic carbonate deposits along the central and southwestern margin of India for late Quaternary environmental and sea level changes (United States)

    Rao, V. Purnachandra; Montaggioni, L.; Vora, K. H.; Almeida, F.; Rao, K. M.; Rajagopalan, G.


    Environmental and sea level indicators were investigated using dredge samples from late Quaternary carbonate deposits along the shelf break between Goa and Cape Comorin, India. Geomorphic features in the area were identified from sonar profiles and included isolated patch reefs with a relief of up to 10 m, and linear reefs with reliefs between 2 and 15 m. The main clast types recovered from these features include fragmented corals and carbonate nodules dominated by either encrusted foraminifera or coralline algae. Some of these clast types are clearly of shallow-water origin. Fragments of reef-forming Poritid corals, for example, were collected off Mangalore at depths of 110-105 m and dated between 11,520 and 12,610 14C years BP (13.42-14.77 ka). Nodules of similar age dominated by Lithothamnium and capped by foraminiferal veneers were also collected at -90 m off Cape Comorin. Their altered algal tissues are consistent with formation in shallow water, high-energy conditions. In contrast, nodules recovered off Kochi and Mangalore-Goa are of deeper water origin, younger in age (10,980-7350 14C years BP), and are dominated by Gypsina encrustations with volumetrically less algal encrustation. They show cyclic succession of foraminiferal-algal, or foraminiferal-algal-coral laminations in which the algal species are typical of deeper waters. The age and elevation of corals and shallow-water nodules are both consistent with published glacio-eustatic sea-level curves. In addition, the alternate micro-encrustations of foraminifera, algae and encrusting corals could indicate changing conditions from nutrient-rich and turbid to nutrient-poor and clear water that may be attributable to seasonal variations in sediment flux caused by monsoons.

  3. Depositional architecture and evolution of inner shelf to shelf edge delta systems since the Late Oliocene and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change, Pear River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea (United States)

    Lin, Changsong; Zhang, Zhongtao; liu, Jingyan; Jiang, Jing


    The Pear River Mouth Basin is located in the northern continent margin of the South China Sea. Since the Late Oligocene, the long-term active fluvial systems (Paleo-Zhujiang) from the western basin margin bebouched into the northern continental margin of the South China Sea and formed widespread deltaic deposits in various depositional geomorphologies and tectonic settings. Based of integral analysys of abundant seismic, well logging and drilling core data, Depositional architecture and evolution of these delta systems and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change are documented in the study. There are two basic types of the delta systems which have been recognized: inner shelf delta deposited in shallow water enviroments and the outer shelf or shelf-edge delta systems occurred in deep water settings. The paleowater depths of these delta systems are around 30 to 80m (inner shelf delta) and 400-1000m (shelf-edge delta) estimated from the thickness (decompaction) of the delta front sequences. The study shows that the inner shelf delta systems are characterized by relatively thin delta forests (20-40m), numereous stacked distributary channel fills, relative coarse river mouth bar deposits and thin distal delta front or distal bar and prodelta deposits. In contrast, the outer shelf or shelf edge delta systems are characteristic of thick (300-800m) and steep (4-60) of deltaic clinoforms, which commonly display in 3D seismic profiles as "S" shape reflection. Large scale soft-sediment deformation structures, slump or debris flow deposits consisting mainly of soft-sediment deformed beds, blocks of sandstones and siltstones or mudstones widely developed in the delta front deposits. The shelf edge delta systems are typically associated with sandy turbidite fan deposits along the prodelta slopes, which may shift basinwards as the progradation of the delta systems. The delta systems underwent several regional cycles of evolution from inner shelf deltas to shelf edge

  4. [Eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure: assessment and development prediction]. (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Li-Qun; Zhang, Si-Wei; Zhang, Pei-Qi; Xu, Min-Lun; Bian, Xin-Min


    Based on the 'three critical points' theory of eco-fitness, and by using dynamic weighting and fitting methods, an assessment system for the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was constructed, and, taking Zhangqiu of Shandong Province, East China as a case, the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was assessed and predicted. Due to the limited agro-ecological resources, the comprehensive eco-fitness index of four kinds of agricultural leading industry in Zhangqiu presented an upward trend from 2005 to 2010, but a downward trend from 2011 to 2015. The eco-fitness indices of oil crops and fruits would be negative in 2015. The applied research in Zhangqiu confirmed the validity of the assessment system constructed for the eco-fitness of county-level agriculture leading industry structure and the rationality of the prediction model.

  5. Kriged and modeled ambient air levels of benzene in an urban environment: an exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dejian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of air pollution, particularly hazardous air pollutants (HAPs. However, quantifying exposure to these pollutants is problematic. Objective Our goal was to explore the utility of kriging, a spatial interpolation method, for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of HAPs. We used benzene as an example and compared census tract-level kriged predictions to estimates obtained from the 1999 U.S. EPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA, Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN model. Methods Kriged predictions were generated for 649 census tracts in Harris County, Texas using estimates of annual benzene air concentrations from 17 monitoring sites operating in Harris and surrounding counties from 1998 to 2000. Year 1999 ASPEN modeled estimates were also obtained for each census tract. Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed on the modeled and kriged benzene levels. Weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discretized kriged and modeled estimates of ambient air levels of benzene. Results There was modest correlation between the predicted and modeled values across census tracts. Overall, 56.2%, 40.7%, 31.5% and 28.2% of census tracts were classified as having 'low', 'medium-low', 'medium-high' and 'high' ambient air levels of benzene, respectively, comparing predicted and modeled benzene levels. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20, 0.31, indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusions There was a lack of concordance between predicted and modeled ambient air levels of benzene. Applying methods of spatial interpolation for assessing exposure to ambient air pollutants in health effect studies is hindered by the placement and number of existing stationary monitors collecting HAP data. Routine monitoring needs to be expanded if we are to use these data

  6. WP2: Assessing multi-level activities in water and biodiversity governance. Report


    Antunes, Paula; Quillacq, Patricia; Rauschmayer, Felix; Santos, Rui; Videira, Nuno; Egerton, Catrin


    This report constitutes the main deliverable of WorkPackage 2 of GoverNat, "Assessing multilevel activities in water and biodiversity governance", dealing with an assessment of state-ofthe- art European water and biodiversity governance, based on the analysis of a series of casestudies developed by GoverNat fellows. The cases, all dealing with participation in multi-level governance of water and biodiversity in Europe, were analysed with the support of the framework for analysis and evaluatio...

  7. A framework for sea level rise vulnerability assessment for southwest U.S. military installations (United States)

    Chadwick, B.; Flick, Reinhard; Helly, J.; Nishikawa, T.; Pei, Fang Wang; O'Reilly, W.; Guza, R.; Bromirski, Peter; Young, A.; Crampton, W.; Wild, B.; Canner, I.


    We describe an analysis framework to determine military installation vulnerabilities under increases in local mean sea level as projected over the next century. The effort is in response to an increasing recognition of potential climate change ramifications for national security and recommendations that DoD conduct assessments of the impact on U.S. military installations of climate change. Results of the effort described here focus on development of a conceptual framework for sea level rise vulnerability assessment at coastal military installations in the southwest U.S. We introduce the vulnerability assessment in the context of a risk assessment paradigm that incorporates sources in the form of future sea level conditions, pathways of impact including inundation, flooding, erosion and intrusion, and a range of military installation specific receptors such as critical infrastructure and training areas. A unique aspect of the methodology is the capability to develop wave climate projections from GCM outputs and transform these to future wave conditions at specific coastal sites. Future sea level scenarios are considered in the context of installation sensitivity curves which reveal response thresholds specific to each installation, pathway and receptor. In the end, our goal is to provide a military-relevant framework for assessment of accelerated SLR vulnerability, and develop the best scientifically-based scenarios of waves, tides and storms and their implications for DoD installations in the southwestern U.S. ?? 2011 MTS.

  8. Assessment of mobility and bio-availability of heavy metals in dry depositions of Asian dust and implications for environmental risk. (United States)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kang, Min-Ju


    We assess the potential mobility and bio-availability of selected metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mo, Pb, S, Zn, and Zr) in the dry depositions of Asian and non-Asian dust from the city of Daejeon, Korea. For this study, we applied Pb isotopes, total extraction and chemical sequential extraction methods to the dry depositions. In addition, microscopic analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and focused ion beam (FIB)-scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). FIB-SEM cross-section observations and Pb isotope data showed a black carbon is an important carrier of associated heavy metals originating from China. A five-step sequential extraction performed on the dry depositions showed that S and Cd are the most abundant elements in the water-soluble and cation-exchangeable fraction. In addition, Zn and Pb appeared predominantly in the carbonate and reducible fractions. On the other hand, Cu, Mo and, to a lesser degree, As were significantly associated with the organic fraction, while Co, Ni, Cr and Zr were bound to the residual fraction. These results showed that S, Cd, Zn and Pb, which were highly concentrated in potentially mobile fractions, have potential environmental risk because potential changes in redox state and pH may remobilize these metals. In addition, the estimated remobilization concentrations of these metals were significant. Thus, this study shows that frequent and careful monitoring of S, Cd, Z, Pb and, to a lesser degree, Cu, Mo and As is very important for assessing environmental risk in Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Criteria selection for the assessment of Serbian lignites tendency to form deposits on power boilers heat transfer surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Milica


    Full Text Available Based on investigations of ash deposit formation, semi-empirical indicators for slagging and fouling, based on ash chemical composition and its fusion temperature, have been determined. These criteria-indicators, in suggested limits, describe the coals on which they are based (North-American and British well. However, the experience in the thermal power production sector of Serbia shows that their literal application to domestic coals does not produce satisfactory results. This contribution provides an analysis of applicability and the choice of criteria that are suitable for Serbian coals. The focus of the contribution is on coal slagging indicators, since slagging has much heavier consequences on heat transfer inside the steam boiler, and on boiler operation as a whole. The basis for the analysis of chosen criteria comprises of the results of investigations of four coal fields - Kostolac, Kolubara, Kosovo (Serbia, and Ugljevik (Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)


    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  11. Paleolimnological assessment of riverine and atmospheric pathways and sources of metal deposition at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Lauren A., E-mail: [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wiklund, Johan A. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Elmes, Matthew C.; Wolfe, Brent B. [Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Hall, Roland I., E-mail: [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    Growth of natural resource development in northern Canada has raised concerns about the effects on downstream aquatic ecosystems, but insufficient knowledge of pre-industrial baseline conditions continues to undermine ability of monitoring programs to distinguish industrial-derived contaminants from those supplied by natural processes. Here, we apply a novel paleolimnological approach to define pre-industrial baseline concentrations of 13 priority pollutant metals and vanadium and assess temporal changes, pathways and sources of these metals at a flood-prone lake (SD2) in the Slave River Delta (NWT, Canada) located ~ 500 km north of Alberta's oil sands development and ~ 140 km south of a former gold mine at Yellowknife, NWT. Results identify that metal concentrations, normalized to lithium concentration, are not elevated in sediments deposited during intervals of high flood influence or low flood influence since onset of oil sands development (post-1967) relative to the 1920–1967 baseline established at SD2. When compared to a previously defined baseline for the upstream Athabasca River, several metal-Li relations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, V) in post-1967 sediments delivered by floodwaters appear to plot along a different trajectory, suggesting that the Peace and Slave River watersheds are important natural sources of metal deposition at the Slave River Delta. However, analysis revealed unusually high concentrations of As deposited during the 1950s, an interval of very low flood influence at SD2, which corresponded closely with emission history of the Giant Mine gold smelter indicating a legacy of far-field atmospheric pollution. Our study demonstrates the potential for paleolimnological characterization of baseline conditions and detection of pollution from multiple pathways in floodplain ecosystems, but that knowledge of paleohydrological conditions is essential for interpretation of contaminant profiles. - Highlights: • We examine metal depositional history at a

  12. High levels of particulate matter in Iceland due to direct ash emissions by the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and resuspension of deposited ash (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Jóhannsson, Thorsteinn; Stohl, Andreas; Kristiansen, Nina I.


    The dangers to people living near a volcano due to lava and pyroclastic flows, and, on glacier- or snow-covered volcanoes, jökulhlaups, are well known. The level of risk to human health due to high concentrations of ash from direct emission and resuspension from the ground is, however, not as well known. The eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, 14 April to 20 May 2010, produced abundant particulate matter due to its explosive eruption style. Even after the volcanic activity ceased, high particulate matter (PM) concentrations were still measured on several occasions, due to resuspended ash. The 24 hour mean concentration of PM10 in the small town of Vík, 38 km SE of the volcano, reached 1230 μg m-3, which is about 25 times the health limit, on 7 May 2010, with 10 min average values over 13,000 μg m-3. Even after the eruption ceased, values as high as 8000 μg m-3 (10 min), and 900 μg m-3 (24 h), were measured because of resuspension of freshly deposited fine ash. In Reykjavík, 125 km WNW of the volcano, the PM10 concentration reached over 2000 μg m-3 (10 min) during an ash storm on 4 June 2010, which should have warranted airport closure. Summarizing, our study reveals the importance of ash resuspension compared to direct volcanic ash emissions. This likely has implications for air quality but could also have detrimental effects on the quality of ash dispersion model predictions, which so far generally do not include this secondary source of volcanic ash.

  13. Assessing Knowledge Levels of Secondary School Physical Education and Sports Teachers about Inclusive Education (United States)

    Aydin, Mensure


    The purpose of the research is to assess knowledge levels of physical education teachers in inclusive education in secondary schools. For the research, the survey method was employed. It consisted of 55 physical education teachers employed in 47 secondary schools included in inclusive education program under Kocaeli Provincial Directorate of…

  14. Missed injuries during the initial assessment in a cohort of 1124 level-1 trauma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakopoulos, G. F.; Saltzherr, T. P.; Beenen, L. F. M.; Reitsma, J. B.; Bloemers, F. W.; Goslings, J. C.; Bakker, F. C.


    Introduction: Despite the presence of diagnostic guidelines for the initial evaluation in trauma, the reported incidence of missed injuries is considerable. The aim of this study was to assess the missed injuries in a large cohort of trauma patients originating from two European Level-1 trauma

  15. Managing the Process of Protection Level Assessment of the Complex Organization and Technical Industrial Enterprises (United States)

    Gorlov, A. P.; Averchenkov, V. I.; Rytov, M. Yu; Eryomenko, V. T.


    The article is concerned with mathematical simulation of protection level assessment of complex organizational and technical systems of industrial enterprises by creating automated system, which main functions are: information security (IS) audit, forming of the enterprise threats model, recommendations concerning creation of the information protection system, a set of organizational-administrative documentation.

  16. Assessment of Positive Psychology Course According to Comments and Life Satisfaction Levels of Counselor Candidates (United States)

    Bas, Asli Uz


    The purpose of this study was to assess the "Positive Psychology" course according to comments and life satisfaction levels of counselor candidates. The course was offered in Guidance and Psychological Counseling undergraduate program as an elective course. The participants of the study were 56 senior undergraduate students attended…

  17. An Assessment of the Level of Faculty Burnout at Evergreen Valley College. (United States)

    Johnson, Tanya

    A study was conducted at Evergreen Valley College (EVC), California, to assess the level of faculty burnout and to determine the need for personal and organizational interventions to reduce burnout and improve morale. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was administered to all 105 full-time faculty at EVC, and scores for the MBI subscales of…

  18. Assessing the Level of Efficiency of The Stock Exchange of Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the level of efficiency of SEM by using a sample the daily market returns for the period 1999 to 2004. The main tests conducted are Run test, Augmented Dicker Fuller test, KPSS test and Auto-correlation test. The results for all tests provide evidence that returns on the market do not follow a random walk.

  19. Assessment of the English literacy level of patients in primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low literacy can be described as the inability to read, write or use numbers effectively. The limited ability to read and understand health care instructions directly translates into poor health outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the English literacy levels of primary health care patients using the Learning Ability ...

  20. Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying the Criticality Index Model. ... However, Turbine maintenance in Nigerian power generating Plants is unimaginably low; there are incessant plant shut downs, and up to 95% of both foreign and local manufacturers have either shut down production or have ...

  1. TB/HIV integration at primary care level: A quantitative assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TB/HIV integration at primary care level: A quantitative assessment at 3 clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa. L Page-Shipp, YV De Lima, K Clouse, J de Vos, L Evarts, J Bassett, I Sanne, A Van Rie ...

  2. Assessing reasonable worst-case full-shift exposure levels from data of variable quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Drooge, H. van; Groenewold, M.; Hemmen, J. van


    Exposure assessors involved in regulatory risk assessments often need to estimate a reasonable worst-case full-shift exposure level from very limited exposure information. Full-shift exposure data of very high quality are rare. A full-shift value can also be calculated from (short term) task-based

  3. Diagnostic Assessment of Preparedness of Level One Sports Science Students for Biomechanics Modules (United States)

    Dixon, Sharon J.


    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the use of a diagnostic test to assess the preparedness of level one students for a sports biomechanics module. During their first week at university, a cohort of 108 students completed a diagnostic test at the end of their first lecture in sports biomechanics, with no prior notice. Upon…

  4. Integrated assessment of farm level adaptation to climate change in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.


    The findings of the thesis allowed assessing plausible futures of agriculture in Flevoland around 2050 with insights in effective adaptation to climate change at different levels. Besides empirical findings, this thesis contributed methodologically to the portfolio of climate change impact and

  5. 8 Assessment of the Level of Mercury Present in Soaps by the Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Department of Science and Technology, University of The Gambia, PO Box 3530, Serekunda, The Gambia 2Galp Energia Gambia Limited, Independence Drive, Box 263, Banjul, The Gambia. 3University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. 8. Assessment of the Level of Mercury Present in Soaps by the ...

  6. Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics Diagnostic: A Conceptual Assessment for the Junior Level (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Caballero, Marcos D.; Pollock, Steven J.; Perkins, Katherine K.


    As part of an effort to systematically improve our junior-level E&M I course, we have developed a tool to assess student conceptual learning of electrostatics at the upper division. Together with a group of physics faculty, we established a list of learning goals for the course that, with results from student observations and interviews,…

  7. Assessing the levels of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in biscuits and home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modern day busy schedule of an average individual in Nigeria has made the consumption of snacks inevitable. This study assessed the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in some common snacks sold in two tertiary institutions in Lagos, Nigeria, using Perkin AAS Elmer model 460. The mean levels of Zn, Cu, Pb and ...

  8. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, N.; Groeneveld, A.B.J.; Dijstelbloem, H.M.; de Jong, M.F.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Beishuizen, A.


    Purpose: To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Methods: A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63

  9. Assessing adrenal insufficiency of corticosteroid secretion using free versus total cortisol levels in critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Nienke; Johan Groeneveld, A. B.; Dijstelbloem, Hilde M.; de Jong, Margriet F. C.; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Beishuizen, Albertus


    To study the value of free versus total cortisol levels in assessing relative adrenal insufficiency during critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. A prospective study in a mixed intensive care unit from 2004 to 2007. We consecutively included 49 septic and 63 non-septic patients with

  10. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment (United States)

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.


    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  11. The assessment of risks from exposure to low-levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, E.S.


    This report is concerned with risk assessments for human populations receiving low level radiation doses; workers routinely exposed to radiation, Japanese victims of nuclear bombs, and the general public are all considered. Topics covered include risk estimates for cancer, mortality rates, risk estimates for nuclear site workers, and dosimetry.

  12. Performance scan thermal climate. Assessment of the energy performance level; Performance scan thermisch klimaat. Beoordeling energieprestatieniveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouleaux, W. [DHV Bouw en Industrie, Amersfoort (Netherlands)


    By means of the performance scan the indoor climate and the energetic performance level of a building can be assessed. The most important outcome of the scan is increase of the productivity. [Dutch] Met de performance scan kan het binnenklimaat en het energetisch prestatieniveau van een gebouw worden beoordeeld. De belangrijkste uitkomst van de scan is verhoging van de productiviteit.

  13. Skills in clinical communication: Are we correctly assessing them at undergraduate level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zamora Cervantes


    Full Text Available Communicating with the patient in clinical practice refers to the way in which the doctor and the patient interact both verbally and nonverbally, in order to achieve a shared understanding of problems and solutions. Traditional learning and assessment systems are overwhelmed when it comes to addressing the complex and multi-dimensional problems of professional practice. Problem Based Learning (PBL has been put forward as an alternative to the mere reproduction of knowledge and pre-established patterns, enabling students to develop their own learning strategies to overcome problems in their future professional practice. The challenge is to determine how to assess the acquisition of clinical communication skills. The authors have recommended a summative assessment of clinical communication skills based on the combination of different methods. It highlights the importance of feedback-based formative assessment. This raises the need to develop and validate assessment scales in clinical communication at an undergraduate level. Based on this work, the authors put forward a "fanned out" assessment in terms of clinical communication skills in Medicine degrees, with the use of different instruments in a "spiraled" manner, where the greater the contact with clinical practice in the various degree and integral courses, the greater difficulty experienced, with the participation of all the stakeholders involved (self, hetero and peer assessment without precluding the involvement of patients (real or simulated in the design of assessment instruments.

  14. Assessment of the Fire Risk Levels in an Office Building and a Nightclub with Prescriptive Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, D.; Steffensen, F.B.; Jomaas, Grunde


    A comparison of the risk level of an office building and a nightclub with code compliant prescriptive designs was conducted in order to evaluate whether an uniform safety level of the two occupancy types can be established. A risk assessment method using Monte Carlo simulations and 1- and 2-zone......-movement time and the movement time were adjusted for the required safe egress time (RSET) of the nightclub. The number of simulations required in order to obtain reliable results was considered sufficient at 20,000. The comparison of the risk profiles of the nightclub and the office building showed significant...... difference in risk levels, with that of the nightclub being substantially higher. The higher risk level in the nightclub is caused by a relatively fast mean value of the fire growth rate and the high number of occupants. Hence, the requirements in the prescriptive code do not ensure a similar safety level...

  15. Assessment of groundwater inundation as consequence of sea-level rise (United States)

    Rotzoll, K.; Fletcher, C. H.


    Strong evidence on climate change underscores the need for actions to reduce the impacts of sea-level rise. It has been largely unrecognized that low-lying coastal areas are more vulnerable to inundation from groundwater than marine flooding because the groundwater elevation is typically higher than mean sea level. Field measurements of the coastal groundwater elevation and tidal influence in urban Honolulu, Hawaii, allow estimates of the generalized distribution of the mean water table, which was used in conjunction with digital elevation maps to assess vulnerability to groundwater inundation from sea-level rise. We find that 0.6 m of potential sea-level rise causes substantial flooding, and 1 m sea-level rise inundates 10% of a 1-km wide coastal zone. This has wide-reaching consequences for decision-makers, resource managers, and urban planners and is applicable to many low-lying coastal areas.

  16. Associations between SNPs in candidate immune-relevant genes and rubella antibody levels: a multigenic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovsyannikova Inna G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms of immune response are structured within a highly complex regulatory system. Genetic associations with variation in the immune response to rubella vaccine have typically been assessed one locus at a time. We simultaneously assessed the associations between 726 SNPs tagging 84 candidate immune response genes and rubella-specific antibody levels. Blood samples were obtained from 714 school-aged children who had received two doses of MMR vaccine. Associations between rubella-specific antibody levels and 726 candidate tagSNPs were assessed both one SNP at a time and in a variety of multigenic analyses. Results Single-SNP assessments identified 4 SNPs that appeared to be univariately associated with rubella antibody levels: rs2844482 (p = 0.0002 and rs2857708 (p = 0.001 in the 5'UTR of the LTA gene, rs7801617 in the 5'UTR of the IL6 gene (p = 0.0005, and rs4787947 in the 5'UTR of the IL4R gene (p = 0.002. While there was not significant evidence in favor of epistatic genetic associations among the candidate SNPs, multigenic analyses identified 29 SNPs significantly associated with rubella antibody levels when selected as a group (p = 0.017. This collection of SNPs included not only those that were significant univariately, but others that would not have been identified if only considered in isolation from the other SNPs. Conclusions For the first time, multigenic assessment of associations between candidate SNPs and rubella antibody levels identified a broad number of genetic associations that would not have been deemed important univariately. It is important to consider approaches like those applied here in order to better understand the full genetic complexity of response to vaccination.

  17. Rapid assessment of mid-infrared refractive index anisotropy using a prism coupler: chemical vapor deposited ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Hong (Amy); Lipschultz, Kristen A.; Anheier, Norman C.; McCloy, John S.


    A state-of-the-art mid-infrared prism coupler was used to study the refractive index properties of forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) grade zinc sulfide samples prepared with unique planar grain orientations and locations with respect to the CVD growth axis. This study was motivated by prior photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction measurements that suggested refractive index may vary according to grain orientation. Measurements were conducted to provide optical dispersion and thermal index (dn/dT) data at discrete laser wavelengths between 0.633 and 10.591 {mu}m at two temperature set points (30 C and 90 C). Refractive index measurements between samples exhibited an average standard deviation comparable to the uncertainty of the prism coupler measurement (0.0004 refractive index units), suggesting that the variation in refractive index as a function of planar grain orientation and CVD deposition time is negligible, and should have no impact on subsequent optical designs. Measured dispersion data at mid-infrared wavelengths was found to agree well with prior published measurements.

  18. Reconstructions of subducted ocean floor along the Andes: a framework for assessing Magmatic and Ore Deposit History (United States)

    Sdrolias, M.; Müller, R.


    The South American-Antarctic margin has been characterised by numerous episodes of volcanic arc activity and ore deposit formation throughout much of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Although its Cenozoic subduction history is relatively well known, placing the Mesozoic arc-related volcanics and the emplacement of ore bodies in their plate tectonic context remains poorly constrained. We use a merged moving hotspot (Late Cretaceous- present) and palaeomagnetic /fixed hotspot (Early Cretaceous) reference frame, coupled with reconstructed spreading histories of the Pacific, Phoenix and Farallon plates to understand the convergence history of the South American and Antarctic margins. We compute the age-area distribution of oceanic lithosphere through time, including subducting oceanic lithosphere and estimate convergence rates along the margin. Additionally, we map the location and migration of spreading ridges along the margin and relate this to processes on the overriding plate. The South American-Antarctic margin in the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous was dominated by rapid convergence, the subduction of relatively young oceanic lithosphere (Verdes" in southern South America. The speed of subduction increased again along the South American-Antarctic margin at ~105 Ma after another change in tectonic regime. Newly created crust from the Farallon-Phoenix ridge continued to be subducted along southern South America until the cessation of the Farallon-Phoenix ridge in the latest Cretaceous / beginning of the Cenozoic. The age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere along the South American-Antarctic margin has increased steadily through time.

  19. Assessing the Performance of Statistical-structural and Geostatistical Methods in Estimating the 3D Distribution of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength Parameter in the Sarcheshmeh Porphyry Copper Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Pishbin


    Full Text Available The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS of intact rocks is an important geotechnical parameter required for designing geotechnical and mining engineering projects. Obtaining accurate estimates of the rock mass UCS parameter throughout a 3D geological model of the deposit is vital for determining optimum rock slope stability, designing new exploratory and blast boreholes, mine planning, optimizing the production schedule and even designing the crusher’s feed size. The main objective of this paper is to select the preferred estimator of the UCS parameter based on accuracy performance using all the available geological-geotechnical data at the Sarcheshmeh copper deposit, located 160 km southwest of Kerman City, in south-eastern Iran. In this paper, an attempt is made to estimate the spatial distribution of the UCS parameter using commonly-used statistical-structural and geostatistical methods. In order to achieve the aim of the current study, the UCS parameter was measured along with other qualitative geological properties, including the rock type, weathering, alteration type and intensity of core samples taken from 647 boreholes. The 3D distribution of the UCS parameter is obtained using different algorithms including statistical-structural (the nearest-neighbour technique, linear (ordinary Kriging and nonlinear (indicator Kriging geostatistical methods. After estimating the UCS parameter at block centres using the above-mentioned methods, the performance of each method is compared and validated through 21 set aside borehole data. The assessment of selecting best estimator of UCS parameter is based on scatter plots of the observed versus estimated data plus the root mean square error (RMSE statistics of the differences between observed and estimated values for 21 set aside borehole data. Finally, due to the special characteristics of the UCS spatial variability, it is concluded that the nearest-neighbour method is the most appropriate method for

  20. Perceptions of Teachers towards Assessment Techniques at Secondary Level Private School of Karachi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Fatemah


    Full Text Available This paper sets out to explore the perceptions of teachers towards assessment techniques at a secondary level private school of Karachi. This was conjectured on the basis of the circumstances of parallel boards in the education system of Pakistan and its effectiveness within the context with respect to the curriculum. This was gauged in line with the forms and techniques of assessment corresponding with the curriculum. A qualitative research design based on interviews was chosen for this study. Purposive sampling was used to select the teachers from a school. The findings of the study revealed that the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE is best suited to assess students’ knowledge and skills and the teachers viewed that in order for students to be accomplished in this board, the ways of assessment must take a more meaningful measure of evaluating student’s progress

  1. Lead, cadmium and zinc in mineral structure of deposits of the gallbladder in men and women


    Jerzy Kwapuliński; Bożena Ahnert; Barbara Brodziak-Dopierała; Błażej Szad; Brewczyński, Piotr Z.; Jarosław Rutkiewicz; Mariusz Bogunia; Jolanta Kowol


    Introduction: The former studies have shown the presence of As and Sb in deposits of the gallbladder. The aim of studies: The aim of the studies was to define the level of accumulation of Pb, Cd, Zn in deposits of the gallbladder as supplementary biological test for exposure assessment in a long run. Materials and methods: Pb, Cd and Zn content was investigated with inductive coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometry were deposits of the gallbladder in men and women l...

  2. Assessing the Consumer Food Environment in Restaurants by Neighbourhood Distress Level across Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem


    To assess the consumer food environment in restaurants in Saskatoon, using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R), to examine differences by neighbourhood distress level and to reflect on the need for further refinement of the assessment of restaurant consumer food environments. Neighbourhoods were classified as low, middle, or high distress level based on the socioeconomic indicators (income, employment, and education) in the Material Deprivation Index. Differences in restaurant consumer food environments, indicated by mean NEMS-R total and sub-scores, were examined by various restaurant categories and by varying neighbourhood distress levels. Chain coffee shops and pita and sandwich restaurants had higher NEMS-R totals and "Healthy Entrées" sub-scores; however, burger and chicken restaurants and pizza restaurants had more barriers to healthful eating. Although restaurants in lower distress level neighbourhoods generally rated healthier (higher NEMS-R scores), only a few measures (such as "Facilitators" and "Barriers") significantly differed by neighbourhood distress level. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions to improve restaurant consumer food environments, especially in neighbourhoods with higher distress levels. The results suggest that reliable measures of the consumer food environment could be developed beginning with what can be measured by NEMS-R.

  3. Exposure assessment of particulate matter and blood chromium levels in people living near a cement plant. (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Jae Bum; Lee, Kyung Jong


    This study evaluates the effect of air pollution caused by cement plants on nearby residential areas and performs an exposure assessment of particulate matter (PM) and total Cr, Cr(6+), Pb, and Al. Further, the blood Cr levels of residents exposed to PM released by cement plants are also assessed. Nine buildings (eight residential and one elementary school building) close to cement plants were selected for this study, which were located in Pyeongtaek port, in west of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. A total of 51 suspended particulate samples were collected at a flow rate of 2.0 L/min. Total Cr was more widely detected in residents' houses and elementary schools. PM levels were higher at distances of 4.1 and 4.8 km than those at closer distances of 2.7 km. This was due to the influence of wind direction. The estimated mean blood level of Cr for the study participants was 3.80 μg/L, which is higher than levels estimated by other studies on Cr blood levels. Therefore, cement plants could cause an increase in total Cr and blood Cr levels in residential areas, and more continuous monitoring is necessary to better understand their impacts.

  4. Letter to the editor: Critical assessments of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric nitrogen deposition in China (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Liu, Yongwen; Wentworth, Gregory R.; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Li, Yi; Liu, Xuejun; Du, Enzai; Fang, Yunting; Xiao, Hongwei; Ma, Hongyuan; Wang, Yuesi


    In a publication in Atmospheric Environment (, Gu et al. (2015) estimated that "the total nitrogen (N) deposition in 2010 was 2.32 g N m-2 yr-1" in China. This value is comparable with previous estimations based on a synthesized dataset of wet/bulk inorganic N deposition observations, which underestimates the total N deposition since their algorithm (equations (2) and (3) in their paper) does not account for dry deposition of NH3, HNO3, NOx and wet/dry deposition of HONO and organic nitrogen (e.g. amines, amides, PAN). Indeed, Gu et al. (2015) mixed the terminology of wet/bulk deposition and total deposition. Another flawed assumption by Gu et al. (2015) is that all inorganic N in precipitation estimated by their algorithm originates from fertilizer and coal combustion. This is incorrect and almost certainly causes biases in the spatial and temporal distribution of estimated wet/bulk inorganic N deposition (Fig. 5 in their paper), further considering the fact that they neglected important N sources like livestock and they did not consider the nonlinearity between various sources and deposition. Besides the input data on N deposition, the model validation (Sect. 2.3.2) described in their paper also requires clarification because the detailed validation information about the time series of observational dataset versus modeling results was not given. As a result of these combined uncertainties in their estimation of N deposition and the lack of detail for model-measurement comparison, their estimates of the impacts of N deposition on carbon storage in Chinese forests may need further improvement. We suggest the clarification of the terminology regarding N deposition, especially for wet deposition, bulk deposition, gaseous and particulate dry deposition or total deposition since the accurate distinction between these terms is crucial to investigating and estimating the effects of N deposition on ecosystems.

  5. Methodology for Assessing the Work of Small Business at the Municipal Level

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    Aleksandr Evgen’evich Kremin


    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable socio-economic development in a municipality, its local authorities face the task of establishing an industrial and financial base on their territory, it will help increase its level of economic independence. On the basis of foreign experience and domestic research on territorial development it can be concluded that one of the most effective ways to enhance the level of socio-economic development of the municipality is to boost its small business. Effective management of this economic sector requires adequate assessment of its functioning at the municipal level. The analysis of existing methodologies for assessing the functioning of small business at the municipal level shows that none of them meets the criteria that the author of the present paper has selected and that are necessary for efficient research into the small business sector. In this regard, a methodology for estimating the work of small business at the municipal level was elaborated, and tested on the statistic data of municipal formations of the Vologda Oblast. The study reveals municipalities with the highest and lowest levels of small business development. In addition, municipalities were grouped in three blocks that represent different characteristics of their functioning. Taking into account the problems of business subjects, the study has developed measures to increase the level of development for each group of municipalities. Implementing these activities will help intensify the work of the sector of the economy under consideration, and increase the economic independence of territorial formations in the region. The paper can be used to assess the effectiveness of activities aimed to support small business in the region and to help regional and municipal authorities to work out a strategy for further development of this economic sector


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Bova


    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to define and demonstrate the role of deposit policy for banking institutions, summarize and highlight the problems and its solutions in deposit policy of Ukraine that provides economic downturn and recovery. Appropriate selection and implementation of the deposit policy objectives, its operational structure and tools determines the degree of development of financial inclusion, which generate developed financial market, ensures public confidence to the deposit services, and increases the level of savings that positively affects the banking system financial stability and economy in the country in whole. It is because of availability and security deposit services, commercial banks of Ukraine have the opportunity to increase its resource base due to savings of the population. Methodology. The paper is based on a synthesis of data to explore the bank deposit policy situation. The paper considers the scientific and theoretical approaches for the developing the deposit policy management. It contains the analysis of the dynamics and current situation and conditions of the resource potential of banking institutions in Ukraine. Results of the article shows direct dependency between savings, consumption and deposit policy, therefore every banking institution includes the mechanism of banking management of the development and implementation of deposit policy. Also, this management defines the deposit policy directions according to the conditions of bank resources mobilization and its applying in active operations. The obtained results confirm that the term “deposit policy” is too complex, but it is investigated in interaction with banking activity. It is explained how deposit policy influences banking system and has impact on economic growth in general. Practical implications. The research creates methodological approaches to the measurement of effectiveness of deposit policy. Also, it studies the existing ones. It provides

  7. Humid climate during deposition of sapropel 1 in the Mediterranean Sea: Assessing the influence on the Alps (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph; Nicolussi, Kurt; Patzelt, Gernot; Boch, Ronny; Daphne Team


    Cave and lake isotope records from the circum-Mediterranean realm show anomalously low O isotope values suggesting high rainfall intensity during the time of sapropel 1 deposition (9.5 to 6.5 ka; all ages are given before the year AD 2000, i.e. b2k), coincident with an interval of conspicuously low sea-surface salinities in the entire Mediterranean Sea. Speleothem data from Corchia Cave (Tuscany) currently provide the most precise terrestrial chronology and constrain the wettest interval to ca. 8.2 to 7.3 ka. We have traced this isotopic signal to the north and observe a synchronous isotopic change in stalagmites from southalpine and eastalpine caves, but in opposite direction. We attribute this to a shift in the local moisture balance, i.e. to a higher proportion of moisture advected from the Mediterranean Sea relative to the otherwise dominant northwesterly air masses in the Alps. This isotopic source effect can be traced up to the northern rim of the Alps, albeit with decreasing amplitude. Forest density at the treeline in the Central Alps decreased during this time interval indicating short vegetation periods consistent with rainy summers. The glaciers in the Eastern Alps, which did not show far-reaching advances during the preceding 8.2 ka event, responded strongly (positively) to this humid phase. Additionally, two of the largest alluvial fans in the Eastern Alps showed a massive accumulation peak radiocarbon dated to between ca. 8.3 to 7.4 ka and thus providing one of the strongest pieces of evidence for anomalously high rainfall intensities coeval with 'pluvial' conditions in the Mediterranean region.

  8. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex. (United States)

    Benmansour, M; Mabit, L; Nouira, A; Moussadek, R; Bouksirate, H; Duchemin, M; Benkdad, A


    In Morocco land degradation - mainly caused by soil erosion - is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42' W, 33° 47' N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of (137)Cs, (210)Pb(ex) as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 12.1 ha(-1) yr(-1) for (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the (137)Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of aspirin and ticlopidine on platelet deposition in carotid atherosclerosis: assessment by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Etani, H.; Uehara, A.; Uyama, O.; Yoneda, S.; Kamada, T.; Kusunoki, M.


    The antiplatelet effects of aspirin and ticlopidine were studied by a dual-tracer method, using indium-111 labeled platelets and technetium-99m human serum albumin, in a group of 12 patients with suspected ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The magnitude of platelet accumulation at the carotid bifurcation was expressed as the ratio of radioactivity of indium-111 platelets deposited on the vascular wall to those circulating in the blood-pool (PAI, platelet accumulation index), 48 hr after injection of labeled platelets. PAI values were measured before (baseline studies) and after the antithrombotic therapies (aspirin studies: 325 mg bid for 22.3 +/- 1.3 days, ticlopidine studies: 100 mg tid for 21.8 +/- 2.1 days). At the baseline, the mean PAI value at 24 carotid bifurcations in the patient group was 15.7 +/- 15.3% (mean +/- S.D.) compared to -4.3 +/- 9.1 at 24 carotid bifurcations in 12 normal subjects (p less than 0.01). We defined the upper limit for a normal PAI (%) value to be +13.9, namely the mean PAI plus 2 SD for the carotid bifurcation in normal subjects and used this value for semiquantitative analysis. At the baseline, significant elevation of PAI (more than 13.9%; positive scintigram) was observed at 12 of 24 vessels, while 12 other regions were negative (less than 13.9%). In the lesions with positive scintigraphic results at the baseline, the mean PAI (%) value from the baseline, aspirin and ticlopidine studies was 29.5 +/- 7.0, 11.2 +/- 8.5 (p less than 0.01 versus baseline) and 21.4 +/- 21.3 (not significant from baseline), respectively.

  10. Screening level health risk assessment of selected metals in apple juice sold in the United States. (United States)

    Tvermoes, Brooke E; Banducci, Amber M; Devlin, Kathryn D; Kerger, Brent D; Abramson, Mathew M; Bebenek, Ilona G; Monnot, Andrew D


    Concerns have recently been raised about the presence of metals in apple juices. As such, the concentration of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in six commercially available brands of apple juice and three organic brands. The concentrations of total As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Zn in all nine apple juice brands sampled were below each metal's respective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maximum contaminant level for bottled water. However, in some apple juices the levels of Al, Pb, and Mn exceeded FDA maximum contaminant levels for bottled water. Therefore, a screening level risk assessment was carried out to assess the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks that may result from metal exposure via apple juice consumption. Changes in blood Pb concentrations were also estimated to characterize potential risk from Pb exposure. Our results suggest that the exposure concentrations of the studied metals do not pose an increased non-carcinogenic risk (Hazard IndexHealth Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) and the U.S. EPA cancer slope factor for inorganic As. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Limitations in assessing nerve growth factor levels in aqueous humor samples from human eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalam Kakarla V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve growth factor (NGF helps in the healing and survival of ganglion cells, photoreceptors, and optic nerve after injury and has been implicated to have a role in pathophysiology of glaucoma. So far, in animal studies, injury to iris in vitro has revealed an increase in NGF levels in aqueous. There is a great interest in investigating the levels of NGF in human aqueous in glaucomatous eyes, as suggested by animal studies, to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Findings In this study, we examined the presence of NGF levels in aqueous humor collected from human eyes and the limitations in determining the NGF levels in human samples. NGF was assessed by ELISA immunoassay in undiluted aqueous samples collected from 32 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for cataract (control or primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Recombinant NGF was used as positive control. NGF levels were below undetectable levels in aqueous humor from eyes with POAG and controls by immunoassay. Less than 10% of samples had detectable NGF levels and these were considered outliers. Conclusion Our result highlights the undetectable levels of NGF in human aqueous samples.

  12. Application of MAGIC to Lake Redó (Central Pyrenees: an assessment of the effects of possible climate driven changes in atmospheric precipitation, base cation deposition, and weathering rates on lake water chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc VENTURA


    Full Text Available The process-oriented catchment-scale model MAGIC was used to simulate water chemistry at Lake Redó, a high mountain lake in the Central Pyrenees, Spain. Data on lakewater and atmospheric deposition chemistry for the period 1984-1998 were used to calibrate the model, which was then used to reconstruct past and to provide forecasts for three hypothetical future scenarios of deposition. Forecast scenarios considered several combinations of changes in S and N deposition due to abatement strategies, and in base cation deposition due to climate-induced changes in air-mass trajectories from northern Africa. Scenario 1 assumed constant deposition of base cations at the present level plus the expected decrease in S and N deposition resulting from reduced emissions; scenario 2 (best case assumed an increase in base cation deposition plus the same decrease in S and N deposition as in scenario 1; scenario 3 (worst case assumed a decrease in base cation deposition plus no decrease in S and N deposition. The hindcast indicated that during the past 140-year period changes in lake water chemistry have been significant for a remote mountain catchment, although no substantial acidification has occurred. In this regard Lake Redó can be described as a "non-sensitive lake" maintaining a reference condition. The forecasts indicated changes that do not affect this status, but the trends, even if slight, were different between scenarios. A slight decline in the surface water ANC is predicted by Scenario 3. The N budget indicates an unusually low retention in the catchment, which may result in enhanced sensitivity to further increased N deposition. Some of the discrepancy between modelled and measured Ca2+ in lake water during 1984-98 could be explained by changes in rainfall amounts and by increased weathering rates due to increases in air temperature.

  13. Screening-level risk assessment for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer detected in soil and groundwater. (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Collins, J J; Rowlands, J C


    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment.

  14. Activity Level Assessment Using a Smart Cushion for People with a Sedentary Lifestyle

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    Congcong Ma


    Full Text Available As a sedentary lifestyle leads to numerous health problems, it is important to keep constant motivation for a more active lifestyle. A large majority of the worldwide population, such as office workers, long journey vehicle drivers and wheelchair users, spends several hours every day in sedentary activities. The postures that sedentary lifestyle users assume during daily activities hide valuable information that can reveal their wellness and general health condition. Aiming at mining such underlying information, we developed a cushion-based system to assess their activity levels and recognize the activity from the information hidden in sitting postures. By placing the smart cushion on the chair, we can monitor users’ postures and body swings, using the sensors deployed in the cushion. Specifically, we construct a body posture analysis model to recognize sitting behaviors. In addition, we provided a smart cushion that effectively combine pressure and inertial sensors. Finally, we propose a method to assess the activity levels based on the evaluation of the activity assessment index (AAI in time sliding windows. Activity level assessment can be used to provide statistical results in a defined period and deliver recommendation exercise to the users. For practical implications and actual significance of results, we selected wheelchair users among the participants to our experiments. Features in terms of standard deviation and approximate entropy were compared to recognize the activities and activity levels. The results showed that, using the novel designed smart cushion and the standard deviation features, we are able to achieve an accuracy of (>89% for activity recognition and (>98% for activity level recognition.

  15. Activity Level Assessment Using a Smart Cushion for People with a Sedentary Lifestyle. (United States)

    Ma, Congcong; Li, Wenfeng; Gravina, Raffaele; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Qimeng; Fortino, Giancarlo


    As a sedentary lifestyle leads to numerous health problems, it is important to keep constant motivation for a more active lifestyle. A large majority of the worldwide population, such as office workers, long journey vehicle drivers and wheelchair users, spends several hours every day in sedentary activities. The postures that sedentary lifestyle users assume during daily activities hide valuable information that can reveal their wellness and general health condition. Aiming at mining such underlying information, we developed a cushion-based system to assess their activity levels and recognize the activity from the information hidden in sitting postures. By placing the smart cushion on the chair, we can monitor users' postures and body swings, using the sensors deployed in the cushion. Specifically, we construct a body posture analysis model to recognize sitting behaviors. In addition, we provided a smart cushion that effectively combine pressure and inertial sensors. Finally, we propose a method to assess the activity levels based on the evaluation of the activity assessment index (AAI) in time sliding windows. Activity level assessment can be used to provide statistical results in a defined period and deliver recommendation exercise to the users. For practical implications and actual significance of results, we selected wheelchair users among the participants to our experiments. Features in terms of standard deviation and approximate entropy were compared to recognize the activities and activity levels. The results showed that, using the novel designed smart cushion and the standard deviation features, we are able to achieve an accuracy of (>89%) for activity recognition and (>98%) for activity level recognition.

  16. Heart rate variability metrics for fine-grained stress level assessment. (United States)

    Pereira, Tânia; Almeida, Pedro R; Cunha, João P S; Aguiar, Ana


    In spite of the existence of a multitude of techniques that allow the estimation of stress from physiological indexes, its fine-grained assessment is still a challenge for biomedical engineering. The short-term assessment of stress condition overcomes the limits to stress characterization with long blocks of time and allows to evaluate the behaviour change in real-world settings and also the stress level dynamics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate time and frequency domain and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) metrics for stress level assessment using a short-time window. The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal from 14 volunteers was monitored using the Vital JacketTM while they performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) which is a standardized stress-inducing protocol. Window lengths from 220 s to 50 s for HRV analysis were tested in order to evaluate which metrics could be used to monitor stress levels in an almost continuous way. A sub-set of HRV metrics (AVNN, rMSSD, SDNN and pNN20) showed consistent differences between stress and non-stress phases, and showed to be reliable parameters for the assessment of stress levels in short-term analysis. The AVNN metric, using 50 s of window length analysis, showed that it is the most reliable metric to recognize stress level across the four phases of TSST and allows a fine-grained analysis of stress effect as an index of psychological stress and provides an insight into the reaction of the autonomic nervous system to stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Calibration of a liquid scintillation counter to assess tritium levels in various samples

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Haddad, M N; Abu-Jarad, F A


    An LKB-Wallac 1217 Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was calibrated with a newly adopted cocktail. The LSC was then used to measure tritium levels in various samples to assess the compliance of tritium levels with the recommended international levels. The counter was calibrated to measure both biological and operational samples for personnel and for an accelerator facility at KFUPM. The biological samples include the bioassay (urine), saliva, and nasal tests. The operational samples of the light ion linear accelerator include target cooling water, organic oil, fomblin oil, and smear samples. Sets of standards, which simulate various samples, were fabricated using traceable certified tritium standards. The efficiency of the counter was obtained for each sample. The typical range of the efficiencies varied from 33% for smear samples down to 1.5% for organic oil samples. A quenching curve for each sample is presented. The minimum detectable activity for each sample was established. Typical tritium levels in bio...

  18. Assessing spatial occurrence of ground level ozone around coal mining areas of Chandrapur District, Maharashtra, India. (United States)

    Salve, Pradeep R; Satapathy, Deepty Ranjan; Katpatal, Yashwant B; Wate, Satish R


    Stratospheric input and photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere are the two main sources determining the ozone levels in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Because of the importance of ozone in controlling the atmospheric chemistry and its decisive role in the heat balance of atmosphere, leading to climate change, the examination of its formation and destruction are of great interest. This study characterized the distribution of Ground level Ozone (GLO) in Chandrapur district is lying between 19 degrees 25'N to 20 degrees 45'N and 78 degrees 50'E to 80 degrees 10'E. Continuous ozone analyzer was used to quantify GLO at thirteen locations fixed by Global Positioning System (GPS) during the winter of 2005-2006. The daily GLO at all the locations ranged between 6.4 and 24.8 ppbv with an average and standard deviation of 14.9 +/- 6.5 ppbv. The maximum and minimum concentration occurs during 1300-1600 h and 0300-0500 h may be due to high solar radiation facilitating photochemical production of O(3) and downward mixing from the overlying air mass and in situ destruction of ozone by deposition and/or the reaction between O(3) and NO. GIS based spatial distribution of GLO in Chandrapur district is indicates that the central core of the district and southern sites experienced elevated levels of GLO relative to the northern and western areas. The sites near by Chandrapur city are particularly affected by elevated GLO. The average variation of GLO with temperature shows a significant correlation of r = 0.55 indicating a direct relationship between GLO and temperature. Similarly an attempt has been made to compare the GLO monitored data in Chandrapur district with the reported values for other locations in Indian cities. This generated database helps regulatory agencies to identify locations where the natural resources and human health could be at risk.

  19. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.


    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report.

  20. Assessment of regional metal levels in ambient air by statistical regression models. (United States)

    Arruti, A; Fernández-Olmo, I; Irabien, A


    The assessment of the particulate matter (PM) levels and its constituents presented in the atmosphere is an important requirement of the air quality management and air pollution abatement. The heavy metal levels in PM10 are commonly evaluated by experimental measurements; nevertheless, the EC Directives also allow the Regional Governments to estimate the regulated metal levels (Pb in Directive 2008/50/EC and As, Ni and Cd in Directive 2004/107/EC) by objective estimation and modelling techniques. These techniques are proper alternatives to the experimental determination because the required analysis and/or the number of required sampling sites are reduced. The present work aims to estimate the annual levels of regulated heavy metals by means of multivariate linear regression (MLR) and principal component regression (PCR) at four sites in the Cantabria region (Northern Spain). Since the objective estimation techniques may only be applied when the regulated metal concentrations are below to the lower assessment threshold, a previous evaluation of the determined annual levels of heavy metals is conducted to test the fulfilment of the EC Directives requirements. At the four studied sites, the results show that the objective estimations are allowed alternatives to the experimental determination. The annual average metal concentrations are well estimated by the MLR technique in all the studied sites; furthermore, the EC quality requirements for the objective estimations are fulfilled by the developed statistical MLR models. Hence these estimations may be used by Regional Governments as a proper alternative to the experimental measurements for the regulated metal levels assessment.

  1. On the assessment of shooting sounds : Loudness-level weightings versus A- and C-weighted sound exposure levels (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Geurtsen, F.W.M.


    As an alternative to the A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL) Schomer et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2390-2397 (2001)] used the equal-loudness level contours as a dynamic filter to determine the loudness-level-weighted sound exposure level (LLSEL). From their analyses they concluded that the

  2. Correlation test to assess low-level processing of high-density oligonucleotide microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jonas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently a number of competing techniques for low-level processing of oligonucleotide array data. The choice of technique has a profound effect on subsequent statistical analyses, but there is no method to assess whether a particular technique is appropriate for a specific data set, without reference to external data. Results We analyzed coregulation between genes in order to detect insufficient normalization between arrays, where coregulation is measured in terms of statistical correlation. In a large collection of genes, a random pair of genes should have on average zero correlation, hence allowing a correlation test. For all data sets that we evaluated, and the three most commonly used low-level processing procedures including MAS5, RMA and MBEI, the housekeeping-gene normalization failed the test. For a real clinical data set, RMA and MBEI showed significant correlation for absent genes. We also found that a second round of normalization on the probe set level improved normalization significantly throughout. Conclusion Previous evaluation of low-level processing in the literature has been limited to artificial spike-in and mixture data sets. In the absence of a known gold-standard, the correlation criterion allows us to assess the appropriateness of low-level processing of a specific data set and the success of normalization for subsets of genes.

  3. Developing integrated performance assessment and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudyakova T.A.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of assessing and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability through the integrated indicators development. Currently, many enterprises operate under variable external environment, which imposes a strict requirement to consider this uncertainty. For the evaluation, analysis and prediction of the sustainability of the enterprise in the conditions of crisis we believe it possible and necessary to use the apparatus of probability theory and mathematical statistics. This problem solution will improve quantitative assessing the financial and economic stability level, forecasting possible scenarios of the enterprise development and, therefore, based on the proactive management principles and adaptation processes will greatly increase their effective functioning, as well as reduce bankruptcy probability.

  4. New criteria for assessing low wind environment at pedestrian level in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yaxing; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Kwok, Kenny


    The choice of proper wind comfort criterion is considered to be crucial to reliable assessment of pedestrian level wind comfort. This paper aims to propose a wind comfort criterion that can be applied to Hong Kong, in which the wind comfort is seriously deteriorated by the moderated airflow...... seasonally (summer and winter, respectively) and the overall mean wind velocity ratio (OMVR) is used as threshold wind velocity parameter. The wind tunnel tests of Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HKPolyU) campus model were used as a case study. The results show that the proposed criteria can reasonably...... represent the weak wind condition and provide suitable assessments of the wind comfort in Hong Kong. Moreover, the findings in this study provide scientific basis for future policy-making and the proposed criteria can also help city planners to improve the pedestrian level wind comfort....

  5. Assessment of Serum Zinc Levels of Patients with Thalassemia Compared to Their Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Missiry


    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is essential for appropriate growth and proper immune function, both of which may be impaired in thalassemia children. Factors that can affect serum Zn levels in these patients may be related to their disease or treatment or nutritional causes. We assessed the serum Zn levels of children with thalassemia paired with a sibling. Zn levels were obtained from 30 children in Islamabad, Pakistan. Serum Zn levels and anthropometric data measures were compared among siblings. Thalassemia patients’ median age was 4.5 years (range 1–10.6 years and siblings was 7.8 years (range 1.1–17 years. The median serum Zn levels for both groups were within normal range: 100 μg/dL (10 μg/dL–297 μg/dL for patients and 92 μg/dL (13 μg/dL–212 μg/dL for siblings. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Patients’ serum Zn values correlated positively with their corresponding siblings (r=0.635, P<0.001. There were no correlations between patients’ Zn levels, height for age Z-scores, serum ferritin levels, chelation, or blood counts (including both total leukocyte and absolute lymphocyte counts. Patients’ serum Zn values correlated with their siblings’ values. In this study, patients with thalassemia do not seem to have disease-related Zn deficiency.

  6. Determining Historical Pesticide Deposition on Cape Cod through Sediment Core Analysis:A Validation of GIS as An Exposure Assessment Tool (United States)

    Feingold, B. J.; Benoit, G.; Rudel, R.


    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has emerged as a powerful tool to assess current and historical exposure to environmental pollutants. GIS aids in the visualization and understanding of associations between exposure to contaminants and disease. This study is an example of the bridge between environmental science and public health and of how new technology such as GIS can be incorporated into these fields to strengthen both the research and the communication of scientific results. It attempts to validate a GIS-based aerial drift model which predicts the residential exposure to and boundaries of historical organochlorine pesticide (OCP) drift from applications on cranberry bogs, tree pest sprayings and others by analytically quantifying the historical pesticide deposition in a transect of lakes radiating from a distinct spray source. This model was previously used to assess historical residential exposure to OCPs in an environmental epidemiological case-control study of breast cancer incidence on Cape Cod, MA, where the incidence rate of the disease is significantly higher than in the rest of the state. The model's validation in this current study is essential to establishing its predictive ability and thus, its further use. Ground truthing of the model was done through the collection and analysis of sediment cores along a transect of five hydrologically independent kettle ponds radiating from a distinct OCP tree-pest spray area. Measurements of OCP concentrations, total carbon and total organic carbon were determined, and dating of the sediments was completed using 210Pb and verified using 137Cs. Each 50-cm core was sliced into 25 2- cm sections for the analyses, creating a fine-scale depositional history in each pond. Information gathered from each core allows for the determination of the extent and degree of dissipation of individual spray events of a known source area and determine how well the model fits the actual data.

  7. Developing a Geoscience Literacy Exam: Pushing Geoscience Literacy Assessment to New Levels (United States)

    Iverson, E. A.; Steer, D. N.; Manduca, C. A.


    InTeGrate is a community effort aimed at improving geoscience literacy and building a workforce that can use geoscience to solve societal issues. As part of this work we have developed a geoscience literacy assessment instrument to measure students' higher order thinking. This assessment is an important part of the development of curricula designed to increase geoscience literacy for all undergraduate students. To this end, we developed the Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) as one of the tools to quantify the effectiveness of these materials on students' understandings of geoscience literacy. The InTeGrate project is a 5-year, NSF-funded STEP Center grant in its first year of funding. Details concerning the project are found at The GLE instrument addresses content and concepts in the Earth, Climate, and Ocean Science literacy documents. The testing schema is organized into three levels of increasing complexity. Level 1 questions are single answer, understanding- or application-level multiple choice questions. For example, selecting which type of energy transfer is most responsible for the movement of tectonic plates. They are designed such that most introductory level students should be able to correctly answer after taking an introductory geoscience course. Level 2 questions are more advanced multiple answer/matching questions, at the understanding- through analysis-level. Students might be asked to determine the types of earth-atmosphere interactions that could result in changes to global temperatures in the event of a major volcanic eruption. Because the answers are more complicated, some introductory students and most advanced students should be able to respond correctly. Level 3 questions are analyzing- to evaluating-level short essays, such as describe the ways in which the atmosphere sustains life on Earth. These questions are designed such that introductory students could probably formulate a rudimentary response

  8. Air pollution in northern Sweden. Deposition, levels and effects Oct 1994 - Sep 1995; Luftfoeroreningar i norra Sverige. Nedfall, halter och effekter oktober 1994 - september 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren-Larsson, E.; Sjoeberg, K.; Westling, O.


    The purpose of the monitoring programme is to quantify sulphur and nitrogen deposition to forests, and to illustrate possible acidification of the soil. Deposition is investigated by precipitation studies in open field areas and as throughfall. Soil water chemistry in the forest stands is used as indicator of soil conditions. Air concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ammonia were measured at two sites in the county of Jaemtland. This report concerns the hydrological year from October 1994 through September 1995 for 17 locations in the four most northern counties of Sweden. The results are compared with previous years and other regions in Sweden. The results shows a gradient with more precipitation, higher concentrations and larger deposition of sulphur and nitrogen at coastal than at inland locations. Mean from all 17 locations were pH 4.8 and sulphur concentration 0.4 mg/l (SO{sub 4}-S{sub ex}). Concentrations of nitrogen as nitrate and as ammonium were about 0.2 mg/l each. About half of the locations received larger amounts than target loads set for northern Sweden. Deposition of sulphur decreased in the county of Norrbotten during the last 4 years. Greater loads of sulphur and nitrogen were deposited in southern than in northern Sweden. The most acidified soil solutions (pH 4.5-4.6) with highest concentrations of aluminium were found at coastal locations outside Luleaa and Umeaa. At many locations in southern Sweden acidified soil solutions, rich in aluminium and poor in base cations, were detected. Similar conditions were found at two coastal locations in northern Sweden. Highest air concentrations of sulphur dioxide were found during January 1995. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were highest during November 1994 through March 1995. A gradient of air concentrations of sulphur dioxide was found, with decreasing concentrations from southern to northern Sweden. 15 refs, 57 figs, 11 tabs

  9. Assessing the Level of Happiness: a Review of Russian and Foreign Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Evgen’evna Shmatova


    Full Text Available The article presents the main results of the first phase of the study launched in 2015 by ISEDT RAS researchers and aimed at assessing subjective satisfaction with the quality of life and its impact on social development. The article shows that subjective assessment of quality of life is a criterion for assessing the efficiency of public administration, an indicator of people’s attitude toward economic, social and political decisions. The generalization of domestic and international experience serves as the basis proving that in the post-industrial economy the phenomenon of happiness is important as a goal of public administration and criterion for evaluating its effectiveness from the viewpoint of politicians, economists, sociologists and psychologists. The authors consider the main international and national indicators and ratings of happiness that help to carry out cross-country comparisons, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages of index methodologies for assessing the level of happiness are as follows: the use of national averages without taking into account the uneven distribution of benefits and driving forces of spiritual and moral development of individuals; lack of opportunity to make prompt and regular calculations of the indices and to take into account the specifics of countries, cultural and ethnic differences. The integral indicator does not even reflect problems highlighted by partial indices. The article also substantiates the necessity of using self-representative questionnaire methods as the most reliable sources of information about the level of people’s subjective satisfaction with the quality of life, and highlights several methodological features of their application. The authors provide research findings by VTsIOM, RAS Institute of Sociology, and ISEDT RAS, which not only assess the level of happiness, but also identify a set of conditions affecting its formation: financial well

  10. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi


    Full Text Available The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some countries.

  11. The Dark Side of Internet Searches: A Macro Level Assessment of Rape Culture


    Makin, David A; Morczek, Amber L.


    Abstract Assessing the promulgation of rape culture in society or merely establishing at an empirical level the degree to which a nation reflects such attitudes or behaviors has remained of interest to scholars across numerous disciplines. One common limitation (or criticism) within prior empirical research is claims of lack of generalizability or influences of social desirability. This research employs the use of Google Trends data from 2004-2012, via nine keyword searches specific to rap...

  12. World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade Facilitation: Assessing the Level of Ambition and Likely Impacts


    Hamanaka, Shintaro


    At the Ninth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) held in Bali on 3–6 December 2013, the ministers agreed upon the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation (ATF). This paper assesses the level of ambition of the ATF from two angles. First, the use of softening language in each provision is examined. Second, the final agreement is compared against the draft text prepared before the Bali conference. Then, the paper considers the likely legal, economic, capacity-building, and ...

  13. The Assessment of Undergraduate Medical Students’ Satisfaction Levels With the Objective Structured Clinical Examination


    Khosravi Khorashad, Ahmad; Salari, Somayyeh; Baharvahdat, Humain; Hejazi, Sepideh; Lari, Shiva M; Salari, Maasoomeh; Mazloomi, Maryam; Shahrzad M.Lari


    Background: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has been introduced as an efficient method for the assessment of medical students. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the satisfaction level of undergraduate medical students of internal medicine department with the OSCE. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, performed on all available undergraduate students at the end of their internal medicine training period in Mashhad Uni...

  14. Analytical Assessment of Security Level of Distributed and Scalable Computer Systems


    Zhengbing Hu; Vadym Mukhin; Yaroslav Kornaga; Yaroslav Lavrenko; Oleg Barabash; Oksana Herasymenko


    The article deals with the issues of the security of distributed and scalable computer systems based on the risk-based approach. The main existing methods for predicting the consequences of the dangerous actions of the intrusion agents are described. There is shown a generalized structural scheme of job manager in the context of a risk-based approach. Suggested analytical assessments for the security risk level in the distributed computer systems allow performing the c...

  15. Assessing deleterious ecosystem-level effects of environmental pollutants as a means of avoiding evolutionary consequences.


    LeBlanc, G A


    Recent interest has been expressed in the possible need to develop ways to detect and quantify pollutants that affect evolution. Although environmental pollutants clearly can affect evolutionary processes, the evolutionary changes are a response to ecosystem-level toxicity elicited by the pollutant, rather than a direct effect of the pollutant on evolution. Accordingly, emphasis needs to be placed on assessing the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on ecosystem structure and function...

  16. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils. (United States)

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen


    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of total sialic acid levels in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Demir, Sevgi Sari; Özcan, Hüseyin Çağlayan; Balat, Özcan; Öztürk, Ebru; Uğur, Mete Gurol; Gündüz, Reyhan; Taysi, Seyithan


    To determine the levels of serum total sialic acid (TSA) in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and their gestational age-matched controls. Thirty pregnant women with HG, and 30 healthy pregnant women at up to 14 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this preliminary study. Total sialic acid levels in maternal serum were measured using the quantitative sandwich ELISA method. We observed statistically significant difference in TSA levels between HG and the control groups (p = .003). The identification of the role of SA in the prediction, diagnosis and follow-up of HG warrants more comprehensive studies in the future. Impact Statement What is already known on this subject? The derivatives of neuraminic acid are collectively referred to as sialic acid (SA). Changes in SA levels are known to trigger various conditions and disorders, including inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurological and endocrine diseases. Although a sensitive test capable of identifying hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) would be useful for diagnosis purposes, such a test is currently not available. Studies focussing on identifying new potential indicators and biomarkers for HG - as well as identifying their relevance in establishing diagnosis and assessing disease severity - would not only assist in elucidating the underlying causes of this condition but would also contribute to the development of new diagnostic tests for HG. What the results of this study add? Total sialic acid levels are significantly higher in sera of the patients with HG. The present study is the first in the literature to assess total sialic acid levels in patients with HG and healthy pregnant women before 14 weeks of gestation. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Total sialic acid levels could give an idea to clinicians in the etiopathogenesis of HG. The identification of the role of sialic acid in the prediction, diagnosis and follow-up of HG warrants more

  18. A new global dataset with extreme sea levels and its application for assessing flood risk (United States)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip


    Extreme sea levels, caused by storm surges and high tides, can have devastating societal impacts. The global coastal population is faced with an increasing trend in flood risk, induced by socio-economic development and climate change. Without action, the increasing trends in flood hazard and exposure will be associated with catastrophic flood losses in the future. The adequate allocation of global investments in adaptation requires an accurate understanding of the current and future coastal flood risk on a global-scale. Here we present the first global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels (GTSR dataset) based on dynamical modelling. GTSR covers the entire world's coastline and consists of time series of tides and surges and estimates of extreme values for various return periods. The dataset is based on two different hydrodynamic models: FES2012 for modelling tides, and GSTM for modelling storm surges. GSTM is forced by meteorological fields from ERA-Interim to simulate storm surges for the period 1979-2014. Validation showed that there is very good agreement between modelled and observed sea levels. Only in regions prone to tropical cyclones, extreme sea levels are severely underestimated due to the limited resolution of the meteorological forcing. This will be resolved for future updates of GTSR. As a first application of GSTR, we estimate that 99 million people are exposed to a 1 in 100 year flood. This is almost 40% lower than estimates based the DIVA dataset, another global dataset of extreme sea level. We foresee other applications in assessing impacts of climate change and risk management, such as assessing changes in storminess, estimating the impacts of sea level, and providing warning levels to operational models.

  19. Assessing alpha-tocopherol levels in patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargavi Krishna Ayinampudi


    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: A keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT is a benign uni- or multicystic, intraosseous tumour of odontogenic origin, with a characteristic lining of parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium and potential for aggressive, infiltrative behaviour. Various studies in hamsters showed that, alpha-Tocopherol, which is an active biological form of Vitamin E, is a potent antioxidant known to inhibit tumour formation and also regression of established tumours. So, the aim of the present pilot study was to assess the levels of Alpha-Tocopherol(Vitamin E in Patients with KCOT and compare them with Vitamin E levels in normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A sample of 20 individuals were taken and Alpha Tocopherol levels in serum were assessed. Independent sample t test was used to analyse the data. Serum Vitamin-E levels were found to be decreased in KCOT cases. Results: Mean Vitamin-E level was found to be decreased (mean + S.D. = 10,549.34 +/- 2494.21 ng/mL as compared to healthy controls (mean + S.D. = 13,982.42 +/- 2178.02 ng/mL. The reduction in serum vitamin E level was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The reduction in Vitamin E levels in KCOT patients might be suggestive of the possible interrelation between Vitamin E and KCOT invivo. Also, increase in intake of Vitamin E might help in reducing the risk of recurrence in KCOT by reducing the dysregulation of Cyclin D1 and Down-Regulation of mutant p53.

  20. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood


    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  1. The Assessment of Undergraduate Medical Students’ Satisfaction Levels With the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (United States)

    Khosravi Khorashad, Ahmad; Salari, Somayyeh; Baharvahdat, Humain; Hejazi, Sepideh; Lari, Shiva M; Salari, Maasoomeh; Mazloomi, Maryam; Lari, Shahrzad M


    Background: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has been introduced as an efficient method for the assessment of medical students. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the satisfaction level of undergraduate medical students of internal medicine department with the OSCE. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, performed on all available undergraduate students at the end of their internal medicine training period in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The students responded to 15 multiple-choice questions with confirmed validity and reliability. Results: The majority of the students (94.5%) had a positive attitude toward the OSCE and mentioned that the OSCE format was a more appropriate type of exam than other methods of testing; however, 79.1% thought that the OSCE format was stressful. In addition, the participants’ sex had no effect on their level of satisfaction with the examination. Likewise, there was no significant correlation between their level of satisfaction and their age, marital status, or lack of previous experience with this type of exam. Conclusions: If the exam standards are met and a uniform dispersion of the scientific content is maintained, the OSCE method of assessment can be recommended as an efficient and applicable method for assessing medical students. PMID:25389474

  2. The assessment of undergraduate medical students' satisfaction levels with the objective structured clinical examination. (United States)

    Khosravi Khorashad, Ahmad; Salari, Somayyeh; Baharvahdat, Humain; Hejazi, Sepideh; Lari, Shiva M; Salari, Maasoomeh; Mazloomi, Maryam; Lari, Shahrzad M


    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has been introduced as an efficient method for the assessment of medical students. The aim of the present study was to determine the satisfaction level of undergraduate medical students of internal medicine department with the OSCE. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, performed on all available undergraduate students at the end of their internal medicine training period in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The students responded to 15 multiple-choice questions with confirmed validity and reliability. The majority of the students (94.5%) had a positive attitude toward the OSCE and mentioned that the OSCE format was a more appropriate type of exam than other methods of testing; however, 79.1% thought that the OSCE format was stressful. In addition, the participants' sex had no effect on their level of satisfaction with the examination. Likewise, there was no significant correlation between their level of satisfaction and their age, marital status, or lack of previous experience with this type of exam. If the exam standards are met and a uniform dispersion of the scientific content is maintained, the OSCE method of assessment can be recommended as an efficient and applicable method for assessing medical students.

  3. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, A.B. [UK Dept. of the Environment, London (United Kingdom)


    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL`s own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures.

  4. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports (United States)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.


    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  5. A pilot study to assess lung deposition of HFA-beclomethasone and CFC-beclomethasone from a pressurized metered dose inhaler with and without add-on spacers and using varying breathhold times. (United States)

    Leach, Chet L; Colice, Gene L


    The study objective of this pilot study was to determine the lung delivery of HFA-134a-beclomethasone dipropionate (HFA-BDP; QVAR™) and CFC-beclomethasone dipropionate (CFC-BDP; Becloforte™) with and without the add-on spacers, Aerochamber™, and Volumatic™. The smaller particles of HFA-BDP were presumed to produce greater lung deposition using spacers, with and without a delay [i.e., metered dose inhaler (MDI) actuation into the spacer and subsequent inhalation 0 and 2 sec later], compared with the larger particles of CFC-BDP. The study included a comparison of breathhold effects (i.e., 1 and 10-sec breatholds) on lung deposition. The study was an open-label design and utilized healthy subjects (n = 12 males). Each arm of the study contained three subjects; thus, outcomes were not powered to assess statistical significance. HFA-BDP and CFC-BDP were radiolabeled with technetium-99m and delivered to subjects. Results showed that the small particle HFA-BDP lung deposition averaged 52% and was not affected by the use of Aerochamber with or without a spacer delay. The oropharyngeal deposition of HFA-BDP was reduced from approximately 28% to 4% with the Aerochamber. Lung deposition with the large particle CFC-BDP was 3-7% and generally decreased with Aerochamber or Volumatic. A 2-sec time delay between actuation and breath plus the spacer reduced lung deposition slightly but reduced oropharygeal deposition substantially (84% down to 3-20%) using the Aerochamber or Volumatic with and without a spacer delay. HFA-BDP lung deposition was dependent on the breathhold. Lung deposition with HFA-BDP was reduced by 16% with a 1-sec versus 10-sec breathhold. The difference was measured in the increased exhaled fraction, confirming that smaller particles need time to deposit and are exhaled if there is a reduced breathhold. The large particle CFC-BDP lung deposition was not affected by breathhold. The use of Aerochamber or Volumatic spacers with HFA-BDP did not alter lung

  6. Towards an interpretive measurement framework to assess the levels of integrated and integrative thinking within organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schörger


    Full Text Available This research study is located within the context of corporate reporting and is relevant for the agenda of sustainability and sustainable development. The specific context for this study is the South African mining industry, within which three units in the form of three companies, were chosen to provide a coherent case for this study. The sample for the analysis is based on the integrated reports of these companies for the years 2012 and 2013. This gives this research a total sample size of six reports. Based on the research findings an initial interpretive measurement framework to assess the levels of capital integration has been theorised which enables the various stakeholders of an organisation to assess the integrated and integrative thinking capabilities. The level of integration is represented as a maturity scale on which integrated thinking is associated with the lower levels, while integrative thinking is attributed to higher levels of maturity. In the elaborated framework, integrated thinking is perceived as being a prerequisite for integrative thinking. The practical implication of this study is that it provides a potential measurement framework for various organisational stakeholders, including investors, to assess the thinking capabilities that are more likely to lead to long term financial stability and sustainability. The value of this research study is that it provides an initial step towards measuring the level of integrated and integrative thinking capabilities within organisations where no such measurement framework currently exists. The limitations and implications of this research study are that the interpretive measurement framework represents merely an initial step and an ongoing working hypothesis which requires further research to develop its maturity and usefulness.

  7. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))


    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  8. Assessment of ablative margin after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma; comparison between magnetic resonance imaging with ferucarbotran and enhanced CT with iodized oil deposition. (United States)

    Koda, Masahiko; Tokunaga, Shiho; Fujise, Yuki; Kato, Jun; Matono, Tomomitsu; Sugihara, Takaaki; Nagahara, Takakazu; Ueki, Masaru; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Kakite, Suguru; Yamashita, Eijiro


    Our aim was to investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with ferucarbotran administered prior to radiofrequency ablation could accurately assess ablative margin when compared with enhanced computed tomography (CT) with iodized oil marking. We enrolled 27 patients with 32 hepatocellular carcinomas in which iodized oil deposits were visible throughout the nodule after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. For these nodules, radiofrequency ablation was performed after ferucarbotran administration. We then performed T2-weighted MRI after 1 week and enhanced CT after 1 month. T2-weighted MRI demonstrated the ablative margin as a low-intensity rim. We classified the margin into three grades; margin (+): high-intensity area with a continuous low-intensity rim; margin zero: high-intensity area with a discontinuous low-intensity rim; and margin (-): high-intensity area extending beyond the low-intensity rim. In 28 (86%) of 32 nodules, there was agreement between MRI and CT. The overall agreement between for the two modalities in the assessment of ablative margin was good (κ=0.759, 95% confidence interval: 0.480-1.000, pablative margins on MRI were underestimated by one grade compared with CT. MRI using ferucarbotran is less invasive and allows earlier assessment than CT. The MRI technique performed similarly to enhanced CT with iodized oil marking in evaluating the ablative margin after radiofrequency ablation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the relationship between level of neuromotor, body somatotype, physical fitness level and game skills at football players in U12 category.


    Vytlačil, Aleš


    Title: Assessment of the relationship between level of neuromotor, body somatotype, physical fitness level and game skills at football players in U12 category. Objectives: The aim is to determinate the relationships between levels of neuromotoric, body somatotype, overal physical fitness level and the individual playing skills at football players in the U12 age category. Methods: The main research method of our work was the observation method. The research were included soccer player (n = 40;...

  10. A Model for Assessing the Level of Walkability in Urban Neighborhoods in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayani Ranasinghe


    Full Text Available The quality of the neighboring environment plays a major role in encouraging people to walk when attending their daily needs. Although past studies have identified a relationship between neighborhood design factors and the level of walkability, this interdependence is poorly understood in urban planning in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study is to determine factors and conditions that influence walkability in a selected neighborhood in the town of Panadura and develop a model to predict what design factors enhance walkability in the neighborhood area. Ninety three (93 factors that affect the walkability in urban neighborhood were identified as the findings of the literature review of this study. Seventy six (76 walkability factors identified through perception surveys were examined within a 100m radius of 70 buffered circles representing 140 participants’ residences through a questionnaire survey and field observations. Chi-square and Bivariate correlation analysis were carried out to identify the most decisive factors for walkability. Multiple Linear Regression analysis was applied to develop a model to assess the level of walkability of residents in the selected area based on the most significant factors. The study has identified main nine variables that determine the level of walkability. Based on the significant values the model can be used to assess the level of walkability of the people in Sri Lankan context.

  11. Towards a sampling strategy for the assessment of forest condition at European level: combining country estimates. (United States)

    Travaglini, Davide; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Barbati, Anna; Bottalico, Francesca; Corona, Piermaria; Ferretti, Marco; Chirici, Gherardo


    A correct characterization of the status and trend of forest condition is essential to support reporting processes at national and international level. An international forest condition monitoring has been implemented in Europe since 1987 under the auspices of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The monitoring is based on harmonized methodologies, with individual countries being responsible for its implementation. Due to inconsistencies and problems in sampling design, however, the ICP Forests network is not able to produce reliable quantitative estimates of forest condition at European and sometimes at country level. This paper proposes (1) a set of requirements for status and change assessment and (2) a harmonized sampling strategy able to provide unbiased and consistent estimators of forest condition parameters and of their changes at both country and European level. Under the assumption that a common definition of forest holds among European countries, monitoring objectives, parameters of concern and accuracy indexes are stated. On the basis of fixed-area plot sampling performed independently in each country, an unbiased and consistent estimator of forest defoliation indexes is obtained at both country and European level, together with conservative estimators of their sampling variance and power in the detection of changes. The strategy adopts a probabilistic sampling scheme based on fixed-area plots selected by means of systematic or stratified schemes. Operative guidelines for its application are provided.

  12. A survey to assess the educational-level interference on self-evaluation of acute pain. (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Bastos Filho, Ricardo Pinheiro dos Santos; Pires-e-Albuquerque, Rodrigo Sattamini; Palma, Idemar Monteiro de; Giordano, Vincenzo; Franco, José Sérgio


    The present study aimed to evaluate whether patient education level interferes in the percentage of pain relief or increase using visual analogue scale (VAS) and subjective pain perception. Ninety-five patients presenting acute shoulder pain due to enthesitis were evaluated. They were asked to quantify the pain using VAS before steroid articular infiltration. One week later, patients reevaluated the pain using VAS and orally stated the percentage of perceived pain increase or relief. The information gathered was then compared among three patient educational levels (elementary, high school, and university). Percentages of improvement stated orally and utilizing VAS presented no statistically significant differences among the three educational status levels (p = 0.804). Patient educational status caused no impact in the results of acute pain self-assessment with VAS and oral evaluation.

  13. Assessment of groundwater inundation as a consequence of sea-level rise (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Fletcher, Charles H.


    Strong evidence on climate change underscores the need for actions to reduce the impacts of sea-level rise. Global mean sea level may rise 0.18-0.48m by mid-century and 0.5-1.4m by the end of the century. Besides marine inundation, it is largely unrecognized that low-lying coastal areas may also be vulnerable to groundwater inundation, which is localized coastal-plain flooding due to a rise of the groundwater table with sea level. Measurements of the coastal groundwater elevation and tidal influence in urban Honolulu, Hawaii, allow estimates of the mean water table, which was used to assess vulnerability to groundwater inundation from sea-level rise. We find that 0.6m of potential sea-level rise causes substantial flooding, and 1m sea-level rise inundates 10% of a 1-km wide heavily urbanized coastal zone. The flooded area including groundwater inundation is more than twice the area of marine inundation alone. This has consequences for decision-makers, resource managers and urban planners, and may be applicable to many low-lying coastal areas, especially where groundwater withdrawal is not substantial.

  14. Pineal Gland Volume Assessed by MRI and its Correlation with 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Levels among Older Men (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G.; Markt, Sarah C.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Fall, Katja; Schernhammer, Eva; Rider, Jennifer R.; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara; Stampfer, Meir J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Mucci, Lorelei A.


    The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin and its volume may influence melatonin levels. We describe an innovative method for estimating pineal volume in humans and present the association of pineal parenchyma volume with levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. We selected a random sample of 122 older Icelandic men nested within the AGES-Reykjavik cohort and measured their total pineal volume, parenchyma volume, and the extent of calcification and cysts. For volume estimations we used manual segmentation of MR images in the axial plane with simultaneous side-by-side view of the sagittal and coronal plane. We used multivariable adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association of pineal parenchyma volume and baseline characteristics, including 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used logistic regression to test for differences in first morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among men with or without cystic or calcified glands. The pineal glands varied in volume, shape and composition. Cysts were present in 59% of the glands and calcifications in 21%. The mean total pineal volume measured 207 mm3 (range 65–536 mm3) and parenchyma volume 178 mm3 (range 65–503 mm3). In multivariable-adjusted models pineal parenchyma volume was positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (β=0.52, ppineal assessment we found pineal parenchyma volume to be positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, in line with other recent studies. PMID:27449477

  15. Pineal Gland Volume Assessed by MRI and Its Correlation with 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Levels among Older Men. (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G; Markt, Sarah C; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Fall, Katja; Schernhammer, Eva; Rider, Jennifer R; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara; Stampfer, Meir J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Mucci, Lorelei A


    The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, and its volume may influence melatonin levels. We describe an innovative method for estimating pineal volume in humans and present the association of pineal parenchyma volume with levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. We selected a random sample of 122 older Icelandic men nested within the AGES-Reykjavik cohort and measured their total pineal volume, their parenchyma volume, and the extent of calcification and cysts. For volume estimations we used manual segmentation of magnetic resonance images in the axial plane with simultaneous side-by-side view of the sagittal and coronal plane. We used multivariable adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association of pineal parenchyma volume and baseline characteristics, including 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used logistic regression to test for differences in first morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among men with or without cystic or calcified glands. The pineal glands varied in volume, shape, and composition. Cysts were present in 59% of the glands and calcifications in 21%. The mean total pineal volume measured 207 mm(3) (range 65-536 mm(3)) and parenchyma volume 178 mm(3) (range 65-503 mm(3)). In multivariable-adjusted models, pineal parenchyma volume was positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (β = 0.52, p pineal assessment, we found pineal parenchyma volume to be positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, in line with other recent studies. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Development of sea level rise scenarios for climate change assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Day, Richard H.; Michot, Thomas C.


    Rising sea level poses critical ecological and economical consequences for the low-lying megadeltas of the world where dependent populations and agriculture are at risk. The Mekong Delta of Vietnam is one of many deltas that are especially vulnerable because much of the land surface is below mean sea level and because there is a lack of coastal barrier protection. Food security related to rice and shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta is currently under threat from saltwater intrusion, relative sea level rise, and storm surge potential. Understanding the degree of potential change in sea level under climate change is needed to undertake regional assessments of potential impacts and to formulate adaptation strategies. This report provides constructed time series of potential sea level rise scenarios for the Mekong Delta region by incorporating (1) aspects of observed intra- and inter-annual sea level variability from tide records and (2) projected estimates for different rates of regional subsidence and accelerated eustacy through the year 2100 corresponding with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate models and emission scenarios.

  17. Procedure for conducting probabilistic safety assessment: level 1 full power internal event analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dae; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J. [and others


    This report provides guidance on conducting a Level I PSA for internal events in NPPs, which is based on the method and procedure that was used in the PSA for the design of Korea Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs). Level I PSA is to delineate the accident sequences leading to core damage and to estimate their frequencies. It has been directly used for assessing and modifying the system safety and reliability as a key and base part of PSA. Also, Level I PSA provides insights into design weakness and into ways of preventing core damage, which in most cases is the precursor to accidents leading to major accidents. So Level I PSA has been used as the essential technical bases for risk-informed application in NPPs. The report consists six major procedural steps for Level I PSA; familiarization of plant, initiating event analysis, event tree analysis, system fault tree analysis, reliability data analysis, and accident sequence quantification. The report is intended to assist technical persons performing Level I PSA for NPPs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs. On the other hand, this report would be useful for the managers or regulatory persons related to risk-informed regulation, and also for conducting PSA for other industries.

  18. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta


    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  19. Technology Readiness Level Assessment Process as Applied to NASA Earth Science Missions (United States)

    Leete, Stephen J.; Romero, Raul A.; Dempsey, James A.; Carey, John P.; Cline, Helmut P.; Lively, Carey F.


    Technology assessments of fourteen science instruments were conducted within NASA using the NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metric. The instruments were part of three NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey missions in pre-formulation. The Earth Systematic Missions Program (ESMP) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG), composed of members of three NASA Centers, provided a newly modified electronic workbook to be completed, with instructions. Each instrument development team performed an internal assessment of its technology status, prepared an overview of its instrument, and completed the workbook with the results of its assessment. A team from the ESMP SEWG met with each instrument team and provided feedback. The instrument teams then reported through the Program Scientist for their respective missions to NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) on technology readiness, taking the SEWG input into account. The instruments were found to have a range of TRL from 4 to 7. Lessons Learned are presented; however, due to the competition-sensitive nature of the assessments, the results for specific missions are not presented. The assessments were generally successful, and produced useful results for the agency. The SEWG team identified a number of potential improvements to the process. Particular focus was on ensuring traceability to guiding NASA documents, including the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. The TRL Workbook has been substantially modified, and the revised workbook is described.

  20. Multi-hazard national-level risk assessment in Africa using global approaches (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart; Jongman, Brenden; Simpson, Alanna; Murnane, Richard


    In recent years Sub-Saharan Africa has been characterized by unprecedented opportunity for transformation and sustained growth. However, natural disasters such as droughts, floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and extreme temperatures cause significant economic and human losses, and major development challenges. Quantitative disaster risk assessments are an important basis for governments to understand disaster risk in their country, and to develop effective risk management and risk financing solutions. However, the data-scarce nature of many Sub-Saharan African countries as well as a lack of financing for risk assessments has long prevented detailed analytics. Recent advances in globally applicable disaster risk modelling practices and data availability offer new opportunities. In December 2013 the European Union approved a € 60 million contribution to support the development of an analytical basis for risk financing and to accelerate the effective implementation of a comprehensive disaster risk reduction. The World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) was selected as the implementing partner of the Program for Result Area 5: the "Africa Disaster Risk Assessment and Financing Program." As part of this effort, the GFDRR is overseeing the production of national-level multi-hazard risk profiles for a range of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a combination of national and global datasets and state-of-the-art hazard and risk assessment methodologies. In this presentation, we will highlight the analytical approach behind these assessments, and show results for the first five countries for which the assessment has been completed (Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, Niger and Ethiopia). The presentation will also demonstrate the visualization of the risk assessments into understandable and visually attractive risk profile documents.

  1. Assessment of Hammocks (Petenes) Resilience to Sea Level Rise Due to Climate Change in Mexico. (United States)

    Hernández-Montilla, Mariana C; Martínez-Morales, Miguel Angel; Posada Vanegas, Gregorio; de Jong, Bernardus H J


    There is a pressing need to assess resilience of coastal ecosystems against sea level rise. To develop appropriate response strategies against future climate disturbances, it is important to estimate the magnitude of disturbances that these ecosystems can absorb and to better understand their underlying processes. Hammocks (petenes) coastal ecosystems are highly vulnerable to sea level rise linked to climate change; their vulnerability is mainly due to its close relation with the sea through underground drainage in predominantly karstic soils. Hammocks are biologically important because of their high diversity and restricted distribution. This study proposes a strategy to assess resilience of this coastal ecosystem when high-precision data are scarce. Approaches and methods used to derive ecological resilience maps of hammocks are described and assessed. Resilience models were built by incorporating and weighting appropriate indicators of persistence to assess hammocks resilience against flooding due to climate change at "Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve", in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. According to the analysis, 25% of the study area is highly resilient (hot spots), whereas 51% has low resilience (cold spots). The most significant hot spot clusters of resilience were located in areas distant to the coastal zone, with indirect tidal influence, and consisted mostly of hammocks surrounded by basin mangrove and floodplain forest. This study revealed that multi-criteria analysis and the use of GIS for qualitative, semi-quantitative and statistical spatial analyses constitute a powerful tool to develop ecological resilience maps of coastal ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to sea level rise, even when high-precision data are not available. This method can be applied in other sites to help develop resilience analyses and decision-making processes for management and conservation of coastal areas worldwide.

  2. Assessing Holocene water level changes of Lake Turkana, Kenya with potential linkages to monsoon variability (United States)

    Bloszies, C.; Forman, S. L.; Wright, D. K.


    This study focuses on better defining water level variability in the past 10 ka for Lake Turkana, Kenya. The water level of Lake Turkana was approximately 90m higher than today ca. 8 ka years ago, and in the past century lake levels have varied by up to 15 m. Lake level is especially sensitive to shifts in water balance with changes in regional rainfall linked to the relative strength of the Indian Ocean Monsoon. Variations in monsoonal precipitation in Kenya may be controlled by distinct modes of the Indian Ocean Dipole, with one mode associated with increased sea surface temperatures and concomitant heavy rainfall in the Turkana basin, and the other mode resulting in low precipitation. Well preserved beach ridges up to 90 m above present water level occur around the lake representing a record of varying elevations of lake level still-stands during the Holocene. Along this prograded strand plain there is evidence of a shift in human subsistence from fishing villages to pastoral encampments, possibly associated with pronounced mid-Holocene drying and a precipitous (>30 m) fall in lake level ca. between 7 and 5 ka. However, a recent GPS campaign of beach ridges on the east and west sides of the lake reveal variability in highstand beach ridge elevations, implying deferential tectonic deformation across the basin and possible crustal warping due to hydroisostatic processes. Radiocarbon dating of aquatic shells will resolve the ages of beach ridges and these ages will be tested by direct dating of littoral quartz grains by OSL. Stratigraphic exposures of this littoral system reveal new evidence for lake still-stands, transgressions and regressions. Ultimately, the data will constrain a basin hydrologic model to assess the catchment changes and evaporative conditions required to yield the tens of meters of lake level change in the Holocene and provide new insights into the magnitude and linkage to monsoon variability.

  3. Detection of heterogeneous deposits on the surface of metal structures using nonlinear acoustic resonance technology (United States)

    Jiao, Jingpin; Chang, Yu; Wu, Chao; Wu, Bin; He, Cunfu


    Failures caused by carbon deposits have always been a challenge in hydrocarbon processes. In this paper, a nonlinear acoustic resonance technique was investigated to characterize heterogeneous deposits on the surface of metal structures. The amplitude-frequency curves of the fundamental and second-harmonic responses were measured at various excitation levels. Experimental results indicated that the dependence of the resonant spectrum of the second harmonic response on the excitation level is based on the status of the deposit. Moreover, two hysteretic nonlinear parameters related to the second harmonic, the hysteretic elastic nonlinearity and the hysteretic dissipative nonlinearity, were proposed for the quantitative characterization of the deposited layers. The developed nonlinear acoustic resonance method in the megahertz region was used for quantitative evaluation of carbon deposits in a pipe, and the feasibility of the method for assessing carbon deposits was demonstrated.

  4. Visually assessing the level of development and soil surface stability of cyanobacterially dominated biological soil crusts (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.; Witwicki, D.L.; Miller, M.E.


    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an integral part of dryland ecosystems and often included in long-term ecological monitoring programs. Estimating moss and lichen cover is fairly easy and non-destructive, but documenting cyanobacterial level of development (LOD) is more difficult. It requires sample collection for laboratory analysis, which causes soil surface disturbance. Assessing soil surface stability also requires surface disturbance. Here we present a visual technique to assess cyanobacterial LOD and soil surface stability. We define six development levels of cyanobacterially dominated soils based on soil surface darkness. We sampled chlorophyll a concentrations (the most common way of assessing cyanobacterial biomass), exopolysaccharide concentrations, and soil surface aggregate stability from representative areas of each LOD class. We found that, in the laboratory and field, LOD classes were effective at predicting chlorophyll a soil concentrations (R2=68-81%), exopolysaccharide concentrations (R2=71%), and soil aggregate stability (R2=77%). We took representative photos of these classes to construct a field guide. We then tested the ability of field crews to distinguish these classes and found this technique was highly repeatable among observers. We also discuss how to adjust this index for the different types of BSCs found in various dryland regions.

  5. A Framework for Spatial Assessment of Local Level Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity to Extreme Heat (United States)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Hayden, M.; Harlan, S.; Ruddell, D.; Komatsu, K.; England, B.; Uejio, C.


    Changing climate is predicted to increase the intensity and impacts of heat waves prompting the need to develop preparedness and adaptation strategies that reduce societal vulnerability. Central to understanding societal vulnerability, is adaptive capacity, the potential of a system or population to modify its features/behaviors so as to better cope with existing and anticipated stresses and fluctuations. Adaptive capacity influences adaptation, the actual adjustments made to cope with the impacts from current and future hazardous heat events. Understanding societal risks, vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events and climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach that includes information about weather and climate, the natural and built environment, social processes and characteristics, interactions with the stakeholders, and an assessment of community vulnerability. This project presents a framework for an interdisciplinary approach and a case study that explore linkages between quantitative and qualitative data for a more comprehensive understanding of local level vulnerability and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events in Phoenix, Arizona. In this talk, we will present a methodological framework for conducting collaborative research on societal vulnerability and adaptive capacity on a local level that includes integration of household surveys into a quantitative spatial assessment of societal vulnerability. We highlight a collaborative partnership among researchers, community leaders and public health officials. Linkages between assessment of local adaptive capacity and development of regional climate change adaptation strategies will be discussed.

  6. Three-level quality assessment of a dental hospital using EFQM. (United States)

    Vakani, Farhan; Fatmi, Zafar; Naqvi, Kashif


    This article aims to measure quality by applying the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) excellence model at three different participation levels, in a Karachi teaching university dental hospital. The case study assessed the eight EFQM model excellence concepts as benchmarks for providing quality services: results orientation; customer focus; leadership and constancy of purpose; management by processes and facts; people development and involvement; continuous learning, innovation and improvement; partnership development; and corporate social responsibility. This study was conducted at Hamdard University Dental Hospital (HUDH), located in Karachi - part of the largest privately-owned university in Pakistan. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with internal stakeholders at three levels (management, faculty and student). Continuous learning, innovation and improvement; partnership development; and corporate social responsibility were satisfactorily represented. The EFQM assessment was limited to a single university dental hospital, hence findings cannot be generalized. The article highlights that it is envisaged that this exercise will bring about a positive change in attitude and will stimulate institute staff to kick start the self assessment process and implement measures leading to better quality practices, thus establishing a continuous quality improvement cycle.

  7. Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants. (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.


    The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

  8. Developing methods to assess and predict the population and community level effects of environmental contaminants (United States)

    Emlen, John M.; Springman, Kathrine R.


    The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies—assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants—moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

  9. Gas in Place Resource Assessment for Concentrated Hydrate Deposits in the Kumano Forearc Basin, Offshore Japan, from NanTroSEIZE and 3D Seismic Data (United States)

    Taladay, K.; Boston, B.


    data would be needed to confirm the validity of this assessment, but the implications are that stacked NGH deposits could be common and unaccounted for in NGH reserve estimates.

  10. Developmental kinesiology: three levels of motor control in the assessment and treatment of the motor system. (United States)

    Kobesova, Alena; Kolar, Pavel


    Three levels of sensorimotor control within the central nervous system (CNS) can be distinguished. During the neonatal stage, general movements and primitive reflexes are controlled at the spinal and brain stem levels. Analysis of the newborn's spontaneous general movements and the assessment of primitive reflexes is crucial in the screening and early recognition of a risk for abnormal development. Following the newborn period, the subcortical level of the CNS motor control emerges and matures mainly during the first year of life. This allows for basic trunk stabilization, a prerequisite for any phasic movement and for the locomotor function of the extremities. At the subcortical level, orofacial muscles and afferent information are automatically integrated within postural-locomotor patterns. Finally, the cortical (the highest) level of motor control increasingly becomes activated. Cortical control is important for the individual qualities and characteristics of movement. It also allows for isolated segmental movement and relaxation. A child with impaired cortical motor control may be diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder. Human ontogenetic models, i.e., developmental motor patterns, can be used in both the diagnosis and treatment of locomotor system dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Validity assessment of a low level phonological processing test material in preschool children]. (United States)

    Ptok, M; Altwein, F


    The BISC (Bielefelder Screening) is a German test to evaluate phonological skills believed to be a prerequisite for future reading and writing skills. BISC results may indicate an elevated risk for dyslexia. Our research group has put forward test material in order to specifically examine low-level phonological processing LLPP. In this study we analysed whether BISC and low-level phonological processing correlate. A retrospective correlation analysis was carried out on primary school children's test results of the BISC and the newly developed low-level phonological processing test material. Spearman's rho was 0.52 between total LLPP and total BISC. The subscales correlated with a rho below 0.5. Results indicate that a low level phonological processing and higher level phonological processing can be differentiated. Future studies will have to clarify whether these results can be used to construct specifically targeting therapy strategies and whether the LLPP test material can be used to assess the risk of subsequent dyslexia also. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Assessment of the level of socio-economic development in municipal formations of the Vologda Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Vladimirovich Voroshilov


    Full Text Available Socio-economic development of regions depends to a great extent on the state of economy and social sphere in its constituent municipalities, because this level of government provides basic services to the population, and ensures comfortable living conditions, which determines the growth of the standard of living and quality of life. Under the conditions of the increase in the differentiation of socio-economic development of territories it becomes especially important to identify and study groups (types of territories with similar development factors, conditions and parameters in order to implement specific measures of regional policy. The authors propose and test a methodology of comparative analysis, which used different techniques of standardization of indicators, which makes it possible to assess the level of socio-economic development of municipal and urban districts in the Vologda Oblast, and to distinguish 5 types of territories on the basis of calculation of the integral index that aggregates 18 initial statistical indicators. The article shows that the highest level of socio-economic development is characteristic of the cities of Vologda and Cherepovets and adjacent areas; the farther from the oblast center, the lower this level. The typological classification of the municipalities makes it possible to propose main directions and instruments of regional policy for territories with different levels of development

  13. Assessment of vitamin D plasma levels in patients with vitiligo vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Beheshti


    Full Text Available Vitiligo Vulgaris is a pigment disorder as the lack of skin pigmentation which its most prevalent cause is autoimmune. Vitamin D has various effects on the natural and acquired immune of the body because of its effectiveness on the T cells and B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells.The object of this study was assessment of the Vitamin D in patients with vitiligo vulgaris in dermatologic clinics in Qazvin in 2012. The 100 patients with Vitiligo were studied through a cross-sectional study. The required data were collected by the questionnaire (age, gender, job, family background, consumption of the dairies and vitamin D supplements, examination (type of skin and para clinical test (measurement of the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. The 42 (42% and 58 (58% people of the population under study were respectively male and female. The mean age of the population under study was 28.7±1.17. The mean serum of 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 42±24.14 which had a significance difference with a normal level (p<0.04. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level among patients with Vitiligo had a significance difference with a normal level.

  14. Quantitative assessment of glacial fluctuations in the level of Lake Lisan, Dead Sea rift (United States)

    Rohling, Eelco J.


    A quantitative understanding of climatic variations in the Levant during the last glacial cycle is needed to support archaeologists in assessing the drivers behind hominin migrations and cultural developments in this key region at the intersection between Africa and Europe. It will also foster a better understanding of the region's natural variability as context to projections of modern climate change. Detailed documentation of variations in the level of Lake Lisan - the lake that occupied the Dead Sea rift during the last glacial cycle - provides crucial climatic information for this region. Existing reconstructions suggest that Lake Lisan highstands during cold intervals of the last glacial cycle represent relatively humid conditions in the region, but these interpretations have remained predominantly qualitative. Here, I evaluate realistic ranges of the key climatological parameters that controlled lake level, based on the observed timing and amplitudes of lake-level variability. I infer that a mean precipitation rate over the wider catchment area of about 500 mm y-1, as proposed in the literature, would be consistent with observed lake levels if there was a concomitant 15-50% increase in wind speed during cold glacial stadials. This lends quantitative support to previous inferences of a notable increase in the intensity of Mediterranean (winter) storms during glacial periods, which tracked eastward into the Levant. In contrast to highstands during ‘regular’ stadials, lake level dropped during Heinrich Events. I demonstrate that this likely indicates a further intensification of the winds during those times.

  15. Methodological approaches to assessing the innovativeness level of investment and construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolzhenko Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the existing approaches to innovations evaluation in international and Russian practice. The authors examine the nature of the concept of “innovation”, especially innovation projects, methodological tools to measure various objects’ innovativeness level as well as innovative project economic efficiency assessing methods. It should be noted that at the legislative level up to date in the process of formation and implementation of capital construction projects there are no eligible requirements and assistance from public authorities to the developer for creating innovative products, providing the appropriate level of services. And if the financial indicators of the project are more or less clear, the level of innovativeness of them is much more complicated, although the requirements on the innovativeness of the projects are included in the Strategy of innovative development of Russia. The analysis shows that in Russian and international practice there are many approaches to assessing innovations, but they cannot be considered universal and they are applied differentially depending on the goals and tasks of applying the results of scientific achievements in the form of intellectual property to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of industries, products, services. In this case individual, specific evaluation method is selected and implemented basing on taking into account all the legal, economic, technical and other aspects. As a result, the author concluded that the innovativeness level rating requires development, which is in its analytical capabilities to provide flexible management tool, which can be applied at all the stages of the investment and construction project life cycle.

  16. Assessment on vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in the Yangtze Estuary, China (United States)

    Cui, L.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.


    The Yangtze Delta in China is vital economic hubs in terms of settlement, industry, agriculture, trade and tourism as well as of great environmental significance. In recent decades, the prospect of climate change, in particular sea level rise and its effects on low lying coastal areas have generated worldwide attention to coastal ecosystems. Coastal wetlands, as important parts of coastal ecosystem, are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of coastal wetlands to climate change, assess the impacts of climate change on coastal wetlands and formulate feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal zone ecosystems. In this study, taking the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary as a case study, the potential impacts of sea-level rise to coastal wetlands habitat were analyzed by the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) model. The key indicators, such as the sea-level rise rate, subsidence rate, elevation, daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate, were selected to build a vulnerability assessment system according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under the sea level rise rate of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed that at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.26 cm/a, 92.3 % of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary was in the EVI score of 0 in 2030s, i.e. the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of coastal wetlands was negligible. While 7.4 % and 0.3 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of

  17. Analysis of the methods for assessing socio-economic development level of urban areas (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Bogacheva, Elena


    The present paper provides a targeted analysis of current approaches (ratings) in the assessment of socio-economic development of urban areas. The survey focuses on identifying standardized methodologies to area assessment techniques formation that will result in developing the system of intelligent monitoring, dispatching, building management, scheduling and effective management of an administrative-territorial unit. This system is characterized by complex hierarchical structure, including tangible and intangible properties (parameters, attributes). Investigating the abovementioned methods should increase the administrative-territorial unit's attractiveness for investors and residence. The research aims at studying methods for evaluating socio-economic development level of the Russian Federation territories. Experimental and theoretical territory estimating methods were revealed. Complex analysis of the characteristics of the areas was carried out and evaluation parameters were determined. Integral indicators (resulting rating criteria values) as well as the overall rankings (parameters, characteristics) were analyzed. The inventory of the most widely used partial indicators (parameters, characteristics) of urban areas was revealed. The resulting criteria of rating values homogeneity were verified and confirmed by determining the root mean square deviation, i.e. divergence of indices. The principal shortcomings of assessment methodologies were revealed. The assessment methods with enhanced effectiveness and homogeneity were proposed.

  18. Assessment of health community at the level of Health center Rakovica: Goals and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Assessment of the health status of the population is the foundation for troubleshooting health of the community. For this first step in solving the problems of health need to have adequate data. The basis for the registration of medical information is medical documentation. The aim is to assess the role and place of assessment of the health status of the community according to the literature in this field. We analyzed the available literature in the field of social medicine and health statistics, enlightened assessment of health in the community. The data necessary for determining the state of health can be related to many characteristics. The data can be accessed: review of available medical records and life statistics. Data analysis is performed with respect to the individual, family, group or the entire community. Based on the analysis and evaluation of health status can begin activities in the planning of preventive measures that should be implemented. To evaluate prevention plan is necessary to select and collect the appropriate data for the evaluation. The analysis and evaluation of individuals involved in cooperation with a team of health care health center for the level of Rakovica. Based on the good judgment of health condition can make appropriate plans of action to protect the health of the community.

  19. Ecological assessments of surface water bodies at the river basin level: a case study from England. (United States)

    Collins, Alexandra; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos


    Ecological assessments of surface water bodies are essential in order to evaluate the level of degradation in freshwater ecosystems and to address the subsequent decline in services they provide. These assessments cover multiple aspects of the aquatic environment, particularly biological elements due to their ability to respond to all pressures within an ecosystem. Such assessments can enable the identification of the multiple pressures which threaten water bodies, facilitating sustainable decisions regarding their management to be identified. Here, the design requirements of the networks which facilitate ecological assessments are presented. A river basin district in England is used as a case study to investigate the number of elements monitored, the number of failing elements and the relationship between failing elements. Findings demonstrate the value of ensuring that monitoring networks are risk based and appropriately designed to meet their objectives. This therefore requires that monitoring is not only for the communicating of compliance but also for use iteratively so that the design of monitoring networks and ultimately management can be continually improved.

  20. Repeated Assessment by High-Throughput Assay Demonstrates that Sperm DNA Methylation Levels Are Highly Reproducible (United States)

    Cortessis, Victoria K.; Siegmund, Kimberly; Houshdaran, Sahar; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.


    Objective To assess reliability of high-throughput assay of sperm DNA methylation. Design Observational study comparing DNA methylation of sperm isolated from three divided and twelve longitudinally collected semen samples. Setting Academic Medical Center Patients One man undergoing screening semen analysis during evaluation of the infertile couple and two healthy fertile male volunteers. Interventions Spermatozoa were separated from seminal plasma and somatic cells using gradient separation. DNA was extracted from spermatozoa, and DNA methylation was assessed at 1,505 DNA-sequence specific sites. Main Outcome Measures Repeatability of sperm DNA methylation measures, estimated by correlation coefficients. Results DNA methylation levels were highly correlated within matched sets of divided samples (all r≥0.97) and longitudinal samples (average r=0.97). Conclusions The described methodology reliably assesses methylation of sperm DNA at large numbers of sites. Methylation profiles were consistent over time. High-throughput assessment of sperm DNA methylation is a promising tool for studying the role of epigenetic state in male fertility. PMID:22035967

  1. Measuring patient safety culture : an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, G. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.


    Objectives: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  2. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others


    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  3. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D. [and others


    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  4. Code Verification Capabilities and Assessments in Support of ASC V&V Level 2 Milestone #6035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Budzien, Joanne Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ferguson, Jim Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harwell, Megan Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hickmann, Kyle Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Magrogan, William Richard III [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Srinivasan, Gowri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Walter, Jr, John William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woods, Charles Nathan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This document provides a summary of the code verification activities supporting the FY17 Level 2 V&V milestone entitled “Deliver a Capability for V&V Assessments of Code Implementations of Physics Models and Numerical Algorithms in Support of Future Predictive Capability Framework Pegposts.” The physics validation activities supporting this milestone are documented separately. The objectives of this portion of the milestone are: 1) Develop software tools to support code verification analysis; 2) Document standard definitions of code verification test problems; and 3) Perform code verification assessments (focusing on error behavior of algorithms). This report and a set of additional standalone documents serve as the compilation of results demonstrating accomplishment of these objectives.

  5. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)


    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted


    designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment......With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected...... and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were...

  7. Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, B.P.; Mahoney, L.A.


    Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-level waste (LLW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. Currently available computer codes were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical process expected to affect LLW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the ARES-CT code developed at PNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of and land disposal sites.

  8. Development of a Three-Level Risk Assessment Strategy for Nanomaterials (United States)

    O'Brien, N.; Cummins, E.

    The release of nanomaterials and, in particular, free nanoparticles into the environment from secondary sources such as industrial manufacturing and consumer products as well as from intentional environmental application has compelled a need for a broad and pre-emptive analysis of nanomaterial fate and transport in the environment and subsequent potential human exposure pathways. The novel and potentially reactive characteristics of nanomaterials have lead to predictions on potential undesirable ramifications of exposure to these materials on human health. The three-level risk assessment strategy presented in this work has its basis in qualitative model equations that represent the inter-relationships between the different material and process characteristics and environmental behaviors and their relationship to potential exposure scenarios. The factors that influence these behaviors are examined, and the potential application of this risk assessment strategy in a semi-quantitative model is considered.

  9. On the Accuracy of Iranian EFL Students' Reading Self-assessment and their Level of Reading Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Shokr


    Full Text Available Reviewing the literature on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessment we find advocates claiming for the accuracy of the students’ self-assessments in general with little focus on their level of proficiency. With an eye on the students’ level of reading proficiency, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship between students’ reading self-assessment (as a formative and alternative method of assessment on the one hand, and teacher assessment (as a formative type of assessment as well as students’ final examination scores (as a summative and traditional method of assessment on the other. To this end, 65 students of Islamic Azad University- Tehran South Branch were selected to participate in this study. Initially, participants received PET test as pretest for assigning them into different levels of reading proficiency. Based upon the results of the pretest, participants were assigned to elementary and intermediate levels. Throughout the whole semester self-assessment questionnaire was employed for five times. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation were the data analysis techniques performed. The results of the study revealed a significant relationship between the intermediate learners’ self-ratings and teacher assessments; however, the results indicated no significant relationship between elementary learners’ self-assessments and teacher assessments. Also, the correlations between students’ self-assessments and their final examination scores were not significant for both levels. Therefore, given the teacher assessment as the yardstick, the accuracy of the intermediate levels and the inaccuracy of the elementary learners’ self-assessments could be concluded. Finally, the low correlation between the learners’ self-assessments and their scores on traditional final examination led the researcher to attribute it to the different nature of these two assessment types.

  10. A preliminary assessment of low level arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Konstantinos C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A preliminary study was undertaken in a community of Cyprus where low-level arsenic (As concentrations were recently detected in the groundwater that was chronically used to satisfy potable needs of the community. The main objective of the study was to assess the degree of association between orally-ingested As and self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM in 317 adult (≥18 years old volunteers. Methods Cumulative lifetime As exposure (CLAEX (mg As was calculated using the median As concentrations in water, individual reported daily water consumption rates, and lifetime exposure duration. Logistic regression models were used to model the probability of self-reported DM and calculate odds ratios (OR in univariate and multivariate models. Results Significantly higher (p  0.02 CLAEX values were reported for the diabetics (median = 999 mg As versus non-diabetics (median = 573 mg As, suggesting that As exposure could perhaps be related to the prevalence of DM in the study area, which was 6.6%. The OR for DM, comparing participants in the 80th versus the 20th percentiles of low-level As CLAEX index values, was 5.0 (1.03, 24.17, but after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, education, and fish consumption, the As exposure effect on DM was not significant. Conclusions Further research is needed to improve As exposure assessment for the entire Cypriot population while assessing the exact relationship between low-level As exposure and DM.

  11. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Salvatore


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.

  12. Assessing the variability in extreme high water levels and the implications for coastal flood risk (United States)

    Quinn, Niall; Lewis, Matthew; Wadey, Matthew; Haigh, Ivan


    Assessing the variability in extreme high water levels and the implications for coastal flood risk In this research we assess the temporal variability in the time-series of extreme water levels at 44 A- Class tide gauges around the UK. Extreme (> 99th percentile) storm tide events, sampled from water level measurements taken every 15 minutes between 1993 and 2012, were analysed at each site, and the variability in elevation relative to a given event storm tide peak was quantified. The magnitude of the variability in the time-series was found to be both spatially variable across the UK, and temporally variable relative to the time of the high water. Boundary water levels associated with a range of event magnitudes at case study locations around the UK were used to force two-dimensional hydrodynamic models to examine the importance of storm tide time-series uncertainty to flood risk predictions. The comparison of inundation extent, depth, and number of buildings affected demonstrated the importance of accurately defining the duration and magnitude of defence exceedance. For example, given a current 1 in 200 year event magnitude at Portsmouth (UK), the predicted number of buildings inundated differed by more than 30% when contrasting simulations forced with the 5th percentile time-series relative to those forced with the 95th percentile time-series. The results clearly indicate that variability in the time-series of the storm tide can have considerable influence upon the duration and magnitude by which defences are exceeded, hence with implications for coastal flood risk assessments. Therefore, further evaluating and representing this uncertainty in future flood risk assessments is vital, while the 5th and 95th percentile time-series defined in this research provide a tool for coastal flood modellers. Only defence overflow-induced inundation was examined in this research. However, it is expected that variability in storm tide time-series will also have important

  13. Estimation of radiofrequency power leakage from microwave ovens for dosimetric assessment at nonionizing radiation exposure levels. (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria


    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  14. Estimation of Radiofrequency Power Leakage from Microwave Ovens for Dosimetric Assessment at Nonionizing Radiation Exposure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri


    Full Text Available The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose CAPACHO


    Full Text Available This paper aims at showing a new methodology to assess student learning in virtual spaces supported by Information and Communications Technology-ICT. The methodology is based on the Conceptual Pedagogy Theory, and is supported both on knowledge instruments (KI and intelectual operations (IO. KI are made up of teaching materials embedded in the virtual environment. The student carries out IO in his/her virtual formation process based on KI. Both instruments of knowledge and intellectual operations can be mathematically modelled by using functions of increasing complexity order. These functions represent the student’s learning change. This paper main contribution is to show that these functions let the student go from a concrete thinking to a formal one in his/her virtual learning process. The research showed that 47% of the students moved from a concrete thinking level to the formal thinking level.

  16. Assessment of serum level of corticotropin-releasing factor in primary nocturnal enuresis. (United States)

    Motawie, Ayat A; Abd Al-Aziz, Amany M; Hamed, Hanan M; Fatouh, Amany A A; Awad, Mona A M; El-Ghany, Amany Abd


    Primary nocturnal enuresis is one of the sleep related phenomena characterized by disruption in the relationship between arousal and urination. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone released from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus into the median eminence to elicit release of adrenocorticotrophin from the anterior pituitary. It may act to modulate autonomic function and behavior in concert with the endocrine effects. Conflicting animal studies about the role of CRF in micturition, either facilitating or inhibiting, have been raised. It was suggested to be a novel target for treatment of urinary disorders based on the finding that manipulation of CRF in the pontine micturition circuit could affect urodynamic function. The aim was to throw light on the possible role of CRF in primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis by assessing its serum level. Twenty-nine children aged 8-14 years complaining of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy children with good toilet control day and night were recruited to the study. History taking, clinical examination, and assessment of serum CRF levels in the morning and evening (9 a.m. and 9 p.m.) were carried out for all patients and controls. A positive family history of enuresis was detected in 82.8% of enuretic patients. Serum levels of CRF (both morning and evening) were significantly lower in patients than in controls. Several animal studies suggested that CRF in descending projections from Barrington's nucleus to the lumbosacral parasympathetic neurons is inhibitory to micturition, which supports our results and the assumption that reduction of the evening serum CRF level could have a role in the occurrence of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. No significant difference was found between morning and evening CRF serum levels in either cases or controls, which negates our assumption of having a rhythmic pattern of release (figure). No correlations with

  17. A quantitative screening-level approach to incorporate chemical exposure and risk into alternative assessment evaluations. (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Greggs, Bill; Goyak, Katy O; Landenberger, Bryce D; Mason, Ann M; Howard, Brett; Zaleski, Rosemary T


    As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so-called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing 1 chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others. To minimize the incidents of regrettable substitutions, BizNGO describes "Common Principles" to frame a process for informed substitution. Two of these 6 principles are: "reduce hazard" and "minimize exposure." A number of frameworks have emerged to evaluate and assess alternatives. One framework developed by leading experts under the auspices of the US National Academy of Sciences recommended that hazard and exposure be specifically addressed in the same step when assessing candidate alternatives. For the alternative assessment community, this article serves as an informational resource for considering exposure in an alternatives assessment using elements of problem formulation; product identity, use, and composition; hazard analysis; exposure analysis; and risk characterization. These conceptual elements build on practices from government, academia, and industry and are exemplified through 2 hypothetical case studies demonstrating the questions asked and decisions faced in new product development. These 2 case studies-inhalation exposure to a generic paint product and environmental exposure to a shampoo rinsed down the drain-demonstrate the criteria, considerations, and methods required to combine exposure models addressing human health and environmental impacts to provide a screening level hazard and exposure (risk) analysis. This article informs practices for these elements within a comparative risk context

  18. Assessment of sedation level prior to neonatal intubation: A systematic review. (United States)

    de Kort, Ellen H M; Halbmeijer, Nienke M; Reiss, Irwin K M; Simons, Sinno H P


    Adequate premedication before neonatal endotracheal intubation reduces pain, stress, and adverse physiological responses, diminishes duration and number of attempts at intubation, and prevents traumatic airway injury. Therefore, intubation should not be started until an adequate level of sedation is reached. It is not clear how this should be measured in the clinical situation. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic review of the usability and validity of scoring systems or other objective parameters to evaluate the level of sedation before intubation in neonates. Secondary aims were to describe parameters that are used to determine the level of sedation and criteria on which the decision to proceed with intubation is based. Literature was searched (January 2017) in the following electronic databases: Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials, Pubmed Publisher, and Google Scholar. From 1653 hits, 20 studies were finally included in the systematic review. In 7 studies, intubation was started after a predefined time period; in 1 study, preoxygenation was the criterion to start with intubation; and in 12 studies, intubation was started in case of adequate sedation and/or relaxation. Only 4 studies described the use of 3 different objective scoring system, all in the neonatal intensive care unit, which are not validated. No validated scoring systems to assess the level of sedation prior to intubation in newborns are available in the literature. Three objective sedation assessment tools seem promising but need further validation before they can be implemented in research and clinical settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Design and Assessment of an Associate Degree-Level Plant Operations Technical Education Program (United States)

    Selwitz, Jason Lawrence

    Research was undertaken to develop and evaluate an associate degree-level technical education program in Plant Operations oriented towards training students in applied science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) skills and knowledge relevant to a spectrum of processing industries. This work focuses on four aspects of the curriculum and course development and evaluation research. First, the context of, and impetus for, what was formerly called vocational education, now referred to as technical or workforce education, is provided. Second, the research that was undertaken to design and evaluate an associate degree-level STEM workforce education program is described. Third, the adaptation of a student self-assessment of learning gains instrument is reviewed, and an analysis of the resulting data using an adapted logic model is provided, to evaluate the extent to which instructional approaches, in two process control/improvement-focused courses, were effective in meeting course-level intended learning outcomes. Finally, eight integrative multiscale exercises were designed from two example process systems, wastewater treatment and fast pyrolysis. The integrative exercises are intended for use as tools to accelerate the formation of an operator-technician's multiscale vision of systems, unit operations, underlying processes, and fundamental reactions relevant to multiple industries. Community and technical colleges serve a vital function in STEM education by training workers for medium- and high-skilled technical careers and providing employers the labor necessary to operate and maintain thriving business ventures. Through development of the curricular, course, and assessment-related instruments and tools, this research helps ensure associate degree-level technical education programs can engage in a continual process of program evaluation and improvement.

  20. Storage Time and Urine Biomarker Levels in the ASSESS-AKI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen D Liu

    Full Text Available Although stored urine samples are often used in biomarker studies focused on acute and chronic kidney disease, how storage time impacts biomarker levels is not well understood.866 subjects enrolled in the NIDDK-sponsored ASsessment, Serial Evaluation, and Subsequent Sequelae in Acute Kidney Injury (ASSESS-AKI Study were included. Samples were processed under standard conditions and stored at -70°C until analyzed. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, interleukin-18 (IL-18, and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP were measured in urine samples collected during the index hospitalization or an outpatient visit 3 months later. Mixed effects models were used to determine the effect of storage time on biomarker levels and stratified by visit.Median storage was 17.8 months (25-75% IQR 10.6-23.7 for samples from the index hospitalization and 14.6 months (IQR 7.3-20.4 for outpatient samples. In the mixed effects models, the only significant association between storage time and biomarker concentration was for KIM-1 in outpatient samples, where each month of storage was associated with a 1.7% decrease (95% CI -3% to -0.3%. There was no relationship between storage time and KIM-1 levels in samples from the index hospitalization.There was no significant impact of storage time over a median of 18 months on urine KIM-1, NGAL, IL-18 or L-FABP in hospitalized samples; a statistically significant effect towards a decrease over time was noted for KIM-1 in outpatient samples. Additional studies are needed to determine whether longer periods of storage at -70°C systematically impact levels of these analytes.

  1. Assessing level of consciousness and cognitive changes from vegetative state to full recovery. (United States)

    Bekinschtein, Tristan; Tiberti, Cecilia; Niklison, Jorge; Tamashiro, Mercedes; Ron, Melania; Carpintiero, Silvina; Villarreal, Mirta; Forcato, Cecilia; Leiguarda, Ramon; Manes, Facundo


    Although investigations addressing cognitive recovery from the vegetative state have been reported, to date there have been no detailed studies of these patients combining both neuropsychology and functional imaging to monitor and record the recovery of consciousness. This paper describes the recovery of a specific vegetative state (VS) case. The patient (OG) remained in the vegetative state for approximately two months, increasing her level of awareness to a minimally conscious state, where she continued for approximately 70 days. In the course of the ensuing 18 months, she was able to reach an acceptable level of cognitive functioning, with partial levels of independence. Throughout this two year period, she received continuous cognitive evaluation, for which several different tools were applied including coma and low functioning scales, full cognitive batteries, and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present here preliminary data on fMRI using a word presentation paradigm before and after recovery; we also discuss the difficulty of how to determine level of consciousness using the tools currently available, and the subsequent improvement in different cognitive domains. We confirm that accurate diagnosis and proper cognitive assessment are critical for the rehabilitation of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  2. Assessment of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels in children with atopic dermatitis: correlation with SCORAD index. (United States)

    El Taieb, Moustafa A; Fayed, Hanan M; Aly, Sanaa S; Ibrahim, Ahmed K


    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder with an immunologic basis. It may have negative medical and social impacts on a patient and his family. To assess serum level of vitamin D among children with AD and determine its association with AD severity using the AD Scoring System Index. A case-control study. Twenty-nine patients with AD in the age group between 2 and 12 years were enrolled in the study. The severity of the disease was determined by the AD scoring system. Thirty controls were recruited. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] were tested using commercial automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The mean value of vitamin D in children with AD was much lower than normal value, and there was a significant difference in the mean values of vitamin D between children with AD (5.4±1.9 ng/mL) and the controls (28.9±2.4 ng/mL). Serum 25(OH)D levels were found to be significantly higher in mild AD (14.6±3.5 ng/mL) compared with moderate (5.5±3.1 ng/mL) or severe AD (0.3±0.1 ng/mL); P<0.001. Patients with AD have lower serum vitamin D levels than normal. Vitamin D deficiency might be related to the severity of AD.

  3. Assessment of lead contamination of the general environment through blood lead levels. (United States)

    Zheng, X Q; Ji, R D


    More than 2000 blood samples were collected at random from full-time middle school teachers in 9 cities of China and analyzed for lead concentration with strict quality assurance procedures. Questionnaries about the smoking habits, alcohol consumption, residence condition, and fuel used at home were filled out by each person, and information about traffic, and lead concentration in different areas of the environment was also collected as far as possible. The result showed that the geometric mean of blood lead levels of teachers in different cities was ranging between 59-82 μg l(-1) among them the lowest levels were found in Nanjing and the highest in Shanghai. The difference between the lowest and the highest value was only 23 μg l(-1). Comparing with the results of WHO/UNEP and CEC projects. The overall geometric average blood level in China is lower than in all the other countries except Japan. It indicates that the lead pollution in the general environment of China was not as severe as in the participating countries of WHO/UNEP and CEC projects. This may be attributed by the following factors: The less automobile triffic, the larger proportion of non-leaded gasoline used and the less canned food consumption. Factors influencing the lead levels in blood were also analyzed and the 'normal value' (95% upper limit) of blood lead was assessed to be 160 μg l(-1).

  4. Calibration of a liquid scintillation counter to assess tritium levels in various samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, M.N. E-mail:; Fayoumi, A.H.; Abu-Jarad, F.A


    An LKB-Wallac 1217 Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was calibrated with a newly adopted cocktail. The LSC was then used to measure tritium levels in various samples to assess the compliance of tritium levels with the recommended international levels. The counter was calibrated to measure both biological and operational samples for personnel and for an accelerator facility at KFUPM. The biological samples include the bioassay (urine), saliva, and nasal tests. The operational samples of the light ion linear accelerator include target cooling water, organic oil, fomblin oil, and smear samples. Sets of standards, which simulate various samples, were fabricated using traceable certified tritium standards. The efficiency of the counter was obtained for each sample. The typical range of the efficiencies varied from 33% for smear samples down to 1.5% for organic oil samples. A quenching curve for each sample is presented. The minimum detectable activity for each sample was established. Typical tritium levels in biological and operational values are presented. All measured values are far below the recommended international limits.

  5. Assessment of tissue levels of dickkopf-1 in androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. (United States)

    Fawzi, Marwa M T; Mahmoud, Sara B; Shaker, Olfat G; Saleh, Marwah A


    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the commonest form of hair loss in men. Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease. Studies revealed that Dickkopf 1 (DKK-1), a powerful suppressor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, induced anagen-to-catagen transition in mice. Moreover, in vitro studies suggested that DKK-1 played a role in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced balding. To evaluate the tissue levels of DKK-1 in patients with AGA and AA, to assess its possible role as a pathogenetic mechanism in both disorders. This study included 24 patients with AGA, 31 patients with AA, and 33 healthy controls. Scalp biopsies were taken from all participants for the detection of tissue DKK-1 levels. Tissue DKK-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with AGA than in controls (P = 0.000) as well as in patients with AA than in controls (P = 0.001). In addition, they were significantly higher in patients with AGA than in patients with AA (P = 0.000). DKK-1 was higher in male than in female patients with AGA. DKK-1 was negatively correlated with disease duration in AGA. In conclusion, this study suggests an important role for DKK-1 in the pathogenesis of AGA and AA through documenting higher tissue DKK-1 levels in patients with both hair disorders compared to controls and suggests that DKK-1 may be a promising therapeutic target for these hair diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Assessing of plasma levels of iron, zinc and copper in Iranian Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Nikyar, Hamidreza; Dehghani, Leila; Basiri, Keivan; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye


    Trace elements have long been suspected to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but their exact roles have been remained controversial. In this study, we assessed the levels of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in different stage of PD patients. Serum concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were measured in 109 patients with PD by colorimetric methods. Staging of the disease was evaluated according to Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) and Unified PD Rating Scale III (UPDRS). Severity values of PD measured by UPRDSIII and HY stages with mean ± SD were 22.9 ± 1.81 and 1.8 ± 1.1, respectively. Mean ± SD values of iron, zinc and copper are 100.7 ± 289.2, 68.3 ± 5.32, and 196.8 ± 162.1 μg/dl, respectively. Serum iron level in most of the patients was normal (76.6%). Whereas zinc concentration in most participants was below the normal range (64.5%) and serum Cu in the majority of patients had a high normal concentration (42.7%) and did not significantly differ among various PD stages. The result of this study does not confirm strong correlation between PD stages and serum levels of tested trace elements. The actual correlations between these elements and PD and whether modulating of these agents levels could be an effective approach in the treatment of this disease remain to be elucidated.

  7. Assessing the impact of sea-level rise on a vulnerable coastal community in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Appeaning Addo


    Full Text Available Climate change and its associated sea-level rise are expected to significantly affect vulnerable coastal communities. Although the extent of the impact will be localised, its assessment will adopt a monitoring approach that applies globally. The topography of the beach, the type of geological material and the level of human intervention will determine the extent of the area to be flooded and the rate at which the shoreline will move inland. Gleefe, a coastal community in Ghana, has experienced frequent flooding in recent times due to the increasing occurrence of storm surge and sea-level rise. This study used available geospatial data and field measurements to determine how the beach topography has contributed to the incidence of flooding at Gleefe. The topography is generally low-lying. Sections of the beach have elevations of around 1 m, which allows seawater to move inland during very high tide. Accelerated sea-level rise as predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC will destroy homes of the inhabitants and inundate the Densu wetlands behind the beach. Destruction of infrastructure will render the inhabitants homeless, whilst flooding of the wetlands will destroy the habitats of migratory birds and some endangered wildlife species such as marine turtle. Effective adaptation measures should be adopted to protect this very important coastal environment, the ecology of the wetlands and the livelihoods of the community dwellers.

  8. Geological assessment of beach erosion history based on OSL dating of cut-and-fill deposits, Bengello Beach at Moruya, SE Australia (United States)

    Tamura, Toru; Oliver, Thomas; Woodroffe, Colin; Cunningham, Alastair


    High-wave events result in significant beach erosion and retreat. While understanding of the extent and frequency of extreme beach retreat is critical for conservation of coastal property, modern beach observation is generally too short for the infrequent nature of such events. Here we show a geological assessment of extreme beach retreat in Bengello Beach at Moruya, southeastern Australia, based on the high-resolution quartz optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating coupled with the Bayesian outlier modeling, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey. Beach monitoring since 1972 reveals that the Bengello Beach has shown a typical cut-and-fill pattern, in which the beach retreats several tens of meters in relation to storm events and immediately recovers within a following few years. A storm event caused extreme beach retreat up to 50 m in 1974. Since then, no storm event has been associated with retreat exceeding 30 m. It has thus been argued that the 1974 erosion was an event that happens once in 50-100 years. The beach monitoring defines a beach profile envelope, and indicates that the upper foreshore deposits can only be preserved as stratigraphic records during rapid beach recovery following a large retreat deeper than the envelope. Thus, ages of the preserved upper foreshore deposits are considered as roughly corresponding to timings of large retreat. Sediment samples for OSL dating were collected from the subsurface of the beach-ridge plain behind the Bengello Beach. Sample sites were located at 5-10 m intervals along a shore-normal transect extending from the modern foredune to 120 m inland. The GPR profile confirmed all the samples were taken from prograded upper foreshore deposits. The most landward, oldest sample was dated as 510 yr, indicating that the net seaward accretion rate of beach-ridge plain is 0.24 m/yr, concordant with the average rate since the mid Holocene. Other OSL ages show four events of beach retreat at 350, 180, 130, 90 yr, and

  9. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, S Y; Zalk, D M; Swuste, P


    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed, and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  10. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nuño Solinís


    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care, according to the clinicians' own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service. Methods. The process was carried out in four phases: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach's α and various correlation coefficients. Results. The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: c2 of 45.51 (p = 0.089, RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99. Discussion. The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration. Conclusion. The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care.

  11. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nuño Solinís


    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care, according to the clinicians' own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service.Methods. The process was carried out in four phases: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach's α and various correlation coefficients.Results. The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: c2 of 45.51 (p = 0.089, RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99.Discussion. The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration.Conclusion. The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care.

  12. Assessment of a Smart Sensing Shoe for Gait Phase Detection in Level Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Carbonaro


    Full Text Available Gait analysis and more specifically ambulatory monitoring of temporal and spatial gait parameters may open relevant fields of applications in activity tracking, sports and also in the assessment and treatment of specific diseases. Wearable technology can boost this scenario by spreading the adoption of monitoring systems to a wide set of healthy users or patients. In this context, we assessed a recently developed commercial smart shoe—the FootMoov—for automatic gait phase detection in level walking. FootMoov has built-in force sensors and a triaxial accelerometer and is able to transmit the sensor data to the smartphone through a wireless connection. We developed a dedicated gait phase detection algorithm relying both on force and inertial information. We tested the smart shoe on ten healthy subjects in free level walking conditions and in a laboratory setting in comparison with an optical motion capture system. Results confirmed a reliable detection of the gait phases. The maximum error committed, on the order of 44.7 ms, is comparable with previous studies. Our results confirmed the possibility to exploit consumer wearable devices to extract relevant parameters to improve the subject health or to better manage his/her progressions.

  13. Development of a questionnaire to assess interprofessional collaboration between two different care levels. (United States)

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Berraondo Zabalegui, Iñaki; Sauto Arce, Regina; San Martín Rodríguez, Leticia; Toro Polanco, Nuria


    This paper reports the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess collaboration between clinical professionals from two different care levels (primary and specialised care), according to the clinicians' own perceptions. This questionnaire has been elaborated to be used as part of the monitoring and evaluation process of the integrated care pilots in the public Basque Health Service. THE PROCESS WAS CARRIED OUT IN FOUR PHASES: development of the first version of the questionnaire, validation of the content, pre-testing, and evaluation of its construct validity and homogeneity in a sample of doctors and nurses. This last phase involved confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the calculation of Cronbach's α and various correlation coefficients. The process demonstrated that the theoretical content of the questionnaire was appropriate, and also that its items were clear, relevant and intelligible. The fit indices for the confirmatory factor analysis were: χ(2) of 45.51 (p=0.089), RMSEA of 0.043, RMR of 0.046, GFI of 0.92 and CFI of 0.99. The statistics indicate a good fit between the data and a conceptual two-factor structure, in which both personal relationships between professionals and characteristics of the organisational environment are understood to underlie interprofessional collaboration. The end-product is a new instrument with good validity to assess the degree of interprofessional collaboration between clinicians working at two different levels of care.

  14. Metabolic Effect Level Index Links Multivariate Metabolic Fingerprints to Ecotoxicological Effect Assessment. (United States)

    Riedl, Janet; Schreiber, René; Otto, Matthias; Heilmeier, Hermann; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild


    A major goal of ecotoxicology is the prediction of adverse outcomes for populations from sensitive and early physiological responses. A snapshot of the physiological state of an organism can be provided by metabolic fingerprints. However, to inform chemical risk assessment, multivariate metabolic fingerprints need to be converted to readable end points suitable for effect estimation and comparison. The concentration- and time-dependent responsiveness of metabolic fingerprints to the PS-II inhibitor isoproturon was investigated by use of a Myriophyllum spicatum bioassay. Hydrophilic and lipophilic leaf extracts were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and preprocessed with XCMS. Metabolic changes were aggregated in the quantitative metabolic effect level index (MELI), allowing effect estimation from Hill-based concentration-response models. Hereby, the most sensitive response on the concentration scale was revealed by the hydrophilic MELI, followed by photosynthetic efficiency and, 1 order of magnitude higher, by the lipophilic MELI and shoot length change. In the hydrophilic MELI, 50% change compares to 30% inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency and 10% inhibition of dry weight change, indicating effect development on different response levels. In conclusion, aggregated metabolic fingerprints provide quantitative estimates and span a broad response spectrum, potentially valuable for establishing adverse outcome pathways of chemicals in environmental risk assessment.

  15. Continental level landslide susceptibility assessment in the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy (United States)

    Günther, A.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Hervás, J.; Malet, J.; Guzzetti, F.


    In the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy, and the formulation of a draft of a European framework directive devoted to the sustainable protection of soil, landslides are recognized as one of the eight soil threats requiring harmonized spatial hazard assessments over the EU territory. The general framework for the harmonized assessment of soil threats (namely erosion, organic matter decline, salinisation, compaction, landslides, contamination, sealing and loss of biodiversity) consists of a nested geographical approach based on "Tiers", where a semi-quantitative, low-resolution (1:1 million) evaluation ("Tier 1") using already available pan-European datasets should enable the delineation of priority areas requiring more detailed quantitative inventory-based assessments with additional data ("Tier 2"). In this contribution, we present the elaboration of a continental level "Tier 1" generic landslide susceptibility model based on a heuristic, spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach exploiting the most important conditioning factors for landslides being slope gradient, lithology and land cover. Additionally, extensive landslide locations available at regional and national levels were collected, harmonized and standardized over the EU territory to obtain a signal for input parameter specification and model calibration, evaluation and classification. Since the analyzed area is highly complex in terms of climatic, physiographic and seismotectonic conditions controlling landslide occurrences, a terrain differentiation based on climatic and geomorphologic criteria is proposed to delineate distinct zones to which specific predictor class weights have been allocated through the SMCE approach for susceptibility evaluation. The heuristic indexing scheme is cross-validated with multivariate statistical evaluations in representative areas for which detailed inventory information is available. The resulting pan-European susceptibility estimate

  16. The response of gene expression associated with lipid metabolism, fat deposition and fatty acid profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Gannan yaks to different energy levels of diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    Full Text Available The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5.5 MJ/kg, medium-energy (ME: 6.2 MJ/kg and high-energy (HE: 6.9 MJ/kg diets, respectively. All animals were fed ad libitum twice daily at 08:00-09:00 am and 17:00-18:00 pm and with free access to water for 74 days, including a 14-d period to adapt to the diets and the environment. Intramuscular fat (IMF content, fatty acid profile and mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were determined. The energy levels of the diets significantly (P<0.05 affected the content of IMF, total SFA, total MUFA and total PUFA. C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9c account for a large proportion of total fatty acids. Relative expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA, fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4 was greater in HE than in LE yaks (P<0.05. Moreover, ME yaks had higher (P<0.05 mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, ACACA, FASN, SCD and FABP4 than did the LE yaks. The results demonstrate that the higher energy level of the diets increased IMF deposition and fatty acid content as well as increased intramuscular lipogenic gene expression during the experimental period.

  17. Health impact assessment of a reduction in ambient PM(2.5) levels in Spain. (United States)

    Boldo, Elena; Linares, Cristina; Lumbreras, Julio; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; García-Pérez, Javier; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Ramis, Rebeca; Pollán, Marina; Moreno, Teresa; Karanasiou, Angeliki; López-Abente, Gonzalo


    Health effects linked to exposure to high air pollutant levels have been described in depth, and many recent epidemiologic studies have also consistently reported positive associations between exposure to air pollutants at low concentrations (particularly PM(2.5)) and adverse health outcomes. To estimate the number of avoidable deaths associated with reducing PM(2.5) levels in Spain. For exposure assessment, we used the US Environmental Protection Agency's Community Multiscale Air Quality model to simulate air pollution levels with a spatial resolution of 18×18 km(2). Two different scenarios were compared, namely, a baseline 2004 scenario based on Spain's National Emissions Inventory and a projected 2011 scenario in which a reduction in PM(2.5) was estimated on the basis of the benefits that might be attained if specific air quality policies were implemented. Using an 18×18 km(2) grid, air pollution data were estimated for the entire Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta and Melilla. For these strata, crude all-cause mortality rates (ICD-10: A00-Y98) were then calculated for the over-30 and 25-74 age groups, taking into account the 2004 population figures corresponding to these same age groups, selected in accordance with the concentration-response functions (Pope CA 3rd, Burnett RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Ito K et al. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA 2002; 287:1132-41; Laden F, Schwartz J, Speizer FE, Dockery DW. Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality: extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173:667-72.). Health impacts were assessed using the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). Air quality improvement was defined as an average annual reduction of 0.7 μg/m(3) in PM(2.5) levels. Using long-term health impact assessment analysis, we estimated that 1720 (673-2760) all-cause deaths (6 per 100

  18. Blood oxygen-level dependent functional assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity: Feasibility for intraoperative 3 Tesla MRI. (United States)

    Fierstra, Jorn; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; van Niftrik, Christiaan Hendrik Bas; Piccirelli, Marco; Pangalu, Athina; Kocian, Roman; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Valavanis, Antonios; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver


    To assess the feasibility of functional blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI to evaluate intraoperative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) at 3 Tesla field strength. Ten consecutive neurosurgical subjects scheduled for a clinical intraoperative MRI examination were enrolled in this study. In addition to the clinical protocol a BOLD sequence was implemented with three cycles of 44 s apnea to calculate CVR values on a voxel-by-voxel basis throughout the brain. The CVR range was then color-coded and superimposed on an anatomical volume to create high spatial resolution CVR maps. Ten subjects (mean age 34.8 ± 13.4; 2 females) uneventfully underwent the intraoperative BOLD protocol, with no complications occurring. Whole-brain CVR for all subjects was (mean ± SD) 0.69 ± 0.42, whereas CVR was markedly higher for tumor subjects as compared to vascular subjects, 0.81 ± 0.44 versus 0.33 ± 0.10, respectively. Furthermore, color-coded functional maps could be robustly interpreted for a whole-brain assessment of CVR. We demonstrate that intraoperative BOLD MRI is feasible in creating functional maps to assess cerebrovascular reactivity throughout the brain in subjects undergoing a neurosurgical procedure. Magn Reson Med 77:806-813, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Becker; M. Connolly; M. McIlwain


    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types.

  20. Assessment of spatial variation of ambient volatile organic compound levels at a power station in Kuwait. (United States)

    Ramadan, Ashraf


    Twenty-four-hour integrated ambient air samples were collected in canisters at 10 locations within Kuwait's major power station: Doha West Power Station to assess the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the perimeter of the station. A total of 30 samples, i.e., three samples per location, were collected during February and March. The samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system and following the U.S. EPA Method TO-14A with modification. The results reflected the emission activities on the site and the meteorological conditions during sampling. Generally speaking, there was a negative correlation between the ambient temperature and the VOC concentrations, which indicates the sources were local. The halogenated compounds formed the highest proportion (i.e. 50-75 %) of the total VOC concentrations at the ten locations. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and Vinyl Chloride concentrations were the highest amongst the other halogenated compounds. The aromatic compounds formed the least proportion (i.e. 1-4%) of the total VOC levels at all locations with Toluene having the highest concentrations amongst the aromatic compounds at seven locations. Propene, which is a major constituent of the fuel used, was the highest amongst the aliphatic compounds. The findings of this study and other relevant work suggests the measured VOC levels were the highest over the year, nevertheless, further work is required to assess the precisely temporal variation of VOC due to change in meteorological conditions and the emission rates. Assessment of VOC concentrations around a power plant in Kuwait during the peak season showed halogenated compounds to be the dominant group. The calculated indoor concentrations were lower than those reported in a residential area about 12 km away.

  1. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark. (United States)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke


    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants.

  2. A Survey on EFL Teachers' Assessment Methods in Entry-Level Writing Courses in Technological Universities in Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Cheryl Wei-yu


    How writing teachers conduct their assessment is an important but under-researched topic in the field of language assessment. By partly adopting Cheng et al.'s (2004) survey, this mail survey study aims to fill this gap by examining how tertiary-level EFL writing teachers assess their students in basic English writing classes in Taiwan. The…

  3. Evaluation of Filtration and DNA Extraction Methods for Environmental DNA Biodiversity Assessments across Multiple Trophic Levels

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    Anni Djurhuus


    Full Text Available Metabarcoding of marine environmental DNA (eDNA, originating from tissue, cells, or extracellular DNA, offers the opportunity to survey the biological composition of communities across multiple trophic levels from a non-invasive seawater sample. Here we compare results of eDNA metabarcoding of multiple trophic levels from individual seawater samples collected from a kelp forest in Monterey Bay, California in order to establish methods for future cross-trophic level eDNA analysis. Triplicate 1 L water samples were filtered using five different 47 mm diameter membrane filters (PVDF, PES, GFF, PCTE, and NC and DNA was extracted from triplicates of each filter-type using three widely-used extraction methods (the DNeasy Blood and Tissue kit, the MoBio PowerWater DNA Isolation kit, and standard phenol/chloroform methods resulting in 45 individual eDNA samples prepared with 15 workflow combinations. Each DNA extract was amplified using PCR primers for the 16S rRNA gene (microorganisms; Bacteria and Archaea, 18S rRNA gene (phytoplankton, and the 12S rRNA gene (vertebrates, and PCR products were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform. The richness and community composition of microbial, phytoplankton, and vertebrate OTUs were not significantly different between any of the 0.2 μm pore-size filter types extracted with the DNeasy or MoBio kits. However, phenol/chloroform extraction resulted in significantly different community structures. This study provides insight into multiple choices for extraction and filtration methods to use eDNA metabarcoding for biodiversity assessment of multiple trophic levels from a single sample. We recommend any combination of either DNeasy or MoBio with PES, PCTE, PVDF, or NC filters for a cross trophic level comparison.

  4. Climate uncertainty and implications for U.S. state-level risk assessment through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.


    Decisions for climate policy will need to take place in advance of climate science resolving all relevant uncertainties. Further, if the concern of policy is to reduce risk, then the best-estimate of climate change impacts may not be so important as the currently understood uncertainty associated with realizable conditions having high consequence. This study focuses on one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change - precipitation - to understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and the near-term justification for interventions to mitigate the course of climate change. We show that the mean risk of damage to the economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of one trillion dollars over the next 40 years, with employment impacts of nearly 7 million labor-years. At a 1% exceedance-probability, the impact is over twice the mean-risk value. Impacts at the level of individual U.S. states are then typically in the multiple tens of billions dollar range with employment losses exceeding hundreds of thousands of labor-years. We used results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) climate-model ensemble as the referent for climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, mapped the simulated weather hydrologically to the county level for determining the physical consequence to economic activity at the state level, and then performed a detailed, seventy-industry, analysis of economic impact among the interacting lower-48 states. We determined industry GDP and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effect on personal income, and the consequences for the U.S. trade balance.

  5. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser in the treatment of alveolar osteitis

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    Jovanović Goran


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Alveolar osteitis (AO is the extraction wound healing disorder with a presence of severe pain. Low level laser therapy stimulates cell metabolism and microcirculation, have has pronounced analgesic, antiedematous and anti-inflammatory effect and speeds up wound healing process. The aim of this study was to present results of clinical research that examined the effectiveness of low level laser in pain relief and healing of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the lower jaw which was formed on the second day after tooth extraction. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects divided into the study and the control group. In both groups extraction wounds were processed in similar way, except that in the study group was applied daily treatment of low level laser with a total of eight sessions of radiation, while in the control group extraction wounds were dressed with zinc oxide eugenol paste, which was changed every 48 hours up to the pain cessation. Measurement of pain intensity was done with a visual analogue scale (VAS 10 min prior to processing of extraction wounds and daily for the next eight days. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser on healing of extraction wounds was performed on the day eight of the treatment. Results. On the day five after beginning of the treatment of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the patients of the study group a lower average value of pain as compared to the control group was registered. This difference was increased within the following days. Extraction wounds healing in the study group was more successful and faster than in the control group. Conclusion. This study suggested that the reduction of pain was more pronounced in the patients with alveolar osteitis whose extraction wounds were subjected to low level laser radiation in comparison to those in which extraction wounds were treated with zinc oxide eugenol paste.

  6. Assessment of the sympathetic level of lesion in patients with spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Previnaire, J G; Soler, J M; El Masri, W; Denys, P


    To study the vasomotor responses (skin axon-reflex vasodilatation (SkARV) to stimulation of the skin in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. To assess the completeness of the sympathetic injury and to define the sympathetic level of lesion in paraplegic and tetraplegic patients. Centre Calve, Fondation Hopale and Centre Bouffard-Vercelli, France. A total of 81 SCI patients ranging from C2 to L2. A mechanical stimulation was applied to the skin on both sides of the trunk, using a blunt instrument. The presence of an abnormal response below the lesion helped define the sympathetic level. Above the lesion, SkARV was observed in all patients. In patients with a complete sympathetic injury, the response below the lesion was either a vasoconstrictor response in upper motor neuron lesions, or total absence of SkARV in lower motor neuron lesions. There was excellent correspondence between complete somatic (American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A) and complete sympathetic lesions (100% of paraplegic and 94% of tetraplegic patients), whereas an incomplete somatic (ASIA B-D) lesion was often associated with a complete sympathetic lesion. In 34% of complete ASIA A patients, a sympathetic zone of partial preservation was found, extending below the lesion on sensory denervated dermatomes. SkARV is a simple bedside test that allows the assessment of sympathetic completeness of injury across the lesion as well as the excitability of the isolated spinal cord. We suggest that the definition of sympathetic level should be part of the classification of complete thoracic SCI.

  7. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  8. The IMBIE assessment of sea level rise due to Antarctica and Greenland (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Ivins, E. R.


    The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is a joint-initiative of ESA and NASA aimed at producing a single estimate of the global sea level contribution due to the polar ice sheets. Within IMBIE, estimates of ice sheet mass balance are developed from satellite altimetry, gravimetry, and mass budget surveys using common spatial and temporal reference frames and using a common appreciation of the contributions due to glacial isostatic adjustment and surface mass balance. The project brings together the laboratories and space agencies that have been instrumental in developing independent estimates of ice sheet mass balance to date. In its first phase, IMBIE involved 27 teams, and delivered a first community assessment of ice sheet mass balance spanning a 20-year period up to 2012. There are now new satellite missions with longer data records, new geophysical corrections, and new teams producing assessments, and the period of overlap between independent satellite techniques has increased from 5 to 12 years. It is also clear that multiple satellite techniques are required to confidently separate mass changes associated with snowfall and ice dynamical imbalance. The second phase of IMBIE began in 2016, and the project now involves 70 teams from 14 nations including Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. These teams are now working across five experimental groups, including 46 teams contributing independent satellite estimates of ice sheet mass balance and 24 teams contributing independent assessments of glacial isostatic adjustment and surface mass balance. Among the satellite surveys are 12 estimates of mass balance for the Antarctic Peninsula, 18 for West Antarctica, 15 for East Antarctica, and 7 for Greenland. These data sets will be contrasted and combined over summer to produce a single estimate of ice sheet mass balance for each of the polar ice sheets


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievskiy Leonid Vladimirovich


    Full Text Available In the article the kinds of the concentrated construction are considered, which differ by types of construction production with account of branch and regional estimate factors. The methods of assessing the level of preparation of the territories taking into account different types of models and the purposes of regional planning are given. Despite the approved postulates, which are available in the theory and practice of organizational preparation of the territories, many questions still have not been solved and are handled using ineffective methods. The authors believe, that during preparation of territories it is necessary to introduce the elements of cycles’ combination of engineering calculations and laying design of communications to a building site. Defining the sequence of these works’ performance for objects is modelled taking into account the cyclic-combined method of preparing the sites for construction. The development of the territory can be provided only in case of annual investment into various objects of cluster construction, in order to uniformly or rhythmically load the construction capacities upon condition of the rhythmical preparation level of the territories of concentrated construction. As the generalizing indicator the criterion of rhythm of means planning can be used. Thus, using a rhythm indicator as a criterion of organizational preparation of territorial clusters it is possible to provide the necessary level of investment of preparation and construction programs for a certain period.

  10. Portable meters for nutritional assessment in plants of gerbera fertigated with electrical conductivity levels

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    Poliana R. D'A. Mota


    Full Text Available Rapid tests to assess the nutritional status of plants gerbera can make easier the decision of any adjustments in the fertilization of the substrate. The study was conducted to evaluate nutritionally fertigated gerbera plants with increasing levels of electrical conductivity (EC, using portable meters nitrate and potassium, and chlorophyll. For this, two experiments were conducted. A randomized block design with five levels of EC (0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 dS m-1 and four replications was used. Cherry cultivar was used in the first experiment. In the second experiment, two cultivars (Cherry and Salmon Rose were used. In the first experiment, the sap of the leaves was subjected to rapid testing of N-NO3- (equipment Cardy Horiba C -141. N-NO3- and K+ (C-131 were determined in the substrate solution. The intensity of the green leaf, in the second experiment was evaluated with portable Chlorophyll Meter. The N content in the indicator leaf in the first and N and K contents in the plant in the second experiment were determined. Rapid tests are presented as good indicators of the level of N-NO3- and K+ in plant tissue, with the advantages of convenience and speed of determination, facilitating monitoring of fertilization of the substrate by producers and technicians.

  11. Colony-level assessment of Brucella and Leptospira in the Guadalupe fur seal, Isla Guadalupe, Mexico. (United States)

    Ziehl-Quirós, E Carolina; García-Aguilar, María C; Mellink, Eric


    The relatively small population size and restricted distribution of the Guadalupe fur seal Arctocephalus townsendi could make it highly vulnerable to infectious diseases. We performed a colony-level assessment in this species of the prevalence and presence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp., pathogenic bacteria that have been reported in several pinniped species worldwide. Forty-six serum samples were collected in 2014 from pups at Isla Guadalupe, the only place where the species effectively reproduces. Samples were tested for Brucella using 3 consecutive serological tests, and for Leptospira using the microscopic agglutination test. For each bacterium, a Bayesian approach was used to estimate prevalence to exposure, and an epidemiological model was used to test the null hypothesis that the bacterium was present in the colony. No serum sample tested positive for Brucella, and the statistical analyses concluded that the colony was bacterium-free with a 96.3% confidence level. However, a Brucella surveillance program would be highly recommendable. Twelve samples were positive (titers 1:50) to 1 or more serovars of Leptospira. The prevalence was calculated at 27.1% (95% credible interval: 15.6-40.3%), and the posterior analyses indicated that the colony was not Leptospira-free with a 100% confidence level. Serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Bratislava were detected, but only further research can unveil whether they affect the fur seal population.

  12. [Educational level and self-assessment of the health status by population]. (United States)

    Belov, V B


    The results of a study of the correlation between the level of education on the one hand and the level of health on the other hand conducted in a selected group of individuals (aged 30 to 49) under the conditions of the existing social differentiation of population are presented in the article. According to the above sample, more than one third of respondents graduated from higher and special-training educational institutions, however, the acquired special training does not guarantee, today, either material well-being or training-related job. Still, persons with higher education are in more demand in the labor market and they loose job seldom; they also stick to a higher assessment of their material well-being and of their state of health as compared to those belonging to a lower education level. The incidence rate of chronic diseases (within the analyzed age group of 30 to 49 years) was found to be less among the respondents with higher education as compared with respondents with secondary or special-training education.

  13. Assessment of the Relationship between Physical Activity Levels and Isokinetic Muscle Performance

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    Ahmet Miçooğulları


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between physical activity levels and isokinetic muscle strength of knee. Materials and Methods: Thirty amateur athletes and 30 healthy volunters (aged between 20-24 were included in the study. Participants were divided into two groups as amateur athletes (group 1 and healthy controls (group 2. Physical activity levels of the participants were assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Dominant knee flexion and extension muscle strength of the participants were measured with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s and 180°/s angular velocities. Results: There were no statistically significant difference between the groups in age, sex, weight, height, body mass index and, smoking status (p>0.05. There was a statistically significant difference in IPA scores between the groups (p0.05. Group 1 was divided into subgroups according to IPA scores. In patients with high activity level, peak torque values at the angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s for knee muscles were significiantly higher (p<0.05. Conclusion: Further studies that evaluating of the many factors that determining and affecting muscle strength are with larger groups will be beneficia

  14. The Assessment of Self-Efficacy Level According to University StudentsAND#8217; Smoking Situation

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    Nur Ozlem Kilinc


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT AIM: This essay is made with the aim of assessing of self-efficacy level according to university students’ smoking situation. METHOD: The study that is descriptive type was made in between September 2009-June 2010 in University of Bingol. Totally 920 students who attend Bingol Universty in 2009-2010 academic year consist of the universe of the study. The choice of sample wasn’t used in the study, the study completed with 765 students who were volunteer to join the study data was collected by using the form including socio-demographic data and self-efficacy scale. Evaluating data was made by descriptive tests in computer environment, t test and analysis of variance. RESULTS: The rate of students’ smoking is 6,9 % among girls, 37,4 % among boys and it is totally 44,3 %. It was determined that place that they live, their fathers’ education of smoking students idea quit smoking effect their self-efficacy level. It was determined that family type, marital status, fathers’ education of non-smoking students effect their self-efficacy level. CONCLUSION: It is found that self-efficacy of non-smoking students is higher than the self-efficacy of smoking students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 255-264

  15. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Synthetic Instrument Capabilities Assessment and Test Report (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.


    The role of synthetic instruments (SIs) for Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) is to provide an external lower-level diagnostic and functional test capability beyond the built-in-test capabilities of spacecraft electronics. Built-in diagnostics can report faults and symptoms, but isolating the root cause and performing corrective action requires specialized instruments. Often a fault can be revealed by emulating the operation of external hardware. This implies complex hardware that is too massive to be accommodated in spacecraft. The SI strategy is aimed at minimizing complexity and mass by employing highly reconfigurable instruments that perform diagnostics and emulate external functions. In effect, SI can synthesize an instrument on demand. The SI architecture section of this document summarizes the result of a recent program diagnostic and test needs assessment based on the International Space Station. The SI architecture addresses operational issues such as minimizing crew time and crew skill level, and the SI data transactions between the crew and supporting ground engineering searching for the root cause and formulating corrective actions. SI technology is described within a teleoperations framework. The remaining sections describe a lab demonstration intended to show that a single SI circuit could synthesize an instrument in hardware and subsequently clear the hardware and synthesize a completely different instrument on demand. An analysis of the capabilities and limitations of commercially available SI hardware and programming tools is included. Future work in SI technology is also described.

  16. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (United States)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji


    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  17. Changing anatomies of Information Literacy at the postgraduate level: refinements of models and shifts in assessment

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    Sonja Spiranec


    Teaching students in the scientific method and culture has long been recognized as the major focus of postgraduate education, an important precondition for research practices is the adequate performance in the realm of information handling and information management, i.e., information literacy. IL on postgraduate levels has a strong focus on the universe of scientific information, which itself went through tremendous changes in the last decade, particularly as a result of the appearance of the Web 2.0 (e.g. Science 2.0, Research 2.0. Such profound changes suggest renewed conceptions and focal points of IL at the postgraduate level which will take into account the fluid nature of current information environments. After discussing changes in information landscapes brought about the Web 2.0 and examining transformed premises of scientific work within such environments, the authors will plea for re-conceptualizations of IL on the postgraduate level and propose new principles of IL frameworks and modes of assessment that will recognize this transformation.

  18. A multi-isotope approach for assessing industrial contributions to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Bernadette C. Proemse; Bernhard Mayer; Mark E. Fenn; Christopher S. Ross


    Industrial nitrogen (N) emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, affect nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) deposition rates in close vicinity of industrial emitters. NO3-N and NH4-N open field and throughfall deposition rates were determined at various...

  19. Exploring the Relationship between K-12 Public School Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment and Their Classroom Assessment Confidence Levels (United States)

    Ludwig, Naomi Wayne


    Studies have shown that teachers' beliefs influence their assessment practices. However, the overarching framework of those beliefs in relation to teachers' classroom assessment confidence has been largely unexamined. This research explored teachers' conceptions of assessment and their confidence regarding the implementation of sound classroom…

  20. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China. (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo


    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E


    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  2. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES) of the Cabinet of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 {mu}g/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 {mu}g/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 {mu}g/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 {mu}g/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians.

  3. Assessing of plasma levels of iron, zinc and copper in Iranian Parkinson′s disease