WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing cumulative radon

  1. Modeling Joint Exposures and Health Outcomes for Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Case of Radon and Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based cumulative risk assessment requires characterization of exposures to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors, with consideration of how the non-chemical stressors may influence risks from chemical stressors. Residential radon provides an interesting case example, given its large attributable risk, effect modification due to smoking, and significant variability in radon concentrations and smoking patterns. In spite of this fact, no study to date has estimated geographic and sociodemographic patterns of both radon and smoking in a manner that would allow for inclusion of radon in community-based cumulative risk assessment. In this study, we apply multi-level regression models to explain variability in radon based on housing characteristics and geological variables, and construct a regression model predicting housing characteristics using U.S. Census data. Multi-level regression models of smoking based on predictors common to the housing model allow us to link the exposures. We estimate county-average lifetime lung cancer risks from radon ranging from 0.15 to 1.8 in 100, with high-risk clusters in areas and for subpopulations with high predicted radon and smoking rates. Our findings demonstrate the viability of screening-level assessment to characterize patterns of lung cancer risk from radon, with an approach that can be generalized to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors.

  2. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne 222Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee's work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of 210Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of 210Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring 210Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished

  3. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  4. Indoor radon dose assessment for Osijek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After ten years' investigation of radon's seasonal variation at three very different locations, as well as radon concentration measurements in kindergartens, schools, air-raid shelters and cellars, systematic indoor radon measurements were undertaken in dwellings (residential buildings) of Osijek (East Croatia, 130andpuncsp; omitted000 citizens). Indoor radon was measured by means of the LR-115 SSNT detector at 48 town locations that gave an arithmetic mean of 71.6 Bq/m3, standard deviation of 44.0 Bq/m3 and geometric mean of 60.1 Bq/m3, for the radon concentration range from 22.7 to 185.6 Bq/m3. Radon measurements, performed by the silicon Radhome detector, did not differ significantly. The empirical frequency distribution of radon concentrations, with the class width of 20 Bq/m3, was in accordance with the theoretical log-normal distribution which was shown with the χ2-test. The radon map pointed out a region of higher radon concentrations (central part of the town) that was ascribed to the geological soil structure. The average equilibrium factor for radon and its progeny in the mentioned dwellings was 0.44. The effective dose equivalent assessment for a few radon models was near 2 mSv/year. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Cumulative Exposure Assessment of Triazole Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Klaveren, van, M.; Donkersgoed, van, G.; Voet, van der, E.; C. Stephenson; Boon, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    In the EFSA opinion on identification of new approaches to assess cumulative and synergistic risks from pesticides to human health a tiered approach for cumulative risk assessment has been proposed. The first tier is a deterministic approach using average and large portion consumption statistics. The higher tiers include probabilistic exposure assessment and Benchmark Dose (BMD) modeling. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of a higher tier assessment of ...

  6. EPA's approach to assessment of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency has assessed the potential lung cancer risk to the general population due to radon based on the Agency's general principles of risk assessment. This is the same approach that has been used to assess the impact on public health of other carcinogenic environmental pollutants. This paper describes the application of this approach to radon. This paper includes a description of the method used by the Agency to estimate that 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year may be related to radon exposure. Also presented are the weight-of-evidence for classifying radon as a known human carcinogen and the uncertainties associated with estimating risks from radon exposure. These reflect the extent of the underlying support and context for these estimates

  7. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to ''above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210

  8. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the

  9. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m−3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m−3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m−3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m−3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m−3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m−3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m−3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m−3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m−3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m−3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m−3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m−3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m−3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m−3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m−3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0

  10. Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction fp- and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of 218Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (Hw/Pp) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the HRTM have been

  11. Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchaux, G

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction f{sub p}- and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of {sup 218}Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (H{sub w}/P{sub p}) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the

  12. Conceptual models for cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus on an appropriate theoretical framework, cumulative risk assessment and related research have relied on speculative conceptual models. We argue for the importance of theoretical backing for such models and discuss 3 relevant theoretical frameworks, each supporting a distinctive "family" of models. Social determinant models postulate that unequal health outcomes are caused by structural inequalities; health disparity models envision social and contextual factors acting through individual behaviors and biological mechanisms; and multiple stressor models incorporate environmental agents, emphasizing the intermediary role of these and other stressors. The conclusion is that more careful reliance on established frameworks will lead directly to improvements in characterizing cumulative risk burdens and accounting for disproportionate adverse health effects. PMID:22021317

  13. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N. (New York Univ., Tuxedo, NY (USA). Inst. of Environmental Medicine); Stark, A.; Ju, C. (New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (USA). Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology)

    1990-10-01

    The feasibility of measuring Pb-210 in vivo in the skulls of those individuals who have resided in homes with above average levels of radon/radon daughters, has now been successfully demonstrated. These values, when incorporated into metabolic models of Pb-210 in the body including other related physical parameters, can be used for the calculation of a realistic estimate of a resident's cumulative exposure to radon and its' decay products. Data are presented for 26 subjects exposed to higher than average concentrations of radon i.e. ranging from 10 to 120 pCi/l, for various periods of time. Their skeletal Pb-210 burdens are compared to measurement results of a population of individuals presumed to have been exposed to values which are more representative of average levels i.e. <1pCi/1. Results of a study to determine the biological retention of Pb-210 in the human skeleton for use in the metabolic model relating skull burdens of this nuclide to cumulative radon/daughter exposure, are also described. At the present time, our measurements, made over a period of 10 years, of an individual with a significant Pb-210 burden, indicate a biological half-time of approximately 57 years and an effective half-life of 16 years. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Dose assessment from radon in tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon measurements in tourist caves have traditionally being used in the studies of conservation of existent prehistoric artistic manifestations inside cavities. This kind of measurements can provide the grade, and partly the dynamics, of ventilation and renovation of the air of the caves. On the other hand, since 2001, Spanish law incorporated EURATOM basic standards for radiological protection, which include a request at the EC Member States to determine the working places on which exposure to natural radiation is significant. On Title VII (BOE 178/2001) radiation coming from natural sources has analogous role than radiation emitted from artificial ones used to. Because of the low ventilation rates existing at tourist caves, indoor radon concentration can be significantly high. In developed caves in which guides provide tours for the general public great care is needed for taking remedial actions concerning radon, because in some circumstances forced ventilation may alter the humidity inside the cave affecting some of the formations or paintings that attract tourists. Tourist guides can work about 1900 hours per year, so the only option to protect them and other cave workers from radon exposure is to apply an appropriate system of radiation protection mainly based on limitation of exposure by restricting the amount of time spent in the cave. From a previous radon measurement campaign carried out in caves at the region of Cantabria (Spain), those with higher concentration values were selected for a new survey. In this study more detailed radon measurements were performed in order to get more detailed information about monthly concentration variations, as well to determine the dose received by people working there. In dose assessment, specific characteristics of the cave concerning the behaviour of radon and its decay products are of main importance. Factors like unattached progeny fraction (fp), equilibrium factor (F) and particle concentration (Z) are

  15. Assessing the risks from exposure to radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors used to assess the radiation dose and health risks from human exposure to radon in dwellings are critically reviewed in this summary. Sources of indoor radon and determinants of air concentrations and exposure levels are given as well as the uncertainties that exist in their formulation. Methods of assessing health effects from inhalation of radon and its progeny are discussed with emphasis on dosimetry of radon daughters and formulation of risk per dose values. Finally, methods of assessing risks for general population exposures to indoor radon concentrations are treated

  16. Assessment of indoor radon pollution released from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the indoor radon comes directly from soil beneath the basement or foundations. Recently, radon released from groundwater is found to contribute to the total inhalation risk from indoor air. This study presents the quantitative assessment of human exposures to radon released from the groundwater into indoor air. At first, a three compartment model is developed to describe the transfer and distribution of radon released from groundwater in a house through showering, washing clothes, and flushing toilets. Then, to estimate a daily human exposure through inhalation of such radon for an adult, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model is developed. The use of a PBPK model for the inhaled radon could provide the useful information regarding the distribution of radon among the organs of the human body. Indoor exposure patterns as input to the PBPK model are a more realistic situation associated with indoor radon pollution generated from a three compartment model describing volatilization of radon from domestic water into household air. Combining the two models for inhaled radon in indoor air can be used to estimate a quantitative human exposure through the inhalation of indoor radon for adults based on two sets of exposure scenarios. The results obtained from the study would help increase the quantitative understanding of risk assessment issues associated with the indoor radon released from groundwater

  17. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with elevated radon underwent changes to reduce radon pollution. 1 How Can Radon Be Detected? The only ... of Americans Live with Unhealthful Levels of Air Pollution News: 'State of the Air 2016' – Health of ...

  18. Quantitative framework for assessing indoor radon policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon gas in the indoor environment is recognized as a problem of considerable magnitude; likely responsible for 5,000 to 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States (Cohen, 1978; Nero, 1986). Radon is an inert, radioactive element in the decay chain or uranium-238 which occurs ubiquitously in soil and rock. Radon emanating from the ground enters houses through cracks and porous building materials in the substructure. Depending on characteristics of the housing design, construction and ventilation practices, dangerously high concentrations can result. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken a lead role in addressing the indoor radon problem. Their strategy is to work with the States and the private sector to characterize the extent of exposure in problem areas and identify alternative actions to reduce health risks. Since radon poses a risk that occurs in private homes, the responsibility for testing and remediation lies largely with the homeowner. This paper presents a quantitative framework to analyze indoor radon policy on a regional scale. A model is developed which describes regional radon risk reduction in terms of the percentage of homeowners in the region who decide to monitor their homes, the likelihood of homeowners taking alternative remedial actions, and the effectiveness of remediation methods in lowering radon concentrations. Different government policies are analyzed in terms of their potential effect on model parameters and resulting risk reductions

  19. Procedure for the characterization of radon potential in existing dwellings and to assess the annual average indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk assessment due to radon exposure indoors is based on annual average indoor radon activity concentration. To assess the radon exposure in a building, measurement is generally performed during at least two months during heating period in order to be representative of the annual average value. This is because radon presence indoors could be very variable during time. This measurement protocol is fairly reliable but may be a limiting in the radon risk management, particularly during a real estate transaction due to the duration of the measurement and the limitation of the measurement period. A previous field study defined a rapid methodology to characterize radon entry in dwellings. The objective of this study was at first, to test this methodology in various dwellings to assess its relevance with a daily test. At second, a ventilation model was used to assess numerically the air renewal of a building, the indoor air quality all along the year and the annual average indoor radon activity concentration, based on local meteorological conditions, some building characteristics and in-situ characterization of indoor pollutant emission laws. Experimental results obtained on thirteen individual dwellings showed that it is generally possible to obtain a representative characterization of radon entry into homes. It was also possible to refine the methodology defined in the previous study. In addition, numerical assessments of annual average indoor radon activity concentration showed generally a good agreement with measured values. These results are encouraging to allow a procedure with a short measurement time to be used to characterize long-term radon potential in dwellings. - Highlights: • Test of a daily procedure to characterize radon potential in dwellings. • Numerical assessment of the annual radon concentration. • Procedure applied on thirteen dwellings, characterization generally satisfactory. • Procedure useful to manage radon risk in dwellings, for real

  20. Assessment of health impacts of radon exposures in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on residential radon levels, from a statewide Florida survey, that were used in an analysis of over 150,000 medically treated episodes of malignancies and other serious illnesses and conditions in whites, blacks and Hispanics from all counties in the state. No evidence of an increased percentage of cancer was found in any sex or ethnic group from the areas with the highest radon exposure levels. Age adjustment of data did not affect the results. The highest radon exposures were associated with some of the lowest cancer rates and contradict the risk assessment hypothesis based on extrapolation from exposures in mining. Points for DOE and EPA errors in risk assessment methods are reviewed; predictions from risk assessment should be empirically tested as in the case of any other scientific hypothesis before being used as a basis for public policy. Thus, the authors find that cancer risks of residential radon have been vastly overstated

  1. Risk assessment for radon in an air-conditioned workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has proposed a conversion of 5mSv/WLM for risk assessment from workplace exposure to radon progeny. Currently the new ICRP Respiratory Tract Model leads to dose conversion factors (DCF) that are higher by at least a factor of 2.5 and the ICRP Model has not been recommended for assessment of risk for inhalation of radon progeny. However the model can he used to investigate the dependency of the DCF values on the atmospheric conditions. This paper describes measurements made using wire screen diffusion batteries of the radon progeny activity size distributions in the air-conditioned basement of a scientific laboratory. The results show that during work hours with the air-conditioning operating the average radon equilibrium factor was 0.11 while the average unattached fraction was ∼28%. The average radon progeny-based DCF values were found to be more than a factor of two greater than the conversion convention. Also it was found that a DCF value derived in terms of radon exposure (Bq m-3 h) had a range of a factor of 6 over the two week period of the measurements, suggesting that radon levels are not an adequate indicator of inhalation risk in these circumstances. 10 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  2. Long-term assessment of residential radon-mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In New York State a survey in 1982-83 discovered fourteen houses with moderately high natural radon levels, and in early 1984 low-cost radon mitigation systems were installed in these houses. The radon reduction techniques included sealing cracks, sealing and sub-slab depressurization, isolating and venting unpaved crawl-spaces, and installing heat-recovery ventilators. These mitigation systems represent some of the earliest systems installed in the United States using low-cost common residential construction materials and methods. In this report, the authors discuss how they returned to these installations, inspected the longevity of the various components of the systems and assessed their long-term effectiveness

  3. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    OpenAIRE

    J. Chen; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometr...

  4. Uncertainty in Mixtures and Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans and environmental species are rarely exposed to single chemicals. These chemicals typically affect multiple tissues through multiple modes of action, which may depend on the dose. Mixtures risk assessment may employ dose response information from the mixture of interest,...

  5. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  6. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  7. Ecosystem assessment methods for cumulative effects at the regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental issues such as nonpoint-source pollution, acid rain, reduced biodiversity, land use change, and climate change have widespread ecological impacts and require an integrated assessment approach. Since 1978, the implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have required assessment of potential cumulative environmental impacts. Current environmental issues have encouraged ecologists to improve their understanding of ecosystem process and function at several spatial scales. However, management activities usually occur at the local scale, and there is little consideration of the potential impacts to the environmental quality of a region. This paper proposes that regional ecological risk assessment provides a useful approach for assisting scientists in accomplishing the task of assessing cumulative impacts. Critical issues such as spatial heterogeneity, boundary definition, and data aggregation are discussed. Examples from an assessment of acidic deposition effects on fish in Adirondack lakes illustrate the importance of integrated data bases, associated modeling efforts, and boundary definition at the regional scale

  8. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  9. Assessment of cumulative evidence on genetic associations: Interim guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidis, John; Boffetta, Paolo; Little, Julian; O'Brien, Thomas; Uitterlinden, André; Vineis, Paolo; Balding, David; Chokkalingam, Anand; Dolan, Siobhan; Flanders, Dana; Higgins, Julian; McCarthy, Mark; McDermott, David; Page, Grier; Rebbeck, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    textabstractEstablished guidelines for causal inference in epidemiological studies may be inappropriate for genetic associations. A consensus process was used to develop guidance criteria for assessing cumulative epidemiologic evidence in genetic associations. A proposed semi-quantitative index assigns three levels for the amount of evidence, extent of replication, and protection from bias, and also generates a composite assessment of 'strong', 'moderate' or 'weak' epidemiological credibility...

  10. Comparative risk assessment of residential radon exposures in two radon-prone areas, Stei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon-prone areas, Stei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Stei area was 2650 Bq m-3 and 366 Bq m-3 in the Spanish region. The results are computed with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bq m-3. We used the EC Radon Software to calculate the lifetime lung cancer death risks for individuals groups in function of attained age, radon exposures and tobacco consumption. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were observed in the Stei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than expected from the national statistics. In addition, the number of deaths estimated for the year 2005 is 28, which is worth more than 2.21 times the amount expected by authorities. In comparison, for Torrelodones was rated a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer for a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number expected by authorities. For the year 2005 in the Spanish region were reported 32 deaths caused by pulmonary cancer, the number of deaths exceeding seen again with a factor of 2.10 statistical expectations. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  11. Development and management of a radon assessment strategy suitable for underground railway tunnelling projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of underground tunnels through radon-bearing rock poses a radiation health risk to tunnelling workers from exposure to radon gas and its radioactive decay products. This paper presents the development and practical application of a radon assessment strategy suitable for the measurement of radon in tunnelling work environments in Hong Kong. The assessment strategy was successfully evaluated on a number of underground railway tunnelling projects over a 3 y period. Radon measurements were undertaken using a combination of portable radon measurement equipment and track etch detectors (TEDs) deployed throughout the tunnels. The radon gas monitoring results were used to confirm that ventilation rates were adequate or identified, at an early stage, when further action to reduce radon levels was required. Exposure dose estimates based on the TED results showed that the exposure of tunnel workers to radon did not exceed 3 mSv per annum for the duration of each project. (authors)

  12. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three slide sets which can be used in lectures about radiation protection have been published by NRPB. The slide sets are based on publications in the NRPB's ''At-a-Glance'' series of broadsheets, which use illustrations as the main source of information, supported by captions; the series generally avoids the jargon of radiation protection, although each leaflet is based on scientific studies. Slide Set Number 2, ''Radon'', describes the characteristics of the gas, the means by which it builds up in homes, the nature and level of the risks and the remedies and preventative measures. It also summarises the problems posed by, and solutions to, radon in the workplace. (Author)

  13. Navy radon assessment and mitigation program: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report encompasses the events from the beginning of the Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program to the closure of the program on October 31, 1994. Included in the report are discussions of the phases of the program including screening, assessment, mitigation, and post-mitigation. The primary discussion involves screening and assessment. The report addresses recommendations made to the Naval Facilities Engineering Command by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the final decisions that were made. Special emphasis is placed on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), since QA/QC was given top priority during the implementation of this program. Included in the discussion on QA/QC are ana overview of the measurement process, positive and negative controls, replicated measurements, and application of chamber exposures to data calibration. The report concludes with a discussion of testing considerations for naval facilities and radon mitigation considerations for the Department of the Navy

  14. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: A re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970's in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log-normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m-3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ∼10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log-normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m-3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. (authors)

  15. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  16. Preliminary assessment of errors of radon daughters concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing an earlier elaborated computer program for simulation of depositing radon decay products: 214Po, 214Pb, 214Bi (214Po) on air filter and for computing variation of their activity against time, an assessment of errors was carried out of a methods employing measurement of 218Po + 214Po alpha activity in three time intervals. Additionally errors of the methods measuring 218Po + 214Po alpha activity in three, two and one time intervals, were assessed. A few attempts were also made to measure the alpha activity in different time intervals and to assess their measuring errors. (authors). 10 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  17. Retrospective assessment of indoor radon exposure by measurements of embedded 210Po activity in glass objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R. C.; Gusain, G. S.; Prasad, Ganesh

    In most of the epidemiological studies contemporary radon measurements have been used as surrogates for radon concentrations in past decades even though changes in radon levels and residence may have occurred. Short-lived radon progeny may deposit on available surfaces in dwellings thus giving rise over time to a build up of long-lived progeny. Airborne radon decay products can be deposited and implanted through alpha recoil into the glass surfaces. On glass surface, activities of 210Po may arise as a result of the decay of recoil implanted activity following the alpha decay of surface deposited 218Po or 214Po. Measurement of 210Po implanted on a household glass is a method that can be employed to retrospectively determine the historic level of radon in dwellings. This method is based on the assumption that levels of recoil implanted 210Po in the glass provide a measure of time integrated radon concentration in the environment in which the glass has been located. The surface deposited activity of the radon progenies, which then become implanted in the glass by alpha recoil, is believed to reflect past exposure to airborne activity. Such retrospective measurements on glass are valuable in estimating the human dose derived from radon during the time of exposure. In this paper an account is given of the principles and some field applications of a retrospective technique, using the alpha track detectors, CR-39 and LR-115, to measure 210Po implanted in glass surfaces (surface traps). By using this CR-LR difference technique, the cumulative radon exposure in a dwelling in past decades may be estimated. This method provides reliable radon exposure data as a support to epidemiological studies concerning the health effects of radon exposure in the living environment.

  18. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Krogman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  19. Radon awareness in Ireland: a assessment of the effectiveness of radon road shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In late 2004 the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) initiated a series of radon road shows in areas designated as High Radon Areas 1 in the R.P.I.I. s national radon survey of homes. The main objective of these road shows was to provide information to a local audience on the risks of exposure to radon. These road shows target both employers and householders. Each road show has the same general format. A presentation and/or meeting with a major employer representative group within the area. The purpose is to make employers aware of the risks associated with exposure to radon in the workplace and to highlight their obligations under current Irish health and safety legislation regarding radon in the workplace. An information stand on radon manned by R.P.I.I. staff members in a local shopping centre or other similar area. This provides those concerned about radon with accessible information on radon exposure risks, how to measure radon and the steps a home owner could take to reduce radon concentrations where necessary. Where possible R.P.I.I. staff members visit one or more schools in the general area. A short presentation on radon was given to students and students were given an opportunity to asks questions Maximizing media exposure to publicize our visits is vital to the success of these visits. Each visit is preceded by a Press Release whose main aim is to brief local and national media on the radon issue so as to achieve maximum publicity mainly through radio and television coverage. In general the media are very interested in the whole radon area and R.P.I.I. staff members have given 57 radio and 10 television interviews to date since the commencement of this initiative. The four road shows carried out to date have been successful in encouraging householders to carry out radon measurements. Since the start of the road shows to the present, the R.P.I.I. has seen a 44% increase in the number of householders requesting radon

  20. The use of track registration detectors to reconstruct contemporary and historical airborne radon (222Rn) and radon progeny concentrations for a radon-lung cancer epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies that investigate the relationship between radon and lung cancer require accurate estimates for the long-term average concentrations of radon progeny in dwellings. Year-to-year and home-to-home variations of radon in domestic environments pose serious difficulties for reconstructing an individual's long-term radon-related exposure. The use of contemporary radon gas concentrations as a surrogate for radon-related dose introduces additional uncertainty in dose assessment. Studies of glass exposed in radon chambers and in a home show that radon progeny deposited on, and implanted in, glass hold promise for reconstructing past radon concentrations in a variety of atmospheres. We developed an inexpensive track registration detector for the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study (IRLCS) that simultaneously measures contemporary airborne radon concentrations, surface deposited alpha activity density, and implanted 210Po activity density. The implanted activity is used to reconstruct the cumulative radon and radon progeny exposure from the age of the glass and the ratios of the contemporary deposited activities to airborne radon gas activity. We placed over 2500 of these detectors in more than 1000 homes and retrieved 97% of them after a one-year exposure period. A preliminary analysis of the 1280 detectors that have undergone quality assurance review shows that the modules are meeting their accuracy and precision goals (10%). There is good correlation (r2∼0.5) between the total radon exposure estimated from contemporary radon gas measurements and historical average reconstructed from the implanted 210Po surface activity. The linear regression slope of the airborne radon exposure to implanted activity is the same as the room model slope based on typical room parameters. This correlation improves (r2∼0.7) when the deposited surface activity measurements are added to the linear regression. Thus, track-registration detectors can contribute to accurate radon

  1. Assessment of radon levels in some water resources in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is produced by the radioactive decay of radium. Breathing high concentrations of radon can cause lung cancer. When radon gas migrates through the atmosphere, the solid radon progeny are deposited on the soil and water below, entering into the food chain. Radon generated from rocks containing its parents may escape to the underground or surface running water, which ultimately used as drinking water or for irrigation. In this work radon level was determined in different water resources in Egypt. Water from spring, tap water Nile and some commercially available drinking water were subjected to radon measurements using CR-39 detectors. Radon concentration in different water resources was found the range from 8.94 to 10.00 Bq/m3 while in trapped air above water was 9.3 to 10.38 Bq/m3

  2. Using geographic information systems for radon exposure assessment in dwellings in the Oslo region, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollerud, R.; Blaasaas, K.; Ganerød, G.; Daviknes, H. K.; Aune, E.; Claussen, B.

    2014-04-01

    Radon exposures were assigned to each residential address in the Oslo region using a geographic information system (GIS) that included indoor radon measurements. The results will be used in an epidemiologic study regarding leukemia and brain cancer. The model is based on 6% of measured residential buildings. High density of indoor radon measurements allowed us to develop a buffer model where indoor radon measurements found around each dwelling were used to assign a radon value for homes lacking radon measurement. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to study the agreement between radon values from the buffer method, from indoor radon values of measured houses, and from a regression model constructed with radiometric data (eTh, eU) and bedrock geology. We obtained good agreement for both comparisons with ICC values between 0.54 and 0.68. GIS offers a useful variety of tools to study the indoor-radon exposure assessment. By using the buffer method it is more likely that geological conditions are similar within the buffer and this may take more into account the variation of radon over short distances. It is also probable that short-distance-scale correlation patterns express similarities in building styles and living habits. Although the method has certain limitations, we regard it as acceptable for use in epidemiological studies.

  3. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... approaches and methods that can be used to plan and conduct cumulative risk assessments (CRA). Published... interest to persons involved with the design, formulation, and conduct of risk assessments more generally... cumulative risk issues in scoping and planning major risk assessments and to consider a broader scope...

  4. Radon contents in groundwater and the uncertainty related to risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Masami [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The United States has proposed 11 Bq/l (300 pCi/l) as the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of radon. Japan has not set up the standards for drinking water. The problems about evaluation of effects of radon on organism and MCLs of radon in groundwater and drinking water in 12 countries were reported. The local area content the high concentrations of radon, but generally it`s low levels were observed in Nigeria, China and Mexico. The countries which content high concentration of radon were Greek, Slovakia, Bornholm Island and Scotland. There are high and low concentration area in US and Japan. I proposed an uncertainty scheme on risk assessment for the exposure by radon. (S.Y.)

  5. Radon as a naturally occurring tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The noble gas radon has a strong affinity to non-aqueous phase-liquids (NAPLs). That property makes it applicable as naturally occurring partitioning tracer for assessing residual NAPL contamination of aquifers. In a NAPL contaminated aquifer, radon dissolved in the groundwater partitions preferably into the NAPL. The magnitude of the resulting radon deficit in the groundwater depends on the NAPL-specific radon partition coefficient and on the NAPL saturation of the pore space. Hence, if the partition coefficient is known, the NAPL saturation is attainable by determination of the radon deficit. After a concise discussion of theoretical aspects regarding radon partitioning into NAPL, related experimental data and results of a field investigation are presented. Aim of the laboratory experiments was the determination of radon partition coefficients of multi-component NAPLs of environmental concern. The on-site activities were carried out in order to confirm the applicability of the 'radon method' under field conditions. - The paper presents the theoretical concept and experimental results which confirm the applicability of naturally occurring radon for assessing residual NAPL contamination of aquifers

  6. Radon as a naturally occurring tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Michael [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: michael.schubert@ufz.de; Paschke, Albrecht [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lau, Steffen [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Geyer, Wolfgang [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Knoeller, Kay [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The noble gas radon has a strong affinity to non-aqueous phase-liquids (NAPLs). That property makes it applicable as naturally occurring partitioning tracer for assessing residual NAPL contamination of aquifers. In a NAPL contaminated aquifer, radon dissolved in the groundwater partitions preferably into the NAPL. The magnitude of the resulting radon deficit in the groundwater depends on the NAPL-specific radon partition coefficient and on the NAPL saturation of the pore space. Hence, if the partition coefficient is known, the NAPL saturation is attainable by determination of the radon deficit. After a concise discussion of theoretical aspects regarding radon partitioning into NAPL, related experimental data and results of a field investigation are presented. Aim of the laboratory experiments was the determination of radon partition coefficients of multi-component NAPLs of environmental concern. The on-site activities were carried out in order to confirm the applicability of the 'radon method' under field conditions. - The paper presents the theoretical concept and experimental results which confirm the applicability of naturally occurring radon for assessing residual NAPL contamination of aquifers.

  7. An assessment of indoor radon population exposure in high radon rural communities in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contemporary annualised indoor radon concentrations were measured in 90 randomly chosen dwellings in two uraniferous rural field locations in Yugoslavia. One field location is Kalna in the south-east of Serbia and the other is Gornja Stubla in the extreme south of Serbia (Kosovo). These investigations were made as part of the first phase of the planned National Radon Survey of Yugoslavia. The measurements were carried out using diffusion type passive radon detectors of Swedish design, using the SSNTD (Solid State Nuclear Track Detector) Cr-39 as alpha detector. The participation of Vinca in the recent international intercalibration of radon detectors at NRPB(England) confirmed the detector sensitivity to be 2.6 tracks.cm-2.kBq-2.m3hr-1. The results were as follows: at location Kalna, 76 dwellings were investigated and annualised indoor radon concentrations were found to range from approx. 10 to 2218 Bq/m3. At location Gornja Stubla, for the 14 dwellings investigated the values ranged from 132 to 8761 Bq/m3. These radon concentrations clearly place the two locations into the category of high radon areas. Based on ICRP recommendations, effective doses of some tens of mSv per year are being received by people at these locations, thus indicating their suitability for further population exposure studies. (author)

  8. Assessment of the health impact related to indoor exposure to radon in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which concentrates in deficiently ventilated habitations. Radon is a well-established human pulmonary carcinogen agent. The exposition of the overall French population to various radon concentrations led scientists to assess its public health impact. This study proposes a predictive assessment of health impact attributable to indoor radon exposure in metropolitan France. Using all available data on the exposure-response between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality risk and on the assessment of indoor radon exposure in France, this study is based on quantitative safety risk assessment method associated to an analysis of both variability and uncertainty, which allows to measure an uncertainty interval related to the prediction. The estimated annual number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon exposure ranges from 1 234 (90% uncertainty interval, 593-2 156) to 2 913 (90% UI, 2 763-3 221), depending on the model considered. This result shows that indoor radon exposure is a serious public health problem in France. (author)

  9. Assessment of radon exposure in Austria based on geology and settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Austria a fundamental radon indoor data net (about 40 000 measurements) exists. These radon indoor data are standardized and provide averaged political communities' values. This data net should be enhanced by soil gas measurements with regard to geological conditions, to avoid averaging and influences by political boundaries. Different geological units (characterized by geology, geochemical conditions, mineralogy, geophysics) will be surveyed regarding radon concentration by soil gas measurements and estimated to their potential radon hazard. To assess the radon exposure of the population geological units are selected which are either existing settlement areas or potential ones. So this survey can also provide a basis for land use planning. In this paper results of first studies for this purpose are shown. 160 soil gas measurements were carried out in different soil and sediment deposits originating from different ice age glacier movements in the Alps. These deposits are popular settlement areas, and indoor radon levels of some 1000 Bq/l were detected. 50 % of the results of soil gas radon measurements were above 60 kBq/m3, 18 % above 120 kBq/m3, which is likely to exceed the indoor radon standard of 400 Bq/l according to the Austrian standard ONORM S 5280-2. Higher radon activity concentrations were found in older ice ages, because of further progressed weathering. The radon soil gas measurements were carried out in different seasons to verify seasonal variations, and other parameters like Ra-226, Ra-228 activity concentration in soils, radon emanation factor, soil permeability and soil moisture were determined and related to the radon activity concentration. According to the example of this study, further soil gas measurements will be carried out in selected geological units. Additional research on the impact of actual dwelling and inhabitation situation on public exposure due to radon in Austria is being done currently. The soil gas radon measurement data are

  10. Dose assessment of radon levels in the South-Dayi district of the Volta Region, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a globally present and known radioactive gas with its ability to cause lung cancer as its major health implication. Ghana currently lacks national policies on radon gas and substantive radon vulnerability map largely due to lack of adequate baseline radon concentration data for the entire country. This thesis thus seeks to provide baseline radon data for the South-Dayi District, the effective dose assessment due to inhalation of the measured in-door concentrations with reference to the World Health Organization standards and the interpretation of any possible correlations that may exist between In-door, Soil and Altitude as variables. In this research, LR115 type II detectors, a type of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were deployed in 30 sites/homes within the South-Dayi District. The detectors were retrieved after specified periods and processed at the Nuclear Track Detection Laboratory of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to obtain the radon concentrations over the study period for both indoor and soil. For the measured indoor radon, appropriate computations were made to convert the concentrations to doses (absorbed, equivalent and effective dose to lungs). Indoor radon was found to range from 11.60 to 111.07 Bq/m3 with the mean value for the district being 34.90 ± 20.77 Bq/m3, a value lower than the mean global indoor concentration of 40 Bq/m3. Only one site recorded a value greater than the action level stated by the WHO. The values of 0.44 mS/yr, 8.80 mSv/yr and 1.01 mSv/yr were the mean annual; absorbed dose, equivalent dose and effective dose to lungs respectively for the populace of the district. The mean soil radon concentration for the district was 1.76 ± 0.89 KBq/m3 with values ranging from 0.38 to 3.93 KBq/m3. From the correlation analysis, R-squared values of 0.0719 and 0.0015 were obtained for indoor radon against soil radon and soil radon against altitude respectively. The above results thus signifying an extremely weak dependence of

  11. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  12. The assessment of radon risk by dosimetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to radon and radon decay products in some residential areas and at workplaces constitutes one of the greatest risk from natural sources of ionizing radiation. The compartmental model published in ICRP Publication 66 (HRTM) has been used for modeling of the clearance, absorption into the blood, radon products decays and particle deposition. Energy deposition in the tissue and in the air gap was calculated by the Bethe-Bloch equation. In this work different thicknesses of mucus in case of non-smokers and smokers has been considered, and doses, factor quality and effective doses has been calculated. (authors)

  13. Radon programme in the Netherlands: risk assessment and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch policy on the control of the risk of radon is predominantly based on the results of the Radon Research Programme. Important topics of the Radon Research Programme are described. Furthermore, the Dutch policy on indoor radiation is reviewed in view of the national environmental policy and radiation risk management. The policy on the control of radon in domestic and other buildings is related to other policies, both national and international, e.g. economic, environmental and housing policy. A short review of these relations in the Netherlands is given. In brief a description will be given of the attention paid by the government to the communication strategies used in order to enforce, for instance, remedial actions and the implementation of risk reduction technology. (author)

  14. Measurement network for impact assessment of industrial radon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction and processing of uranium ore and the associated stockpiles of solid uranium-depleted waste are accompanied by the discharge of a certain number of radionuclides into the environment, either by an atmospheric route or by one using water courses. The authors' experience is that the main source of exposure, without any special preventive measures, is due to radon, from the processes of the atmospheric emission of radon 222, of the formation of its short half-life daughter products during the stage of transfer between the sources and populations, and of their inhalation by the populations. The levels of exposure to industrially generated daughter products of radon 222, which will fall within the scope of the regulatory monitoring, is slightly higher than the outdoor exposure levels due to naturally occurring geogenic daughter products of radon 222 (exhalation of radon 222 by soils), and of the same order of magnitude as the to be optimized indoor exposure levels. The site dosimeters of the radon monitoring networks measure the sum of the industrially generated exposure and the geogenic exposure

  15. The ORNL Indoor Air Quality Study: Re-cap, Context, and Assessment on Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ternes, Mark P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As part of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program that was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an assessment of the impacts of weatherization on indoor air quality (IAQ) was conducted. This assessment included nearly 500 treatment and control homes across the country. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, temperature and humidity pre- and post-weatherization. This report focuses on the topic of radon and addresses issues not thoroughly discussed in the original IAQ report. The size, scope and rigor of the radon component of the IAQ study are compared to previous studies that assessed the impacts of weatherization on indoor radon levels. It is found that the ORNL study is by far the most extensive study conducted to date, though the ORNL results are consistent with the findings of the other studies. However, the study does have limitations related to its reliance on short-term measurements of radon and inability to attribute changes in radon levels in homes post-weatherization to specific weatherization measures individually or in combination.

  16. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...... into a distribution of Individual Margins of Exposure (IMoE). Additionally, uncertainties related to input parameters were evaluated. The cumulative risk assessment was performed using the Relative Potency Factor (RPF) approach. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three reproductive endpoints in...

  17. Assessment of radon variability in the borehole in Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of multi-parametric earthquake precursory studies at Ghuttu, Central Himalaya, radon concentration is being measured at two depths in a 68 m borehole. One measurement is taken at a depth of 10 m from surface in the air column above the water table and the second one at 50 m within the water column. Besides radon concentration, air temperature, water temperature, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and water level fluctuations are also recorded with sampling interval of 15 minute. The continuous time series of radon variations at 10 m depth along with other environmental parameters over 3 years (2007-2009) recording shows strong variability including well-defined seasonal, day-to-day and diurnal variations The strong seasonal variations with summer maximum and winter minimum closely follow the similar variations in atmospheric temperature with time lag of few days. The control of temperature gradient in borehole on the emission of radon is evident in the form of different patterns of daily variations. Four types of daily variations are observed (i) positive peaks in late afternoon, (ii) negative peaks in early morning hours (iii) sinusoidal with double peaks and iv) long intervals when daily variations are conspicuously absent, particularly in winter and rainy season. Examination and correlation with environmental factors has revealed that when atmospheric temperature is well below the water temperature in borehole, the later show constant value around 19℃ in all seasons. In this situation, temperature gradients are not conducive to set up the convection currents for the emanation of radon to surface. Thus, explaining the absence of daily variation in radon concentration in winter. During the rainy season, following continuous rainfalls, once the soil/rocks are saturated with water radon concentrations show fair stability. Long pauses in rainfall give jerky variability during rainy season with no clear pattern of daily variation. During rest of the seasons

  18. Assessment of radiological effect of the indoor radon and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of all the sources of environmental radiation, radon and its progeny are considered to be responsible for a significant dose to man, especially when they are in enclosed areas like underground mines, caves, cellars, poorly designed and badly ventilated houses. Linear extrapolation from the dose response value of the uranium miners exposed to higher levels of radon and its daughters also suggest that the majority of the lung cancer incidence could be due to radon. Higher indoor radon levels and shift in the disequilibrium of the progeny concentration in dwellings caused by the lower ventilation rate leads to severalfold increase of lung cancer incidence from radon. The large risk which is anticipated calls for further studies in this field and may also lead to the conclusion that the slight, but much feared, burden due to man-made radioactivity could be more than compensated by controlling critical segments of the environmental radioactivity. In this report the study of risk due to breathing of indoor radon is briefly reviewed. Dose equivalent to the exposed tissue of the respiratory tract of the people living in dwellings are evaluated. Like most of the risk assessment of low level radiation, the effort to quantify the effect of radon in terms of death rate dose due to lung cancer attributable to radon levels indoors, has to rely on the extrapolation from the effects of the higher exposure rate. In situations where soil or building materials contain elevated radium levels, living in energy efficient houses may be as dangerous as heavy smoking. (author). 8 tabs., 5 figs., 41 refs

  19. Are seasonal correction factors useful in assessing the health risk from domestic radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an intensive survey of domestic radon levels in the UK, the former National Radiological Protection Board (N.R.P.B.), now the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (H.P.A.-R.P.D.) established a measurement protocol and promulgated a set of Seasonal Correction Factors (S.C.F.) applicable to the United Kingdom as a whole. Radon levels are assumed to exhibit systematic repeatable annual variation, generally higher in winter than in summer, and the S.C.F. comprise numerical multipliers which convert a one-month or three-month radon measurement, commencing in any month of the year, to an effective annual mean radon concentration. In a recent project to assess the utility of short-term exposures in quantifying domestic radon levels, radon variability in a set of 34 houses on common radon-rich geology was found to depart significantly from that predicted by the H.P.A.-R.P.D. seasonal correction factors, with year-end discontinuities at both 1-month and 3- month measurement resolutions. Following this study, monitoring with electrets was continued in four properties, with weekly radon concentration data now available for a total duration of three years. Analysis of this data has permitted the derivation of reliable local seasonal correction factors. Overall, these are significantly lower than those recommended by H.P.A.-R.P.D., but are comparable with other results from the UK and from abroad, particularly those that recognise geological diversity and are consequently prepared on a regional rather than a national basis. The discussion calls into question the validity of using nationally aggregated factors, especially for shorter exposures. (authors)

  20. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project 6: CRA Methods and Applications addresses the need to move beyond traditional risk assessment practices by developing CRA methods to integrate and evaluate impacts of chemical and nonchemical stressors on the environment and human health. Project 6 has three specific obje...

  1. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three...

  2. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  3. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika, E-mail: vyskupova@fns.uniba.sk

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  4. Cumulative assessment of persistent organic pollutant toxicity in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Westerholm, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to a multitude of compounds present in the environment and in food. A major challenge in risk assessment is to determine the degree of exposure to multiple chemicals and the hazards associated with such combined exposure. The simultaneous exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), is one example of a complex group of chemicals whic...

  5. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction......The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected...... of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via...

  6. Incorporating cumulative effects into environmental assessments of mariculture: Limitations and failures of current siting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing and evaluating the cumulative impacts of multiple marine aquaculture facilities has proved difficult in environmental assessment. A retrospective review of 23 existing mariculture farms in southwestern New Brunswick was conducted to determine whether cumulative interactions would have justified site approvals. Based on current scientific evidence of cumulative effects, six new criteria were added to a set of far-field impacts and other existing criteria were expanded to include regional and cumulative environmental impacts in Hargrave's [Hargrave BT. A traffic light decision system for marine finfish aquaculture siting. Ocean Coast Manag 2002; 45:215-35.] Traffic Light Decision Support System (DSS) presently used in Canadian aquaculture environmental assessments. Before mitigation, 19 of the 23 sites failed the amended set of criteria and after considering mitigation, 8 sites failed. Site and ecosystem indices yielded varying site acceptability scores; however, many sites would not have been approved if siting decisions had been made within a regional management framework and cumulative impact criteria were considered in the site evaluation process

  7. Cumulative impact assessments and bird/wind farm interactions: Developing a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wind power industry has grown rapidly in the UK to meet EU targets of sourcing 20% of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Although wind power is a renewable energy source, there are environmental concerns over increasing numbers of wind farm proposals and associated cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. EU and UK legislation requires a cumulative impact assessment (CIA) as part of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). However, in the absence of detailed guidance and definitions, such assessments within EIA are rarely adequate, restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Here we propose a conceptual framework to promote transparency in CIA through the explicit definition of impacts, actions and scales within an assessment. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development EIAs. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating CIA to a strategic level, as a component of spatially explicit planning.

  8. Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program: Work/quality assurance project plan screening phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, the military services of the United States were tasked to take appropriate action to establish an indoor radon assessment and mitigation program. As a result, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) was assigned the responsibility of identifying potential hazards to personnel from exposure to naturally occurring radon gas and prioritizing corrective actions and to coordinating these actions with the major claimants. NAVRAMP is based upon current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The program has been separated into four phases. The screening phase will concentrate on evaluating radon levels, based on statistical samples, in those buildings that have been determined to be at most at risk to elevated levels of radon, such as base housing, schools, day-care centers, hospitals, brigs, Base Officer Quarters, and Base Enlisted Quarters. During the assessment phase, every building that contains personnel for over 4 h/day will be evaluated. Mitigation work will be accomplished by Navy or Navy-contracted personnel. HAZWRAP services during the mitigation phase will consist of determining the extent of reduction in radon levels after the mitigation effort. 7 refs., 11 figs

  9. The households assessments of health risks from radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Stockholm suburb of Sollentuna, some 300 one-family houses have had radonlevels above the recommended action level of 400 Bq/m3. From available data on remedial actions taken by the affected households, the author makes an analysis of the households willingness economic efforts for reducing to health risks from radon radiation. The statistical analysis has household income, remedial action cost, radon levels and grown-up person's age as variables. In a comparison with the cost-benefit standard applied by the National Institute of Radiation Protection for radiation protection of man, it is found that the households are only willing to spend one fifth of that recommended cost. The author argues that this is an indication that too much money is spent on radiation protection compared to other hazards. (L.E.)

  10. Assessment of radon and gamma in Taboshar mining site, Tajikistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Silwal, Nigam Singh

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is based on results obtained by the joint effort of the NATO RESCA and the JNKKT projects, carrying out field work in the former mining site in Taboshar, Tajikistan. The uranium legacy from mining operations of the former USSR nuclear weapons program, results in high background radiation. The mining site includes an open pit lake, low grade radioactive materials, and tailing piles. The objective of the theses was to estimate average annual gamma and radon doses to t...

  11. Weak self-directed learning skills hamper performance in cumulative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tio, Rene A.; Stegmann, Mariken E.; Koerts, Janke; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-regulated learning is an important determinant of academic performance. Previous research has shown that cumulative assessment encourages students to work harder and improve their results. However, not all students seem to respond as intended. We investigated the influence of studen

  12. Cumulative versus end-of-course assessment : effects on self-study time and test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Mulder, B. Florentine; Muntinghe, Friso L. H.; Tio, Rene A.

    2015-01-01

    ContextStudents tend to postpone preparation for a test until the test is imminent, which raises various risks associated with cramming' behaviours, including that for suboptimal learning. Cumulative assessment utilises spaced testing to stimulate students to study more frequently and to prevent pro

  13. Exploring the practice of assessing cumulative impacts related to offshore oil activities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Trine Skovgaard; Olsen, Pernille; Mortensen, Lucia;

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Region is characterised by vulnerable ecosystems and residing indigenous people, dependent on nature for fishing and hunting. The Arctic also contains a wealth of non-living natural resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons. Synergies between increased access and growing global demand...... of methodology for assessment of cumulative impacts, knowledge gap of Arctic ecosystems and other....

  14. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  15. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, Peter; Falkenbach, Albrecht; Harder, Dietrich; Joeckel, Hans; Kaul, Alexander; Philipsborn, Henning von

    2014-07-01

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  16. Automatic analysis of CR-39 track detectors for selective assessment of radon and its decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for analyzing data from CR-39 track detectors exposed to radon and its daughter products was developed. The system performs both alpha particle spectroscopic analysis, where for each track the essential geometric parameters are evaluated, and mere counting of tracks; each condition is distinguished by its own chemical etching, microscope and scanning parameters. The spectroscopic technique was applied to the assessment of 210Po embedded in glass and to the discrimination of 222Rn, 218Po and 214Po contributions in passive dosimetry. The counting technique was applied to the determination of indoor radon concentration with passive dosemeters containing CR-39 detectors

  17. Assessment of radon progeny inhalation exposure from low-level wastes of phosphate mining in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redistribution of naturally-occurring uranium series radionuclides as a result of phosphate mining, processing, product use, and waste disposal presents several potential radiation pathways to man. Of particular importance is exposure to radon-222 progeny in structures built on reclaimed lands in Florida. Indoor radon daughter sampling data from Polk County were analyzed, and the data categorized by land and structure type. The average population-weighted concentration in about 4400 homes was determined to be about 0.009 working level (WL) in addition to a background of 0.0003 WL. It was also determined that the average annual cumulative indoor exposure on reclaimed land was approximately 0.02 working level months (WLM). A relatively small number of houses on high-activity overburden accounted for 38% of the total population exposure. A generally applicable model is proposed to relate lund cancer risk to the average annual exposure, the risk coefficient, the expected lung cancer mortality from all other causes, the duration of the exposure and the number of years for observation of the effects. Health risk estimates were performed for present levels and population size, and also for several scenarios anticipating new growth and construction - with and without imposed standards to limit indoor radon progeny levels. The model suggests that for an equilibrium condition, about one additional case of radiogenic lung cancer every two years in the Polk County population might be expected

  18. Assessment of the dose from radon and its decay products in the Bozkov dolomite cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose from radon and its progeny remains a frequently discussed problem. ICRP 65 provides a commonly used methodology to calculate the dose from radon. Our work focuses on a cave environment and on assessing the doses in public open caves. The differences in conditions (aerosol size distribution, humidity, radon and its progeny ratio, etc.) are described by the so-called cave factor j. The cave factor is used to correct the dose for workers which is calculated using the ICRP 65 recommendation. In this work, the authors have brought together measured data of aerosol size distribution, unattached and attached fraction activity, and have calculated the so-called cave factor for the Bozkov dolomite cave environment. The dose conversion factors based on measured data and used for evaluating the cave factor were calculated by LUDEP software, which implements HRTM ICRP66. (authors)

  19. Determination of radon partition coefficients between water and organic liquids and their utilization for the assessment of subsurface NAPL contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Michael; Lehmann, Katja; Paschke, Albrecht [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    The inhomogeneous distribution of radon between water and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) allows for utilizing naturally occurring radon as aqueous tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers ('NAPL source zones'). For the qualitative assessment (i.e. the localization) of NAPL source zones depleted radon concentrations that occur locally in the groundwater can be used as indicator. However, quantitative estimation of the NAPL saturation of the aquifer pore space requires the knowledge of the radon partition coefficient specific for the NAPL present. While radon partition coefficients are known for a wide range of pure substances, few reliable data is available on radon partitioning into complex NAPL mixtures. At the same time, widely used NAPL mixtures, such as diesel fuel, gasoline, and kerosene, have to be named as main contaminants at many NAPL contaminated sites. The paper presents radon partition coefficients for the three NAPL mixtures mentioned, achieved by application of an analytical method based on radon partitioning between air, water, and NAPL in a closed system, which is described in detail. Based on the experimental results a respective potential theoretical approach employing the regular-solution theory of Hildebrand and Scatchard is discussed and evaluated critically. Finally, the general practical applicability of naturally occurring radon as an indicator for the quantitative evaluation of NAPL source zones is assessed through laboratory experiments carried out in NAPL-contaminated sand columns. The distinct negative correlation between radon concentration and NAPL saturation of the pore space suggests the general applicability of radon for quantitative estimation of NAPL contamination of aquifers. (author)

  20. Determination of radon partition coefficients between water and organic liquids and their utilization for the assessment of subsurface NAPL contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhomogeneous distribution of radon between water and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) allows for utilizing naturally occurring radon as aqueous tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers ('NAPL source zones'). For the qualitative assessment (i.e. the localization) of NAPL source zones depleted radon concentrations that occur locally in the groundwater can be used as indicator. However, quantitative estimation of the NAPL saturation of the aquifer pore space requires the knowledge of the radon partition coefficient specific for the NAPL present. While radon partition coefficients are known for a wide range of pure substances, few reliable data is available on radon partitioning into complex NAPL mixtures. At the same time, widely used NAPL mixtures, such as diesel fuel, gasoline, and kerosene, have to be named as main contaminants at many NAPL contaminated sites. The paper presents radon partition coefficients for the three NAPL mixtures mentioned, achieved by application of an analytical method based on radon partitioning between air, water, and NAPL in a closed system, which is described in detail. Based on the experimental results a respective potential theoretical approach employing the regular-solution theory of Hildebrand and Scatchard is discussed and evaluated critically. Finally, the general practical applicability of naturally occurring radon as an indicator for the quantitative evaluation of NAPL source zones is assessed through laboratory experiments carried out in NAPL-contaminated sand columns. The distinct negative correlation between radon concentration and NAPL saturation of the pore space suggests the general applicability of radon for quantitative estimation of NAPL contamination of aquifers

  1. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette;

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...... models. Exposure scenarios were constructed based on findings of pesticide residues in food of ordinary consumers, and assessment of dermal exposure of professional workers. PBTK simulations were carried using these scenarios....

  2. The Role of Cumulative Risk Assessment in Decisions about Environmental Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Sexton; Linder, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    There is strong presumptive evidence that people living in poverty and certain racial and ethnic groups bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk. Many have argued that conducting formal assessments of the health risk experienced by affected communities is both unnecessary and counterproductive—that instead of analyzing the situation our efforts should be devoted to fixing obvious problems and rectifying observable wrongs. We contend that formal assessment of cumulative heal...

  3. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A.; Williams, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the “Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment” [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC:Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and grou...

  4. Contribution of Radon Exposure to the Risk of Lung Cancer Assessed by Applying a Multifactor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is well known that many different carcinogenic risk factors contribute to the development of lung cancer. Smoking, occupational exposure to carcinogens, chronic lung diseases and industrial air pollution are the most significant of them. Indoor radon exposure is considered a weak carcinogenic risk factor in the Urals, Russia. A drawback of traditionally applied monofactor methods of epidemiologic analysis is that different carcinogenic risk factors are analysed separately and their complex effect on public health is not taken into account. With such an approach it is impossible to adequately assess each factor's contribution in the total carcinogenic risk. For this reason it is expedient to apply methods of multifactor analysis in epidemiologic studies. We applied mathematical methods of pattern recognition when analysing the effect of indoor radon exposure on the development of lung cancer in the population of two Ural cities. We assessed the association between radon/thoron exposures and lung cancer using both BEIR VI model and the above-mentioned methods. The results were significantly different. According to BEIR VI model the contribution of radon/thoron in the risk of lung cancer varied from 7.2% to 33%, whereas this contribution assessed in the multifactor analysis was only 0.5%. We think that the contribution assessed in BEIR VI model is overestimated. Our considerable experience in conducting epidemiologic studies using mathematical methods of pattern recognition, gives us grounds to state that the assessment of radon/thoron exposure on lung cancer risk obtained in the multifactor analysis is more adequate and precise. (author)

  5. Risk assessment of cancer in relation with radon inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several experimental studies have been studied in France in the field of low exposures to radon. The animal studies confirm the increase of ling cancer risk for exposures less than 100 units of exposures. A synthesis is actually running in the frame of an European programme coordinated by the Laboratory of epidemiology from the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.). It will describe the different steps of the carcinogenesis brought into play during this chronic exposure at the level of bronchi epithelium by grouping the whole of data coming from the follow up of uranium miners and experimental studies

  6. Need for an integrated approach towards the assessment of radon, thoron and their progeny exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent publications dealing with epidemiological studies on North American and European populations have indicated statistically significant lung cancer risk coefficients attributable to residential radon exposures. These are essentially based on radon gas itself as the quantitative measure of exposures. However, considering that true exposures depend upon the intricate mechanisms of decay product deposition in the lung, it is necessary to go for the assessment of decay products including their size distributions and deposition velocities. This approach is essential for assessing the risks of thoron and its decay products which is of considerable importance in the public domain and in the thorium fuel cycle. The recent development of deposition based progeny concentration measurement techniques appear to be best suited for radiological risk assessments both among occupational workers and general study populations. These provide an easy to wear alternative for radon inhalation dosimetry similar to TLDs for external gamma radiations. It is urgently required to characterize their performance under a variety of residential indoor and workplace conditions. This may be achieved through an integrated multi-parametric study programme involving measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations along with fine and coarse fractions and indoor source terms. This will not only in delineate the true exposure profiles and indoor parameters (e.g. deposition velocities and air exchange rates) in the country, but also will help in establishing deposition dosimetry as a basic technique for inhalation exposure estimations for occupational workers and subjects living in high background radiation areas

  7. Looking Ahead: The Inclusion of Long-Term Futures in Cumulative Environmental Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeding of a workshop on the Inclusion of Long-Term Futures in Cumulative Environmental Assessments (CEA's) were presented.. Also included were three working group reports and papers presented at the conference. The issue of the concept of Cumulative Environmental Assessments was summarized, along with the current transformation to a more global outlook. The concepts and methodological questions associated with ecology and economics were tackled. CEA methods were discussed and a contrast was made with land-use planning. The importance of long-term monitoring programs was introduced and examples of early warning systems were given. Social science issues behind CEAs were also discussed. Recommendation e for preparing CEA's, the design of early warning monitoring systems, and public involvement, were made.. Contributed papers covered topics related to environmental assessment, pollution, and climate change

  8. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  9. Conference on provisions against radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings contain 20 contributions dealing with diverse aspects of the radon problem. Information is presented on the occurrence of radon on the territory of Czechoslovakia, and on natural radioactivity of rocks. The majority of contributions concentrate on ways of radon measurement, on determination of the radon content of building materials and on radon propagation through buildings. Various technologies for removing radon from homes and for preventing radon leaks are described and assessed. The effect of radon on human health is also dealt with. (M.D.). 16 tabs., 34 figs., 39 refs

  10. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark...... studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile...... to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006...

  11. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Human risk assessment of chemicals is traditionally presented as the ratio between the actual level of exposure and an acceptable level of exposure, with the acceptable level of exposure most often being estimated by appropriate authorities. This approach is generally sound when assessing the risk...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  12. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  13. Instructions for operating LBL Passive Environmental Radon Monitor (PERM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Passive Environmental Radon Monitor (PERM) is used to assess the impact of energy conservation in buildings, with reduced ventilation. Reduced ventilation can lead to increased concentration of air contaminants. The instrument operates on the principle of electrostatic collection of 218Po ions. Cumulative alpha activity collects on the electrode and is detected with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent detector

  14. Recent research developments and their effects on the risk assessment for radon and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of radon is a cause for concern because it is radioactive, and inhalation of its decay products, or progeny, at sufficiently elevated levels is known to cause lung cancer. The risk to health from radon in residences and other buildings poses a serious public health problem. In some instances the risk of developing lung cancer from exposure to radon can be equivalent to smoking several packs of cigarettes a day. The main risk of lung cancer, however, is from smoking cigarettes. It is estimated that approximately 100,000 cigarette smokers die each year from lung cancer, and many more die from other smoking related diseases. In addition, it is estimated that 5000 lung cancer fatalities occur each year as a result of the effects of passive smoking. The total of all lung cancer fatalities is presently about 130,000 each year in the United States. This paper discusses recent analyses of many of the variables involved in the risk assessment of radon progeny

  15. Risk assessment exposure to radon concentration and heavy metal contamination in drinking water samples in some areas of Jammu and Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is continually being created in the ground so that ground water often has high radon content. In this study, Radon concentration in hand pumps, and natural springs of some areas of Jammu and Udhampur Districts of J and K, India was measured using Electronic Radon meter RAD7. Radon level in some samples of Udhampur area exceeded EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) recommendation for maximum contaminant level (MCL) for radon in drinking water 300 pCi/l. Radon concentration along with temperature, conductivity and the total dissolved solids were also measured. Concentration of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cr, Hg and As) were also analyzed along with other physico-chemical parameters like pH, TDS, conductivity etc. in these samples for health risk assessments. An attempt has also been made to find the correlation between the radon and heavy metals. (author)

  16. Assessment of the 2005-2008 action plan. For the management of the risk related to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes a detailed assessment of 27 priority actions identified in 2005 to improve the management of the risk related to radon within the frame of a public health policy. These actions are grouped under three main orientations: to build up a new policy for the management of the radon-related risk in housing and new buildings, to support and control the implementation of the regulation for the management of this risk in premises open to the public, and to improve and diffuse knowledge about radon-related exposures and risk

  17. Application of the ELDO approach to assess cumulative eye lens doses for interventional cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, J; Struelens, L; Auvinen, A; Jacob, S; Koukorava, C; Schnelzer, M; Vanhavere, F; Clairand, I

    2015-04-01

    In preparation of a large European epidemiological study on the relation between eye lens dose and the occurrence of lens opacities, the European ELDO project focused on the development of practical methods to estimate retrospectively cumulative eye lens dose for interventional medical professionals exposed to radiation. The present paper applies one of the ELDO approaches, correlating eye lens dose to whole-body doses, to assess cumulative eye lens dose for 14 different Finnish interventional cardiologists for whom annual whole-body dose records were available for their entire working period. The estimated cumulative left and right eye lens dose ranged from 8 to 264 mSv and 6 to 225 mSv, respectively. In addition, calculations showed annual eye lens doses sometimes exceeding the new ICRP annual limit of 20 mSv. The work also highlights the large uncertainties associated with the application of such an approach proving the need for dedicated dosimetry systems in the routine monitoring of the eye lens dose. PMID:25316910

  18. Application of the ELDO approach to assess cumulative eye lens doses for interventional cardiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In preparation of a large European epidemiological study on the relation between eye lens dose and the occurrence of lens opacities, the European ELDO project focused on the development of practical methods to estimate retrospectively cumulative eye lens dose for interventional medical professionals exposed to radiation. The present paper applies one of the ELDO approaches, correlating eye lens dose to whole-body doses, to assess cumulative eye lens dose for 14 different Finnish interventional cardiologists for whom annual whole-body dose records were available for their entire working period. The estimated cumulative left and right eye lens dose ranged from 8 to 264 mSv and 6 to 225 mSv, respectively. In addition, calculations showed annual eye lens doses sometimes exceeding the new ICRP annual limit of 20 mSv. The work also highlights the large uncertainties associated with the application of such an approach proving the need for dedicated dosimetry systems in the routine monitoring of the eye lens dose. (authors)

  19. Framework tool for a rapid cumulative effects assessment: case of a prominent wetland in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N; Habib, H; Venkatappa, M; Ebbers, T; Duboz, R; Shipin, O

    2015-06-01

    The wetland of focus, Inle Lake, located in central Myanmar, is well known for its unique biodiversity and culture, as well as for ingenious floating garden agriculture. During the last decades, the lake area has seen extensive degradation in terms of water quality, erosion, deforestation, and biodiversity concomitant with a major shift to unsustainable land use. The study was conducted, with an emphasis on water quality, to analyze environmental impacts (effects) changing the ecosystem and to comprehensively evaluate the environmental state of the ecosystem through an innovative Rapid Cumulative Effects Assessment framework tool. The assessment started with a framework-forming Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), which quantified and prioritized impacts over space and time. Critically important impacts were assessed for "intra-inter interactions" using the loop analysis simulation. Water samples were analyzed while geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing were used to identify water pollution hotspots. It was concluded that out of a plethora of impacts, pollution from municipal sources, sedimentation, and effects exerted by floating gardens had the most detrimental impacts, which cumulatively affected the entire ecosystem. The framework tool was designed in a broad sense with a reference to highly needed assessments of poorly studied wetlands where degradation is evident, but scarcely quantified, and where long-term field studies are fraught with security issues and resource unavailability (post-conflict, poor and remote regions, e.g., Afghanistan, Laos, Sudan, etc.). PMID:25963760

  20. Assessment of the health impact related to indoor exposure to radon in France;Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de l'exposition domestique au radon en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France); Rogel, A.; Laurier, D.; Billon, S.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Hemon, D. [Inserm IFR69, 94 - Villejuif (France); Verger, P. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante PACA, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2007-05-15

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which concentrates in deficiently ventilated habitations. Radon is a well-established human pulmonary carcinogen agent. The exposition of the overall French population to various radon concentrations led scientists to assess its public health impact. This study proposes a predictive assessment of health impact attributable to indoor radon exposure in metropolitan France. Using all available data on the exposure-response between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality risk and on the assessment of indoor radon exposure in France, this study is based on quantitative safety risk assessment method associated to an analysis of both variability and uncertainty, which allows to measure an uncertainty interval related to the prediction. The estimated annual number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon exposure ranges from 1 234 (90% uncertainty interval, 593-2 156) to 2 913 (90% UI, 2 763-3 221), depending on the model considered. This result shows that indoor radon exposure is a serious public health problem in France. (author)

  1. Strategy for the assessment of the radiation exposure at workplaces due to radon and radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the future EU basic standards the exposures to radon decay products have to be taken into consideration. Therefore it is necessary to investigate: * which working operation could be connected with an increased exposure to radon decay products, * which workplaces have to be considered, * how many employees could be afflicted, * which methods should be applied for the investigation and - as for as necessary - for supervision. On the basis of the current radiation protection legislation in the new Federal Lands working operations which are connected with radon exposures have already been monitored. For instance, in 1994 3095 persons were supervised, 2422 of them were engaged in clean-up operations at wismut facilities (including underground work) and 673 at non-uranium mines and facilities (conventional mining), water treatment plants, show caves and spas. The extension of the monitoring to similar workplaces in the old Federal Lands is going to discussed in implementation of the EU standards. Beyond it further workplaces affected by radon and radon decay products exist. Therefore it is helpful to get an overview about the kinds of workplaces and the number of afflicted employees. (author)

  2. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects. In...... this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative...... potency factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  3. Current Status of Development of Methods to Assess Effects of Cumulative or Aggregated Underwater Sounds on Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Streever, Bill; Angliss, Robyn; Clark, Christopher W; Ellison, William T; Frankel, Adam; Gedamke, Jason; Leu, Matthias; McKenna, Megan; Racca, Roberto; Simmons, Samantha; Suydam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments. PMID:26610973

  4. The use of SSNTDs in the retrospective assessment of radon exposure in high radon rural communities in Yugoslavia

    CERN Document Server

    Zunic, Z S; Walsh, C; Benderac, R

    1999-01-01

    A description is given of the field application of a technique using CR-39 and LR 115 detectors to determine alpha recoil implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po surface activity on domestic glass artefacts in dwellings. These investigations took place in two small stable rural communities in uraniferous areas of Yugoslavia where between 32% and 74% of contemporary indoor radon levels were found to be above the commonly used Action Level of 200 Bq m sup - sup 3 and individual levels as high as 8700 Bq m sup - sup 3 were measured. The sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po data is used to retrospectively estimate radon exposures in these communities. Comparisons between the retrospectively estimated radon exposures and those being received at present are made.

  5. Not so Black and White: environmental justice and cumulative impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    not typically identified as meeting EJ criteria (in demographic terms) also face more significant ecological hazards. Thus, the strict bifurcation of communities into categories of Environmental Justice and Non-Environmental Justice is problematic, and poses a serious dilemma for policy makers, public health officials, and community activists. To overcome this challenge requires the adoption of a cumulative environmental justice impact assessment (CEJIA), which in addition to the demographic characteristics of a community, also takes into account the total environmental burden and related health impacts upon residents. Furthermore, through the adoption of the precautionary principle, source reduction, and alternative forms of ''cleaner'' production, environmental justice advocates must work for policies which reduce the environmental threat for the full range of communities, as well as their own

  6. Radon risks in animals with reference to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon inhalation studies in animals provide important supplementary information to human data. Because the measurement of exposure characteristics in experimental studies is more accurate than in epidemiological studies, animal studies may provide a more reliable assessment of the dependence of risks on radon-daughter cumulative exposure. Experimental data have also provided information on the dependence of risks on radon-progeny exposure rate, unattached fraction, and disequilibrium, as well as on concomitant exposures to cigarette smoke. A summary of radon studies in animals has been published. Two examples of results from these studies are included; in both cases, results were based on the percent of animals with lung tumors. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  8. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie; Axelstad, Marta; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hass, Ulla

    2013-05-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006-2009, while residue data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007-2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies. Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile) was calculated to 9% of the Adjusted Reference Value (ARV) for the effect on nipple retention and to 1% of the ARV for the effect on increased gestation period. PMID:23333574

  9. Estimation of surface deposited 210Po activity for the retrospective assessment of radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between increased risk of lung cancer and exposure to indoor radon is assessed in epidemiological studies. The short lived airborne radon decay products deposit on smooth glass surfaces. After deposition, subsequent alpha decay can lead to implantation of further decay products through alpha particle recoil. Hence, the progeny can remain fixed in a very thin surface layer of the glass, where it can be detected through alpha decay by means of track etch detectors. In present study the estimation of surface deposited polonium activity have been carried out in the Garhwal Himalaya region using (CR-LR) difference technique. In this area the polonium activity have been found to vary from 0.8 Bq/m2 to 35.2 Bq/m2 with an average of 6.4 Bq/m2. The estimated retrospective radon concentration based on the 210Po activity was found to vary from 29 Bq/m3 to 1173 Bq/m-3 with an average value 241 Bq/m-3. The detail significance of this study is also discussed from epidemiological point of view. (author)

  10. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics

  11. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  12. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  13. Eye lens radiation exposure to interventional cardiologists: A retrospective assessment of cumulative doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dose to the eye lens is a crucial issue for interventional cardiologists (ICs) who are exposed during the procedures they perform. This paper presents a retrospective assessment of the cumulative eye lens doses of ICs enrolled in the O'CLOC study for Occupational Cataracts and Lens Opacities in interventional Cardiology. Information on the workload in the catheterisation laboratory, radiation protection equipment, eye lens dose per procedure and dose reduction factors associated with eye-protective equipment were considered. For the 129 ICs at an average age of 51 who had worked for an average period of 22 years, the estimated cumulative eye lens dose ranged from 25 mSv to more than 1600 mSv; the mean + SD was 423+359 mSv. After several years of practice, without eye protection, ICs may exceed the new ICRP lifetime eye dose threshold of 500 mSv and be at high risk of developing early radiation-induced cataracts. Radiation protection equipment can reduce these doses and should be used routinely. (authors)

  14. The radon; Le radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings.

  15. Assessment of radiation doses due to the exposure of radon, thoron and their progeny in Almora district of Kumaun Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhalation of radon and its daughter product in dwellings is the most important source of radiation exposure to the general population. The health effects due to the exposure of radon are caused primarily by damage due to alpha-particles. The radon progeny combines with the air borne particles such as dust and smoke and forms a radioactive aerosols which readily deposit in the airways of the lung. While lodged there, the progeny emit ionizing radiation in the form of alpha particles, which can damage the cells lining the airways. In present study for the assessment of radiation doses we have carried out an extensive survey of radon, thoron and their progeny in Almora district of Kumaun Himalaya. For the measurement of radon and thoron concentration we have used pinhole dosimetry technique while their progeny concentration were measured using direct radon and thoron progeny sensors. Simultaneously we have also measured the gamma radiation level in the study area using pocket survey meter. During this survey we have also identified some high background area in this region. (author)

  16. An assessment of ecological and case-control methods for estimating lung cancer risk due to indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of underground miners indicate that indoor radon is an important cause of lung cancer. This finding has raised concern that exposure to radon also causes lung cancer in the general population. Epidemiological studies, including both case-control and ecological approaches, have directly addressed the risks of indoor residential radon; many more case-control studies are in progress. Ecological studies that associate lung-cancer rates with typical indoor radon levels in various geographic areas have not consistently shown positive associations. The results of purportedly negative ecological studies have been used as a basis for questioning the hazards of indoor radon exposure. Because of potentially serious methodologic flaws for testing hypotheses, we examined the ecological method as a tool for assessing lung-cancer risk from indoor radon exposure. We developed a simulation approach that utilizes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radon survey data to assign exposures to individuals within counties. Using the computer-generated data, we compared risk estimates obtained by ecological regression methods with those obtained from other regression methods and with the open-quotes trueclose quotes risks used to generate the data. For many of these simulations, the ecological models, while fitting the summary data well, gave risk estimates that differed considerably from the true risks. For some models, the risk estimates were negatively correlated with exposure, although the assumed relationship was positive. Attempts to improve the ecological models by adding smoking variables, including interaction terms, did not always improve the estimates of risk, which are easily affected by model misspecification. Because exposure situations used in the simulations are realistic, our results show that ecological methods may not accurately estimate the lung-cancer risk associated with indoor radon exposure

  17. Assessment of soil radon potential in Hong Kong, China, using a 10-point evaluation system

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, S.; Wiegand, J; Wartenberg, W; Leung, JKC; Jiao, JJ

    2012-01-01

    Radon and its progenies have been ranked second of being responsible for lung cancer in humans. Hong Kong has four major groups of uranium-rich plutonic and volcanic rocks and is suffering from radon emanated therefrom. However, there is a lack of radon potential maps in Hong Kong to resolve the spatial distribution of radon-prone areas. A ten-point radon potential system was developed in Germany (2005) to predict radon potential using both the in situ geogenic and geographic parameters under...

  18. Radon-thoron exposures in high background radiation areas: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon-thoron measurements reported in literature for the high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of the world are summarised here. The most important areas covered are the Radon Spas and the thorium bearing monazite deposits. Special mention is made of the ongoing programmes of radon-thoron survey in the monazite beach areas of India; preliminary measurements indicate significant levels of thoron exposures. The diurnal and seasonal variations are quite wide underscoring the importance of carrying out integrated measurements for meaningful assessments of population exposures. Radon-thoron inhalation dose rates upto 30 mSv/y have been measured in lran as well as India. It has been generally observed that the cumulative population doses due to radon-thoron inhalation are as high as those due to the external exposures in these HBRAs. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Radon and radon daughter monitoring (including thoron daughter monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon/radon daughter and thoron daughter measurement techniques are outlined. The necessary precautions and critical assessments of each method are also presented with a view to providing a better understanding of the various measurement methods

  20. House in Bessine-sur-Gartempe (87) built on uranium ore waste rocks and residues. Assessment of radon contents of the indoor air and induced health risks for dwellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the origin of radon and how characterization measurements of exposure pathways are performed, this document reports an expertise investigation of the exposure to radon of dwellers of a house. It presents the main results of environmental radiological measurements: exposure to beta/gamma radiation and to radon, assessment of average radon concentrations in the house (measurement strategy, interpretation of average values). It reports the assessment of annual exposures to radon. It discusses the assessment of risks: status of knowledge of impacts of radon on health (radon and risk of lung cancer, other potential health effects of radon), risk assessment based on the efficient dose, method and results of assessment of the risk of lung cancer, impact of tobacco on this assessment, assessment of the risk of leukaemia

  1. Assessing Cumulative Thermal Stress in Fish During Chronic Exposure to High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, M.S.; Bennett, W.R.

    1999-11-14

    As environmental laws become increasingly protective, and with possible future changes in global climate, thermal effects on aquatic resources are likely to receive increasing attention. Lethal temperatures for a variety of species have been determined for situations where temperatures rise rapidly resulting in lethal effects. However, less is known about the effects of chronic exposure to high (but not immediately lethal) temperatures and even less about stress accumulation during periods of fluctuating temperatures. In this paper we present a modeling framework for assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish. The model assumes that stress accumulation occurs above a threshold temperature at a rate depending on the degree to which the threshold is exceeded. The model also includes stress recovery (or alleviation) when temperatures drop below the threshold temperature as in systems with large daily variation. In addition to non-specific physiological stress, the model also simulates thermal effects on growth.

  2. Long term cumulative radiological impact assessment to liquid effluent of american inland NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual radioactivity monitoring reports (2005-2011) for 38 typical inland nuclear power plants in US were investigated, and the artificial radioactivity levels in the sediments of receiving water of liquid effluent were analyzed. It was indicated that the long term operation of these NPPs had no obvious cumulative impacts on sediment, only at a few of which were found radioactivity originated from liquid effluents around discharge points, and much lower than the natural radioactivity concentrations. Only a very few NPPs had an effect with relatively higher concentration levels of radioactivity in sediment, which was due to the poor hydrological conditions of the receiving water for the dilution of radioactive liquid effluents. According to the dose assessments of artificial radioactivity in sediment to public individuals, all American typical inland NPPs had negligible impacts on public health compared to the natural public background and the personal dose constraint of liquid effluent regulated by NRC. (authors)

  3. Alchemy to reason: Effective use of Cumulative Effects Assessment in resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is a tool that can be useful in making decisions about natural resource management and allocation. The decisions to be made include those (i) necessary to construct planning and regulatory frameworks to control development activity so that societal goals will be achieved and (ii) whether or not to approve individual development projects, with or without conditions. The evolution of CEA into a more successful tool cannot occur independently of the evolution of decision making processes. Currently progress is painfully slow on both fronts. This paper explores some opportunities to accelerate improvements in decision making in natural resource management and in the utility of CEA as a tool to assist in making such decisions. The focus of the paper is on how to define the public interest by determining what is acceptable.

  4. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (Sst, Sst, pst) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (Ssu, Ssu, psu) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (Sst, Sst, pst) and (Ssu, Ssu, psu). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems

  5. Assessment of the Possible Association Between High Indoor Radon Exposures and Cancer in the Population of Gornja Stubla, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Based on 1999 data of the Federal Statistical Office, Belgrade, deaths from neoplasms in Yugoslavia occupy the second place (18%) in the population mortality data after deaths from diseases of the circulatory system. The male mortality from neoplasms has increased over 36% from 6953 cases in 1980 to 10 924 in 1997, female over 35%, 5262 and 8057 death cases, respectively. The mortality rate from lung cancer in Central Serbia is twice as large as that in Yugoslavia as a whole. In Gornja Stubla, Kosovo, anamnestic data on 547 inhabitants was collected using a special health questionnaire while carrying out indoor radon and thoron gas concentration measurements in the 65 houses (25% of all dwellings) aimed at assessing the effect of these levels on the occurrence of malignant tumours. With the size of population being approximately three thousand, out of 547 people 11 persons had a diagnosis of cancer. Indoor radon measurements showed that the population of Gornja Stubla was exposed high radon and thoron levels (the highest indoor radon concentration of 9591 Bq m-3 and the maximum measured value of thoron of 1156 Bq m-3), thus several times exceeding the WHO standards. It is planned to be conducted a complex study of carcinogenic risk factors in Gornja Stubla. We shall then compare the results with the results of similar studies conducted in two cities in the Urals, Russia, where the indoor exposure to radon and thoron was significantly lower (only in about 30% of dwellings did the indoor radon activity exceed 100 Bq/m3).This study will give us a better understanding of effects of low radiation doses on the risk of lung cancer and a more adequate assessment of the radon contribution to carcinogenic morbidity. (author)

  6. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precise retrospective assessment of long-term radon exposures in dwellings is essential for estimating lung-cancer risks. The objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions, (2) to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps

  7. Assessment of current techniques for reduction of indoor radon concentration in existing and new houses in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon control technologies aim at the reduction of indoor radon concentrations in existing buildings and in new construction through remedial and preventive measures. In recent years, rising ecological awareness and rising energy costs have stimulated the development of low energy and passive houses to save energy. This report contains the analysis and assessment of current techniques and technologies used to achieve the reduction of indoor radon concentrations in existing and new houses with regard to the reduction efficiency and potential impact on energy consumption (qualitative analysis). A questionnaire was prepared and sent to all RADPAR partners in 14 different countries in order to gather national information about the current remediation and prevention techniques. Responses with variable amounts of information were obtained. Based on the questionnaire responses, the status of radon remediation and prevention in each country was assessed, in addition to the reduction efficiency and potential impact on energy consumption of the current remediation and prevention techniques. The number of dwellings with an elevated indoor radon concentration typically ranges from tens of thousands to a million. The percentage of these houses already remediated varies from zero to 15%. Preventive measures in new construction have been taken from a small number of houses to over half a million houses. The research data on the current situation, the number of houses with preventive measures and the efficiency of these measures is currently still quite inadequate. Assessment of the techniques and also the surveys aiming at exploring the impact of remedial and preventive measures is greatly needed in order to promote the work at the national level. The most efficient remediation method is the active sub-slab depressurization (SSD) and the radon well, for which the reduction in the radon concentration is typically 70 - 95%. Other methods, such as sealing entry routes and improving

  8. (BOSC) DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PRESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE US EPA'S N-METHYL CARBAMATE CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT (NMCRA) ASSESSES THE EFFECT ON ACETYLCHOLINE ESTERASE (AChE) ACTIVITY OF EXPOSURE TO 10 N-METHLY CARBAMATE (NMC)PESTICIDES THROUGH DIETARY, DRINKING WATER, AND RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURES. THESE DATA THUS INFORM, BUT DO NOT COM...

  9. Addressing cumulative effects through strategic environmental assessment: a case study of small hydro development in Newfoundland, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental assessment (EA) is widely used as a means of incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making, primarily at the project level. The scope of EA has been expanded considerably in recent years to include earlier stages of the decision-making process, namely, policies, plans and programmes. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) facilitates a planning approach to addressing the overall, cumulative effects of the projects that occur as a result of these decisions. This paper demonstrates the potential benefits of SEA in the assessment and management of cumulative effects, using a case study of recent hydroelectric development planning in Newfoundland, Canada. It goes on to illustrate how SEA could be used to address potential cumulative effects at the various stages of such a decision-making process. Through the case study, the paper also explores a number of issues in the implementation of such a planning approach. (author)

  10. Assessment of the 2005-2008 action plan. For the management of the risk related to radon; Bilan du plan d'actions 2005-2008. Pour la gestion du risque lie au radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This report proposes a detailed assessment of 27 priority actions identified in 2005 to improve the management of the risk related to radon within the frame of a public health policy. These actions are grouped under three main orientations: to build up a new policy for the management of the radon-related risk in housing and new buildings, to support and control the implementation of the regulation for the management of this risk in premises open to the public, and to improve and diffuse knowledge about radon-related exposures and risk

  11. Community, State, and Federal Approaches to Cumulative Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Barzyk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Community, state, and federal approaches to conventional and cumulative risk assessment (CRA were described and compared to assess similarities and differences, and develop recommendations for a consistent CRA approach, acceptable across each level as a rigorous scientific methodology, including partnership formation and solution development as necessary practices. Community, state, and federal examples were described and then summarized based on their adherence to CRA principles of: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 risk analysis and ranking, and (3 risk characterization, interpretation, and management. While each application shared the common goal of protecting human health and the environment, they adopted different approaches to achieve this. For a specific project-level analysis of a particular place or instance, this may be acceptable, but to ensure long-term applicability and transferability to other projects, recommendations for developing a consistent approach to CRA are provided. This approach would draw from best practices, risk assessment and decision analysis sciences, and historical lessons learned to provide results in an understandable and accepted manner by all entities. This approach is intended to provide a common ground around which to develop CRA methods and approaches that can be followed at all levels.

  12. Radon dispersion modeling and dose assessment for uranium mine ventilation shaft exhausts under neutral atmospheric stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the roles of atmospheric wind profiles in the neutral atmosphere and surface roughness parameters in a complex terrain were examined to determine their impacts on radon (222Rn) dispersion from an actual uranium mine ventilation shaft. Simulations were completed on 222Rn dispersion extending from the shaft to a vulnerable distance, near the location of an occupied farmhouse. The eight dispersion scenarios for the ventilation shaft source included four downwind velocities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 m s−1) and two underlying surface roughness characteristics (0.1 m and 1.0 m). 222Rn distributions and elevated pollution regions were identified. Effective dose estimation methods involving a historical weighting of wind speeds in the direction of interest coupled to the complex dispersion model were proposed. Using this approach, the radiation effects on the residents assumed to be outside at the location of the farm house 250 m downwind from the ventilation shaft outlet were computed. The maximum effective dose rate calculated for the residents at the outside of the farm house was 2.2 mSv y−1, which is less than the low limit action level of 3–10 mSv y−1 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) occupational exposure action level for radon. - Highlights: • Modeling of radon dispersion from uranium mine shafts. • Rn modeling methods include complex meteorology and geography. • Dose computation methods involving historical wind speeds weighting are proposed. • Rn dose rate for the residents near uranium mine shafts are calculated and assessed

  13. Using radon as environmental tracer for the assessment of subsurface non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive noble gas radon has an ambivalent nature: on one hand it is of main concern with regard to radiation protection, on the other hand it can be applied as powerful tracer tool in various fields of applied geosciences. Due to its omnipresence in nature, its chemical and physical properties, and its uncomplicated detectability radon fulfils all requirements for being used as environmental tracer. This application is discussed in the paper with focus on the use of radon as tracer for subsurface contamination with Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPL). After a short introduction in the ambivalence and ubiquitous presence of radon in nature, the theoretical background of its suitability as NAPL tracer is summarized. Finally three potential applications are discussed. Background information and practical examples are given for (i) the investigation of residual NAPL contamination in soils, (ii) the investigation of residual NAPL contamination in aquifers and (iii) the monitoring of the remediation of dissolved NAPL contamination in groundwater. The presented information reveals that radon is an ideal tracer for the assessment of a wide range of subsurface NAPL contamination. Still, its application is not without restrictions. Problems may occur due to mineralogical heterogeneity of the soil or aquifer matrix. Furthermore, local changes in the permeability of the subsurface may be associated with preferential groundwater or soil gas flow paths bypassing isolated sub-domains of an investigated NAPL source zone. Moreover, NAPL aging may result in alterations in the composition of a complex NAPL mixture thus giving rise to significant changes of the radon partition coefficient between NAPL and water or soil gas. However, since radon shows a strong affinity to NAPLs in general, semi-quantitative results will always be possible. (author)

  14. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  16. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04±0.01 mSv to 0.547±0.018 mSv, (2.832±0.22)x10-5 to (11.972±2.09)x10-5 mSv, and (0.056 ±0.01) x10-5 to (0.239±0.01)x10-5 mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  17. National residential radon survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Superfund Amendments and reauthorization Act (SARA) which requires the EPA Administrator to conduct a national assessment of radon levels where people normally live and work, including educational institutions. The National Residential Radon Survey (NRRS) is the first comprehensive effort to estimate the frequency distribution of average annual radon concentrations nationwide. Also, the survey will provide data to correlate radon concentrations with construction characteristics. A stratified three stage area probability sample was used to randomly select approximately 12,000 homes. A questionnaire will provide information on living patterns, house construction, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) characteristics. Two to four alpha-track detectors were placed in each home. It is expected that approximately 5,000 residents will return detectors with readable radon concentrations. With this data, EPA will be able to accurately estimate the frequency distribution of annual average radon concentrations nationwide

  18. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0–6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79–107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0–3-yr-old children and 4–6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods. - Graphical abstract: In seven phthalates, the 95th percentile of the average daily dose (ADD) for ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) in 0–3-yr-old male (0–3 M) and female (0–3 F) children accounted for 97% and 84% of TDIs, respectively. For 4–6-yr-old and 7–12-yr-old males and 7–12-yr-old females, ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) accounted for 79%, 72%, and 65% of TDIs, respectively. - Highlights: • A cumulative risk assessment of PAEs was used in a severe plasticizer-contaminated food episode. • ΣDBP(i + n) posed the highest risk potential of all the dietary phthalates. • Females 4–6 yr old had the highest risk for anti-androgenic effects. • Beverages, milk and dairy products were the major contributors to average daily dose of phthalate esters. - The health of young Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of plasticizer-contaminated food

  19. The validity of risk assessments for lung cancer induced by radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available input data for the risk assessment from low level radon daughter (Rn-d) exposure are mostly either of low quality, partially contradicting or simply ''guesstimates''. Therefore at present only the upper limit of this risk can be estimated. Results of epidemiological studies amongst miners are associated with large uncertainties with regard to the assessment of past radiation exposure, lung cancer diagnostic and/or classification and synergistic effects due to smoking and dust exposure. An alternative approach uses dosimetric modelling for Rn-d inhalation to obtain Rn-d exposure-dose conversion factors. Large uncertainty is caused by individual variability due the influence of life style, physical and biological parameters. It is concluded that for ''normal'' indoor Rn-d exposure the resulting risk is neglegible compared to other risks ''accepted'' by society

  20. Radon in land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon poses a health risk. Therefore, it is important that the municipality takes into account radon, in land use planning. This Radiation Info provides an overview of what makes an additional radon prone area and what tools are available to assess this. The background is the Planning and Building Act provisions on risk analysis (ROS) and zones(eb)

  1. Benchmark Dose Analysis from Multiple Datasets: The Cumulative Risk Assessment for the N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s N-Methyl Carbamate (NMC) Cumulative Risk assessment was based on the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 NMC pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures, assuming the effects of joint exposure to NMCs is dose-...

  2. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  3. Assessment of indoor dose from gamma ray emitters and radon daughters in Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, A.; Bazzano, E.; Carioni, T.

    Gamma ray doses were determined by duplicate exposure of dosimeters for two 1 month periods in 100 houses chosen at random and classified a posteriori according to location in the town, age, building materials, air ventilation, etc. Radon and radon daughters long-term determinations were carried out by passive track etch detectors. Gamma spectrometry analysis of typical building materials and spot active analysis of radon and radon daughters were carried out. No relation between house location and indoor gamma ray exposure level is noted. Higher levels are recorded in the oldest houses, and those with brick or hollow tile external walls. The first two stories have the highest radiation levels. There is no correlation between radon concentration and gamma ray exposure rates. The highest radon measures are recorded in dwellings with low occupancy factors.

  4. Towards a cumulative collision risk assessment of local and migrating birds in North Sea offshore wind farms

    OpenAIRE

    Brabant, Robin; Vanermen, Nicolas; Stienen,Eric; Degraer, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Bird collision assessments are generally made at the scale of a single wind farm. While especially in offshore situations such assessments already hold several assumptions, even bigger challenges exist on estimating the cumulative impact ofmultiple wind farms and the impacts at population level. In this paper, the number of collision victims at Belgian offshore wind farms was estimated with a(theoretical) collision risk model based on technical turbine specifications, bird-related parameters ...

  5. Multi-parametric approach towards the assessment of radon and thoron progeny exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventionally, the dosimetry is carried out using radon and thoron gas concentration measurements and doses have been assigned using assumed equilibrium factors for the progeny species, which is inadequate pertaining to the variations in equilibrium factors and possibly due to significant thoron. In fact, since the true exposures depend upon the intricate mechanisms of progeny deposition in the lung, therefore an integrated approach for the assessment of progeny is essential. In this context, the recently developed deposition based progeny concentration measurement techniques (DTPS: Direct Thoron progeny sensors and DRPS: Direct Radon progeny sensors) appear to be best suited for radiological risk assessments both among occupational workers and general study populations. DTPS and DRPS consist of aluminized mylar mounted LR115 type passive detectors, which essentially detects the alpha particles emitted from the deposited progeny atoms on the detector surface. It gives direct measure of progeny activity concentrations in air. DTPS has a lower limit of detection limit of 0.1 Bq/m3 whereas that for DRPS is 1 Bq/m3, hence are perfectly suitable for indoor environments. These DTPS and DRPS can be capped with 200-mesh type wire-screen to measure the coarse fraction of the progeny concentration and the corresponding coarse fraction deposition velocities as well as the time integrated fine fraction. DTPS and DRPS can also be lodged in an integrated sampler wherein the wire-mesh and filter-paper are arranged in an array in flow-mode, to measure the fine and coarse fraction concentration separately and simultaneously. The details are further discussed in the paper

  6. RADON-type disposal facility safety case for the co-ordinated research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISAM safety assessment methodology was applied to RADON-type facilities. The assessments conducted through the ISAM project were among the first conducted for these kinds of facilities. These assessments are anticipated to lead to significantly improved levels of safety in countries with such facilities. Experience gained though this RADON-type Safety Case was already used in Russia while developing national regulatory documents. (author)

  7. Indoor radon levels in some regions of Jordan and assessment of the associated excess lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CR-39 based cup type dosimeters were used for indoor radon level measurements in randomly selected dwellings in the cities of Jerash, Irbid and Ajloun in Jordan. The average values of radon concentration levels in the above mentioned cities were found to be 53-2 +-7.3 Bq m /sup -3/ and 55.2+- 9.2 Bq m/sup -3/, respectively. The indoor radon level in Irbid was found to be normal but was double of the global average in Jerash and Ajloun. The excess lung cancer risk was assessed using the above measured values of indoor radon concentration levels for the general population. For this assessment, UNSCEAR and EPA models were used. The life time lung cancer risk due to the life time exposure was found to vary from 17 to 34 per MPY at the age of 70 when value of the risk factors of EPA model was used. In the case, when higher value of risk factors proposed by UNSCEAR was used, then the estimated excess lung cancer risk at the age of 70 varied from 66 to 135 per MPY. (author)

  8. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m-3. Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. (authors)

  9. Assessment of indoor radon-thoron levels in dwellings of north Indian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to ICRP publication radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer for individuals who have never smoked. Radon and its progeny are radioactive and is the major contributor to environmental radioactivity. Being a gas radon has the advantage to spread like gases and its progeny has the advantage to attach to aerosols or dust particles and can be inhaled by the human beings leading to the exposure of lung tissues to the radiation. The accumulation of radon indoor is a big source of exposure of human beings to natural radiation. Radon can enter the home through cracks in the foundation floor and walls and other openings. It is also liberated by the building materials. Thus there is need of continuous monitoring for the radon levels in dwellings. Keeping this in mind the environmental monitoring of radon, thoron and their progeny in some dwellings of northern Haryana and southern Himachal Pradesh has been carried out using twin cup dosimeters. Out of different types of dwellings under study the levels are found to be higher in some dwellings in Shivalik foot hills of India as compare to other dwellings. The annual dose received due to radon-thoron and their progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study have also been calculated. (author)

  10. Environmental assessment of indoor radon gas exposure health hazards and some of its public risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examine the relationship between indoor radon gas exposure and the cancer risk and housing characteristics in lung cancer risk houses (CRH) compared to non lung cancer risk houses (NCRH). Mean radon concentrations measured by active method were significantly higher among CRH compared to NCRH, 9:93 pCi/L versus 4.56 pCi/L, respectively. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation as regards radon levels in all examined houses. Indoor radon concentrations show statistically significance in houses with bad ventilation (low air change rate) compared to houses with good ventilation (high air change rate). Houses with floor material of tiles, had statistically significant higher radon concentrations. Neither finishing wall material nor indoor gas source shows statistically significance as regard radon levels. Radon levels > 4 pCi/L (US EPA action level) were statistically significance higher in bed rooms compared levels in living rooms. High radon concentrations were reported in lung cane risk houses and in houses with bad ventilation

  11. Assessment of the Dose from Radon and Its Decay Products in the Bozkov Dolomite Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovenská, K.; Thinová, L.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 1 (2008), s. 34-37. ISSN 0144-8420. [Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work /5./. Prague, 07.09.09-07.09.15] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : radon * aerosol size distribution * cave factor Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.951, year: 2008

  12. Quantitative assessment of cumulative damage from repetitive exposures to suberythemogenic doses of UVA in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily exposures to relatively small suberythemogenic fluences of UVA (50-200 kJ/m2) for 8 days resulted in cumulative morphological skin alterations indicative of early tissue injury. Histologically, irradiated skin revealed epidermal hyperplasia, inflammation and deposition of lysozyme along the dermal elastic fiber network. Sunburn cells were also present within the epidermis. These changes were quantified by image analysis and were found to be related to the cumulative UVA fluence. A long UVA waveband (UVAI, 340-400 nm) was as effective as a broad UVA band (320-400 nm), suggesting that these changes are induced by longer UVA wavelengths. (author)

  13. An Assessment of Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue in a Cobalt-Base Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative fatigue under axial and torsional loading conditions can include both load-order (higMow and low/high) as well as load-type sequence (axial/torsional and torsional/axial) effects. Previously reported experimental studies on a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 at 538 C, addressed these effects. These studies characterized the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue behavior under high amplitude followed by low amplitude (Kalluri, S. and Bonacuse, P. J., "Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequance Effects," in Multiaxial Fatigue and Deformation: Testing and Prediction, ASTM STP 1387, S. Kalluri, and P. J. Bonacuse, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 281-301) and low amplitude followed by high amplitude (Bonacuse, P. and Kalluri, S. "Sequenced Axial and Torsional Cumulative Fatigue: Low Amplitude Followed by High Amplitude Loading," Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, ESIS Publication 31, A. Carpinteri, M. De Freitas, and A. Spagnoli, Eds., Elsevier, New York, 2003, pp. 165-182) conditions. In both studies, experiments with the following four load-type sequences were performed: (a) axial/axial, (b) torsional/torsional, (c) axial/torsional, and (d) torsional/axial. In this paper, the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue data generated in the two previous studies are combined to generate a comprehensive cumulative fatigue database on both the load-order and load-type sequence effects. This comprehensive database is used to examine applicability of the Palmgren-langer-Miner linear damage rule and a nonlinear damage curve approach for Haynes 188 subjected to the load-order and load-type sequencing described above. Summations of life fractions from the experiments are compared to the predictions from both the linear and nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage approaches. The significance of load-order versus load-type sequence effects for axial and torsional loading conditions

  14. Assessment of Indoor Radon Concentrations and Dose Equivalent to Population in Cairo City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon comes from the natural radioactive of radium and uranium found in the soil beneath the house and from the building materials used. The amount of radon in the soil depends on complex soil chemistry that varies from one area to the next. The amount of radon that escapes from the soil and from the building materials and enters the house depends on the weather, soil porosity, soil moisture, and the ventilation within the house. Cairo is an expanding city and includes territories with different characteristics. Thus, in this work radon concentrations were evaluated in different territorial locations within Great cairo. These locations have been selected to investigate any possible differences in radon concentration between old, new residential, agricultural and industrial regions. Measurements were carried out using CR-39 as solid state nuclear track detector. The range of 222Rn activity in this survey was found in the range 8.71-50.18 Bq.m-3 in different locations in cairo

  15. Radon risk maps - correct applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Czech Republic has been surveyed for radon risk, and maps on the 1:200 000 scale have been set up based on results of field measurements of the volume activity of radon in soil air (4 800 measurements in total). The maps are used in territorial planning, in setting up strategies for financing remedial actions and in determining priorities for radon monitoring in buildings and in drinking water. The radon pathway from a rock is affected by soil permeability, tectonic defects and climatic factors. The radon risk assessment, however, cannot rely on regional maps solely; additional, more detailed measurements are necessary. (M.D.). 2 tabs., 3 refs

  16. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, C. T.; Matthews, H. D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions.

  17. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions. (letter)

  18. Radon Quantification and epidemiological assessment in room environments, according to construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the quantification of radon concentrations en the Ecuadorian region called 'Sierra', the contribution of building materials to the radioactive contamination and the rooms with greatest contents of radon and his daughters. The most representative zones are: Cuenca, Riobamba, San Gabriel and Puyango, this means that per m3 of air 429.14 radon atoms decay in a second to Po-218, the analyzed materials were: cement, black stone, bricks the rooms: bedroom, hall, dining room and bethroom. Knowing the biological damage that occurs by interaction of a particles with lung tissues. We suggest the follow research in order to get the average concentration for every province

  19. Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    de Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; ROSENBERG Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quan...

  20. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  1. Application of a Novel Method for Assessing Cumulative Risk Burden by County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to apply the Human Security Index (HSI as a tool to detect social and economic cumulative risk burden at a county-level in the state of Texas. The HSI is an index comprising a network of three sub-components or “fabrics”; the Economic, Environmental, and Social Fabrics. We hypothesized that the HSI will be a useful instrument for identifying and analyzing socioeconomic conditions that contribute to cumulative risk burden in vulnerable counties. We expected to identify statistical associations between cumulative risk burden and (a ethnic concentration and (b geographic proximity to the Texas-Mexico border. Findings from this study indicate that the Texas-Mexico border region did not have consistently higher total or individual fabric scores as would be suggested by the high disease burden and low income in this region. While the Economic, Environmental, Social Fabrics (including the Health subfabric were highly associated with Hispanic ethnic concentration, the overall HSI and the Crime subfabric were not. In addition, the Education, Health and Crime subfabrics were associated with African American racial composition, while Environment, Economic and Social Fabrics were not. Application of the HSI to Texas counties provides a fuller and more nuanced understanding of socioeconomic and environmental conditions, and increases awareness of the role played by environmental, economic, and social factors in observed health disparities by race/ethnicity and geographic region.

  2. EPA Peer Consultation Workshop on Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates: Potential Options and Methods for Evaluating the Cumulative Hazard Associated with Six Selected Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA held a 2-day workshop on December 8 and 9, 2010 at the Doubletree Hotel Washington DC-Crystal City in Arlington, Viriginia. The goal of this workshop was to evaulate methods of determining cumulative risk associated with exposure to mulitple phthalates for inclusion in the EP...

  3. Lung cancer and environmental radon exposure: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer accounts for approximately 100,000 deaths annually and nearly 30% of these are due to factors other than smoking. The prognosis for lung cancer is very poor and control of this disease depends on the identification and manipulation of etiologic agents. Radon is a demonstrated pulmonary carcinogen among uranium miners and is a ubiquitous environmental agent. This study addresses two principal issues: (a) the assessment of the potential health effects due to radon exposure from radioactive waste disposal in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, and (b) the broader scientific question of the existence of an association between lung cancer and environmental radon exposure. Indoor radon concentrations were taken in the homes of 50 lung cancer cases and 48 ASHD controls as an index of cumulative exposure. The distribution of concentrations was similar among case and control homes. The range of exposures was within background expectations as were lung cancer rates in the area. There was, furthermore, no geographic clustering of cases near the tailings site. Although an association between lung cancer and environmental radon exposure cannot be ruled out, the evidence suggests that radon exposure due to the disposal of tailings did not have a significant impact on the health of the residents living in the area and that indoor radon is not an important lung cancer risk factor at concentrations less than about 4pCi/I

  4. Effective dose assessment for workers in caves in the Czech Republic: Experiments with passive radon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new RAMARN system for radon volume activity measurement was developed in 2003 and has been in use since then. RAMARN system consists of a plastic chamber that is conically cylindrical in shape and about 0.5 l in volume; a bare Kodak LR 115 is located on the bottom of this diffusion chamber. The size was chosen to avoid the influence of deposited decay products of radon. Kodak has a spectrometric character - the tracks are visualized only for alphas with energies between 1 and 3 MeV that touch the foil; thus the effective volume has a lens shape. The response therefore corresponds to diffused radon and half of 218Po born by radon gas decay. The experiments described below were conducted as one part of a routine methodology control, focused on classifying worker irradiation from natural ionizing radiation sources in show caves and in caves used for speleo-therapy. (authors)

  5. Radon overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This tutorial presents the history of the radon industry, currently-used testing and mitigation techniques and future private industry and governmental plans. The significance of radon for homeowners, realtors and the construction industry is discussed. As a result of this tutorial, participants will: (1) Know how we became aware of the radon problem; (2) Learn what private industry and government officials are doing about it; (3) Understand the implications of radon for homeowners, realtors, builders and weatherization professionals

  6. Assessment of indoor radon doses received by the students in the Azad Kashmir schools (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several epidemiological studies conducted on thousands of underground miners suggest that long-term exposure to high radon concentration can increase the risk of lung cancer. Keeping in view the importance of the subject, numerous studies throughout the world have been carried out to measure indoor radon concentration and its resulting doses at occupational and non-occupational sites. The purpose of the current study was to measure indoor radon concentration and its resulting doses received by the students of Azad Kashmir government schools. For this purpose, CR-39 radon detectors were installed in 80 carefully selected schools. The detectors were placed at a height of 3-5 ft. (depending upon average height of students in particular class) from the ground. After exposure of 90 d detectors were etched for 9 h in 6 M NaOH at 70 deg. C and the observed track densities were related to radon concentrations. The measured indoor radon concentration ranged from 22 ± 9 to 228 ± 3 Bq m-3 with a mean value of 78 ± 5 Bq m-3. Based on the measured indoor radon data, the annual effective doses were found to vary from 0.55 ± 0.04 to 0.71 ± 0.03 mSv y-1. The overall mean effective dose for the studied area was found to be 0.63 ± 0.04 mSv y-1. Reported values for radon concentrations and corresponding doses are lower than ICRP recommended limits for workplaces. (authors)

  7. Assessment of seasonal indoor radon concentration in dwellings of Western Haryana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radon 222Rn in indoor air is a significant cause of lung cancer and the houses are an important exposure location due to the large proportion of time spent at home. The indoor radon measurements have been carried out in some of the dwellings belonging to different villages of Fatehbad and Hisar districts of Western Haryana. LR-115 Type II plastic track detectors in bare mode were used for the measurement of indoor radon concentration for over a period of one year. The calculated annual average indoor radon concentration values vary from 126.3 Bq m−3 to 172.1 Bq m−3 with an average value of 145.21 Bq m−3, which is less than the recommended action level (200–300 Bq m−3). The values of annual effective dose vary from 2.16 mSv to 2.94 mSv which is less than the lower limit of the recommended action level (3–10 mSv). The measured values of lifetime fatality risk vary from 1.67 to 2.27 with an average value of 1.92. The winter to summer ratio calculated for the studied dwellings ranges from 0.86 to 2.15 with an average of 1.46. The results indicate that the indoor radon concentration is higher in winter season than in the summer season. An attempt has also been made to find a correlation between the ventilation conditions and the measured values of indoor radon concentration. In most of the cases the radon values are less in well ventilated houses than partially/poorly ventilated houses. The measured indoor radon concentration values for the studied area are on the higher side than the world average of 40 Bq m−3.

  8. Assessment of indoor radon concentration in phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentration level was measured in twelve selected phosphate fertilizer warehouses in Nigeria in order to establish potential hazards to persons using such warehouses as offices. The fertilizer warehouses were selected based on the brand of fertilizers stored, size, ventilation pattern and the number of workers in the warehouses during working hours. Electret Ion Chamber Technology (EIC) with the trade name E-PERMTM was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in the warehouses. Average radon concentration in the warehouses range between 33.6 Bq m−3 and 117 Bq m−3with an arithmetic mean of 91.62±5.9 Bq m−3. - Highlights: ► Indoor radon in phosphate fertilizer warehouses were measured using E-PERM monitor. ► The result shows that indoor radon varies from 36.6±4.9 to 117.0±8.78 Bq m−3. ► The average annual effective dose due to indoor radon in the warehouses is 0.87 mSv. ► This value is elevated though below the action level. ► Adequate ventilation is mandatory if phosphate fertilizer must be stored in offices.

  9. Radon-222 in urban atmosphere: assessing the local fluxes of CO2 and CH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radon-222 is an inert, alpha-emitting radioactive gas with the half-life of 3.8 days. It is a product of decay of 226Ra which belongs to 238U-decay series. Uranium-238 and its decay product 226Ra are ubiquitous in the upper erth's crust and in the soils. Radon-222 which is being released into the pore space of soils, diffuses into the atmosphere where it decays to lead 210Pb. The release rate of 222Rn is controlled by source term (226Ra content in the soil and its vertical distribution) and by physical properties of the upper soil layer (mineral structure, porosity, water content). It depends also on the position of groundwater table and fluctuations of atmospheric pressure. Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 constitute an important component of the carbon budget, both on global and regional scales. For heavily industrialized and populated areas such as western and central Europe, a large proportion of the total CO2 flux entering the atmosphere is attributed to burning of fossil fuels. Also CH4 has important anthropogenic sources (leakages of gas networks, landfills, cows, etc.). Global and regional models of carbon cycle rely mainly on emission statistics to quantify the magnitude and variability of anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 fluxes into the atmosphere. Direct measurements of those fluxes, particularly in urban environment, are very difficult. Therefore, alternative ways of assessing their magnitude and variability are needed. Krakow (50o04'N, 19o55'E, 220 m a.s.l.) is a large urban agglomeration located in the southern Poland, with about 1 million inhabitants, rapidly growing car traffic and significant industrial activities. Consumption of coal, gas and oil for communal and transport purposes generates major fluxes of anthropogenic CO2 within the region. Leakages of old-fashioned city gas network constitute an important source of CH4 in the area. In addition, due to prevailing westerly air circulation, the Krakow region is

  10. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  11. A preliminary radon map for Canada according to health region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent publications of the combined analyses of residential radon studies in Europe and North America have shown that there is a significant risk of lung cancer at residential radon levels. In order to assess the population risk due to radon, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of indoor radon levels is essential. Here a preliminary radon map for Canada is presented, based on historical radon measurements collected in 6016 locations across Canada with the health region as the basic geographic units. (authors)

  12. Assessment of indoor radon exposure and risk of lung cancer in the population of the Sverdlovsk region, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse radioecological situation in the Sverdlovsk Region of Russia forms elevated radiation load on the population. To adequately assess the influence of exposure to radon on the development of lung cancer, a cohort study employing a multivariate analysis was conducted in the city of Pervouralsk, Russia. According to the chosen method, 200 lung cancer cases were randomly matched with 237 controls. Each of the 437 cohort members was characterized by a complex of 26 parameters reflecting known risk factors of lung cancer. Analytical tasks were solved based on methods of discriminant analysis. None of the three parameters directly characterizing the indoor level of radiation pollution by radon and thoron was found to be one of the most informative cancer risk factors. Thus, as compared to other analyzed risk factors of lung cancer, the contribution of radon and thoron exposure of population inhabiting multi story residential buildings in the city of Pervouralsk could not be considered as the most important cause of lung cancer. (authors)

  13. Scientific Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups on the basis of their toxicological profile

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues

    2013-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority asked the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to develop an Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups (CAGs) on the basis of their toxicological profile. In 2008, the PPR Panel adopted an Opinion on the suitability of existing methodologies for cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and a tiered approach was proposed, which was applied to a selected group of triazole pesticides in 2009. The...

  14. A Levels-of-Evidence Approach for Assessing Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Estuary and River Restoration Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Vogt, Kristiina A.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Dawley, Earl

    2011-03-01

    Even though large-scale ecological restoration programs are beginning to supplement isolated projects implemented on rivers and tidal waterways, the effects of restoration success often continue to be evaluated at project scales or by integration in an additive manner. Today our scientific understanding is sufficient that we can begin to apply lessons learnt from assessing cumulative impacts of anthropogenic stressors on ecosystems to the assessment of ecological restoration. Integration of this knowledge has the potential to increase the efficacy of restoration projects conducted at several locations but co-managed within the confines of a larger integrative program. We introduce here a framework based on a levels-of-evidence approach that facilitates assessment of the cumulative landscape effects of individual restoration actions taken at many different locations. It incorporates data collection at restoration and reference sites, hydrodynamic modeling, geographic information systems, and meta-analyses in a five-stage process: design, data, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, and application. This framework evolved from the need to evaluate the efficacy of restoration projects designed to increase rearing habitat for outmigrating juvenile salmonids, which are being implemented in numerous wetlands on the 235-km tidal portion of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

  15. An assessment of individual health benefits from a domestic Radon remediation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon gas occurs naturally in the environment and has been shown to cause increased numbers of lung cancers in miners when present at high levels in underground workings. Reviews of the miners' studies suggest that levels found in some homes can give rise to increased lung cancer incidence, and this has been confirmed by recent case control studies in South West England, and Germany. The current scientific consensus, expressed in the BEIR 6. report is that the risk of lung cancer has a linear relation with increasing radon exposure, and that there is no threshold of risk. The distribution of such excessive levels is geographically varied, and many countries have established programmes to identify the homes at risk, and encourage homeowners to remediate to reduce levels. Northamptonshire, in the centre of England, has been declared a radon Affected Area by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and has an average of 6.3 % of homes above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m-3. Several studies have suggested that theoretically such programmes can be justified on the basis of health benefits and cost effectiveness. Our group was the first to study actual radon remediation programmes - in Northamptonshire, studying first National Health Service properties, schools, and homes. These studies demonstrated that remediation programmes in Northamptonshire could be justified. The domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, once complete, could be favourably compared to other health initiatives such as the UK mammography screening programme for women aged 50 to 65

  16. Assessment and prevention of radioactive risk due to 222Radon on University Premises in Genoa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, D; Gasparini, R; Benatti, U; Gallelli, G

    2006-12-01

    From October 2004 to September 2005, Radon222 activity in high-risk indoor spaces used by employees and students at the University of Genoa was measured with CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The mean concentration in winter (78.9 Bq/m3 +/- 74.92 S.D.) was low in relation to the microenvironment considered. When data were broken down by type and location of the spaces, no significant differences were found, despite the fact that the Genoa conurbation lies on soil of variable geological composition. The dose absorbed by employees was 0.42 mSv/year, with a relative risk of 4.2/1000 cases of Radon-related lung cancer. The dose absorbed by students was 0.28 mSv/year, with a relative risk of 2.5/1000 cases of Radon-related lung cancer. The level of radon activity detected never exceeded the limit of 500 Bq/m3 established by Italian law. Nevertheless, the value of the compound uncertainty index suggested that the real level of Radon contamination could have exceeded 400 Bq/m3 in selected spaces, a value requiring annual concentration tests. PMID:17263158

  17. Multiple uses of indicators and indices in cumulative effects assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both environmental indicators and multi-metric indices are useful for describing baseline conditions and qualitatively predicting the cumulative consequences of multiple actions. Several examples and case studies associated with indicators and/or indices are presented herein. They can be easily modified for usage in CEAM. Habitat suitability models reflect special indices related to habitat needs and quality for specific species or broad habitat types. Such models have been used to address direct and indirect effects, and with some modification, they can be also used to address cumulative effects of multiple actions. This review has indicated that there are numerous examples of such tools which have been or could be used in both EIA and CEAM. Some key lessons are: (1) in conducting CEAM studies, it is useful to think from the mindset that 'I am the VEC or indicator, and what is my historical and current condition and how have I, or will I, be affected by multiple past, present, and future actions?'; (2) due to the likely absence of detailed information on future actions, the described tools can still be used to 'predict' future conditions by focusing on qualitative up-or-down changes in individual indicators or indices with their aggregated displays; and (3) numerous regional and site-specific tools are currently available, with one example being indices of biological integrity for specific watersheds and water bodies. Such tools, even though they may not have been developed for CEAM usage, can certainly benefit CEAM studies and practice. Finally, usage of selected and appropriate tools as described herein can aid in conducting science-based, systematic, and documentable CEAM studies.

  18. A geographic model to assess and limit cumulative ecological degradation from Marcellus Shale exploitation in New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John B.; Robinson, George R.

    2012-01-01

    When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km²), using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey), percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program), and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments) within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus the number of

  19. A Geographic Model to Assess and Limit Cumulative Ecological Degradation from Marcellus Shale Exploitation in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. Robinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km², using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey, percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program, and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus

  20. Dose assessment due to radon concentrations in schools and dwellings of Algiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon measurements were performed in public schools at different locations, as well as in dwellings of Algiers. Indoor radon was measured by means of solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115) in twelve town locations and in twenty four schools, with two schools in each location. The average radon concentrations in schools, in dwellings and outdoors was 25.6, 29.8 and 11 Bq.m-3, respectively. The estimated average effective dose equivalent for the school pupils was 1.28 mSv.y-1 (with occupancy factors of 0.6, 0.2 and 0.2 for home, school and outdoors, respectively). This paper describes the methodology adopted and discusses the results obtained. (author)

  1. Comparison of passive and active radon measurement methods for personal occupational dose assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanzadeh Elham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the performance of the active short-term and passive long-term radon measurement methods, a study was carried out in several closed spaces, including a uranium mine in Iran. For the passive method, solid-state nuclear track detectors based on Lexan polycarbonate were utilized, for the active method, AlphaGUARD. The study focused on the correlation between the results obtained for estimating the average indoor radon concentrations and consequent personal occupational doses in various working places. The repeatability of each method was investigated, too. In addition, it was shown that the radon concentrations in different stations of the continually ventilated uranium mine were comparable to the ground floor laboratories or storage rooms (without continual ventilation and lower than underground laboratories.

  2. A creeping suspicion about radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Who would expect an odorless, invisible gas that occurs nearly everywhere on earth to cause such trouble? Yet radon, the gas emitted by decay of uranium in the earth's crust, is one of America's most significant environmental risks, according to the EPA, which estimates that residential radon levels lead to approximately 13,600 lung cancer deaths each year. A new National Cancer Institute analysis of multiple studies of miners confirms early estimates, putting the number at 15,000. No other risk comes close, not even environmental tobacco smoke, which is estimates to cause some 3,000 deaths each year. Hot debate surrounds the assessment of risk from radon exposure to Americans via indoor air and water supplies. The primary culprit is not radon gas itself, but its decay products, including polonium-214 and polonium-218, which have long half-lives and emit alpha particles - positively charged particles - and lung cancer when inhaled. Radon seeps into homes from the ground or is present in water supplies. Waterborne radon may be inhaled as radon or its progeny during household use - cooking or showering - or it may be ingested. But the EPA estimates that water sources contribute only about 5% of total airborne radon exposure, leaving indoor air as the worst offender. While the EPA estimates that approximately 200 cancer cases per year result from exposure to radon from public groundwater systems, estimates of annual lung cancer deaths from indoor air radon range from 7,000 to 30,000

  3. The radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings

  4. The health risk of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, second only to cigarette smoking, many members of the public are not aware that radon is one of the most serious environmental cancer risks in the US. Based on extensive data from epidemiological studies of underground miners, radon has been classified as a known human carcinogen. In contrast to most pollutants, the assessment of human risk from radon is based on human occupational exposure data rather than animal data. That radon causes lung cancer has been well established by the scientific community. More is known about radon than most other cancer causing environmental carcinogens. While there are some uncertainties involved when estimating radon risk to the public, it is important to recognize that the risk information is based on human data and that the uncertainties have been addressed in the risk assessment. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the number of annual US lung cancer deaths due to residential radon exposures is approximately 14,000 with an uncertainty range of 7,000 to 30,000. The abundant information on radon health risks that supports EPA's risk assessment indicates that recommendations for public action by the federal government and other public health organizations constitute prudent public policy

  5. Radon in residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the geographic variation in the presence of radon at relatively high levels. Its focus is the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania but it considers the incidence of residential radon in adjoining counties in contiguous states, and by state throughout the nation. Cartographic analysis provides a robust assessment of the broad impact of physiography, the local effects of housing and lifestyle, and the quality of the best available spatial data. By promoting a fuller understanding of the pattern and magnitude of the risk, radon maps constitute a basis for a more effective and efficient prophylaxis. Further, county-unit maps of age-adjusted mortality rates for successive decades demonstrate inconsistent and puzzling linkages between the geographics of radon and cancer

  6. Assessment of exposure of uranium miners to radon progeny using in vivo measurement of 210Pb in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies of lung cancer incidence among uranium miners from various populations around the world have shown a significant variability in the relative risk per unit exposure - a range of a factor of 30. A significant fraction of the uncertainty associated with these risk coefficients may be due to differences in the methods and quality of data used in calculating cumulative exposures, in Working Level Months (WLM), for the various miner populations. We hypothesize that in vivo measurement of 210Pb, a long-lived radon decay product, retained in bone will provide a better measure of the exposure of individual miners to radon and progeny during their mining careers. To accomplish these in vivo measurements, the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) In Vivo Bioassay Facility (IVBF) was modified to optimize a counting geometry for measuring 210Pb in the skull. Six phoswich detectors (12.7 cm diameter) were positioned about the head of a reclining subject (one posterior, one anterior, and four on the sides of the head), and photon emission from the skull was measured using anticoincidence multichannel analysis electronics. To date, we have analyzed the in vivo measurement data from about 90 former uranium miners from the Grants, New Mexico (NM), mining district. The recorded WLM exposures for each uranium miner (data from the UNM epidemiological data base) were compared with a WLM exposure calculated using a Pb biokinetic model coupled to the ICRP Publication 66 respiratory tract dosimetry model. The analyses show that the independent measures of exposure are statistically correlated but vary greatly among individual values. (author)

  7. Reprint of "Acquisition of choice in concurrent chains: Assessing the cumulative decision model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2016-06-01

    Concurrent chains is widely used to study pigeons' choice between terminal links that can vary in delay, magnitude, or probability of reinforcement. We review research on the acquisition of choice in this procedure. Acquisition has been studied with a variety of research designs, and some studies have incorporated no-food trials to allow for timing and choice to be observed concurrently. Results show that: Choice can be acquired rapidly within sessions when terminal links change unpredictably; under steady-state conditions, acquisition depends on both initial- and terminal-link schedules; and initial-link responding is mediated by learning about the terminal-link stimulus-reinforcer relations. The cumulative decision model (CDM) proposed by Christensen and Grace (2010) and Grace and McLean (2006, 2015) provides a good description of within-session acquisition, and correctly predicts the effects of initial and terminal-link schedules in steady-state designs (Grace, 2002a). Questions for future research include how abrupt shifts in preference within individual sessions and temporal control of terminal-link responding can be modeled. PMID:27150444

  8. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2015-07-07

    The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A) may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota. Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP) of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3°C), alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced NCP and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP < 0) metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV × Temp) was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2−O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle.

  9. Acquisition of choice in concurrent chains: Assessing the cumulative decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2016-05-01

    Concurrent chains is widely used to study pigeons' choice between terminal links that can vary in delay, magnitude, or probability of reinforcement. We review research on the acquisition of choice in this procedure. Acquisition has been studied with a variety of research designs, and some studies have incorporated no-food trials to allow for timing and choice to be observed concurrently. Results show that: Choice can be acquired rapidly within sessions when terminal links change unpredictably; under steady-state conditions, acquisition depends on both initial- and terminal-link schedules; and initial-link responding is mediated by learning about the terminal-link stimulus-reinforcer relations. The cumulative decision model (CDM) proposed by Christensen and Grace (2010) and Grace and McLean (2006, 2015) provides a good description of within-session acquisition, and correctly predicts the effects of initial and terminal-link schedules in steady-state designs (Grace, 2002a). Questions for future research include how abrupt shifts in preference within individual sessions and temporal control of terminal-link responding can be modeled. PMID:27005579

  10. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  11. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-fp-Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction fp and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have been

  12. Assessment of external gamma exposure and radon levels in a dwelling constructed with phosphogypsum plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduar, M.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Campos, M.P., E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mazzilli, B.P.; Villaverde, F.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Phosphogypsum, a fertilizer industry by-product, is being worldwide stockpiled, posing environmental concerns. Since this material contains natural radionuclides in significant concentrations, its use as a building material has radiological implications. In order to confirm the feasibility of the use of a new material mainly composed by phosphogypsum, an experimental house was built, having some of its rooms entirely lined with this material. Measurements of samples of phosphogypsum plates from different origins resulted in values of 0.2 to 2.6 for the external radiation index, thus justifying a more detailed investigation. In this paper, the application of a previously developed computational model to forecast external doses indoors is described. A comprehensive radiological evaluation is being performed, including measurement of the external gamma exposure and radon concentrations in one of the rooms of the house. The results show that the annual increment in the effective dose to an inhabitant of the house will remain below the 1 mSv limit for every reasonable scenario. The radon measurements were carried out over a period of 18 months, in order to determine the long-term average levels of the indoor radon concentrations. The results obtained are below 200 Bq m{sup -3}, the recommended investigation level for radon.

  13. Dynamic Assessment of Radon Source in Buildings, Based on Tracer Gas Experiment Statistical Modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Jílek, K.

    Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers, 2012 - (Li, Z.; Feng, C.), s. 211-242 ISBN 978-1-62100-177-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : radon * dynamic modeling * functional data analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=23545

  14. Assessment of external gamma exposure and radon levels in a dwelling constructed with phosphogypsum plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum, a fertilizer industry by-product, is being worldwide stockpiled, posing environmental concerns. Since this material contains natural radionuclides in significant concentrations, its use as a building material has radiological implications. In order to confirm the feasibility of the use of a new material mainly composed by phosphogypsum, an experimental house was built, having some of its rooms entirely lined with this material. Measurements of samples of phosphogypsum plates from different origins resulted in values of 0.2 to 2.6 for the external radiation index, thus justifying a more detailed investigation. In this paper, the application of a previously developed computational model to forecast external doses indoors is described. A comprehensive radiological evaluation is being performed, including measurement of the external gamma exposure and radon concentrations in one of the rooms of the house. The results show that the annual increment in the effective dose to an inhabitant of the house will remain below the 1 mSv limit for every reasonable scenario. The radon measurements were carried out over a period of 18 months, in order to determine the long-term average levels of the indoor radon concentrations. The results obtained are below 200 Bq m-3, the recommended investigation level for radon.

  15. Indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies

  16. Assessing cumulative dose distributions in combined radiotherapy for cervical cancer using deformable image registration with pre-imaging preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of deformable image registration (DIR) in assessing cumulative dose distributions of the combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and fractionated intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for cervical cancer. Three-dimensional image data sets of five consecutive patients were used. The treatment plan consisted of whole pelvic EBRT (total dose: 45 Gy in 25 fractions) combined with computed tomography (CT)-based high-dose rate ICBT (≥24 Gy in 4 fractions to the high risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV)). Organs at risk and HR-CTV were contoured on each CT images and dose-volume parameters were acquired. Pre-imaging preparations were performed prior to each ICBT to minimize the uncertainty of the organ position. Physical doses of each treatment were converted to biologically equivalent doses in 2 Gy daily fractions by the linear quadratic model. Three-dimensional dose distributions of each treatment were accumulated on CT images of the first ICBT using DIR with commercially available image registration software (MIM Maestro®). To compare with DIR, 3D dose distributions were fused by rigid registration based on bony structure matching. To evaluate the accuracy of DIR, the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was measured between deformed contours and initial contours. The cumulative dose distributions were successfully illustrated on the CT images using DIR. Mean DSCs of the HR-CTV, rectum, and bladder were 0.46, 0.62 and 0.69, respectively, with rigid registration; and 0.78, 0.76, and 0.87, respectively, with DIR (p <0.05). The mean DSCs derived from our DIR procedure were comparable to those of previous reports describing the quality of DIR algorithms in the pelvic region. DVH parameters derived from the 2 methods showed no significant difference. Our results suggest that DIR-based dose accumulation may be acceptable for assessing cumulative dose distributions to assess doses to the tumor and organs at risk

  17. Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) (The Use of Life Cycle Assessment for Aquaculture)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research is aimed at the demonstration of the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in aquaculture for the development of process improvement. This work is being...

  18. IDENTIFYING CHEMICALS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT USING COMMON MECHANISMS OF ACTION AND TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, potential health risk assessments from exposure to contaminated food, drinking water, or environmental media have been conducted on individual pesticides or chemicals in each medium of concern. However, humans are generally exposed to multiple chemicals and stress...

  19. An Analysis of the Cumulative Uncertainty Associated with a Quantitative Consequence Assessment of a Major Accident

    OpenAIRE

    JIRSA PAVEL

    2005-01-01

    The task of the article is to quantify the uncertainty of the possible results of the accident consequence assessment of the chemical production plant and to provide some description of potentional problems with literature references and examples to help to avoid the erroneous use of available formulas. Based on numbers presented in the article we may conclude, that the main source of uncertainty in the consequence analysis of chemical accident assessment is surprisingly not only the dispers...

  20. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de inho

  1. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  2. Estimation of soil exhalation rate and indoor radon concentration in air using RAD7 for health risk assessment in Hisar district, Haryana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the health risk assessment of the residents because of the exposure to indoor radon concentration in the dwellings an active technique using RAD7 (an electronic radon detector) has been employed in the 50 dwellings in the studied area of Hisar district of Haryana, India. Also the average annual effective dose due to radon gas has been calculated. The estimation of radon gas exhalation rates in the 50 soil samples collected from the studied area has also been carried out by sealed Can Technique using LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The measured surface exhalation rates in the soil samples vary from 189.74 to 285.99 mBq m-2h-1 and mass exhalation rates vary from 8.61 to 11.16 mBq kg-1h-1. The measured indoor radon values in the study area varies from 51.09 to 324.23 Bq m-3 with an average value of 191.80 Bq m-3 which is well within the recommended action level 200-300 Bq m-3 (ICRP, 2009) in about 80% of the samples and is slightly above 300 Bq m-3 in only about 20% of the samples. The indoor radon values obtained in the present investigation are more than the world average of 40 Bq m-3 The annual average dose received by the residents of the study area varies from 1.29 mSv to 8.17 mSv with an average value of 4.83 mSv which was calculated using parameters introduced in report by UNSCEAR (2000) and these values are within the recommended safe limit of 3 mSv to 10 mSv. These values suggest that there is no significance threat to the human beings due to the presence of natural radon in the dwellings. (author)

  3. Radon continuous monitoring in Altamira Cave (northern Spain) to assess user's annual effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present the values of radon concentration, measured by continuous monitoring during a complete annual cycle in the Polychromes Hall of Altamira Cave in order to undertake more precise calculations of annual effective dose for guides and visitors in tourist caves. The 222Rn levels monitored inside the cave ranges from 186 Bq m-3 to 7120 Bq m-3, with an annual average of 3562 Bq m-3. In order to more accurately estimate effective dose we use three scenarios with different equilibrium factors (F=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) together with different dose conversion factors proposed in the literature. Neither effective dose exceeds international recommendations. Moreover, with an automatic radon monitoring system the time remaining to reach the maximum annual dose recommended could be automatically updated

  4. Radon continuous monitoring in Altamira Cave (northern Spain) to assess user's annual effective dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, J; Sánchez-Moral, S; Cañaveras, J C; Cuezva, S; Soler, V

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present the values of radon concentration, measured by continuous monitoring during a complete annual cycle in the Polychromes Hall of Altamira Cave in order to undertake more precise calculations of annual effective dose for guides and visitors in tourist caves. The (222)Rn levels monitored inside the cave ranges from 186 Bq m(-3) to 7120 Bq m(-3), with an annual average of 3562 Bq m(-3). In order to more accurately estimate effective dose we use three scenarios with different equilibrium factors (F=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) together with different dose conversion factors proposed in the literature. Neither effective dose exceeds international recommendations. Moreover, with an automatic radon monitoring system the time remaining to reach the maximum annual dose recommended could be automatically updated. PMID:15701381

  5. Variation of indoor radon progeny concentration and its role in dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instantaneous measurements of equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EECRn) were taken over a period of 1 year in 2004 in a typical house at Amritsar city, located in the northwest part of India. A method based on absolute beta counting subsequent to grab aerosol sampling was used. During that year, EECRn varied between 1.56 Bq m-3 and 22.77 Bq m-3 with average value of 8.76 Bq m-3. EECRn decreased with the transition from winter to summer and vice versa, having a negative correlation with outdoor temperature. The use of mechanical ventilation, under normal living conditions during summer, caused an extra decrease in the concentrations. The variations with temperature and mechanical ventilation are discussed. Some major issues related to the uncertainties in dose calculations caused by the lack of knowledge of equilibrium factor and ignoring the effect of life style on the radon and its progeny concentrations are discussed

  6. Practical usefulness of radon risk maps and detailed in-situ classification of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation answers the frequent question about the practical usefulness, advantages and disadvantages of radon risk maps and detailed in-situ classification of radon risk. Czech Radon Programme derives the benefit from radon maps on various scales - 1:500 000, 1:200 000 and 1:50 000, as well as from the uniform method for direct detailed classification of radon risk. The reliability assessment of the practical usefulness is based on the direct comparison between the results obtained from detailed in-situ classification of radon risk of building sites and the corresponding reading from the radon risk map. Altogether almost one thousand of detailed radon risk assessments, i.e. tens of thousands of soil-gas radon concentration measurements, were compared with the expected radon risk categories in five radon risk map sheets on the scale 1:50 000. The new results more specify and correspond to the previous results from comparisons performed in 1992, 1995 and 2002. We can prepare quite consistent maps, which can be successfully used to direct the search of existing houses with higher indoor radon values. On the other hand, the risk of underestimation or overestimation in the case of deriving the radon risk classification of a specific building site from the map seems to be too high to use the maps for direct assessment of specific sites. For new buildings, it is recommended to use detailed in-situ measurements and classification. (authors)

  7. Assessment of potential radiological population health effects from radon in liquefied petroleum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contains varying amounts of radon-222 which becomes dispersed within homes when LPG is used in unvented appliances. Radon-222 decays to alpha-emitting daughter products which are associated with increased lung cancer when inhaled and deposited in the respiratory system. The average dose equivalents to the bronchial epithelium from the use of LPG in unvented kitchen ranges and space heaters are estimated to be about 0.9 and 4.0 mrem/year, respectively. When extrapolated to the United States population at risk, the estimated tracheobronchial dose equivalents are about 20,000 and 10,000 person-rems/year for these appliances, or a total of about 30,000 person-rems/year. These doses are very small compared to other natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation. It is estimated that these low doses would result in less than one lung cancer a year for the total U.S. population. Consequently, the use of LPG containing radon-222 does not contribute significantly to the incidence of lung cancer in the United States. Furthermore, the cost for control of radon levels in LPG would be over $50 million for reduction of one health effect, therefore it is concluded that a requirement for such controls would not be cost effective on a national basis. This study did indicate that individual dose equivalents could possibly exceed 500 mrem/year. However, existing data are not sufficient to determine the significance of such potentially high individual doses. (author)

  8. A geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial modeling approach to assessing indoor radon potential at local level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacan, Igor [California Department of Health Services, Environmental Health Laboratory Branch, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Mailstop G365/EHLB, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States)]. E-mail: ilacan@nature.Berkeley.edu; Zhou, Joey Y. [California Department of Health Services, Environmental Health Laboratory Branch, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Mailstop G365/EHLB, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Liu, Kai-Shen [California Department of Health Services, Environmental Health Laboratory Branch, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Mailstop G365/EHLB, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Waldman, Jed [California Department of Health Services, Environmental Health Laboratory Branch, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Mailstop G365/EHLB, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    This study integrates residential radon data from previous studies in Southern California (USA), into a geographic information system (GIS) linked with statistical techniques. A difference (p<0.05) is found in the indoor radon in residences grouped by radon-potential zones. Using a novel Monte Carlo approach, we found that the mean distance from elevated-radon residences (concentration>74Bqm{sup -3}) to epicenters of large (> 4 Richter) earthquakes was smaller (p<0.0001) than the average residence-to-epicenter distance, suggesting an association between the elevated indoor-radon and seismic activities.

  9. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through study of asymmetric facial skin damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mac-Mary1

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Mac-Mary1, Jean-Marie Sainthillier1, Adeline Jeudy3, Christelle Sladen2, Cara Williams2, Mike Bell2, Philippe Humbert31Skinexigence SAS, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, Besançon, France; 2The Boots Company, Nottingham, United Kingdom; 3Research and Studies Center on the Integument, Department of Dermatology, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, FranceBackground: Published studies assessing whether asymmetric facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology are only observational. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA exposure through a window.Methods: Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetric signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer®, mechanical properties with a Cutometer®, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux®, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analyses.Results: Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance.Discussion: This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.Keywords: UVA, asymmetry, photodamage, face

  10. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ”Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC” (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in 136Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has started in Canfranc; in-situ measurements of airborne radon levels were taken there to optimize the system for radon mitigation and will be shown too

  11. Assessments of activated carbon prepared from date stones in adsorption of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical department (RCD) at Tajoura Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) in Tripoli city is one of the fewest workplaces which have experienced indoor level evaluation. In this present study, it is intended to investigate the efficiency of domestic activated carbons (AC) derived from most locally available agricultural by products date stones (DS) in the adsorption of indoor radon-222 ('222Rn) at different oriented sites of RCD. The average indoor radon concentration values in the study areas varied from (34±3.0) Bq/m3 to (192.7±9.1) Bq/m3, while the values of the annual effective dose varied from (0.355) mSv/y to (0.974) mSv/y. All obtained values were within the recommended action levels of (200 - 300) Bq/m3 and 2.4 mSv/y which are given by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993 and 1987 respectively. A designed set up of portable ACDS canisters are proposed to be utilized in other different workplaces such as schools, where educational buildings are considered as locations of ventilation deficiency and high occupancy times for children and such naturally occurring radio-active radon is distinguished as a second leading cause of lung cancer worldwide.(author)

  12. Significance of independent radon entry rate and air exchange rate assessment for the purpose of radon mitigation effectiveness proper evaluation: case studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Froňka, A.; Jílek, K.; Moučka, L.; Brabec, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 145, 2-3 (2011), s. 133-137. ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : indoor radon * kalman filter * state-space modeling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2011

  13. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods......: We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...... and the cumulated exposure of each child were calculated as the product of exposure level and time, for each address occupied during childhood. Results: Cumulative radon exposure was associated with risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with rate ratios of 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0...

  14. The impact of occupancy patterns on the assessment of the value of domestic radon remediation programmes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital, Cliftonville, Northampton (United Kingdom); Gulliver, J. [Nene Centre for Research, University College Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom); Kennedy, C.A. [Health Economics Research Centre, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Briggs, D. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.S. [School of Environmental Science, University College Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Northamptonshire is one of the areas in the UK affected by radon with 6.3% of houses are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m{sup -3}. The costs and benefits of remediation of domestic properties in Northamptonshire has been studied (1), and found to be similar to theoretical predictions, and justifiable compared to other radiation dose reduction programmes. One key assumption is the time spent by each occupant within the home. Denman and Phillips (1) assumed 50% occupancy to eliminate any exposure at the workplace, or whilst out of the home. However, the NRPB, using 1984 data, had previously assessed that be average occupancy in the UK was around 80%. This paper presents new occupancy data for Northampton, and assesses its impact on the assessment of remediation programmes. The occupancy of a sample of the population in suburban Northamptonshire was assessed using a telephone questionnaire in the early evening, when previous studies had shown it to be at its greatest. The respondent was asked about their activity over the last 24 hours, noting the time spent indoors, travelling, and in any other building. Only one person in each household was questioned. Data from 286 respondents was obtained in total. Occupancy in the home had a bimodal distribution, with a peak at around 50% (12 hour) occupancy, and another peak close to total occupancy. The average occupancy for the whole sample was 17.28 hours (72%). Data will also be presented for sub-groups of the population, including similar surveys of school children and students, where the average occupancy is much less. These groups have different occupancy patterns. The retired, invalids, and young mothers spend most time in the home, and children, students, and working people spent most time our of the home. 65 remediated homes have now been studied in Northamptonshire, and at 5% occupancy the collective dose reduction was estimated to be 2.22 man-sieverts. Using NRPB data of 80% occupancy, this would be 3.55 man

  15. The impact of occupancy patterns on the assessment of the value of domestic radon remediation programmes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northamptonshire is one of the areas in the UK affected by radon with 6.3% of houses are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m-3. The costs and benefits of remediation of domestic properties in Northamptonshire has been studied (1), and found to be similar to theoretical predictions, and justifiable compared to other radiation dose reduction programmes. One key assumption is the time spent by each occupant within the home. Denman and Phillips (1) assumed 50% occupancy to eliminate any exposure at the workplace, or whilst out of the home. However, the NRPB, using 1984 data, had previously assessed that be average occupancy in the UK was around 80%. This paper presents new occupancy data for Northampton, and assesses its impact on the assessment of remediation programmes. The occupancy of a sample of the population in suburban Northamptonshire was assessed using a telephone questionnaire in the early evening, when previous studies had shown it to be at its greatest. The respondent was asked about their activity over the last 24 hours, noting the time spent indoors, travelling, and in any other building. Only one person in each household was questioned. Data from 286 respondents was obtained in total. Occupancy in the home had a bimodal distribution, with a peak at around 50% (12 hour) occupancy, and another peak close to total occupancy. The average occupancy for the whole sample was 17.28 hours (72%). Data will also be presented for sub-groups of the population, including similar surveys of school children and students, where the average occupancy is much less. These groups have different occupancy patterns. The retired, invalids, and young mothers spend most time in the home, and children, students, and working people spent most time our of the home. 65 remediated homes have now been studied in Northamptonshire, and at 5% occupancy the collective dose reduction was estimated to be 2.22 man-sieverts. Using NRPB data of 80% occupancy, this would be 3.55 man-sievert, but

  16. A Geostatistical Approach to Assess the Spatial Association between Indoor Radon Concentration, Geological Features and Building Characteristics: The Case of Lombardy, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bigliotto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and second to smoking, a major leading cause of lung cancer. The main source of radon is the soil, but the gas can enter buildings in many different ways and reach high indoor concentrations. Monitoring surveys have been promoted in many countries in order to assess the exposure of people to radon. In this paper, two complementary aspects are investigated. Firstly, we mapped indoor radon concentration in a large and inhomogeneous region using a geostatistical approach which borrows strength from the geologic nature of the soil. Secondly, knowing that geologic and anthropogenic factors, such as building characteristics, can foster the gas to flow into a building or protect against this, we evaluated these effects through a multiple regression model which takes into account the spatial correlation of the data. This allows us to rank different building typologies, identified by architectonic and geological characteristics, according to their proneness to radon. Our results suggest the opportunity to differentiate construction requirements in a large and inhomogeneous area, as the one considered in this paper, according to different places and provide a method to identify those dwellings which should be monitored more carefully.

  17. Procedure and assessment of cumulative environmental effects Sameiginlegt mat á umhverfisáhrifum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrét Vala Kristjánsdóttir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a provision in Article 5.2 of the Icelandic Act on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, No. 106/2000 that allows for a special procedure of joint EIA of two or more associated projects. Its main aim is to ensure that the overall assessment of environmental effects is taken into account before decisions are made. This provision has raised questions in relation to its scope and applicability. The provision´s origin, substance and application are analysed as well as its conformity to Directive 85/337/EEC as it has been introduced into the EEA Agreement. The paper concludes that administrative implementation has clarified certain aspects, including the legal conditions for its application. However, the application of the provision raises questions as to whether its aim may be achieved by a less onerous procedure; in line with Directive 85/337/EEC as interpreted by the European Commission.Í greininni er fjallað um ákvæði um sameiginlegt mat á umhverfisáhrifum í 2. mgr. 5. gr. laga nr. 106/2000 um mat á umhverfisáhrifum. Meginmarkmið ákvæðisins er að upplýsa um heildaráhrif framkvæmda á umhverfið áður en ákvarðanir um þær eru teknar. Vegna álitaefna sem upp hafa komið í tengslum við framkvæmd ákvæðisins er í greininni leitast við að skýra tilurð þess og efni með hliðsjón af lögskýringargögnum, framkvæmd þess og reglum tilskipunar 85/337/EBE eins og hún hefur verið tekin upp í EES-samninginn. Í greininni er komist að þeirri niðurstöðu að skilyrði fyrir beitingu ákvæðisins hafi skýrst í framkvæmd. Framkvæmdin veki jafnframt spurningar um hvort ná megi markmiðum ákvæðisins jafn vel, með einfaldari leiðum sem samræmast tilskipun 85/337/EBE eins og hún hefur verið skýrð af framkvæmdastjórn Evrópusambandsins.

  18. A comparison of contemporary and retrospective radon gas measurements in high radon dwellings in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little correlations has been found between contemporary radon gas measurements made in the past and retrospective radon gas measurements in Irish dwellings. This would suggest that these two techniques would result in two significantly different cumulative radon exposure estimates. Contemporary radon gas measurements made a few years apart in the same room of a dwelling were found to be significantly different. None of these differences could be explained by known changes to the rooms themselves., such ventilation or structural alterations to the room. This highlights the limitations of the contemporary radon gas measurements as a surrogate measurement for use in residential radon epidemiology. The contemporary radon gas measurements made by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) and University College of Dublin (U.C.D.) do not cover the same exposure period as the retrospective estimates and so the accuracy of the retrospective measurements cannot be demonstrated. A weak correlation can be seen between the retrospective radon gas estimates and a combination of the two contemporary radon gas estimates. It is not unreasonable to expect improvement in the correlation if further contemporary radon gas measurements were made in these rooms. (N.C.)

  19. Radon - To mobilise civil society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As radon is one of the two main sources of exposure of population to ionizing radiations in France, is notably said to be responsible of 1.000 to 3.000 deaths for lung cancer per year, and could be at the origin of other cancers like child leukaemia, this set of articles evokes the different factors which promote radon transfer from soils to buildings, studies performed to better identify geological sources of radon, actions implemented to assess radon presence in dwellings (distribution of 'radon kits' in Brittany), the performance of radiological expertise by the IRSN on the request of public authorities, the project of dwelling inventory and population information. A second article reports examples of intervention by the IRSN to inform local authorities, inhabitants, academics, public utilities, building professions, and even children. Technical solutions adopted in the United Kingdom are briefly evoked

  20. Radon in ground water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs

  1. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  2. Fluid-based radon mitigation technology development for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the radon mitigation technology development effort is to develop an efficient and economical radon gas removal technology based on a fluid absorption process. The technology must be capable of cleaning up a wide range of radon gas stream concentrations to a level that meets EPA gas emission standards for residential and industrial applications. Argonne has recently identified a phenomenon that offers the possibility of radon recovery from the atmosphere with high efficiency at room temperature, and radon release at slightly elevated temperatures (50-60 degrees C.) such a device would offer numerous substantial advantages over conventional cryogenic charcoal systems for the removal of radon. Controlled sources of radon in Argonne's radon research facility are being used to quantitatively assess the performance of a selected class of absorbing fluids over a range of radon concentrations. This paper will discuss the design of laboratory- and engineering-scale radon absorption units and present some preliminary experimental test results

  3. Carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic effects of radon and radon daughters in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been previously established that lung cancer could be induced in rats by exposure to radon and radon daughters. Although the oat-cell carcinomas that are common in humans were not found in rats, other histological types of lung carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinomas and primitive lung adenocarcinomas, were similar to those observed in humans. A dose-effect relationship was established for cumulative doses varying from 25 to 300 working-level-months (WLM), which was similar for medium and high cumulative doses to that observed in uranium miners. This experimental protocol was also used to study the potential cocarcinogenic effects of other environmental or industrial airborne pollutants such as tobacco smoke, mineral fibers, diesel exhausts, or minerals from metallic mine ores that may act synergistically with radon exposure. In rats exposed to radon and tobacco smoke combined, the incidence of malignant thoracic tumors was observed in rats exposed to radon and fibers combined, but synergistic effects resulted in additivity. With diesel exhausts or minerals from metallic ores, a slight, nonsignificant increase in the incidence of lung carcinomas was observed compared with rats exposed to radon alone. These results demonstrated that it is possible to establish the potential cocarcinogenic action, showing either multiplicative, additive, or no effect of various environmental or industrial airborne pollutants combined with radon exposure. This radon model is valid for investigating possible interactions between two occupational exposures. 62 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Radon dispersion modeling and dose assessment for uranium mine ventilation shaft exhausts under neutral atmospheric stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Wang, Hanqing; Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Liu, Zehua; Mo, Shunquan

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the roles of atmospheric wind profiles in the neutral atmosphere and surface roughness parameters in a complex terrain were examined to determine their impacts on radon ((222)Rn) dispersion from an actual uranium mine ventilation shaft. Simulations were completed on (222)Rn dispersion extending from the shaft to a vulnerable distance, near the location of an occupied farmhouse. The eight dispersion scenarios for the ventilation shaft source included four downwind velocities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 m s(-1)) and two underlying surface roughness characteristics (0.1 m and 1.0 m). (222)Rn distributions and elevated pollution regions were identified. Effective dose estimation methods involving a historical weighting of wind speeds in the direction of interest coupled to the complex dispersion model were proposed. Using this approach, the radiation effects on the residents assumed to be outside at the location of the farm house 250 m downwind from the ventilation shaft outlet were computed. The maximum effective dose rate calculated for the residents at the outside of the farm house was 2.2 mSv y(-1), which is less than the low limit action level of 3-10 mSv y(-1) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) occupational exposure action level for radon. PMID:24378730

  5. Assessment of excess lung cancer risk due to the indoor radon exposure in some cities of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentration levels were measured in the cities of Amman, Zarka, and Sault using Cr-39 etch track detectors. The average values of indoor concentration levels in these cities were found to be 41.3 Bq m/sup -3/, 30.7 Bq m/sup -3/ and 51.2 Bq m/sup -3/ respectively. Based on these data, excess lung cancer risk was assessed using the risk factors recommended by UNSCEAR. The life time excess lung cancer risk due to the life time exposure has been determined and is found to vary from 33 per MPY to 55 MPY at the age of 70 when lower value of the risk factors is used. On the other hand, if upper value of the risk factors is used then the estimated excess lung cancer risk at the age of 70 varies from 74 per MPY to 125 per MPY. (author)

  6. Assessment of the dose rates to the basal layer of the skin from radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical values of the parameters such as ventilation rate, attachment to aerosols and deposition processes, which influence the radon daughter equilibrium indoors have been used to evaluate the dose rates to the basal layer of the epidermis. Both the attached and unattached fractions of the radon daughters are considered for the evaluation. The radon dose to the basal layer of exposed skin is calculated to be 3.22 mSvy-1 for population-weighted world average of the indoor radon exposure of 40 Bqm-3. Considerably lower dose equivalents are received by regions of the skin which are habitually covered in clothing. (author)

  7. Membrane barriers for radon gas flow restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was performed to assess the feasibility of barrier membrane substances, for use within mining or associated high risk environments, in restricting the diffusion transport of radon gas quantities. Specific tests were conducted to determine permeability parameters of a variety of membrane materials with reference to radon flow capabilities. Tests were conducted both within laboratory and in-situ emanation environments where concentrations and diffusion flows of radon gas were known to exist. Equilibrium radon gas concentrations were monitored in initially radon-free chambers adjacent to gas sources, but separated by specified membrane substances. Membrane barrier effectiveness was demonstrated to result in reduced emanation concentrations of radon gas within the sampling chamber atmosphere. Minimum gas concentrations were evidenced where the barrier membrane material was shown to exhibit lowest radon permeability characteristics

  8. Assessment of cumulative external beam and intracavitary brachytherapy organ doses in gynecologic cancers using deformable dose summation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Due to inter-fraction variation in applicator position, organ displacement and deformation, doses to targets and normal tissues may not be accurately represented by adding the doses from external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) using rigid image registration. Deformable image registration permits organ and applicators to be spatially matched in 3D, enabling more accurate tracking of the accumulated volumetric dose to the target as well as organs at risk (OAR). This study assesses the dosimetric impact of using deformable image registration to determine the cumulative EBRT and ICBT doses to the rectum and bladder. Methods and materials: Data from 20 patients with stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer were analyzed. Nine of the patients were treated with ICBT and EBRT which included a nodal or parametrium boost while eleven were treated with ICBT and EBRT with no boost. Dose summation was performed in two stages. For the first stage, only the ICBT fractional doses were added using both “parameter adding” and deformable registration techniques. In the second stage, the ICBT and EBRT doses were combined using “parameter adding” in two ways. Partial “parameter adding” considers the cumulative ICBT dose from deformable registration as one parameter while full “parameter adding” uses fractional ICBT parameters. The cumulative minimum doses to 2cc (D2cc) of the rectum and bladder were compared between deformable registration and “parameter adding” techniques. Results: Dose summation of ICBT fractions only using deformable registration yielded D2cc values that were (10.1 ± 9.5)% lower for the rectum and (7.2 ± 6.3)% lower for the bladder compared to “parameter adding”. When ICBT and EBRT doses were summed deformably, the group without EBRT boost had D2cc that were (0.0 ± 4.6)% and (−1.2 ± 2.9)% lower for the rectum and bladder respectively compared to partial “parameter adding”. With EBRT boost, the

  9. Risk Reassessment Based on Radon Exposure Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper deals with the risk assessment based on the field data obtained during the radon survey of the rural community Gornja Stubla (Kosovo) in 1998-1999. Results of the survey identify this region as the high natural radiation environment background area (average indoor radon concentration being 450 Bq/m3). The survey includes contemporary (SSNTDs) and retrospective (volume and surface traps) indoor radon and thoron gas long-term measurements. During the survey the questionnaires were completed with data on housing characteristics and habits occupants. To assess the radiation risk due to inhalation of radon and thoron progeny more precisely a model to reconstruct the lifetime radon exposure of the population in Gornja Stubla was developed. The model estimates the exposure in respect to two groups of factors: those known to influence significantly the indoor radon concentration itself (i.e. geographical factor, age of house and the floor level of the room) and the specific population characteristics (i.e. the temporal occupancy pattern of the rooms as a function of age and sex). The variations of radon level observed after comparison of radon measurements by contemporary and retrospective techniques are considered as well. Thus the lifetime exposure to radon and thoron progenies is assessed for the typically exposed part of the population and for dwelling occupants receiving the highest exposure in their houses due to the measured radon concentration. The approach developed and presented here permits an improved estimates of radiation risk to be made. (author)

  10. Geostatistics approach to radon potential mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil-gas radon potential assessment is an important component of the most of national radon programs. With regard to recent intensive advances in all fields of science and increasing demands on accuracy in data there is an urgent need to support current approaches by alternative methods. Important finding of this study is the benefit of variographic analysis based on random sampling for prediction of the overall radon potential, as a counterpart of a widely used regular sampling. In addition, as could be seen the temporal variability might be a crucial factor affecting consequent accuracy of radon risk assessment. We hope that introduced combination of geo-statistics tools, results of long-term radon activity monitoring and, in general, dealing with uncertainties affecting radon potential/risk assessment can bring synergic effect providing more exhaustive data treatment. (authors)

  11. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cebrián, S; Bandac, I; Labarga, L; Álvarez, V; Barrado, A I; Bettini, A; Borges, F I G M; Camargo, M; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Conde, E; Dafni, T; Díaz, J; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Fernández, M; Ferrario, P; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Díaz, D; Gutiérrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Irastorza, I G; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; López-March, N; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzón, G; Marí, A; Martín-Albo, J; Martínez, A; Martínez-Lema, G; Miller, T; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Muñoz; Nebot-Guinot, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; de Solórzano, A Ortiz; Aparicio, J L Pérez; Querol, M; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodríguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simón, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R C; White, J T; Yahlali, N

    2015-01-01

    The Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in 136Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has star...

  12. A geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial modeling approach to assessing indoor radon potential at local level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study integrates residential radon data from previous studies in Southern California (USA), into a geographic information system (GIS) linked with statistical techniques. A difference (p74Bqm-3) to epicenters of large (> 4 Richter) earthquakes was smaller (p<0.0001) than the average residence-to-epicenter distance, suggesting an association between the elevated indoor-radon and seismic activities

  13. Study of indoor radon levels and the assessment of inhalation dose to the students of a college, in Bangalore, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of diurnal variation of radon concentration was carried out in a research lab of department of physics, Bangalore University, when it was completely closed (zero ventilation) and with the doors and windows opened (very good ventilation) separately. Radon (Rn222) level in different floors of a college building at Bangalore was measured for a period of six months in order to study the variation of radon concentration with respect to height. Measurements were carried out using LLRDS (Low Level Radon Detection System). Measured indoor radon levels at different floors showed a decreasing trend with height. The geometric mean of the concentrations measured in the building is found to be 19.4 Bqm-3. The average dose rate to the college students is found to be 0.07 μ Svh-1. The results are reported and discussed. (author)

  14. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. 222Rn (radon gas) and 220Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concent...

  15. A statistical evaluation of the geogenic controls on indoor radon concentrations and radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANOVA is used to show that approximately 25% of the total variation of indoor radon concentrations in England and Wales can be explained by the mapped bedrock and superficial geology. The proportion of the total variation explained by geology is higher (up to 37%) in areas where there is strong contrast between the radon potential of sedimentary geological units and lower (14%) where the influence of confounding geological controls, such as uranium mineralisation, cut across mapped geological boundaries. When indoor radon measurements are grouped by geology and 1-km squares of the national grid, the cumulative percentage of the variation between and within mapped geological units is shown to be 34-40%. The proportion of the variation that can be attributed to mapped geological units increases with the level of detail of the digital geological data. This study confirms the importance of radon maps that show the variation of indoor radon concentrations both between and within mapped geological boundaries.

  16. Radon and hydrotherapy: application to French spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to the use of thermal water for treatments, the dissolved radon ends up, through degassing, in the atmosphere of the various spa premises. According to the type of treatments, the radon activity concentration in the air is very variable; it depends on two factors, the supply of thermal water, and therefore of radon, and the ventilation of the various premises. In unfavourable, even non-existent, ventilation conditions, it is not uncommon to measure radon concentration reaching several thousands of becquerels per air cubic meter. These high values of radon activity concentration, with or without its short-lived daughters, may lead to a staff exposure of approximately ten or several tens of mSv per year. A French spa was subject to a radon 'expertise' during which the radon source terms, 'ground in contact with the buildings' and 'thermal water' were characterized. The radon mapping in the internal atmosphere of the various spa premises and the workstations' analysis resulted in an assessment of the exposure due to radon inhalation. This study showed that on workstations, notably linked to hydrotherapy, the staff exposure to radon is in the same range as the dose assessments from foreign studies. The implementation of an appropriate ventilation of the treatment rooms and a better management of the thermal water in the spa resulted in a significant reduction of staff exposure

  17. Radon resistant new construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consist of the awareness about the ill effects of radon gas and the methods adopted to detect the presence of radon gas and to remove the radon gas. It explains the installation of radon resistant structures during home construction. Radon is commonly found in the air and water, where it poses little risk. But radon that creeps into your home from the soil can be a much greater risk. Radon-resistant construction combines common building techniques and materials to seal entry points and route the gases outdoors, helping to prevent radon from entering the home. The benefits due to radon resistant construction is also explained in this paper. (author)

  18. Scopingreport radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains general information on radon concerning the existing standards, sources and emissions, the exposure levels and effect levels. lt serves as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory melting to be held in November/December 1989, aimed at determining the contents of the Integrated Criteria Document Radon. Attention is focussd on Rn-222 (radon) and Rn-220 (thoron), presently of public interest because of radon gas pollution in private homes. In the Netherlands air quality standards nor product standards for the exhalation rate of building materials have been recommended. The major source of radon in the Netherlands is the soil gas (> 97%), minor sources are phosphate residues and building materials (> 2% in total). Hence, the major concern is the transfer through the inhalation of air, the lung being the most critical organ at risk to develop cancer. Compared to risks for humans, the risks of radon and its daughters for aquatic and terrestric organisms, as well as for agricultural crops and livestock, are assumed to be limited. In the Netherlands the average dose for man due to radon and thoron progeny is appr. 1.2 mSv per year, the estimated dose range being 0.1-3.5 mSv per year. This dose contributes for about 50% to rhe total exposure due to all sources of ionizing radiation. Of this dose respectively 80% is caused by radon and about 90% is received indoor. The estimated dose for the general population corresponds to a risk for inducing fatal cancers of about 15 x 10-6 per year, ranging from 1.2 x 10-6 to 44 x 10-6 which exceeds the risk limit of 1 x 10-6 per year -as defined in the standardization policy in the Netherlands for a single source of ionizing radiation-with a factor 15 (1- 44). Reduction of exposure is only possible in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been described to reduce the indoor dose, resulting from exhalation of the soil and building materials. )aut- hor). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. The use of track registration detectors to reconstruct contemporary and historical airborne radon ( sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn) and radon progeny concentrations for a radon-lung cancer epidemiologic study

    CERN Document Server

    Steck, D J

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies that investigate the relationship between radon and lung cancer require accurate estimates for the long-term average concentrations of radon progeny in dwellings. Year-to-year and home-to-home variations of radon in domestic environments pose serious difficulties for reconstructing an individual's long-term radon-related exposure. The use of contemporary radon gas concentrations as a surrogate for radon-related dose introduces additional uncertainty in dose assessment. Studies of glass exposed in radon chambers and in a home show that radon progeny deposited on, and implanted in, glass hold promise for reconstructing past radon concentrations in a variety of atmospheres. We developed an inexpensive track registration detector for the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study (IRLCS) that simultaneously measures contemporary airborne radon concentrations, surface deposited alpha activity density, and implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po activity density. The implanted activity is used to reconstruct the cum...

  20. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  1. Instruments and methods for measuring indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public concern about unusually high indoor concentrations of radon in the northeastern US has greatly increased the demand for reliable, inexpensive, and portable instrumentation. Different types of information are needed to completely assess the problem of indoor radon, such as: concentrations of radon, sources and emanation and health effects. Measurement accuracy, convenience and cost also merit consideration. The techniques presently used to monitor radon and progeny are sufficiently developed to meet most of these requirements and objectives for the assessment of the radiation exposure of the general public. The types of instruments used for these measurements depend on whether one is interested in a broad-based screening survey of the indoor environment for radon, an investigation to characterize radon sources and pathways, or to help establish standards and guidelines and compliance criteria. Measurement of the airborne concentrations of radon and progeny is the most important step in estimating indoor exposure levels and in identifying a potential problem. Therefore, in this paper the authors will review and evaluate the major measurement techniques, i.e., prompt or grab sampling (active and passive). Emphasis will be placed on portable, low cost instruments, both passive and active, and on proper calibration methods in atmospheres in which radon and progeny are traceable to a primary National Bureau of Standards source. Also described for the determination of radon input into the indoor environment are techniques for measuring radon exhalation from building surfaces and the underlying soil, radon in water, and radium in the soil. 36 references, 3 tables

  2. Measurements of the atmospheric concentration of radon in Israel and assessment of its impact on the health of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new method for the examination of the SSNTD foil, which utilizes laser scanning of the foil. The examination consists of examining the scattering pattern of the laser beam in the various regions of the SSNTD foil. This method (patented - US Pat 5,117,120 of 05-26-1992) enables fast and reliable reading of large numbers of SSNTD foils. An apparatus built according to this method was applied to sampling radon measurements conducted in the various regions of Israel, within the framework of the present work. The results of these measurements indicate that the average radon level to which Israel population is exposed is approximately 40 Bq/m3. The resulting equivalent radiation dose was calculated. From that, the health hazard to the population was derived, using the updated risk coefficients, which link radon exposure to increased morbidity and mortality from lung cancer. It was concluded that about 80 cases of death from lung cancer per year, out of an annual total of about 750 in Israel, can be attributed to radon It was also found that the radon level distribution in dwellings in Israel can be described best by the log-normal distribution. The tools developed in this work, combined with the actual experience with large-scale radon measurements, serve as a basis for a future full-scale radon survey in Israel. (authors) 11 tabs., 35 figs., 96 refs

  3. Assessment of radon-222 concentrations and exhalation rates of rocks and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred samples were collected from two regions (Bir El-Sid and Wady El-Gemal ) in the Nile Valley. It contain various types of igneous and metamorphic rock samples (acidic dykes, intermediate dykes, basic dykes, serpentinite, metagabbro, menalge). Another set of samples were collected from different regions of Germany. Samples were analyzed and the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of radium were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector. A direct method is used to measure 222Rn emanated from the samples, which was analyzed in laboratory using the portable radon monitor Prassi. 222Rn activity concentrations (Bq/m3) were in the range from 36.1± 2 to 96.4 ± 6, 17.8 ± 3 to 73.6 ± 4 and 18.0 ± 2 to 188.1 ± 15 Bq/m3 for samples collected from Bir Elsid, Wadi El-Gemal and samples from Germany respectively. The corresponding values of exhalation rates were from 0.0012 to 0.004, 0.005 to 0.015 and 0.007 to 0.0069 Bq/gs for these areas respectively. (author)

  4. Inhalation dose assessment of indoor radon progeny using biokinetic and dosimetric modeling and its application to Jordanian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High indoor radon concentrations in Jordan result in internal exposures of the residents due to the inhalation of radon and its short-lived progeny. It is therefore important to quantify the annual effective dose and further the radiation risk to the radon exposure. This study describes the methodology and the biokinetic and dosimetric models used for calculation of the inhalation doses exposed to radon progeny. The regional depositions of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract were firstly calculated. For the attached progeny, the activity median aerodynamic diameters of 50 nm, 230 nm and 2500 nm were chosen to represent the nucleation, accumulation and coarse modes of the aerosol particles, respectively. For the unattached progeny, the activity median thermodynamic diameter of 1 nm was chosen to represent the free progeny nuclide in the room air. The biokinetic models developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were used to calculate the nuclear transformations of radon progeny in the human body, and then the dosimetric model was applied to estimate the organ equivalent doses and the effective doses with the specific effective energies derived from the mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms. The dose conversion coefficient estimated in this study was 15 mSv WLM-1 which was in the range of the values of 6-20 mSv WLM-1 reported by other investigators. Implementing the average indoor radon concentration in Jordan, the annual effective doses were calculated to be 4.1 mSv y-1 and 0.08 mSv y-1 due to the inhalation of radon progeny and radon gas, respectively. The total annual effective dose estimated for Jordanian population was 4.2 mSv y-1. This high annual effective dose calculated by the dosimetric approach using ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric models resulted in an increase of a factor of two in comparison to the value by epidemiological study. This phenomenon was presented by the ICRP in its new published statement on radon

  5. Radon and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low levels outdoors. However, in areas without adequate ventilation, such as underground mines, radon can accumulate to ... radon levels. What have scientists learned about the relationship between radon and lung cancer? Scientists agree that ...

  6. Scientific Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups on the basis of their toxicological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority asked the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues to develop an Opinion on the identification of pesticides to be included in cumulative assessment groups (CAGs on the basis of their toxicological profile. In 2008, the PPR Panel adopted an Opinion on the suitability of existing methodologies for cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and a tiered approach was proposed, which was applied to a selected group of triazole pesticides in 2009. The present Opinion suggests a methodology for grouping of pesticides based on phenomenological effects and provides CAGs for the thyroid and nervous system. This approach can be applied even when the underlying biochemical events mediating the effects are not understood, and is based on a standardised and thorough review of Draft Assessment Reports (DARs supporting the approval of all pesticides in Europe, and on recommendations from the European Commission. Pesticidal active substances exhibiting neurotoxic properties were allocated to CAGs for acute effects on motor, sensory and autonomic divisions of the nervous system and neurochemical endpoints. Chronic effects across the same divisions/endpoints and neuropathological effects were collated. Active substances having adverse effects on the thyroid system were allocated to CAGs for effects either on C-cells/the calcitonin system or on follicular cells/the T3/T4 system. The PPR Panel notes that the resulting groups encompass many pesticides and also that individual pesticides could appear in several groups and therefore the data entries for performing cumulative risk assessment (CRA are of considerable magnitude. Although some CAGs contain a large number of pesticides, little indication of cumulative risk may be inferred from the size of CAGs per se. The PPR Panel recommends that the methodology is implemented for all major organ/systems but the approach used should be considered specific for pesticides.

  7. Radiation protection in environment. Radon measurement by track density assessment in nuclear track detector C R-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of natural radiation, the well known world wide Rn contribution to the yearly effective equivalent dose received by the population is cca 50% (UNSCEAR 1988). The average indoor-absorbed dose rate in air from terrestrial sources of radioactivity is estimated to be 70 n Gy h-1 (United Nations, 1988). Elevated external dose rates may arise from high activities of radionuclides in buildings materials. Radon measurements can be done by using two major techniques: active and passive. Radon measurement with passive technique has been used, to determine radon concentration for the purpose of calibration and intercomparison between different labs that use different kind of instruments for automatic reading of radon exposure by using solid state nuclear track detector C R-39. (Author)

  8. Diffusion of radon gas in soil cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the potential radon hazard of a new home construction site and the steps (if any) that should be taken to mitigate that hazard, the soil pore gas radon source strength S (i.e., the number of radon atoms emitted into a unit volume of pore gas per unit time), the pore gas radon diffusion length L, and the soil porosity p must be known. Methods exist for measuring the steady-state soil pore gas radon concentration. The purposes of this paper are to analyze the kinetics of the radon concentration in a cavity in the soil, to determine the parameters that affect the kinetics, and to establish and analyze an in situ method for measuring S, L, and p

  9. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published...

  10. Mechanisms of radon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this new project, they conduct molecular, cellular and whole-animal research relevant to understanding the inhalation toxicology of radon and radon-daughter exposures. The work specifically addresses the exposure-rate effect in radon-daughter carcinogenesis; the induction-promotion relationships associated with exposure to radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures; the role of oncogenes in radon-induced cancers; the effects of radon on DNA as well as on DNA repair processes; and the involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced carcinogenesis. Preliminary experiments showed that oncogenes are activated in radon-induced lung tumors. They have therefore begun further exposures pertinent to the oncogene and growth-factor studies. An in vitro radon cellular-exposure system was designed, and cell exposures were initiated. Initiation-promotion-initiation studies with radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures have also begun; and they are compiling a radon health-effects bibliography

  11. Radon gas measurement in Corum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of the natural radioactive sources in earth's crust which has long half-life and the degradation products of these in the environmental medium such as earth, rocks, foods, water, air, forms the basis of radiation which people are exposed to. Radon is the unique radioactive gas in the nature and it is made up of radium which is the result of uranium degradation. It is necessary to determine the radon concentration because of the difference in the concentration of uranium existence in different places. TAEK (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority) allows 400 Bq/m3 of radon concentration at houses, 1000 Bq/m3 at offices per year. In this attempt, government buildings, houses and offices were determined as the sampling places in Corum city center and towns to represent Corum. While disposing the radon measuring detectors, places which are close to the ground level were preferred. 74 radon detectors were left in those places for 60 days and in the end the detectors were collected while discontinuing the connection of environment and they were assessed. According to the results, the average radon gas concentration in 14 government buildings is 71,71 Bq/m3, in 15 offices 32,26 Bq/m3 and at houses 42,34 Bq/m3.

  12. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  13. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  14. Estimation of indoor radon, thoron concentration and assessment of absorbed dose rates in Chitradurga city, Karnataka State, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose resulting from the indoor radon and its decay products constitutes a major part of the total natural background radiation received by population all over the world. Radon and its decay products are the most important sources of natural radiation for human exposure. Internal exposures due to the intake of naturally occurring short-lived daughter products of 222Rn (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po) in the indoor environment can pose a significant risk to human health. So, living in an elevated level of radon concentration for a long time means that the probability of inducing lung cancer increases. In this regard, indoor radon, thoron and their progeny measurements were conducted in different dwellings of Chitradurga city. In this study solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTDs) based twin cup dosimeters were employed for estimating the radon and thoron levels. The indoor radon and thoron concentrations were found to vary from 22±1.4 to 125±6.4 Bq m-3 with an average value of 52.93±3.66 Bq m-3 and 16±0.98 to 86±4.3 Bq m-3 with an average value of 33±2.53 Bq m-3 respectively. The average annual inhalation doses in present study area are found to vary from 0.98 to 5.52 mSv with an average value of 2.26 mSv. The measured radon concentrations are within lower limit of the action level (200-300 Bq m-3) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. The annual inhalation doses received by the residents are lower than the recommended upper action level of ICRP-2007. (author)

  15. Radon data processing and outputs for the needs of the State Office for Nuclear Safety (according to the Czech Radon Programme)

    OpenAIRE

    I. Barnet; J. Miksová

    2005-01-01

    Much of the population living in the Czech Republic is exposed to radiation from natural sources, especially to the radon effect. The aim of geological research defined by the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) was to detect areas with estimated high radon concentration in soil gas. A uniform method of measurements and uniform methodology of radon risk category assessment of geological units and a centralized radon database was established. Radon risk classification wa...

  16. Results of a Test and Win Contest to Raise Radon Awareness in Urban and Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E.; Robertson, Heather; Adkins, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radon is a leading cause of lung cancer, but few test their homes to determine radon levels. Purpose: The study assessed feasibility and success of a Test and Win Contest to promote radon testing in rural and urban communities. Methods: The prospective, quasi-experimental study tested a novel contest to raise radon awareness. Paid and…

  17. Radon risk mapping using indoor monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An empirical statistical model is described for the use of indoor radon monitoring data as an indicator of the areal radon risk from soil and bedrock. The percentages of future homes expected to have radon concentrations exceeding the design level of 200 Bq/m3 unless constructed to provide protection against the entry of radon were assessed. The radon prognosis was made for different subareas, soil types and foundation types. This kind of report is used by the heath and building authorities. In this study, 2689 indoor radon measurements were made in one of Finland's most radon-prone areas, consisting of eleven municipalities with a total area of 4600 km2 and a population of 186,000. Radon concentrations were seasonally adjusted. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. The measurements covered different kinds of geological units in the area. The radon risk is highest in the gravel-dominated subarea in an ice-marginal formation and lowest in the northern half of the area in buildings constructed on bedrock. In these two areas, the design level of 200 Bq/m3 would be exceeded in 99% and 39% of new houses with slab-on-grade. (au) (6 refs.)

  18. Airborne radon concentrations in different environments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little information has been presented average radon concentrations in the living spaces in Korea to date although radon has become a great concern in recent years to the Korean population due to association with the lung cancer risk. Since radon related health risks depends on long-term exposure, it is vital to know the relationship between these short-term measurements and long-term radon concentrations in the different living spaces. Previous studies have shown that many factors may contribute to the temporal and geographic variation in radon entry and retention in living spaces. These factors may differ from one region of the country to another and over time. Thus, it is important that comparisons of different measurement protocols include samples drawn from a broad range of radon sources, different types of environments, and lifestyles. The present work compares the results of short-term and long-term surveys of radon measurements conducted in various areas in Korea that contains average radon-strength sources, different types of living spaces, and different seasons. Most of average airborne radon concentrations using track etch radon detectors were measured in different environments such as houses, subway stations, underground stores, indoor and outdoor office buildings. In addition to these studies, a series of radon surveys using passive integrating radon cup monitors were undertaken in different types of dwellings in Seoul for one year since April 1996, while the same survey using radon discriminative dosimeters were conducted in major six cities in Korea. Radon concentrations in basements in the selected dwellings were higher than those levels measured in the first floor, while indoor radon concentrations were significantly higher than the corresponding outdoor levels at six survey sites. The results suggest the need to more definitely assess sources of radon concentrations as well as to provide more information about technical measurements of different

  19. Assessment of radon concentration and heavy metal contamination in groundwater samples from some areas of Fazilka District, Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater samples taken from 20 villages of Fazilka district, Punjab, India were analysed for Radon (Rn) concentration using RAD7, an electronic radon detector (Durridge Co.). Radon concentration varies from 1.4±1.0 Bq/l to 4.9±3.0Bq/l which is much below the safe limits proposed by USEPA and UNSCEAR. The mean annual effective dose calculated for these samples was also found to be within the limits provided by WHO and EU council. These samples were also analysed for concentration of certain heavy elements like As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Cd using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Out of these, concentration of As and Pb were found to exceed the permissible limits suggested by USEPA. (author)

  20. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  1. Effects of radon in indoor air studied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is an odorless, tasteless and colourless radioactive noble gas that enters indoor air from the ground. Radon causes lung cancer. A committee set up to evaluate the health risks of chemical substances has been drafting a report on radon, which will compile the major research findings on the lung cancer risk posed by radon. Animal tests have shown that even small doses of radon can cause lung cancer. Smokers seem to contract radon-induced lung cancer more readily than non-smokers. Because research findings have been conflicting, however, it is not known exactly how high the risk of lung cancer caused by indoor radon exposure really is. Several major research projects are under way to obtain increasingly accurate risk assessments. An on-going European joint project brings together several studies - some already finished, some still being worked on. In this way it will be possible to get more accurate risk assessments than from individual studies. In order to prevent lung cancer, it is important to continue the work of determining and reducing radon connects and to combat smoking. (orig.)

  2. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-07-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1–3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure.

  3. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1–3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure. PMID:27445126

  4. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1-3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure. PMID:27445126

  5. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  6. Cumulants as iterated integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Franz

    2009-01-01

    A formula expressing cumulants in terms of iterated integrals of the distribution function is derived. It generalizes results of Jones and Balakrishnan who computed expressions for cumulants up to order 4.

  7. Cumulative risk assessment of chemicals in food%食品中化学物累积风险评估方法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 李凤琴; 刘兆平

    2011-01-01

    Food chemicals, such as contaminants, pesticides and food additives, may cause cumulative exposure of human beings through four types of combined effect or interaction, but traditional risk assessment methodologies were mainly based on single-chemical scenarios.In the past decades, more attention has been paid to health risks caused by cumulative exposure to chemicals, and some cumulative risk assessment methods including group tolerable daily intake (TDI) , hazard index (HI) , relative potency factor (RPF) and physiologically based toxicokinetics (PBTK) models have been developed.The characteristics and application of these methods are discussed in this paper.%食品中存在的各种污染物、农药和添加剂等化学物可能会通过多种机制的联合作用对人体形成累积暴露,但传统的风险评估方法多以单一化学物暴露为基础.近年来,化学物累积暴露形成的健康风险受到越来越多的重视,一些累积风险评估方法,如类别每日可耐受摄入量(TDI)、危害指数(HI)、相对效能因子(RPF)、生理毒代动力学(PBTK)模型等也逐渐发展起来.本文对这些方法的特点及其应用进行了讨论.

  8. Evaluation of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the indoor radon environment, building ventilation and indoor air quality problems are discussed. They take their origin from the building materials, and the ventilation rate, plate-out and recoil rate of radon daughters are effective in evaluating the concentration of indoor radon. The deposition processes depend on the physical properties of the free atoms and activity size distributions of the aerosols. The equilibrium factor, the radon daughter concentrations relative to the radon concentration, are influenced by the room specific parameters. This paper summarizes available information on indoor radon concentrations and on the physical characteristics of radon daughters. For evaluation fo the risk of radon, the measuring results of the degree of radioactive equilibrium, and its time variations, mean size of individual radon daughters are reported. (author)

  9. Radon as an Anthropogenic Indoor Air Pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, including granite ornaments/artefacts, uranium glass and glazed objects as well radium dial watches. This presentation concerns an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, many of which were once viewed as everyday items, and the radon that emanates from them. Such objects were very popular in industrialised countries such as the USA, UK and European countries) particularly between and including the two World Wars but are still readily available. A watch collection examined gave rise to a hazardous radon concentration of 13.24 kBq•m-3 approximately 67 times the Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3.The results for an aircraft altimeter are comparable to those of the watches, indicating radon activity equivalent to several watches, and also indicate an equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room ca. 33 times the UK domestic Action Level. Results from a granite block indicate a radon emanation of 19.7 Bq•kg-1, but the indicated equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room is only ca. 1.7% of the UK domestic Action Level. Uranium-glazed crockery and green uranium glass were scoped for radon activity. The former yielded a radon concentration of ca. 44 Bq•m-3 in a small (7 L) sealed container. The latter yielded a lower radon concentration in a larger (125 L) sealed container of ca. 6 Bq•m-3. This is barely above the background radon concentration in the laboratory, which was typically ca. 1-2 Bq•m-3. Individual items then are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level in rooms in houses, particularly if poorly ventilated. We highlight the gap in the remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally

  10. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels. PMID:26335172

  11. Environmental ionising radiation study: Assessment of the public exposure to the environmental gamma and X rays, and to radon in Antananarivo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity is one of the indicators of the environmental state because humankind is continuously exposed to ionising radiations. Knowledge of the various components of this natural radioactivity becomes a necessity. As Antananarivo is the most populated city of Madagascar, its environmental radioactivity and radiation dose were assessed with the aim of establishing a database for radioactivity levels. The present work is entitled 'Assessment of the Public Exposure to the Environmental Gamma and X-rays, and to Radon in Antananarivo City'. This paper is the synthesis of several works carried out within the frame of a research project that lasted three years (April 1998-April 2001), consisting of more than a hundred in-situ measurements campaigns and laboratory sample analyses. Ionising radiations were measured through gamma and X ray global counting. Environmental material radioactivity was characterized by in-situ and laboratory gamma spectrometry. Alpha, gamma and X ray dosimetric measurements were done indoor and outdoor, in daytime and at night. The results obtained were the basis for three scientific communications at the Madagascar National Academy of Arts, Letters and Sciences. The first is entitled 'The Cesium-137 Artificial Radioisotope Pollution in Antananarivo City' (June 1998), the second 'the Atmospheric Radon in Antananarivo City '(May 1999), and the third 'Kerma in Air and Counting Rate of the Environmental Gamma and X Rays in Antananarivo City' (December 2000). From this work, the environmental gamma and X ray , and radon contribution to natural radiation doses were obtained. We have found that the population of Antananarivo is exposed to an annual average effective dose of 5.3 mSv.y-1, which is two times higher than the world quoted value.

  12. Assessment of long-term radon concentration measurement precision in field conditions (Serbian schools) for a survey carried out by an international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an international collaboration, a long-term radon concentration survey was carried out in schools of Southern Serbia with, radon detectors prepared, etched and read-out in Italy. In such surveys it is necessary to evaluate measurement precision in field conditions, and to check whether quality assurance protocols were effective in keeping uncertainties under control, despite the complex organisation of measurements. In the first stage of the survey, which involves only some of the total number of municipalities, paired detectors were exposed in each monitored room in order to experimentally assess measurement precision. Paired passive devices (containing CR-39 detectors) were exposed for two consecutive 6-month periods. Two different measurement systems were used to read out CR-39s of the first and second period, respectively. The median of the coefficient of variation (CV) of the measured exposures was 8 % for 232 paired devices of the first 6-month period and 4 % for 242 paired devices of the second 6-month period, respectively. This difference was mainly due to a different track count repeatability of the two read-out systems, which was 4 and 1 %, respectively, as the median value of CV of repeated countings. The in-field measured precision results are very similar to the precision assessed in calibration conditions and are much lower than the room-to-room variation of radon concentration in the monitored schools. Moreover, a quality assurance protocol was followed to reduce extra-exposures during detector transport from Rome to schools measured and back. (authors)

  13. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J;

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...... planning the use of marine resources.......Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...... Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in...

  14. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The av has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km2. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (av > 50 kBq/m3). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  15. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  16. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  17. Calibration system for measuring the radon flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of radon flux from soil surface is the useful tool for the assessment of radon-prone areas and monitoring of radon releases from uranium mining and milling residues. The accumulation chambers with hollow headspace and chambers with activated charcoal are the most used devices for these purposes. Systematic errors of the measurements strongly depend on the geometry of the chamber and diffusion coefficient of the radon in soil. The calibration system for the attestation of devices for radon flux measurements was constructed. The calibration measurements of accumulation chambers and chambers with activated charcoal were conducted. The good agreement between the results of 2D modelling of radon flux and measurements results was observed. It was demonstrated that reliable measurements of radon flux can be obtained by chambers with activated charcoal (equivalent volume ∼75 l) or by accumulation chambers with hollow headspace of ∼7-10 l and volume/surface ratio (height) of >15 cm. (authors)

  18. Radon concentrations in coal mines of Baluchistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged exposure to radon, the largest source (69%) of natural radioactivity, may cause lung cancer and bronchial tissue damage. So monitoring of radon at places of high radioactivity and in underground mines is important to assess the radiological hazards to occupational workers. For these reasons radon measurements were carried out in some coal mines of Baluchistan, Pakistan. The measurements were based upon passive detection of radon using CN-85 track detectors in Box Type Dosimeters. The radon concentration varied from 121 to 408 Bq m-3 in the mines under study. The computed radon dose varied from 1.38 to 4.67 mSv yr-1 with an average of 2.19±0.5 mSv yr-1. These coal mines have been found to be safe from radon-related health hazards

  19. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  20. Radon contents of drinking water in the Federal Republic of Germany and assessment of the related radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1100 samples of drinking water have so far been investigated for their Rn-222 contents by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Sanitation. On the basis of the overall distribution, which can best be compared to log-normal distribution, the median value for the Federal Republic of Germany was calculated to be 5.6 bq/l. In regions where the subsoil contains more than the average amounts of urane and its metabolons, as in Southern Saxony and the Fichtel Gebirge, the values determined for the drinking water also were considerably increased. The radiation exposure resulting from the uptake of drinking water remains, however, minor in comparison with the exposure to other natural radiation sources, particularly the amounts of radon inhaled. Even if one includes in the calculation the radon originating from the tap water supplied to private households, the dose inhaled still is much greater. (orig.)

  1. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of methods for the radiation monitoring of radon in indoor air is given, together with guidelines for the investigation of building sites taking in consideration the radiation hazards from radon. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, a radioactive gas emitted from soils and construction materials, penetrates dwellings and is the principal source of natural background radiation. If they are inhaled continuously, radon and its daughter products may constitute a hazard for man

  3. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  4. Temporal variability of submarine groundwater discharge: Assessments via radon and seep meters, the southern carmel coast, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Y.; Shalem, Y.; Burnett, W.C.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Herut, B.

    2007-01-01

    Seep meter data from Dor Bay, Israel, showed a steady decrease in submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates between March and July 2006 (averages of 34, 10.4 and 1.5 cm d-1 in March, May and July, respectively), while estimates based on radon time series showed remarkably uniform averages (8 cm d-1). The May seep meter data show a rough positive correlation with sea level, unlike the negative correlation shown by the Rn-calculated rates. Smaller-size meters, deployed in July adjacent to the regular-size ones, showed significantly higher rates (10 cm d-1), which negatively correlated with salinity. It is suggested that the decreased rates documented by the seep meters are the result of an increased shallow seawater recharge in the bay (due to decreasing hydraulic gradients). This is not captured by the radon, since recharging water is radon-poor. The positive correlation of discharge with sea level is due to increased seawater recycling in times of high sea stand. Copyright ?? 2007 IAHS Press.

  5. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  6. Contamination of individuals by radon daughters: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body radon daughter contamination reflects relative individual respiratory exposures to radon daughters; counts can be related both to household radon levels and to lung cancer risk factors such as sex and tobacco smoking. Radon daughters were counted by gamma spectroscopy from 180 adult residents of eastern Pennsylvania. A seven-position, 35-min scan was conducted in a mobile body counter, generally during afternoon or evening hours. Track-etch detectors for household radon were distributed, and were recovered from 80% of the subjects. Over 75% of the population had environmentally enhanced radon daughter contamination. House radon levels were strongly related, as anticipated, to radon daughter contamination in the 112 subjects for whom both sets of measurements were available (p less than .001); basement measurements were as strongly related to personal contamination as were living area measurements; bedroom measurements were slightly more strongly correlated. Both sex (p less than .02) and cigarette smoking (p less than .01) significantly modified the relationships, after nonlinear adjustment for travel times. Using a logarithmic model, a given house living-area radon level was associated in females with body contamination by radon daughters 2-3 times that in males. Nonsmokers had 2-4 times higher levels of contamination than smokers. Results are for the total of internal and external contamination, these being highly correlated in preliminary experiments. Time usage and activity patterns of the subjects are believed to be important in explaining these findings, and may become important variables in radon risk assessment

  7. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  8. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1e3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fum...

  9. Radon in underground work-places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon concentrations in Norwegian underground mines and hydropower stations are reported. The mean effective dose equivalent to Norwegian miners is assessed to 3.4 mSv/yr, and to 2.1 mSv/yr for workers in underground hydropower stations. In both mines and hydropower stations about 1% of the workers receive effective dose equivalents above 15 mSv/yr. In two of the hydropower stations very high radon concentrations were found. The main radon source was found to be leakage of ground water. Remedial actions are discussed

  10. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGLUND,J.W.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N.; ANDERSON,R.P.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  11. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  12. The application of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes for the assessment of genome damage in long-term residents of areas with high radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the effects of small doses of ionising radiation on DNA is one of the most important problems in modern biology. Different cytogenetic methods exist to analyse DNA damage; the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) for human peripheral blood lymphocytes is a simple, cheap and informative cytogenetic method that can be used to detect genotoxic-related markers. With respect to previous studies on radiation-induced genotoxicity, children are a poorly studied group, as evidenced by the few publications in this area. In this study, we assessed radon genotoxic effects by counting micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) in the lymphocytes of children who are long-term residents from areas with high radon concentrations. In the exposed group, radon was found to cause significant cytogenetic alterations. We propose that this method can be employed for biomonitoring to screen for a variety of measures. (author)

  13. Introducing a novel method to assess cumulative steroid concentrations: increased hair cortisol concentrations over 6 months in medicated patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Muhtz, Christoph; Skoluda, Nadine; Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Hinkelmann, Kim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Otte, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Depression has been linked to increased cortisol concentrations using point measures taken from urine, blood, or saliva samples. However, with regard to hypercortisolism-induced consequences, long-term cumulative cortisol burden is of relevance. Our objective was to use hair analysis as a new method to assess cortisol exposure over 6 months in depressed patients and healthy controls. We examined 23 depressed patients (8 men and 15 women, mean age: 41.6 years ( ± standard deviation (SD), 13.1 years); mean duration of current depressive episode 9 months ( ± SD, 13 months)) and 64 healthy controls, matched for age and gender. Cortisol concentrations in two 3-cm hair segments from near to the scalp were analyzed, representing cortisol secretion during the 6 months prior to sampling. Compared with healthy individuals, depressed patients had higher hair cortisol concentrations in the first (mean ± SD: 26.7 ± 20.8 vs. 18.7 ± 11.5 pg/mg, p < 0.05) and second hair segment (mean ±  SD: 21.9 ± 23.7 vs. 13.4 ± 9.6 pg/mg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, hair cortisol analysis confirmed enhanced cortisol secretion in depressed patients over a prolonged time period. Because of the retrospective and cumulative nature of cortisol in hair, the assessment of hair cortisol concentration may help in addressing unanswered questions regarding hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and associated health consequences in psychiatric disorders. PMID:22043813

  14. Influence of aerosol upon radon concentration of radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of theoretical analysis, the influence on the radon concentration of radon chamber by the experiment of filling the radon chamber with aerosol, and the absorption of radon daughter on aerosol under the condition of different radon concentration and aerosol concentration was described. The results of experiment showed that: Aerosol did not affect the stability of the radon concentration of the radon chamber, but different aerosol concentration will change the combination state of radon daughter, thus it will affect the diffusion coefficient of radon daughter, so it will affect the results of the measure of the gross measuring instrument. (authors)

  15. Application of studies of miners to radon problem in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lung cancer risk from exposure in homes to short-lived daughters of radon-222 can be estimated from results for underground miners, if differences in epidemiologic and exposure variables between mining populations and the general public can be assessed. Our study of Swedish iron miners exposed at low dose rates and with long follow-up time has enabled us to determine smoking-specific risk coefficients, and to rule out other factors in the mine atmosphere as contributing to lung cancer risk. Miners differ from the population at large in the following characteristics: sex, age at exposure, dose rate, dust conditions in mines and homes, smoking, volume breathed per unit time and proportion of the year exposed. The last two factors affect the conversion of air concentrations to cumulative yearly doses, and from present evidence dose rate, sex and age should not alter risk factors to a great extent. For persons aged 60 about 30% of lung cancers in non-smokers may be attributed to radon daughters, and about 6% in smokers. The percentage may be higher at older ages if the relative risk is found to be constant at these ages. (Author)

  16. Quantifying Chronic Stress Exposure for Cumulative Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned from a Case Study of Allostatic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although multiple methods of quantifying environmental chemical exposures have been validated for use in human health risk assessment, quantifying chronic stress exposure is more challenging. Stress is a consequence of perceiving an “exposure” (e.g., violence, poverty) as more th...

  17. Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Bernard, Pamela L; Haas, Amelia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands adversely affect many biological processes. However, assessment of the significance of human exposures is hampered by an incomplete understanding of how complex mixtures affect AhR activation/inactivation. OBJECTIVES: These studies used biologic...

  18. The Relationship between Cumulative Credits and Student Learning Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Information Literacy and Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonney, Teresa; Montgomery, Joe C.

    2015-01-01

    This article relates the efforts of faculty at one community college to define standards for achievement of two SLOs (critical thinking and effective communication) and to gather and analyze evidence of how well students meet those standards. Faculty from 13 disciplines assessed writing samples from 265 students. We found that, in general,…

  19. Radon in coal power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, the radioactive colourless and inodorous noble gas, represents more than 55% of the natural average radioactivity. It is permanently released from the soil and majority of building materials, it builds up in the mine galleries, in dwelling houses and in other closed rooms. Radon gained increasingly in importance, particularly after 1990 when was doubtless identified as the second cause of lung cancer if a given concentration threshold is surpassed. This threshold is established differentially by each country as a function of the particular site and generally ranges between 150 Bq.m-3 and 600 Bq.m-3. The telluric radon consists of two isotopes, 222Rn, a daughter of radium descending from uranium, which induces 90% of the effects, and 220Rn from thorium series which have too short a lifetime to count in the risk assessments of radon inhalation. The interest of the authorities and population for diminishing the radon effects was illustrated by specific studies which in USA were managed by the National Counsel of Research, the BEIR VI committee of which has issued a report concerning the lung cancer produced by radon and its descendants. Coal mining, the transport, processing, burning, slag and ash disposal are activities entailing radon release. The miners' dwellings are placed in areas with the high radon potential. The local building materials have a high content of radioactive elements from the uranium or thorium series so that radon can build up in the closed rooms of these buildings. Hence the social responsible authorities in the coal power industry zones should consider this aspect long time ignored in the Balkans macro zone so far. The radon issue must be differentially approached in different areas hence a zonal mapping of the radon emission should be first done. It is worth to underline that the gaseous radioactive emission from operational nuclear power plants amounts up to a few percents of the radon natural emissions what entails a corresponding

  20. Element of risk: The politics of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent history of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to managing the risk of indoor radon offers a rich base from which to consider US practice in risk assessment, management, and communication. The biological evidence of risks from high-level exposure to radon is in many ways stronger--and the gap to be spanned by extrapolation from laboratory animal studies to ambient exposures narrower--than for many of the toxic and hazardous air pollutants that have been the focus of EPA regulatory attention. The epidemiological evidence about radon is complicated by a number of confounding variables, but this is often the state of epidemiological evidence. Radon has also been the focus of a considerable amount of research on risk communication. To complete the promising ingredients, disagreements between federal regulators at EPA and managers of federal nuclear programs run by the Department of Energy (DOE) concerning radon from uranium mill tailings, for example, and other issues in radiation health physics offer a rich array of opportunities to explore issues in federal bureaucratic politics. This book provides a straightforward report of much of the development of US policy on indoor radon over the past decade. As such, it gives readers unfamiliar with the evolution of radon regulation an opportunity to come quickly up to speed on many historical details

  1. Radon mitigation in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is produced in soil by radium decay, Ra-226 for radon (Rn-222) and Ra-224 for thoron (Rn-220). The radium content is about 40 Bq.kg-1 in crustal rocks and soils, 70 Bq.kg-1 in granite and only about 8 Bq.kg-1 in limestone. Being the heaviest gas in atmosphere, radon presents high concentration at surface and it is accumulating in closed or poorly ventilated places, both in underground cavities (caves or mines) and in dwelling. In comparison with the average radon concentration in atmospheric air of 8 Bq.m-3, the average indoor radon concentration reaches 10-100 Bq.m-3. International statistics indicate that radon contribution on natural irradiation is about 60%. The main sources of indoor radon are: radium content of the soil and of the concretes, water supply and natural gases

  2. Indoor radon: deadliest pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon in individual homes may be the greatest source of radiation that people are exposed to during a lifetime. In areas where radon concentrations in homes are high, people may be exposed to more radiation than were the Russian people living in the vicinity of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Studies indicate that the radon exposure contributes to 5000 to 20,000 deaths per year from lung cancer and that smoking may have a lethal interaction with the radon exposure. One study found an average annual concentration of radon in living spaces of 1.5 picocuries per liter. 7% of U.S. homes were found to have a radon concentration above the 4 picocuries per liter level set by the Environmental Protection Agency, and 1 - 3% of the homes have levels above 8 picocuries. Some ways are described for changing the air pressure in a house so that air is not constantly drawn from the permeable soil where the radon originates

  3. Estimation of effective doses derived from radon in selected SPA centers that use geothermal waters based on the information of radon concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Walczak; Marek Zmyślony

    2013-01-01

    Background: Geothermal waters contain, among other components, soluble radon gas. Alpha radioactive radon is a health hazard to humans, especially when it gets into the respiratory tract. SPA facilities that use geothermal water can be a source of an increased radiation dose to people who stay there. Based on the available literature concerning radon concentrations, we assessed exposure to radon among people - workers and visitors of Spa centers that use geothermal waters. Material and Method...

  4. Radon dosimetry and radon risks in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recollections are given regarding the introduction of alpha track etching detectors for integrating radon individual and environmental monitoring 25 years ago. The current status, and efforts to standardise these methods, are briefly described. However, more important than improving measurement techniques appears to be a balanced judgment of the potential health risks associated with radon, in particular in dwellings. New radio-epidemiological studies in former East Germany confirm earlier observations that there is little or no evidence of increased lung cancer risk for populations living in high-radon areas. Only among early uranium miners is there an increase in lung cancer, to be explained by synergistic effects of heavy smoking, ore dust, toxic fumes, etc., and extremely high radon exposures. The large scale and obviously effective worldwide application of radon for therapeutic reasons also indicates that lung cancer from early mining should not be used as a basis for risk estimates in buildings, and intervention levels (if required at all) should become substantially increased. Also, detectable differences in the genotoxic effects of radon and smoking in lung cancers deserve special attention in the discussion about potential radon health hazards. (author)

  5. Assessment of radon concentration and external gamma radiation level in the environs of the proposed uranium mine at Peddagattu and Seripally regions, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    T. Raghavendra; S.U.B. Ramakrishna; T. Vijayalakshmi; V. Himabindu; Arunachalam, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the environs of uranium mineralized terrain, a little higher ambient radon concentration and airborne gamma radiation level may be expected in comparison with natural background. It is necessary to determine the radon concentration and gamma radiation level in comparison with natural background radiation for future control or to minimize the health risks. The present study gives a brief account of atmospheric radon concentration, gamma absorbed dose rate and radiation dose received by the ...

  6. Indoor radon; Le radon dans les batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies.

  7. Measurement of radon concentration and dose assessment of miners for non-uranium mines in Shandong Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To measure 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in the underground non-uranium mines in Shandong Province, and to estimate the annual effective dose to the miners. Methods: Concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in selected gold, iron, coal and clay mines were determined by passive time-integrating detectors with CR-39. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined using gamma spectrometry equipped with HPGe detector. Results: The average concentrations of 220Rn in the gold, iron, coal and clay mines were estimated to be 1200, 280, 120 and 40 Bq/m3, respectively. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K in the ores for gold, iron, coal and clay mines ranged the same as the soil in China. The annual effective dose due to radon exposure in gold and iron mine was 7.70 mSv and 1.74 mSv, respectively. The annual doses received by miners in the coal and clay mines were lower than 1 mSv. Conclusions: Underground miners in some gold and iron mines should be treated as workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. The measurement such as increasing ventilation should be implemented to reduce underground radon concentration in these mines. (authors)

  8. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L.

    1974-01-01

    A method of removing radon and radon daughter elements from an atmosphere containing these elements by passing the atmosphere through a bed of fluorinating compound whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. These fluorides adhere to the fluorinating compound and are thus removed from the atmosphere which may then be recirculated. A method for recovering radon and separating radon from its daughter elements is also described. (Official Gazette)

  9. Interim indoor radon and radon decay-product measurement protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides EPA's procedures for measuring radon concentrations in houses with continuous radon monitors, charcoal canisters, alpha-track detectors, and grab radon techniques. It also provides procedures for measuring radon decay-product concentrations with a continuous-working-level monitor, a radon-progeny integrating sampling unit (RPISU), and grab radon decay-product methods. Specifications for the location of the measurement, the house conditions during the measurement, and minimum requirements for quality control are included in each procedure

  10. Preliminary Survey on Radon and Thoron Concentrations in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary survey was conducted to determine atmospheric radon and thoron concentrations, and soil gas radon concentrations in South Korea. The atmospheric radon and thoron measurements were made with a radon-thoron discriminative monitor and soil gas radon measurements with a hand-made radon monitor over a year. Six cities were chosen as the measurement site in South Korea. A polycarbonate film and a CR-39 detector were used as detectors for the radon-thoron discriminative monitor and the soil gas radon monitor, respectively. The detectors were replaced every 2-3 months during the survey period so as to observe seasonal variations of the concentration. From the limited data, the outdoor radon concentration has appeared to be somewhat higher than the typical value in the UNSCEAR report. The mean outdoor to indoor concentration ratio was estimated to be 0.6. Since high thoron concentrations were found in some areas, attention must be paid to thoron for accurate dose assessment. The soil gas radon concentration was observed in the range of 3.9-23.1 kBq.m-3. (author)

  11. Variations in radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourai, A A; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Joshi, V; Prasad, G; Ramola, R C

    2012-11-01

    The radon content in groundwater sources depends on the radium concentration in the rock of the aquifer. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessment due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. Airborne radon can be released during normal household activities and can pose a greater potential health risk than radon ingested with water. Transport of radon through soil and bedrock by water depends mainly on the percolation of water through the pores and along fracture planes of bedrock. In this study, the radon concentration in water from springs and hand pumps of Kumaun Himalaya, India was measured using the radon emanometry technique. Radon concentration was found to vary from 1 to 392 Bq l(-1) with a mean of 50 Bq l(-1) in groundwater in different lithotectonic units. The radon level was found to be higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks. PMID:22914330

  12. Variations in radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon content in groundwater sources depends on the radium concentration in the rock of the aquifer. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessment due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. Airborne radon can be released during normal household activities and can pose a greater potential health risk than radon ingested with water. Transport of radon through soil and bedrock by water depends mainly on the percolation of water through the pores and along fracture planes of bedrock. In this study, the radon concentration in water from springs and hand pumps of Kumaun Himalaya (India)) was measured using the radon emanometry technique. Radon concentration was found to vary from 1 to 392 Bq I-1 with a mean of 50 Bq I-1 in groundwater in different litho-tectonic units. The radon level was found to be higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks. (authors)

  13. Monitoring of radon daughters in coal-mine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin a significant concentration of radon daughters is observed. Monitoring of radon daughters in coal-mine atmospheres involves special problems related to high coal-dust concentration and methane hazards. To solve these problems an 'Integrating Radon Daughters Monitor' (IRDM) for coal-mine atmospheres has been developed. The instrument consists of a typical dust sampler, BARBARA IIIa, used in Polish coal mines, and a supplementary unit with thermoluminescent detectors. Laboratory tests in the calibration chamber showed that the IRDM response to the cumulative activity of radon daughters is independent of the dust concentration within the range 5 to 80 mg/m3 (respirable fraction). A detection limit of about 0.002 WL can be achieved with a sampling time of 8 h. Some preliminary results obtained in Polish coal mines are included. (author)

  14. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for α particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels

  15. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your Home Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. 2013 Consumers Guide to Radon Reduction (PDF) (20 pp, 424 ...

  16. Model-based tolerance intervals derived from cumulative historical composition data: application for substantial equivalence assessment of a genetically modified crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bonnie; Fisher, Tracey L; Sult, Theresa S; Maxwell, Carl A; Mickelson, James A; Kishino, Hirohisa; Locke, Mary E H

    2014-10-01

    Compositional analysis is a requisite component of the substantial equivalence framework utilized to assess genetically modified (GM) crop safety. Statistical differences in composition data between GM and non-GM crops require a context in which to determine biological relevance. This context is provided by surveying the natural variation of key nutrient and antinutrient levels within the crop population with a history of safe use. Data accumulated from various genotypes with a history of safe use cultivated in relevant commercial crop-growing environments over multiple seasons are discussed as the appropriate data representative of this natural variation. A model-based parametric tolerance interval approach, which accounts for the correlated and unbalanced data structure of cumulative historical data collected from multisite field studies conducted over multiple seasons, is presented. This paper promotes the application of this tolerance interval approach to generate reference ranges for evaluation of the biological relevance of statistical differences identified during substantial equivalence assessment of a GM crop. PMID:25208038

  17. Binary Cumulant Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.

  18. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  19. The Challenge of Planning Conservation Strategies in Threatened Seascapes: Understanding the Role of Fine Scale Assessments of Community Response to Cumulative Human Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; De Leo, Francesco; Farella, Giulio; Maffia, Anna; Terlizzi, Antonio; Fraschetti, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the distribution and intensity of human threats to biodiversity is a prerequisite for effective spatial planning, harmonizing conservation purposes with sustainable development. In the Mediterranean Sea, the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is rarely based on explicit consideration of the distribution of multiple stressors, with direct assessment of their effects on ecosystems. This gap limits the effectiveness of protection and is conducive to conflicts among stakeholders. Here, a fine scale assessment of the potential effects of different combinations of stressors (both land- and marine-based) on vulnerable rocky habitats (i.e. lower midlittoral and shallow infralittoral) along 40 km of coast in the western Mediterranean (Ionian Sea) has been carried out. The study area is a paradigmatic example of socio-ecological interactions, where several human uses and conservation measures collide. Significant differences in the structure of assemblages according to different combinations of threats were observed, indicating distinct responses of marine habitats to different sets of human pressures. A more complex three-dimensional structure, higher taxon richness and β-diversity characterized assemblages subject to low versus high levels of human pressure, consistently across habitats. In addition, the main drivers of change were: closeness to the harbour, water quality, and the relative extension of beaches. Our findings suggest that, although efforts to assess cumulative impacts at large scale may help in individuating priority areas for conservation purposes, the fact that such evaluations are often based on expert opinions and not on actual studies limits their ability to represent real environmental conditions at local scale. Systematic evaluations of local scale effects of anthropogenic drivers of change on biological communities should complement broad scale management strategies to achieve effective sustainability of human exploitation of

  20. Intercomparison of radon and decay product measurements in an underground mine and EPA radon laboratory: A study organized by the IAEA International Radon Metrology Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna and the European Union (EU) in Bruxelles formed the International Radon Metrology Programme. The IRMP is designed to assess and foster the improvement of radon and decay product measurements that are made around the world. Within the framework of the IRMP, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (EPA) in Las Vegas, Nevada, organized jointly with the U.S. Bureau of Mines an international intercomparison exercise at a former uranium mine (Twilight Mine, Colorado) and the EPA Radon Laboratory. The main objective of this exercise was to compare radon and radon decay product instruments under both well-controlled as well as widely fluctuating exposure conditions. The laboratory exposures occurred under relatively steady radon and decay product conditions, with a moderate equilibrium ratio, while the conditions in the mine fluctuated greatly and the equilibrium ratio was low. An additional purpose of the exercise was to provide a forum for manufacturers and measurement organizations worldwise to exchange information and plan improvements in their operations and calibration programs. Altogether 19 organizations from seven countries intercomparing 32 different radon and radon decay product instruments participated in this exercise. This paper summarizes the results from the analysis of the experimental data obtained in the Bureau of Mines Twilight Mine in July of 1994, as well as the results from the EPA Radon laboratory in August of 1994

  1. Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Passive radon radiometers, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are very attractive for the assessment of radon exposure. The present review considers various devices used for measurement of the volume activity of radon isotopes and their daughters and determination of equilibrium coefficients. Such devices can be classified into 8 groups: (i) open or 'bare' detectors, (ii) open chambers, (iii) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn chambers with an inlet filter, (iv) advanced sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn radiometers, (v) multipurpose radiometers, (vi) radiometers based on a combination of etched track detectors and an electrostatic field, (vii) radiometers based on etched track detectors and activated charcoal and (viii) devices for the measurement of radon isotopes and/or radon daughters by means of track parameter measurements. Some of them such as the open detector and the chamber with an inlet filter have a variety of modifications and are applied widely both in geophysical research and radon dosimetric surveys. At the...

  2. Dose monitoring using the DICOM structured report: assessment of the relationship between cumulative radiation exposure and BMI in abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To perform a systematic, large-scale analysis using the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine structured report (DICOM-SR) to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and radiation exposure in abdominal CT. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of DICOM-SR of 3121 abdominal CT examinations between April 2013 and March 2014 was performed. All examinations were conducted using a 128 row CT system. Patients (mean age 61 ± 15 years) were divided into five groups according to their BMI: group A <20 kg/m2 (underweight), group B 20–25 kg/m2 (normal weight), group C 25–30 kg/m2 (overweight), group D 30–35 kg/m2 (obese), and group E > 35 kg/m2 (extremely obese). CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP) were compared between all groups and matched to national diagnostic reference values. Results: The mean CTDIvol and DLP were 5.4 ± 2.9 mGy and 243 ± 153 mGy·cm in group A, 6 ± 3.6 mGy and 264 ± 179 mGy• cm in group B, 7 ± 3.6 mGy and 320 ± 180 mGy• cm in group C, 8.1 ± 5.2 mGy and 375 ± 306 mGy• cm in group D, and 10 ± 8 mGy and 476 ± 403 mGy• cm in group E, respectively. Except for group A versus group B, CTDIvol and DLP differed significantly between all groups (p<0.05). Significantly more CTDIvol values exceeded national diagnostic reference values in groups D and E (2.1% and 6.3%) compared to group B (0.5%, p<0.05). Conclusion: DICOM-SR is a comprehensive, fast, and reproducible way to analyse dose-related data at CT. It allows for automated evaluation of radiation dose in a large study population. Dose exposition is related to the patient's BMI and is increased by up to 96% for extremely obese patients undergoing abdominal CT. - Highlights: • DICOM-SR was used to implement automatic CT-dose monitoring. • DICOM-SR allowed for a fast and comprehensive analysis of CT dose data. • Radiation exposure for abdominal CT was increased by up to 96% for extremely

  3. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  4. Radon mapping of soils in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil gas measurements of radon were made in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica using nuclear track etch detectors. The results were compared to gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements made in the laboratory on soil samples collected at the radon measurement sites. An assessment of the degree of disequilibrium of uranium and thorium was also made by comparison with neutron activation analysis, delayed neutron counting and equivalent uranium and thorium measurements. The results to date for equivalent uranium and radon show a strong correlation and indicate the possibility of soil radon mapping in Jamaica using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Three anomalous sites have been identified. (author)

  5. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  6. Cumulative Conditional Expectation Index

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, M; González-López, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the cumulative conditional expectation function (CCEF) in the copula context. It is shown how to compute CCEF in terms of the cumulative copula function, this natural representation allows to deduce some useful properties, for instance with applications to convex combination of copulas. We introduce approximations of CCEF based on Bernstein polynomial copulas. We introduce estimators for CCEF, which were constructed through Bernstein polynomial estimators for copulas. T...

  7. Investigation of radon-222 emissions from underground uranium mines. Progress report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable estimate of radon emissions to the environment from underground uranium mines was obtained through measurements of radon in ventilation exhaust air at 24 uranium mines and estimates of radon release from ore piles and waste piles at mines and in water pumped from mines. Three additional mines sampled in 1978 but not in 1979 were included in the overall results. Total production of U3O8 from the mines thus far sampled represent about 63% of total 1978 US production from underground mines. Wide variation in radon emission per unit of production was shown from mine to mine; hence, it became necessary to sum all radon from all mines measured and divide by the sum of all U3O8 production in 1978 from these mines to arrive at a valid estimate of Ci per ton of U3O8. This value was found to be 26.7 per ton or 5400 Ci/RRY (182 metric tons). The radon emitted in mine ventilation air was by far the dominant source, with other than ventilation exhaust sources accounting for less than three percent of radon in ventilation exhaust. Other observations of interest in this study were the diurnal fluctuations of radon with barometric pressure and the statistically significant relationship between radon released per year from a mine and the cumulative ore production at the time of radon measurement. The linear relationship between Ci/yr of radon and cumulative ore accounted for about half the variability.Several sources of random errors and possible biases were evaluated using some simple descriptive statistics insofar as the current data permitted. Errors in air flow rate in the vents sampled, fluctuations in radon emission with time of day, counting instrument calibration and production rate were estimated and combined to give an uncertainty of about +- 24 percent at the 95 percent confidence level

  8. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  9. Radon in Caves.

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2005-01-01

    The physical characteristics of radon are reported as well as its sources,the transport in rock and its behaviour in caves. Then,the instruments,both active and passive, used for the measurement of radon concentration are discussed by taking into accounttheir respective advantages and disadvantages for the use in the cave environment. Since in many countries radon is the objectof regulations that were adopted for radiation protection purposes, this aspect is examined and the recommendations i...

  10. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the function of the ventilation by natural draught in three-storey houses. In some cases also the measurement of gamma radiation, radon and radon daughters was made. The investigation took place in Uppsala. The houses were built of light weight concrete made of alum-shale. The measurements showed that the contents of radon daughters were far below the provisional limits. (G.B.)

  11. Investigation of natural levels of radon-222 in groundwater in Maine for assessment of related health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used an inexpensive radon (222Rn) measurement method using liquid scintillation counting to remeasure potable water from 10 sites near Raymond, Maine, to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of earlier measurements. Duplication or triplication of samples shows a high degree of reproducibility for the liquid scintillation method. A hypothesis emerged from analysis of the measured values of 222Rn near Raymond, Maine, that high values (50,000 to 200,000 pCi/liter) are associated with granite. This was shown to be correct for several large areas of granite such as the Sebago, Lucern, Waldo, and Waldoboro granites. The presence of high 222Rn concentrations in granite areas hundreds of kilometers from the Raymond area shows that the high 222Rn levels in water are a statewide and perhaps a regional problem rather than a western Maine problem

  12. Field studies of radon in rocks, soils, and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume contains 24 papers of geologic and hydrogeologic research on radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive gas (hereafter referred to as radon). In 1984, R.C. Smith II and co-workers documented the most severe indoor radon problem to date, which was in Colebrookdale Township near Boyertown, PA. The discovery of high indoor radon levels near Boyertown and in several other parts of the United States prompted nationwide concern and the initiation of federal programs to assess and understand the problem. Despite the obvious geologic controls on concentrations of radon in soil gases, relatively little research has focused on geologic aspects of the radon problem. Radon, in addition to being found in soil gas, can also be present in ground water. Research in the past 5 years by the U.S. Geological Survey on these geological and hydrogeological issues has significantly increased the understanding of radon and its occurrence. Compiled in the volume are field studies relating ways to measure, assess, and understand radon in homes and in water. The papers are of a technical nature and are written for the scientific audience

  13. Assessing the impact of atmospheric stability on locally and remotely sourced aerosols at Richmond, Australia, using Radon-222

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jagoda; Chambers, Scott; Cohen, David; Williams, Alastair; Griffiths, Alan; Stelcer, Eduard

    2016-02-01

    A flexible radon-based scheme for the classification of nocturnal stability regimes was used for the interpretation of daily-integrated PM2.5 aerosol observations collected at Richmond, Australia, between 2007 and 2011. Source fingerprint concentrations for the dominant locally and remotely sourced aerosols were analysed by nocturnal radon stability category to characterise the influences of day-to-day changes in daily integrated atmospheric mixing. The fingerprints analysed included: smoke, vehicle exhaust, secondary sulfate and aged industrial sulfur. The largest and most consistent stability influences were observed on the locally sourced pollutants. Based on a 5-year composite, daily integrated concentrations of smoke were almost a factor of 7 higher when nocturnal conditions were classed as "stable" than when they were "near neutral". For vehicle emissions a factor of 4 was seen. However, when the winter months were considered in isolation, it was found that these factors increased to 11.5 (smoke) and 5.5 (vehicle emissions) for daily average concentrations. The changes in concentration of the remotely sourced pollutants with atmospheric stability were comparatively small and less consistent, probably as a result of the nocturnal inversion frequently isolating near-surface observations from non-local sources at night. A similar classification was performed using the commonly-adopted Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability typing technique based on meteorological parameters. While concentrations of fingerprints associated with locally-sourced pollutants were also shown to be positively correlated with atmospheric stability using the PG classification, this technique was found to underestimate peak pollutant concentrations under stable atmospheric conditions by almost a factor of 2.

  14. Working towards residential radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  15. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  16. Radon diffusion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P; Dimbylow, P J

    1985-10-01

    A mathematical model has been developed that examines the ingress of radon into houses, through a vertical crack in an otherwise impervious concrete floor. Initially, the model considered the diffusive flow of radon from its soil source and this simulation has highlighted the dependency of the flux of radon into the house on the magnitude of various parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of radon in soil. A preliminary investigation of the modelling of pressure-driven flow into a building is presented, and the potential of this type of analysis is discussed. PMID:4081719

  17. YAPILARDA RADON FENOMENY

    OpenAIRE

    OZAN, Sadik Sezgin; EKİNCİ, Cevdet Emin

    2011-01-01

    Bu çaly?mada, yapylarda Radon konusu irdelenmi?tir. Radon, günlük hayatta sürekli maruz kaldy?ymyz radyasyonun yakla?yk %50'sini olu?turan ve topraktaki Uranyum'un bozunma zincirinin bir halkasy olan renksiz, kokusuz ve duyu organlaryyla algylanamayan radyoaktif bir gazdyr. Kayaçlardaki Uranyumun bozunmasy sonucu ortaya çykan Radon gazy, difüzyon yoluyla topra?a, oradan da atmosfere veya ortama yayylmaktadyr. Gazyn birikmesiyle, Radon yo?unlu?u kapaly mekânlarda veya iyi havalandyrylmayan yer...

  18. Managing the radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies have shown a linear relationship between radon dose and lung cancer, first for miners and later for inhabitants. Lethal risk exists even at very low dose rates (nearing 200 Bq/m3) if the person has stayed in the building for a very long period (20 to 30 years). Studies on cohorts of uranium miners suggest a link between radon dose and leukemia. Other studies have shown the multiplier effect of smoking on the radon effect. The World Health Organisation proposes a maximal concentration of 100 Bq/m3 to minimize the radon risk in the habitat. In France and every year, between 1200 and 2900 deaths from lung cancer can be attributed to the exposure to radon. A new National Action Plan has been launched by French authorities, it concerns buildings that are open to the public in 31 departments where terrestrial radon concentration is important. Radon monitoring and ventilation measures will have to be implemented. The radon risk due to the presence of nearby tailings is considered through the 'Bessine case' in which a family has lived in a house that had been built on waste rocks and tailings from uranium mining activities. 20 European countries represented by people in charge of radioprotection, have taken part in a workshop to share their experience of the radon risk. (A.C.)

  19. Radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics related to radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; and (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty. The presented results indicate that radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite does not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, no radionuclide transport to the boundary with the accessible environment was observed; thus, the associated CCDFs for comparison with the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194) are degenerate in the sense of having a probability of zero of exceeding a release of zero

  20. Radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics related to radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented: (i) mathematical description of models; (ii) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e. epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases; (iii) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e. aleatory) uncertainty; and (iv) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that no releases to the accessible environment take place due to radionuclide movement through the anhydrite marker beds, through the Dewey Lake Red Beds or directly to the surface, and also that the releases to the Culebra Dolomite are small. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for release to the Culebra Dolomite fall to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194)

  1. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  2. Radon in dwellings in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over ten years STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has performed systematic indoor radon mapping in Finland with health authorities in municipalities. The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m3. Therefore STUK has made radon measurement plans and radon risk maps to identify radon-prone areas. During 1986 - 1996 the municipalities have ordered 33 000 dosemeters for radon measurements. Private persons have ordered 24 000 dosemeters and STUK has used for its own investigations 34 000 dosemeters. Today the basic radon database of STUK consists information of about 52 000 Finnish dwellings. This report is a summary of the radon measurements made by STUK in low-rise dwellings. The radon situation by provinces is presented in tables

  3. Sampling strategies for indoor radon investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent investigations prompted by concern about the environmental effects of residential energy conservation have produced many accounts of indoor radon concentrations far above background levels. In many instances time-normalized annual exposures exceeded the 4 WLM per year standard currently used for uranium mining. Further investigations of indoor radon exposures are necessary to judge the extent of the problem and to estimate the practicality of health effects studies. A number of trends can be discerned as more indoor surveys are reported. It is becoming increasingly clear that local geological factors play a major, if not dominant role in determining the distribution of indoor radon concentrations in a given area. Within a giving locale, indoor radon concentrations tend to be log-normally distributed, and sample means differ markedly from one region to another. The appreciation of geological factors and the general log-normality of radon distributions will improve the accuracy of population dose estimates and facilitate the design of preliminary health effects studies. The relative merits of grab samples, short and long term integrated samples, and more complicated dose assessment strategies are discussed in the context of several types of epidemiological investigations. A new passive radon sampler with a 24 hour integration time is described and evaluated as a tool for pilot investigations

  4. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  5. Monitoring of airborne radioactivity (radon, thoron and daughters; radioactive dust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes resulting in airborne radioactivity from uranium and thorium ores are discussed. Measurement methods for radioactive dust, radon and thoron gas and radon and thoron daughters are described and assessed. The monitoring equipment required for measurement of airborne radioactivity is described

  6. Indoor radon concentration and outdoor/indoor pressure difference correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current approach to the radon issue, the radon risk for people living in a building is estimated based on the average indoor radon concentration. Short-term measurements as usually applied fail to reflect the wide range of radon variations arising from ventilation, radon supply and, in particular, human activities in the building. For this reason, efforts are made to find a new approach to the assessment of the quality of a building as a radon barrier, independent of the weather conditions and residential habits. A simple model of radon volume activity entering the building at a constant rate and simultaneously ventilated at a constant rate is applicable to this task. The rate of radon ingress can be regarded as a parameter making it possible to quantify the leakage of structures provided the barrier against the radon in a soil gas. The ventilation rate, on the other hand, characterizes the leakage of the whole building envelope at a given outdoor/indoor pressure difference. A unique measuring technique called the blower door exists whereby a defined pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor atmosphere can be established. Under such conditions both the ventilation rate and the rate of radon ingress can be measured and expressed as a function of the pressure difference. An analysis of the model of a room with a constant ventilation and constant radon supply is presented and the relationship between radon supply and ventilation rate can be assumed. Some experimental results show how the model can be utilized. The real indoor-outdoor air pressure differences, the indoor-soil air pressure differences, and some effects of different ventilation regimes are given. Other experiments, which have been done by using the blower door method, illustrate the possible effects and some restrictions for a routine application are discussed

  7. Radon inhalation protects against transient global cerebral ischemic injury in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Etani, Reo; Takata, Yuji; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kawabe, Atsushi; Kumashiro, Masayuki; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2014-10-01

    Although brain disorders are not the main indication for radon therapy, our previous study suggested that radon inhalation therapy might mitigate brain disorders. In this study, we assessed whether radon inhalation protects against transient global cerebral ischemic injury in gerbils. Gerbils were treated with inhaled radon at a concentration of 2,000 Bq/m(3) for 24 h. After radon inhalation, transient global cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. Results showed that transient global cerebral ischemia induced neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1, and the number of damaged neurons was significantly increased compared with control. However, radon treatment inhibited ischemic damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the radon-treated gerbil brain was significantly higher than that in sham-operated gerbils. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activates antioxidative function, especially SOD, thereby inhibiting transient global cerebral ischemic injury in gerbils. PMID:24792782

  8. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radon Measurement in Schools Radon Prevention in the Design and Construction of Schools and Other Large Buildings (EPA 625- ... quality control and assurance to address complicated building designs and specialized airflow. What happens if your school fails the test? Every home should also take this ...

  9. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection

  10. Radon surveys and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon surveys are made primarily for estimating the radon risk for the population of an area but also for predicting the risk for inhabitants of future buildings. Therefore it is of essential importance to know the uncertainties of such predictions. The outcome of radon surveys is strongly influenced b y many factors with partly large uncertainties. In most cases passive radon detectors are exposed for some weeks or months (up to one-year measurements). In these cases, the contribution of uncertainties in the calibration of the detectors to the total uncertainty is most often of less importance. The main contribution to the uncertainties comes from the unknown treatment of the detectors by the inhabitants during the exposure and by the natural fluctuation of the indoor radon concentration in time. The latter is also true for one-year-measurements. Additional uncertainties are introduced when the measured data are normalized to some time period (e. g. one-year mean) or to some standardized measurement situation. Generally, it is of crucial importance to know the probability for a possible underestimation of the radon risk for an area. The main contributions to the final uncertainties, their sizes and the mathematical procedures which were used during the Austrian Radon Project (ARP) to estimate the uncertainties in the final categorization of areas in radon potential classes will be discussed. In addition, procedures which can be used to reduce some uncertainties will be presented. (author)

  11. Dose-rate effects on lung cancers induced by exposure to radon progeny in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    months period, at a potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) of 0.042 mJm-3 (2 WL), resulted in fewer lung carcinoma in rats than a similar cumulative exposure protracted over 4 to 6 months at a PAEC of 2.1 mJm-3 (100 WL). Moreover, the lung cancer incidence in rats exposed at low exposure rate (0.60%) was slightly lower than that in control animals (0.63%). The results of a new series of experiments carried out to investigate the influence of exposure-rate on lung cancer induction in rats at relatively low cumulative exposures of 0.36 Jhm-3 (100 WLM), and PAEC varying from 0.22 mJm-3 (13 WL) to 3.15 mJm-3 (150 WL) indicate that at relatively low cumulative exposures comparable to lifetime exposures in high-radon houses or current underground mining exposures, the risk of lung cancer in rats decreases with decreasing PAEC, i.e., exposure rates. These data suggest that in terms of risk of induction of lung cancer, there is a complex interplay between cumulative exposure and exposure rate, resulting in an optimal exposure rate at a given exposure level. The significance of exposure rates in assessing the hazards of domestic radon exposure was addressed on biophysical grounds by Brenner, who concluded that, when cumulative exposures are sufficiently low that multiple traversals of target cells by alpha particles are rare - that is the case for typical domestic radon exposures -, all exposure-rate enhancement effects disappear. The results of recent experiments of the same group showed that traversal of cell nuclei by a single alpha particle induced significantly lower oncogenic transformation in the C3H10T1/2 mouse fibroblast system than does a Poisson-distributed mean of one alpha particle, suggesting that cells traversed by multiple alpha particles contribute most to the risk. In this respect, based on dose-rate effect considerations, extrapolation of lower exposure-rate miner data to residential exposures - where no target cell is traversed by more than a single alpha

  12. Radon in caves: clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Stephen A.; Smit Berend J.

    2006-01-01

    Historical, experimental and clinical evidence is presented to suggest that radon constitutes a relatively small carcinogenic risk for casual visitors to caves. The risk is dependent on radon levels and the smoking of tobacco. Show cave guides, chronically exposed to radon, may be at increased risk for lung cancer due to the effects of radon, especially if they are smokers of tobacco.

  13. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m-3, have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  14. Indoor radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action limit for indoor radon concentration in Finnish dwellings is 400 Bq/m3 which is exceeded in 50.000 dwellings. In these dwellings indoor radon mitigation is needed. The most important reason for high concentration is the soil air with high radon concentrations that flows into living spaces through openings and gaps in the building foundation. Slab on ground is the most prevalent type of foundation in Finnish single family houses. Without preventive measures, this type of foundation promotes the flow of radon-bearing soil air into living spaces. In the second popular foundation type, semi-basement houses, the flow of soil air through the walls in contact with soil still increases radon leakages. The key aim of indoor radon mitigation is to prevent or decrease the harmful flows of radon-bearing soil air into dwellings. This guide gives the basic information on Finnish regulations on indoor radon, leakage routes, effect of air exchange and under-pressure as well as pre-mitigation studies of houses. The results on the efficiency of various mitigation methods are based on a questionnaire study in 400 Finnish dwellings and on-site studies in numerous houses. In the case of sub slab suction, the Finnish guide published by the Ministry of Environment has also been utilized. Best mitigation efficiency has been achieved using sub slab suction and radon well. Typical indoor radon reduction factors for both methods are 70 - 90%, and the best results are above 95%. Sub slab suction can be implemented through both floor slab and foundation wall. An exhaust fan coupled to suction pit and exhaust piping creates underpressure and ventilation beneath the slab. In case of a radon well an exhaust fan sucks air from the soil and ventilates the soil air volume through a well construction placed outside the house. The depth of a radon well is 4 - 5 metres. A single radon well can reduce radon concentration in many dwellings at the distance up to 20 - 30 metres. Mitigation work

  15. Indoor radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action limit for indoor radon concentration in Finnish dwellings is 400 Bq/m3 which is exceeded in 50.000 dwellings. In these dwellings indoor radon mitigation is needed. The most important reason for high concentration is the soil air with high radon concentrations that flows into living spaces through openings and gaps in the building foundation. Slab on-ground is the most prevalent type of foundation in Finnish single family houses. Without preventive measures, this type of foundation promotes the flow of radon-bearing soil air into living spaces. In the second popular foundation type, hill-side houses, the flow of soil air through the walls backing soil still increases radon leakages. The key aim of indoor radon mitigation is to prevent or decrease the harmful flows of radon-bearing soil air into dwellings. This guide gives the basic information on Finnish regulations on indoor radon, leakage routes, effect of air exchange and underpressure as well as pre-mitigation studies of houses. The results on the efficiency of various mitigation methods are based on a questionnaire study in 400 Finnish dwellings and on-site studies in numerous houses. In the case of sub-slab-suction the Finnish guide published by the Ministry of Environment has also been utilized. Best mitigation efficiency has been achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. Typical reduction factors for both methods are 70-90%, and the best results are above 95%. Sub-slab-suction can be implemented through both floor slab and foundation wall. An exhaust fan coupled to suction pit and exhaust piping creates underpressure and ventilation beneath the slab. In case of a radon well an exhaust fan sucks air from the soil and ventilates the soil air volume through a well construction placed outside the house. The depth of a radon well is 3-5 metres. A single radon well can reduce radon concentration in many dwellings at the distance up to 20-30 metres. Mitigation work based on ventilation aims at

  16. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.)

  17. Radon and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume provides an interdisciplinary overview and analysis of radon and the environment, geared to both professional and lay perspectives. The radon issue spans many disciplines and has far-reaching implications for society. There are also many uncertainties stemming from a variety of sources. These include the often misleading and inconsistent media coverage of the topic, the newness of the issue, the lack of detailed scientific information and the way people perceive and respond to risk. While the effects of radon are still not fully understood as a public policy and health issue, there have been important new developments on the subject and this book brings together many of the key contributors our current knowledge. It attempts to clarify the policy issues, in a manner that will be of equal use to a radon professional, a government official, or a concerned citizen. Seven aspects of the radon issue are presented in the various sections of the book

  18. Lung tumors and radon inhalation in over 2000 rats: Approximate linearity across a wide range of doses and potentiation by tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 2000 rats were exposed to cumulative doses of up to 28,000 WLMs of radon gas. More than 300 pulmonary tumors were induced by this exposure, most being nonfatal lesions detected only at autopsy of animals that had died of unrelated causes. Above 6000 WLMs rats suffered increasingly from life shortening due to radiation-induced nonneoplastic causes and so had less time in which to develop tumors. When adjusted for these competing causes of death, the hazard function for the excess risk of developing pulmonary tumors was approximately linearly related to dose throughout the range of doses studied. This suggests that some previously reported high-dose ''reductions'' in radiogenic tumor-induction rates may chiefly have involved the killing of rats rather than the killing of precursor cells. Rats exposed to radon and then to six months of inhalation of tobacco smoke had a four times greater age-specific prevalence of pulmonary tumors than rats exposed to an identical radon dose either alone or preceded by tobacco smoke inhalation. This suggests that tobacco smoke may accelerate the carcinogenic process by acting as a promoter of radiation-induced somatic damage. These data suggest that, for assessing human risk from exposure to radon, the linear model should be assumed, but that the WLM is not on its own an adequate index of carcinogenic insult. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  19. A study on the risk from indoor radon 220 and radon 222 exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazards from radon (radon 220 and 222) in dwelling atmospheres have been studied. In the first part devoted to the present state of the problem, an analysis is made of the formation mechanisms and the evolution of radon and its daughters indoors. The main physical and dosimetric quantities required for the risk evaluation are defined. The theoretical and experimental analysis of the methods of measurements of radon and its daughters used in the measurement campaign are considered in the second part. The progress and the result of the national survey are developed in the third part. The effects of several factors on indoor levels are discussed. The conclusions of a particular study in the Finistere ''department'' are presented. The data collected make it possible to assess the mean exposure of man to natural radiation

  20. The radon manual. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second edition of the Radon Manual provides an overview of the problem of radon contamination of buildings and remedial measures which are recommended for overcoming this problem. The Council's Code of Practice for those engaged in the detection of radon or remedial work to reduce natural radon levels in industry and residential buildings is included as an Appendix. The Council aims to promote a self-regulatory role for the radon industry based on the recommendations produced here. (UK)

  1. Detailed analysis of radon flux studies at Australian uranium projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radon gas and radon progeny from uranium projects is a major issue during operation as well as for the design of rehabilitation works. In Australia, there have been a number of premining radon flux studies as part of the environmental investigation and potential development of recent uranium projects. There is also an increasing amount of operational data on radon fluxes and loads from various aspects of projects, such as tailings, waste rock and mills. Thus there exists much useful measured data which can be used to assess the design radon flux and load targets for rehabilitation. The main projects for which radon data exists includes Ranger, Olympic Dam, Beverley, Honeymoon, Jabiluka, Yeelirrie, Lake Way, Koongarra, Moline, Coronation Hill, Rockhole, Nabarlek, Rum Jungle, Port Pirie and Ben Lomond. To date, much of this data has not been systematically evaluated. The need to compile and assess this data is twofold. Firstly, to assess the loads released from uranium production as an input into life-cycle analyses of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as those undertaken by UNSCEAR and industry groups. Secondly, there is a need to set suitable design standards for radon flux for the rehabilitation of former and current uranium projects. This paper will present such a detailed compilation of radon fluxes and loads which can then be used as the basis for both life-cycle analyses as well as setting appropriate site-specific rehabilitation criteria for radon. The implications for former and current projects is then discussed as well as future data needs. Ultimately, there is a critical need for thorough baseline surveys prior to mining to ensure accurate assessments of changes to radon fluxes and loads. The data and analysis presented is considered applicable to all uranium projects in Australia, as well as being a useful model for considering such issues internationally

  2. Radon programme in Czech Republic. Results, experience and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beginning of the radon programme in the Czech republic dates back to the early 1980s. Incorporated in national legislation (Atomic Act, Radiation Protection Decree), the programme includes now both preventive measures and interventions. Preventive measures are based on the control of major potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to prevent construction of new houses where the recommended indoor radon level of 200 Bq/m3 would be exceeded. Radon risk (index) assessment of the individual building site bedrock in the case of new house siting and building protection as stipulated by the technical building code are obligatory. The estimation of the radon-related index of building sites is based on a standard method involving a set of radon soil and soil permeability measurements. In addition, producers of building materials are obligated to monitor natural radioactivity in their products. The activity index (including 40K, 226Ra and 232Th) is used as a screening level for regulation of the potential indoor gamma dose rate, and the 226Ra mass activity is used as a limiting value for radon exhalation. A similar regulatory system is in place for public water supplies based on obligatory radon, total alpha and total beta measurements. A survey of effectiveness of the preventive measures was carried out during the past years. It appeared, however, that the indoor radon level of 200 Bq/m3 is exceeded in some 20 % of new houses. An unexpectedly low air exchange rate in modern energy-saving houses seems to be among the reasons. Remedial actions are aimed at promoting targeted indoor radon survey in existing buildings and helping owners to put reasonable remedial measures into effect. Governmental activities include representative and targeted indoor radon survey, subsidies for remediation measures and test measurements, and improving the level of public awareness of the radon issue. Indoor radon survey is targeted on radon-prone areas

  3. Radon concentration and heavy metal contamination in drinking water samples in some areas of Jammu and Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil and Rock typically contain significant concentrations of Uranium and Radium. Radon is continually being created in the ground so that ground water often has high radon content. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessments due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. In this study, Radon concentration in hand pumps, and natural springs of some areas of Jammu and Udhampur Districts of J and K, India was measured using Electronic Radon meter RAD7. Radon level in some samples of Udhampur area exceeded EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) recommendation for maximum contaminant level (MCL) for radon in drinking water 300 pCi/l. Radon concentration along with temperature, conductivity and the total dissolved solids were also measured

  4. Radon risk in ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding

  5. A method for determining an indicator of effective dose calculation due to inhalation of Radon and its progeny from in vivo measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, J

    1994-01-01

    Direct measurement of the absolved dose to lung tissue from inhalation of radon and its progeny is not possible and must be calculated using dosimetric models, taking into consideration the several parameters upon which the dose calculation depends. To asses the dose due to inhalation of radon and its progeny, it is necessary to estimate the cumulative exposure. Historically, this has been done using WLM values estimated with measurements of radon concentration in air. The radon concentration in air varies significantly, however, in space with time, and the exposed individual is also constantly moving around. This makes it almost impossible to obtain a precise estimate of an individual's inhalation exposure. This work describes a pilot study to calculate lung dose from the deposition of radon progeny, via estimates of cumulative exposure derived from in vivo measurements of sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb, in subjects exposed to above-average radon and its progeny concentrations in their home environments. The measureme...

  6. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  7. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations deals with practical problems of radon in dwelllings. It is found that the estimation of risks is not satisfactory. It is evident that the main source of radon is the ground. The mechanisms which influence the radon inflow have been studied. The permeability and water content of the soil has the same importance as the contents of uranium and radium. Measuring methods need to be developed. The number of houses with radon daughters exceeding 400 Bq/m3 is estimated to approximately 40 000. A number of practical methods to eliminate the risk are presented, and the cost for preventing it might amount to 50 000 SEK per house. Some 10 % of the ground is to be considered high risk ground requiring expensive constructions. Recommendations have been made in consideration of radon content when starting new buildings. Special loans are to be granted to reconstruct houses with radon daughters exceeding 400 Bq/m3. It is stated that the follow up of the radon problems should be made by the National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection. (G.B.)

  8. Radon levels in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon levels in atmospheric and aquatic systems in Cyprus have recently been measured using the radon monitor Alpha Guard. Indoor and outdoor radon levels were obtained in situ, whereas analysis of radon concentrations in water was performed using tap and ground water samples collected from several areas of the island. The average value for outdoor and indoor radon concentration is 11±10 and 7±6 Bq m-3, respectively, and for tap and ground water 0.4 Bq l-1 and 1.4 Bq l-1, respectively. From these data the annual dose equivalent of airborne radon to the Cypriot population is about 0.19 mSv y-1, which is quite low compared to the total dose equivalent of natural and man-made ionising radiation in Cyprus. Radon levels in aquatic systems are relatively low due to an exhaustive utilisation of ground water resources and also to the increased input of desalinated sea water in the water distribution network and eventually into the ground water reservoirs

  9. Critical assessment of the MEDUSA gamma ray detection system for radon flux measurement on a tailings dam / Tebogo Gladys Kgaugelo Motlhabane

    OpenAIRE

    Motlhabane, Tebogo Gladys Kgaugelo

    2003-01-01

    Worldwide measurement of radon flux on mine tailing dams has been performed using various instruments. Some of the methods used in South Africa are electrets, alpha tracks, accumulator cans etc. Although these techniques and methods have been used for many years, a number of shortcomings are still evident. The major shortcomings are that, the methods lack spatial representivity that is, they only measure the radon flux at a point where they' are placed and not the whole site in...

  10. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to the

  11. The Austrian radon project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the completion of the Austrian Radon Project, the map of the annual mean radon concentrations in Austrian homes is available now. The extrapolation of the indoor data to a standard situation was used to create a 'radon potential' map, which should indicate the radon risk from the ground without the influence of house type, living situation and all other parameters, that could influence the indoor radon concentration. This map specifies areas where radon-safe building techniques should be applied. In the next future the main task for the Austrian radon program will be the transformation of recommendations into use, i. e. to inform the public as well as to teach the persons who are responsible for the construction of a house, how to make a house radon-safe. It seems essential that all people who are involved in the construction of a house, starting from the planning and ending with the people working at the building site, should be informed about the problems with radon because a lack of knowledge in one part of the chain could substantially reduce the effectiveness of any protective measure. The way we try to inform the public as well as several special target groups will be demonstrated. An important question is the effectiveness of such information campaigns. This means: does the information reach the target groups, are the people accepting this information and finally do they apply the recommendations? Therefore it seems necessary to test the methods of information distribution for their efficiency already during the information campaigns. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of life time fatality risk and annual dose estimation by continuous monitoring of radon concentration in air, water and soil of Bathinda District of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its daughter products are the major sources of radiation exposure. Keeping in mind the study of radon concentration in air, water and soil of Bathinda district of Punjab was carried out using an active electronic monitor RAD7. Ten different locations were chosen in the district for continuous monitoring of radon in air, water and soil and experiment was repeated four times in same location by taking. The concentration of indoor radon varies from 35.2 Bqm-3 to 335 Bqm-3 with an average value of 151.74 Bqm-3 which is higher than the world average recommended value of 40 Bqm-3 (UNSCEAR 2000). In general, indoor radon concentration are found to be well within the recommended action level (200-300 Bqm-3) by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP, 2009). The mean annual estimated effective dose received by the residents of the studied area was estimated to be 2.59 mSv. The annual estimated effective dose is less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv y-1) and average lifetime fatality risk of the residents of study region has been calculated to be 2 x 10-4. The mean effective dose due to inhalation and ingestion of radon through water has been calculated to be 0.009 mSva-1 and 0.71 Sva-1. (author)

  13. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACKGROUND. Residential radon is the principal source of exposure to ionizing radiation in most countries. To determine the implications for the risk of lung cancer, we performed a nationwide case-control study in Sweden. METHODS. The study included 586 women and 774 men 35 to 74 years of age with lung cancer that was diagnosed between 1980 and 1984. For comparison, 1380 female and 1467 male controls were studied. Radon was measured in 8992 dwellings occupied by the study subjects at some time since 1947. Information on smoking habits and other risk factors for lung cancer was obtained from questionnaires. RESULTS. Radon levels followed a log-normal distribution, with geometric and arithmetic means of 1.6 and 2.9 pCi per liter (60.5 and 106.5 Bq per cubic meter), respectively. The risk of lung cancer increased in relation to both estimated cumulative and time-weighted exposure to radon. In comparison with time-weighted average radon concentrations up to 1.4 pCi per liter (50 Bq per cubic meter), the relative risk was 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.6) for average radon concentrations of 3.8 to 10.8 pCi per liter (140 to 400 Bq per cubic meter), and it was 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.9) at concentrations exceeding 10.8 pCi per liter. The estimates of risk were in the same range as those projected from data in miners. The interaction between radon exposure and smoking with regard to lung cancer exceeded additivity and was closer to a multiplicative effect. CONCLUSIONS. Residential exposure to radon is an important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The risks appear consistent with earlier estimates based on data in miners

  14. Radon Measurements in Egypt using passive etched track detectors. A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its progeny may cause serious radiation harm to human health such as lung cancer and other types. Radon measurements based on alpha particles etched track detectors (LR-115, CR-39) are very attractive for assessment of radon exposure. This is due to their high sensitivity, low cost, easy to handle and retain a permanent record of data. Also these detectors can incorporate the effects of seasonal and diurnal fluctuation of radon activity concentrations due to physical, geological and meteorological factors. The present review is based mainly on the topic of passive etched track detectors for the measurements of radon in Egypt in the recent years. Published papers includes the measurements of radon in dwellings, working places, Cairo Metro stations, ancient Pharaonic places and uranium exploration galleries as well as assessment of radon in drinking water

  15. Indoor radon in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaupotič Janja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian Radon Programme started in 1990. Since then, radon and radon short-lived decay products have been surveyed in 730 kindergartens, 890 schools, 1000 randomly selected homes, 5 major spas, 26 major hospitals, 10 major municipal water supply plants, and 8 major wineries. Alpha scintillation cells, etched track detectors, electret-based detectors and various continuously measuring devices have been used. On the basis of estimated effective doses, decisions were made on appropriate mitigation. In total, 35 buildings have been appropriately modified. The programme is displayed and results reviewed chronologically and discussed.

  16. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  17. Sex and smoking sensitive model of radon induced lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovsky, M.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    estimations of such effect can be made on the specially prepared sets of initial data with detailed information about the relative weight of each subgroup. Exposure-age-concentration model BEIR VI is not quite suitable for indoor radon exposure risk assessment because it considerably overestimate the radiation risk value. (N.C.)

  18. Sex and smoking sensitive model of radon induced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    estimations of such effect can be made on the specially prepared sets of initial data with detailed information about the relative weight of each subgroup. Exposure-age-concentration model BEIR VI is not quite suitable for indoor radon exposure risk assessment because it considerably overestimate the radiation risk value. (N.C.)

  19. Managing cumulative impacts: A key to sustainability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses how science can be more effectively used in creating policy to manage cumulative effects on ecosystems. The paper focuses on the scientific techniques that we have to identify and to assess cumulative impacts on ecosystems. The term ``sustainable development`` was brought into common use by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission) in 1987. The Brundtland Commission report highlighted the need to simultaneously address developmental and environmental imperatives simultaneously by calling for development that ``meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.`` We cannot claim to be working toward sustainable development until we can quantitatively assess cumulative impacts on the environment: The two concepts are inextricibally linked in that the elusiveness of cumulative effects likely has the greatest potential of keeping us from achieving sustainability. In this paper, assessment and management frameworks relevant to cumulative impacts are discussed along with recent literature on how to improve such assessments. When possible, examples are given for marine ecosystems.

  20. The use of radon as tracer in environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindos Poncela, Luis; Sainz Fernandez, Carlos; Fuente Merino, Ismael; Gutierrez Villanueva, Jose; Gonzalez Diez, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Radon can be used as a naturally occurring tracer for environmental processes. By means of grab-sampling or continuous monitoring of radon concentration, it is possible to assess several types of dynamic phenomena in air and water. We present a review of the use of radon and its progeny at the University of Cantabria. Radon can be an atmospheric dynamics indicator related with air mass interchange near land-sea discontinuities as well as for the study of vertical variations of air parameters (average values of different types of stability: 131-580 Bq m-3). Concerning indoor gas, we present some results obtained at Altamira Cave (Spain): from 222 to 6549 Bq m-3 (Hall) and from 999 to 6697 Bq m-3 (Paintings Room). Finally, variations of radon concentration in soil (0.3 to 9.1 kBq m-3) and underground water (values up to 500 Bq l-1) provide relevant information about different geophysical phenomena.

  1. Statistical uncertainty analysis of radon transport in nonisothermal, unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To accurately predict radon fluxes soils to the atmosphere, we must know more than the radium content of the soil. Radon flux from soil is affected not only by soil properties, but also by meteorological factors such as air pressure and temperature changes at the soil surface, as well as the infiltration of rainwater. Natural variations in meteorological factors and soil properties contribute to uncertainty in subsurface model predictions of radon flux, which, when coupled with a building transport model, will also add uncertainty to predictions of radon concentrations in homes. A statistical uncertainty analysis using our Rn3D finite-element numerical model was conducted to assess the relative importance of these meteorological factors and the soil properties affecting radon transport. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Radon concentrations in some Egyptian dwellings using LR 115 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, a well-established risk factor for human lung cancer, is present at low concentrations in most homes. Consequently, many countries have established national guidelines for residential radon concentrations. This survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Egypt. Indoor radon survey of a total of 15 randomly selected houses in Qena city, Upper Egypt was carried out. LR 115 detectors were exposed for one year, covering all the seasons. The estimated indoor radon levels varied from 19 to 59 Bq m3 with an average of 40 Bq m3. Using the bare and filtered LR 115 detectors, the average equilibrium factor F was assessed as 0.30 indoors. An average annual effective dose of 0.40 mSv has been estimated and was found to be lower than the ICRP-65

  3. Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposures in Two Radon--Prone Areas, Stei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. For medium and low concentrations which are the typical residential radon levels, recent researches have also demonstrated increased risks of lung cancer for people exposed. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon--prone areas, Stei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). One important difference between the two studied areas is related to the houses built using uranium waste as construction material in Stei area. Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Stei area was 2650 Bq·m-3. and 366 Bq·m-3 in the Spanish region. The results are compute with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bq·m-3. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were calculated in the Stei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than observed from the national statistics. In comparison, in Torrelodones area, a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer were estimated along a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number observed by authorities. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  4. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  5. Radon exhalation rates from some building construction materials using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following α- decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used. in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. In dwellings main source of radon are soil or rock underneath, building materials and portable water supplies. The major release of radon indoors is from building construction materials used. The radon measurements on the ground can give a clue about the hidden uranium. The exposure of population to high concentrations of radon and its daughters for a long period leads to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. In the present investigations radon exhalation rates from some soil and other building materials like fly ash, cement and sand collected from Panchkula, Ambala, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra, Karnal and Panipat districts of Haryana have been estimated. For the measurement of radon concentration in these samples we used α-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from these samples have also been calculated. The aim of study is the possible health risk assessment due to emission of radiation from building construction materials. (author)

  6. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  7. Discovery of radon potential in the Rincon Shale, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological exploration has identified an unsuspected radonprone belt in southern California. Detailed analysis of aeroradiometric (NARR) data, soil-gas radon, soil permeability, and finally indoor radon has identified the Rincon Shale and Rincon-derived soils in Santa Barbara County as anomalous in uranium and radon. Roughly 74% of houses on the Rincon Shale exceed 4 pCi/l and 26% exceed 20 pCi/l in standardized screening tests (3 to 7 day AC, ''closed-house'' lived-in rooms). Fifty three percent exceed 4 pCi/l in linger-term measurements 1 to 6 mo, AT) under normal ventilation conditions. Unusually strong correlations between aeroradiometric data, soil-gas radon adjusted for soil permeability, geology, and indoor radon reflect the unaltered character of sedimentary host rocks and a consequent tendency for anomalous uranium to occur throughout given rock units rather than in epigenetic mineralized zones. Under these circumstances, deliberate geological exploration may be a more efficient approach to indoor radon risk identification than simple random sampling or non-random testing of houses. By the same token, geological parameters can facilitate radon risk assessment on undeveloped lands. Attention is drawn to multiple populations within radon test samples and the consequent problems in estimating regional parameters. (au)

  8. Combined effects of inhalation of Radon daughter products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 10 years, more than 500 lung cancers have been induced in rats by inhalations of radon daughter products at various concentrations and cumulated doses. These cancers were compared with human cancers. Another study examines the cocarcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke. In the first experiment, 100 rats were exposed to a 4000-WLM (working level month) cumulated dose of radon daughter products. Fifty animals were then administered tobacco smoke by inhalation in a fume box during 5 months (i.e., for a total of 352 hr). In the group inhaling radon only, 17 cancers appeared; in the radon-tobacco group, 32 cancers were observed, many of them larger and more invasive than those seen in animals exposed to radon only. Under the same conditions tobacco smoke was inhaled by rats previously exposed to lower doses of radon daughter products (two groups of 30 rats each, at 500 and 100 WLM, respectively). Again, the number of cancers observed was greater than the number of cancers expected if the rats had inhaled radon only. The carcinogenic and potentiating action of tobacco smoke was clearly demonstrated

  9. Epidemiology of Czech and French Uranium Miners; Lung Cancer Risk Linked to low Radon Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Comprehensive results from miners cohorts have demonstrated a clear association between lung cancer risk and radon exposure cumulated during occupational life. However a large proportion of these miners had cumulated high radon exposure during a short period. The French and Czech cohorts of uranium miners allow to analyse the potential risk linked to low radon exposures protracted over long duration. Furthermore, the study will allow to consider the modifying effects of other factors present in the mining atmosphere. The present analysis is based on 5098 miners employed in French uranium mines for at least one year since 1945, and followed up to 1994. A total of 5002 Czech miners employed since 1952 have been followed up to 1995. Mean cumulative exposures are 36 and 57 WLM among French and Czech miners, respectively, protracted in average over 11 and 10 years. A significant excess of lung cancer deaths is observed in both cohorts. A linear association of this risk with cumulative exposure to radon was confirmed. he purpose of the joint analysis is to study the influence of low annual exposures (exposure rate effect). According to these analyses, the occupational exposure gives the opportunity to evaluate lung cancer risk for annual exposures to radon in the range of 2 WLM or less, the levels that are comparable to exposures of about 400-500Bq/m3 in dwellings. (author)

  10. What Is Radon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Cancer » What Causes Cancer? » Other Carcinogens » Pollution » Radon Share this Page Close Push escape to ... Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features ...

  11. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  12. Radon i danske lejeboliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Skytte Clausen, Louise

    I denne undersøgelse kortlægges radonindholdet i indeluften og det undersøges, hvordan indholdet af radon i indeluften er fordelt og spredes i en ejendom, og om det er muligt at pege på en bygningsdel eller en bygningskomponent som en spredningsvej for radon i boliger. Boligerne er lejeboliger og...... ligger i etageejendomme, kæde- og rækkehuse tilhørende bygningstyper opført fra 1850 og frem. De udvalgte ejendomme ligger i områder af landet, hvor der ved tidligere undersøgelser har vist sig at være en stor andel af huse med et højt indhold af radon i indeluften. Koncentrationen af radon er målt over...

  13. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  14. Radon-Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  15. Radon 10 x 10 project: Implantation of geographic information systems in studies of radon in homes and geology catalans; Proyecto radon 10x10: aplicacion de los sistemas de informacion geografica en estudios de radon y geologia en viviendas catalanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado Sanjuan, J. L.; Bach Plaza, J.; Baixeras divar, C.; Font Guiteras, L. L.; Moreno Balta, V.

    2013-07-01

    This methodology provides a useful tool to establish relationships between different data in order to identify areas in which to assess the radiological risk that represents radon in the Catalan population and gagging. (Author)

  16. Dosimetric challenges for residential radon epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;analysis;Air Pollutants;Air Pollutants,Radioactive;Air Pollution,Indoor;biomarkers of exposure & effect: validation;Biological Markers;cancer epidemiology;Carcinogens;Carcinogens,Environmental;Dose-Response Relationship,Radiation;epidemiology;etiology;Environmental Exposure;Housing;Humans;Lung Neoplasms;Minnesota;Neoplasms,Radiation-Induced;Radon;Research;Risk Assessment;

  17. Radon in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon 222 and its radioactive decay products can enter buildings and, through inhalation, expose the inhabitants' pulmonary tissues to ionizing radiation. Studies of radon levels in the US indicate that variations of 100-fold or greater exist among private dwellings. In one region, 55% of homes had levels exceeding 4 pCi/L (0.15 Bq/L), which is the guidance level recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Ventilation and tightness of construction are important determinants of radon levels. In some instances, fans or heat exchangers can reduce excessive concentrations, but in others more elaborate remedial measures may be required. Physicians may obtain information about radon through Environmental Protection Agency regional offices and state radiation control programs. The risk of radiogenic cancer is believed to increase with exposure to ionizing radiation. According to some estimates, concentrations of radon decay products in US homes could be responsible for several thousand cases of lung cancer per year. Studies of radon levels in representative buildings and guidelines are needed to ensure safe, effective, and cost-effective counter-measures. Architects, contractors, designers, building code administrators, health physicists, and biomedical investigators can help with solutions

  18. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  19. Radon in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are ten thermal spas in Croatia and all of them provide health services for patients and visitors. Radon measurements were performed since there is a lack of data concerning natural radioactivity originated from radon and its short-lived progenies in such environments. The thermal water at two different sites (the indoor swimming pool with geothermal water and the spring) in each spa was sampled and radon concentrations were measured by AlphaGUARD radon measuring system. The obtained values were in the range of 0.7 to 19 Bq.dm-3 and 2 to 94 Bq.dm-3 for indoor swimming pools and springs, respectively. Integrated measurements of radon concentration in air were performed by two solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 II (open and diffusion one) thus enabling estimation of equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters. The annual effective doses received by spa workers were found to be about 1 mSv/y (below the lower limit value of 3 mSv/y recommended by ICRP 65). The doses of patients and visitors were one or two order of magnitude lower than that of the personnel. (author)

  20. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaseem, Q Kh; Almasoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M; Al-Hobaib, A S

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185Bq/L (5pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2-18Bq/m(3) and 70-1000nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3mSv which is below the 1mSv limit. PMID:27169731

  1. Radon 10 x 10 project: Implantation of geographic information systems in studies of radon in homes and geology catalans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This methodology provides a useful tool to establish relationships between different data in order to identify areas in which to assess the radiological risk that represents radon in the Catalan population and gagging. (Author)

  2. Joint cumulants for natural independence

    OpenAIRE

    Hasebe, Takahiro; Saigo, Hayato

    2011-01-01

    Many kinds of independence have been defined in non-commutative probability theory. Natural independence is an important class of independence; this class consists of five independences (tensor, free, Boolean, monotone and anti-monotone ones). In the present paper, a unified treatment of joint cumulants is introduced for natural independence. The way we define joint cumulants enables us not only to find the monotone joint cumulants but also to give a new characterization of joint cumulants fo...

  3. Internal Exposure of a Seoul Subway Passenger due to Radon Inhalation: Before and After PSD Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is the major source of public exposure to natural radiation and is also known to cause lung cancer. Platform screen doors (PSD) were installed primarily for passenger's safety purposes. Radon concentration and aerosol distribution have been changed since PSD installation. In this study, we have assessed the annual effective dose of regular subway passengers, before and after PSD installation, by employing current available data on air concentration of radon in Seoul subways with aerosol size distributions taken into account. ICRP recommends that the reference value for internal dose from radon be between 1.0 and 20.0 mSv. Korean Ministry of Environment enacted the indoor radon regulation, which requires the indoor radon level should not exceed 148 Bq/m3. Radon concentrations in Seoul subways and annual dose estimates meet the requirements

  4. Influence of gamma radiation of indoor radon decay products on absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of absorbed dose rate and indoor radon concentration in multi storey houses was carried out. The main source of radon in such houses is construction materials. There is a relationship between absorbed dose rate and indoor radon concentration. This relationship is rather complicated and different for different premises. It depends on the geometry of premises and other characteristics which influence the distribution of indoor radon daughters. Increment of absorbed dose rate per unit of increment of indoor radon concentration depends on the concentration of indoor radon, floor where premises are situated, geometry of premises. The results of this study might help to assess the dose due to indoor radon which originates from construction materials. (author)

  5. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air -- restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results

  6. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results

  7. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  8. Radon: A health problem and a communication problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is making great efforts to alert the American public to the potential health risks of radon in homes. The news media have widely publicized radon as a problem; state and local governments are responding to public alarms; and hundreds of radon open-quotes expertsclose quotes are now offering radon detection and mitigation services. Apparently, USEPA's communication program is working, and the public is becoming increasingly concerned with radon. But are they concerned with radon as a open-quotes healthclose quotes problem in the way USEPA intended? The answer is yes, partly. More and more, however, the concerns are about home resale values. Many homebuyers are now deciding whether to buy on the basis of a single radon screening measurement, comparing it with USEPA's action guide of 4 pCi L-1. They often conclude that 3.9 is OK, but 4.1 is not. Here is where the communication problems begin. The public largely misunderstands the significance of USEPA's guidelines and the meaning of screening measurements. Seldom does anyone inquire about the quality of the measurements, or the results of USEPA performance testing? Who asks about the uncertainty of lifetime exposure assessments based on a 1-hour, 1-day, 3-day, or even 30-day measurement? Who asks about the uncertainty of USEPA's risk estimates? Fortunately, an increasing number of radiation protection professions are asking such questions. They find that USEPA's risk projections are based on many assumptions which warrant further evaluation, particularly with regard to the combined risks of radon and cigarette-smoking. This is the next communication problem. What are these radiation professions doing to understand the bases for radon health-risk projections? Who is willing to communicate a balanced perspective to the public? Who is willing to communicate the uncertainty and conservatism in radon measurements and risk estimates?

  9. Coupled radon, methane and nitrate sensors for large-scale assessment of groundwater discharge and non-point source pollution to coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We constructed a survey system of radon/methane/nitrate/salinity to find sites of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and groundwater nitrate input. We deployed the system in Waquoit Bay and Boston Harbor, MA where we derived SGD rates using a mass balance of radon with methane serving as a fine resolution qualitative indicator of groundwater. In Waquoit Bay we identified several locations of enhanced groundwater discharge, out of which two (Childs and Quashnet Rivers) were studied in more detail. The Childs River was characterized by high nitrate input via groundwater discharge, while the Quashnet River SGD was notable but not a significant source of nitrate. Our radon survey of Boston Harbor revealed several sites with significant SGD, out of these Inner Harbor and parts of Dorchester Bay and Quincy Bay had groundwater fluxes accompanied by significant water column nitrogen concentrations. The survey system has proven effective in revealing areas of SGD and non-point source pollution.

  10. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m-3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  11. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  12. Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, R. W.; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

    1999-01-01

    We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. Th...

  13. Risk assessment of exposure to radon concentration and heavy metal analysis in drinking water samples in some areas of Jammu and Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration was measured in drinking water samples in some areas of Jammu & Kashmir, India, using RAD 7, an electronic solid state silicon detector. The observed values of radon concentration in some samples exceed the safe limit as recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). These samples were also analyzed for concentration of certain heavy elements like As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The study was undertaken from the health hazard point of view. (author)

  14. Peculiar radon spot in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the public, radon in homes is the main source of exposure. Mostly rather steady radon exhalations have been experienced from rocks or building materials rich in uranium. But in a village of North-East Hungary high indoor radon concentrations have been observed, varying in time, due to the peculiar geochemical conditions. (author)

  15. Bavarian radon network und education of radon experts; Bayerisches Radon-Netzwerk und Ausbildung zur Radon-Fachperson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, S.; Kunte, A. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Bavarian Environment Agency (LfU) initiated 2012 the Bavarian Radon Network and the training initiative to become a 'Radon-Fachperson' (radon specialist) to further the awareness concerning radon. The Bavarian Radon Network was established in summer 2012 by the LfU in cooperation with the 'Bauzentrum Muenchen' (Munich Building Center). The Bavarian Radon Network is meant to link radon specialists, specialists from the building and real estate sector, municipal and private building owners, stakeholders, government agencies and science. Meetings are held biannually. The four day course to become a Radon-Fachperson is primarily aimed at building specialists, e.g. architects, construction engineers, ventilation engineers and staff of private and public construction offices. The course imparts specialised knowledge of radon prevention for new buildings, realisation of radon mitigation, measurement instrumentation and methods as well as fundamentals of radiation protection. With the Radon-Fachperson there are henceforth qualified specialists in the field of radon in buildings available in Bavaria. (orig.)

  16. Classification of radon exposed workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this time the project 'Investigations of Radiation Exposure through Radon and Radon Progenies in Workplaces' is carried out in order to record the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings. Through examples of measurements, first knowledge from investigations are presented. (orig.)

  17. Chemical properties of radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H/sup +/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Ba/sup 2 +/ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Towards a Brazilian radon map: consortium radon Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the idea of generating radon map of Brazil has emerged. First attempts of coordinating radon surveys-carried out by different groups across the country-and initial discussions on how to proceed on a larger scale were made at the First Brazilian Radon Seminary, Natal, September 2012. Conventionally, it is believed that indoor radon is no major problem in Brazil, because the overall benign climate usually allows high ventilation rates. Nevertheless, scattered measurements have shown that moderately high indoor radon concentrations (up to a few hundred Bq m-3) do occur regionally. Brazilian geology is very diverse and there are regions where an elevated geo-genic radon potential exists or is expected to exist. Therefore, a Brazilian Radon Survey is expected to be a challenge, although it appears an important issue, given the rising concern of the public about the quality of its environment. (authors)

  19. Radon concentrations in different types of dwellings in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average radon concentration in Israeli dwellings was assessed by combining the results of a 2006 radon survey in single family houses with the results of a 2011 radon survey in apartments of multi-storey buildings. Both surveys were based on long-term measurements using CR-39 detectors. The survey in multi-storey buildings was intended to assess the influence of recent practices in the local building industry on the radon concentrations. These practices include the use of building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the last 20 y than before, as well as the improvement in sealing techniques over that period. Another practice in place since the early 1990's is the building of a shielded area in every apartment that is known as an RSS (residential secure space). The RSS is a room built from massive concrete walls, floor and ceiling that can be hermetically sealed and is intended to protect its residents from a missile attack. The influence of the above-mentioned features on radon concentrations was estimated by dividing the participating apartments into two groups: apartments in buildings >20 y, built using building materials with low concentrations of the natural radionuclides, regular sealing and without an RSS and apartments in buildings newer than 10 y, built using building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides, improved sealing and including an RSS. It was found that the average radon concentration in apartments in new buildings was significantly higher than in old buildings and the average radon concentration in single-family houses was significantly higher than in apartments in multi-storey buildings. Doses due to indoor radon were estimated on the basis of the updated information included in the 2009 International Commission on Radiological Protection statement on radon. (authors)

  20. Radon progeny exposure and lung cancer risk: Analyses of a cohort of Newfoundland fluorspar miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1990) of 1744 underground miners and 321 millers or surface workers has been conducted. Excess mortality among underground miners was noted for cancers of the lung, buccal cavity, pharynx and mouth, urinary tract and for silicosis and pneumoconioses. A highly statistically significant relationship was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of buccal cavity/pharynx cancers (n = 6) precluded meaningful analysis of exposure-response. No statistically significant excess was found for any cause of death among surface workers. The exposure-response data for lung cancer were fitted to various mathematical models. The model selected included terms for attained age, cumulative dose, dose rate and time since last exposure. Because risk varies according to each of these factors, a single summary risk estimate was felt to be misleading. The joint effects of radon and smoking could not be adequately assessed using this cohort. (author). 46 refs., 16 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Mapping of residential radon in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have created a database of national radon levels around the world building on initial information from the surveys conducted by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) from 2001 through 2007 for its 2006 Annex E on radon. We have conducted a systematic review of all original documents contributing information to the database, and of have collected all other relevant documents to enhance this database. Among the sources of data, in addition to the recent UNSCEAR surveys, the UNSCEAR 2000 Report, and 'An overview of radon surveys in Europe', the following sources were searched for keywords (indoor and radon): Medline, tables of content of Radiation Protection Dosimetry, tables of content of Radiation Measurements, and the Web. Initially for the purpose of data quality objectives (DQO) we used following valuation order to classify the reliability of the references: journal publication, conference proceedings, internal report, UNSCEAR Surveys, Who 2006 Survey, Personal communication. However, we realized that for the purpose of assessing the reliability of the national indoor radon levels the above classification did not work well given that most of the information had been published in 'gray literature' and that some of this literature was of very high quality. Therefore we treated journal publications, conference proceedings, and internal reports equally as long as they were publicly and relatively easily available (on the web for example). We evaluated each reference in terms of level of evidence for using national Average Radon Level reported in the reference (sufficient evidence, limited evidence, and inadequate evidence). Currently the database contains information on national indoor levels from 67 countries (out of 193 recognized by Who). These 67 countries represent 76% of the world's population and 71% of its land mass. Radon information varies by continent with only three African countries (out of 53) and 34

  2. Mapping of residential radon in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have created a database of national radon levels around the world building on initial information from the surveys conducted by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) from 2001 through 2007 for its 2006 Annex E on radon. We have conducted a systematic review of all original documents contributing information to the database, and of have collected all other relevant documents to enhance this database. Among the sources of data, in addition to the recent UNSCEAR surveys, the UNSCEAR 2000 Report, and 'An Overview of Radon Surveys in Europe', the following sources were searched for keywords (indoor and radon): MEDLINE, tables of content of Radiation Protection Dosimetry, tables of content of Radiation Measurements, and the WEB. Initially for the purpose of data quality objectives (DQO) we used following valuation order to classify the reliability of the references: journal publication, conference proceedings, internal report, UNSCEAR Surveys, WHO 2006 Survey, Personal communication. However, we realized that for the purpose of assessing the reliability of the national indoor radon levels the above classification did not work well given that most of the information had been published in 'gray literature' and that some of this literature was of very high quality. Therefore we treated journal publications, conference proceedings, and internal reports equally as long as they were publicly and relatively easily available (on the web for example). We evaluated each reference in terms of level of evidence for using national Average Radon Level reported in the reference (sufficient evidence, limited evidence, and inadequate evidence). Currently the database contains information on national indoor levels from 67 countries (out of 193 recognized by WHO). These 67 countries represent 76% of the world's population and 71% of its land mass. Radon information varies by continent with only three African countries (out of 53) and 34

  3. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  4. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  5. Radon: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given

  6. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  7. Radon depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  8. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222Rn and 226Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  9. Radon strategy in Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Free State of Saxony developed a strategy on radon protection in buildings. It is based on a decision of the Saxon parliament enacted in 2005 and triggered by the upcoming European Basic Safety Standards which will contain regulations on radon in dwellings for the first time. The strategy is focusing on information of the public and monitoring programs as well as on educational and training measures for the building construction trades. The conventional methods of radiation protection (keeping distance and avoiding contact) are not effective for radon protection. Thus investigation and development of adequate building construction measures and ventilation are the main principles for a successful strategy. Special attention is given to energy efficient construction measures. The activities of the free State of Saxony to implement these measures are introduced. (orig.)

  10. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov;

    2008-01-01

    area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial (CS)-C-137 ground deposition level of similar to 1.1 MBq m(-2). The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL...... depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a gamma-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative gamma-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period...... starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative gamma-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl...

  11. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    State, followed for 8 years (between the ages 9 and 17). Poverty- related stress was computed using the cumulative risk approach, assessing stressors across 9 domains, including environmental, psychosocial, and demographic factors. Allostatic load captured a range of physiological responses, including...... cardiovascular, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and metabolic activity. Smoking and alcohol/drug use were tested as mediators of the hypothesized childhood risk-adolescent allostatic load relationship. Results: Cumulative risk exposure at age 9 predicted increases in...... allostatic load 8 years later. Smoking, but not alcohol and drug use, was a significant mediator of the prospective, longitudinal relationship between childhood cumulative risk and adolescent allostatic load. Conclusions: The present paper contributes to the understanding of the role of early life stress in...

  12. Determination of enrichment processes and radon concentration in underground mines of fluorite and coal in Santa Catarina state: criteria for radiation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhalation of radon present in underground mines can imply in the deposition of its descendants in the lungs, which may cause harm to the lungs tissues and induce cancer. Concentration of radon not greater than 500 Bq/m3 in the environment of underground mines is considered to be acceptable internationally and concentrations above 1500 Bq/m3 require protective measures for the miners. The objectives of this research work are to determine the enrichment processes and the concentrations of radon in air, as well as the resulting doses due to the presence of this radionuclide in three underground mines of fluorite and three underground mines of coal in the State of Santa Catarina. The concentration of radon was measured employing two types of detectors of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), the LEXAN and the CR-39. This detection method consists in counting, with the help of a microscope, tracks resulting from the interaction of alpha particles with the film, due to the penetration of Rn-222 in the interior of the detector chamber and its decaying process. Contents of radium in collected samples of rocks, minerals and underground water were determined and compared with the corresponding radon concentration found in the underground air. It was observed that the coal mines showed low concentrations of radon, which can be explained by the low concentration of radium in rocks (sandstones and siltites in the foot wall and hang wall) and in the coal that composes the mining environment or, yet still, due to the good ventilation system. The average dose to the workers of the coal mines was estimated as 0.7 mSv/a, value inferior to the limit of 1 mSv/a established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for members of the public, and corresponding to a risk of fatal cancer after 50 years of work under this condition of 0.2%. On the other hand, the fluorite mines showed much higher concentrations of radon and superior to 1000 Bq/m3. The inefficiency of the ventilation system

  13. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program

  14. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  15. Radon assay for SNO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+

  16. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  17. A continuous measuring apparatus base on deduction arithmetic for environmental radon and radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous measuring for environmental radon and radon progeny is the premise to calculate the radiation dose from radon precisely. An intelligent measuring apparatus for environmental radon and radon progeny using scintillation cell and filter-sampling technique with deduction arithmetic is described. The measuring theory, structures of the apparatus and some measuring data of standard radon chamber and offices are given detail. (authors)

  18. Comprehensive investigation of radon exposure in Austrian tourist mines and caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Austrian Law, dose assessments in workplaces with potentially enhanced radon exposures are mandatory since 2008, including tourist mines and caves. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the situation to test the measurement methods and to specify the main parameters controlling the radon concentration in tourist mines and caves. Radon was measured in six mines and three caves for 1 y, along with determining thoron and equilibrium factors and taking into account climatic, geological and site-related effects. The radon concentrations have a seasonal dependence with maximum in summer and minimum in winter, related to natural ventilation. Radon concentrations in the karst caves were quite low, as it was in the salt mine, whereas radon concentrations in copper and silver mines were high. The dose assessment of the employees yielded doses above 6 mSv a-1 only in the copper mine. (authors)

  19. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  20. Indoor radon and radon progeny survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: Final results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, the CR-39 detector was used as an alpha-spectrometer taking into account the size and the gray level of round tracks measured under an automatic optical microscopy system. The exposures were carried out in the same room of 70 dwellings during two successive periods of six months: the first one from November 1996 to May 1997 (summer exposure) and the second one from May 1997 to December 1997 (winter exposure). The results of the assessment of radon and radon progeny (RP) joint activity in the air neighboring the detector and the plated-out RP activity on the material surfaces are given

  1. Effectiveness of lead smelter slag in suppressing the release of radon from a uranium tailings dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehr, W. (South Australian Health Commission, Adelaide)

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of lead slag in suppressing the release of radon from uranium tailings was assessed and the factors on which radon suppression properties depend were investigated. Erratic short term variations in emanation rates from the pile surface complicated the assessment. The techniques, results and problems associated with the study are discussed.

  2. Development of a radon-aerosol system for testing radon and radon decay products measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposures to radon and its decay products may arise from NORM-related work activities. Employers are responsible for monitoring radon in their workplaces, and the methods and instruments used must be subjected to adequate quality assurance. A radon chamber is an important component of a quality assurance programme. In this study we developed a radon-aerosol chamber and used it to characterise the prototype version of a newly developed radon decay product measuring instrument. The system comprises a small radon chamber with dry radon source, aerosol chamber, monodisperse aerosol generator, and TSI aerodynamic particle sizer with its accessories. Radon-laden air mixed with aerosols is pumped from the radon-aerosol system through the radon decay product measuring instrument. The instrument's response is obtained continuously from alpha spectrometric analyses of the radon decay products, 218Po and 214Po, deposited on a membrane filter (0.8 - m pore sizes and 25 mm diameter) held close to a silicon surface barrier detector. A second couple of filter and detector is inserted downstream to check the efficiency and eventual leakage of the membrane filter. The results show that alpha activity on the filter nearer to the inlet was significantly higher than the activity on the second filter. There were also significant losses of aerosols to the inner wall of the instrument as air flows through. The implications of these observations on the response of the instrument are discussed. (author)

  3. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported

  4. Radon detection in homes and buildings. January 1970-December 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the detection of radon and radon-daughter gases in homes and buildings. Measurement techniques and equipment, the effect of local geology on radon in a building, the effect of home-weatherization measures on radon levels, and sources of radon entering buildings are among the topics discussed. Residential and non-residential buildings are examined. Risk assessment and ways to control the amount of radon in a building are briefly considered. (This updated bibliography contains 232 citations, 46 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Radon detection in homes and buildings. January 1970-December 1987 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the detection of radon and radon daughter gases in homes and buildings. Measurement techniques and equipment, the effect of local geology on radon in a building, the effect of home-weatherization measures on radon levels, and sources of radon entering buildings are among the topics discussed. Residential and non-residential buildings are examined. Risk assessment and ways to control the amount of radon in a building are briefly considered. (This updated bibliography contains 123 citations, 37 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia. The area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial 137Cs ground deposition level of ∼1.1 MBq m-2. The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a γ-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative γ-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative γ-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl-related dose via forest pathway for the most exposed individuals (e.g., forest workers) is estimated to be ∼39 mSv. Prognosis for the external exposure from 1986 to 2056 is presented and compared with the predictions given by other investigators of the region

  7. Lung cancer risk, exposure to radon and tobacco consumption in a nested case-control study of French uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: A nested case-control study was conducted among the French uranium miners cohort in order to assess the effect of protract ed radon exposure on lung cancer risk taking into account tobacco consumption. Material and methods: One hundred uranium miners employed by the French company CEA-COGEMA and who died of a lung cancer between 1980 and 1994 were identified as cases among the cohort. For each case, five controls were randomly matched on birth period and attained age at the time of death of the corresponding case. Cumulated radon exposure during employment was reconstructed for each of these 100 cases and 500 controls. Smoking habits were retrospectively determined from three complementary sources: 1) medical files, 2) forms filled in by occupational physicians and 3) questionnaires applied in face-to-face interviews, phone calls or mailings. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A multiplicative model was fitted to assess the joint effect of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk. Results: Smoking status was established for 62 cases and 320 controls and two categories ('ever smokers' vs. 'never smokers') were defined. Ninety percent of the cases and 73% of the controls were classified as 'ever smokers'. Mean five-year lagged cumulated radon exposures were 82.0 and 47.6 working level months (WLM) for the cases and the controls, respectively. The excess relative risk per WLM (ERR/WLM) was 1.1% with a 95%-confidence interval (CI) of 0.2-2.0%. When adjusting for smoking, radon exposure effect was little modified (ERR/WLM = 0.8%, 95% -CI = 0.1- 2.8%). The effect of smoking on lung cancer risk was comparable to results reported in previous miners cohorts (OR = 3.04, 95% -CI = 1.20-7.70). Discussion: A consequent effort was carried out to collect smoking status from three sources for the miners included in this nested case-control study. This analysis shows that, when adjusting on

  8. Radon campaigns. Status report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon campaigns aim at activating citizens to make indoor radon measurements and remediation as well as increasing the common awareness of indoor radon questions. Indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. Through radon campaigns Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) also promotes the attainment of those goals that the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has set for municipal authorities in Finland for prevention of the harmful effects of radon. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health supports this campaign. Radon campaigns were started in autumn 2003. By autumn 2008 the campaigns have been organised already in 64 regions altogether in 160 municipalities. In some municipalities they have already arranged two campaigns. Altogether 14 100 houses have been measured and in 2 100 of these the action limit of radon remediation 400 Bq / m3 has been exceeded. When participating in radon campaigns the house owners receive a special offer on radon detectors with a reduced price. In 2008 a new practice was introduced where the campaign advertisements were distributed by mail to low-rise residential houses in a certain region. The advertisement includes an order / deposit slip with postage paid that the house owner can send directly to STUK to easily make an order for radon measurement. In the previous radon campaigns in 2003 - 2007 the municipal authorities collected the orders from house owners and distributed later the radon detectors. The radon concentrations measured in the campaign regions have exceeded the action limit of 400 Bq / m3 in 0 - 39% of houses, depending on the region. The total of 15% of all measurements made exceeded this limit. The remediation activities have been followed by sending a special questionnaire on remedies performed to the house owners. In 2006 - 2007 a questionnaire was sent to those households where the radon concentration of 400 Bq / m3 was exceeded during the two first campaign seasons. Among the households that replied

  9. Intercomparison of passive radon dosimeters developed by NIRS (Japan) and SSI (Sweden)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are widely applied for the assessment of mean radon concentration over long periods in human environment, because of their simple, reliable specifications. In Japan, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) developed the passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeter for the nationwide indoor radon and thoron survey project since 1992. The dosimeter contains two polycarbonate disks as SSNTD, which is ready for the low level indoor radon concentration (-3). In Sweden, Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (Statens straalskyddsinstitut, SSI) developed the passive radon dosimeter for the nationwide survey, which showed the Swedish indoor radon level to be 100 Bq m-3 in 1982. As well, the SSI passive radon dosimeter is adopted for the Swedish epidemiological (case control) study on residential radon and lung cancer in 1993. To compare technical features of above two types of passive radon dosimeters, intercomparison was performed at 24 Swedish houses in Stockholm. Two types of dosimeters were placed side by side in both living room and bed room from March to May (about 90 days). Gradient of the linear regression may reflect systematic difference between radon standards in Japan and Sweden. Intercept might be caused by the background uncertainty in either or both dosimeters. This is a first trial for the future cooperative studies between NIRS and SSI. (J.P.N.)

  10. Assessing land–ocean connectivity via Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD in the Ria Formosa Lagoon (Portugal: combining radon measurements and stable isotope hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rocha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural radioactive tracer-based assessments of basin-scale Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD are well developed, but because of the different modes in which SGD takes place and the wide range of spatial and temporal scales under which the flow and discharge mechanisms involved occur, quantifying SGD while discriminating its source functions remains a major challenge. Yet, correctly identifying both the fluid source and composition is critical: when multiple sources of the tracer of interest are present, failure to adequately discriminate between them will lead to inaccurate attribution and the resulting uncertainties will affect the reliability of SGD solute loading estimates. This lack of reliability then extends to the closure of local biogeochemical budgets, confusing measures aiming to mitigate pollution. Here, we report a multi-tracer study to identify the sources of SGD, distinguish its component parts and elucidate the mechanisms of their dispersion throughout the Ria Formosa – a seasonally hypersaline lagoon in Portugal. We combine radon budgets that determine the total SGD (meteoric + recirculated seawater in the system with stable isotopes in water (2H, 18O, to specifically identify SGD source functions and characterize active hydrological pathways in the catchment. Using this approach, SGD in the Ria Formosa could be separated into a net water input and another involving no net water transfer, i.e. originating in seawater recirculation through permeable sediments. The former SGD mode is present occasionally on a multiannual timescale, while the latter is a permanent feature of the system. In the absence of meteoric SGD inputs, seawater recirculation through beach sediments occurs at a rate of ~ 1.4 × 106 m3 day−1, implying the entire tidal-averaged volume of the lagoon is filtered through local sandy sediments within 100 days, or about 3.5 times a year, driving an estimated nitrogen (N load of ~ 350 t N yr−1 into the system

  11. Assessing land-ocean connectivity via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the Ria Formosa Lagoon (Portugal): combining radon measurements and stable isotope hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Carlos; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Scholten, Jan; Knoeller, Kay; Gröcke, Darren R.; Carvalho, Liliana; Anibal, Jaime; Wilson, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Natural radioactive tracer-based assessments of basin-scale submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) are well developed. However, SGD takes place in different modes and the flow and discharge mechanisms involved occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Quantifying SGD while discriminating its source functions therefore remains a major challenge. However, correctly identifying both the fluid source and composition is critical. When multiple sources of the tracer of interest are present, failure to adequately discriminate between them leads to inaccurate attribution and the resulting uncertainties will affect the reliability of SGD solute loading estimates. This lack of reliability then extends to the closure of local biogeochemical budgets, confusing measures aiming to mitigate pollution.Here, we report a multi-tracer study to identify the sources of SGD, distinguish its component parts and elucidate the mechanisms of their dispersion throughout the Ria Formosa - a seasonally hypersaline lagoon in Portugal. We combine radon budgets that determine the total SGD (meteoric + recirculated seawater) in the system with stable isotopes in water (δ2H, δ18O), to specifically identify SGD source functions and characterize active hydrological pathways in the catchment. Using this approach, SGD in the Ria Formosa could be separated into two modes, a net meteoric water input and another involving no net water transfer, i.e., originating in lagoon water re-circulated through permeable sediments. The former SGD mode is present occasionally on a multi-annual timescale, while the latter is a dominant feature of the system. In the absence of meteoric SGD inputs, seawater recirculation through beach sediments occurs at a rate of ˜ 1.4 × 106 m3 day-1. This implies that the entire tidal-averaged volume of the lagoon is filtered through local sandy sediments within 100 days ( ˜ 3.5 times a year), driving an estimated nitrogen (N) load of ˜ 350 Ton N yr-1 into the system

  12. Assessing land-ocean connectivity via Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in the Ria Formosa Lagoon (Portugal): combining radon measurements and stable isotope hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C.; Veiga-Pires, C.; Scholten, J.; Knoeller, K.; Gröcke, D. R.; Carvalho, L.; Anibal, J.; Wilson, J.

    2015-11-01

    Natural radioactive tracer-based assessments of basin-scale Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) are well developed, but because of the different modes in which SGD takes place and the wide range of spatial and temporal scales under which the flow and discharge mechanisms involved occur, quantifying SGD while discriminating its source functions remains a major challenge. Yet, correctly identifying both the fluid source and composition is critical: when multiple sources of the tracer of interest are present, failure to adequately discriminate between them will lead to inaccurate attribution and the resulting uncertainties will affect the reliability of SGD solute loading estimates. This lack of reliability then extends to the closure of local biogeochemical budgets, confusing measures aiming to mitigate pollution. Here, we report a multi-tracer study to identify the sources of SGD, distinguish its component parts and elucidate the mechanisms of their dispersion throughout the Ria Formosa - a seasonally hypersaline lagoon in Portugal. We combine radon budgets that determine the total SGD (meteoric + recirculated seawater) in the system with stable isotopes in water (2H, 18O), to specifically identify SGD source functions and characterize active hydrological pathways in the catchment. Using this approach, SGD in the Ria Formosa could be separated into a net water input and another involving no net water transfer, i.e. originating in seawater recirculation through permeable sediments. The former SGD mode is present occasionally on a multiannual timescale, while the latter is a permanent feature of the system. In the absence of meteoric SGD inputs, seawater recirculation through beach sediments occurs at a rate of ~ 1.4 × 106 m3 day-1, implying the entire tidal-averaged volume of the lagoon is filtered through local sandy sediments within 100 days, or about 3.5 times a year, driving an estimated nitrogen (N) load of ~ 350 t N yr-1 into the system as NO3-. Land

  13. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  14. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  15. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of...... (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The...

  16. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and...

  17. Where's the radon? The geographic information system in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Washington's lead agency for radon issues, the Department of Health (DOH) is developing the analytical basis for establishing a public health policy regarding radon. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a fundamental step in this analytical process to develop a map of the potential for indoor radon occurrence. The GIS analysis will take into account geology, geography, topography, soil permeability, indoor test results, population density and distribution, and housing. In addition, DOH is working to aid policy makers and residents by comparing residential exposures to the lowest exposure range at which miners evidenced excess lung cancers. This approach is a departure from the commonly used risk assessments that extrapolate from high to low exposure, and will help determine how many Washington residents are at risk. In conclusion there is an examination of Washington's radon prescriptive construction standards for residences. (author)

  18. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m3. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m3. In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  19. Assessment of radon concentration and external gamma radiation level around a high background radiation area (HBRA), Odisha, India and its radiological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study gives a brief account of the atmospheric radon concentration, gamma absorbed dose rate and radiation dose received by the members of public residing in a coastal HBRA, Chatrapur, Odisha, India. The external gamma radiation dose varies from 40 to 1800 nSv/h, averaged by 226 nSv/h. The total average effective dose rate received by members of public from inhalation of radon and its progeny and external gamma exposure was estimated to be 4 ± 1.0 mSv/y, ranged between 2.4 and 6.3 mSv/y, which is nearly two higher than the global average value of effective dose to public due to natural radiation exposure. (author)

  20. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  1. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies

  2. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-06-27

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies.

  3. Radon as a tracer of submarine groundwater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) of groundwater into the coastal zone has received increased attention in the last few years as it is now recognized that this process represents an important pathway for material transport. Assessing these material fluxes is difficult, as there is no simple means to gauge the water flux. To meet this challenge, we have explored the use of a continuous radon monitor to measure radon concentrations in coastal zone waters over time periods from hours to days. Changes in the radon inventories over time can be converted to fluxes after one makes allowances for tidal effects, losses to the atmosphere, and mixing with offshore waters. If one assumes that advective flow of radon-enriched groundwater (pore waters) represent the main input of 222Rn in the coastal zone, the calculated radon fluxes may be converted to water fluxes by dividing by the estimated or measured 222Rn pore water activity. We have also used short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra and 224Ra) to assess mixing between near-shore and offshore waters in the manner pioneered by Moore. During an experiment in the coastal Gulf of Mexico, we showed that the mixing loss derived from the 223Ra gradient agreed very favorably to the estimated range based on the calculated radon fluxes. This allowed an independent constraint on the mixing loss of radon - an important parameter in the mass balance approach. Groundwater discharge was also estimated independently by the radium isotopic approach and was within a factor of two of that determined by the continuous radon measurements and an automated seepage meter deployed at the same site. (author)

  4. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  5. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  6. Radon gas management policy in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of a provincial policy on radon, the 'Direction generale de la sante publique du ministere de la Sante et des Services sociaux du Quebec' (M.S.S.S.) gave the mandate to the 'Institut national de sante publique du Quebec' (I.N.S.P.Q.) to carry out the evaluation of this issue on a provincial scale. The formed working group had the main task to assess health risks associated to residential radon through a risk analysis approach. This article presents the principal aspects treated in the scientific report published in 2004 by this working group. It starts with the description of radon concentrations measured in residences in Quebec. Then it carries out a risk analysis based on one of the models designed by the B.E.I.R. VI Committee. According to this analysis, radon would explain approximately 10% of the deaths by lung cancer, that is approximately 430 of the 4 101 deaths associated each year to this type of cancer in Quebec. Thereafter, it glances at the various intervention strategies implemented throughout the world. It follows the analysis of intervention strategies which are possible for Quebec and the recommendations that the working group drew from this analysis, in particular two of them which were considered to be most promising: the adoption of preventive measures in the Quebec Code of Construction and radon screening in public buildings (schools, day care centres, etc). Lastly, it presents the work carried out at the federal level on the revision of the Canadian guideline which was fixed at 800 Bq/m3 since 1988. The Federal Radioprotection Bureau made a proposal to the Canadian Minister of Health to set the guideline down to 200 Bq/m3. This modification should be announced in the spring 2007. (author)

  7. Human perception of radon risk and radon mitigation: Some remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)

  8. Long term indoor radon measurements in the pelletron laboratory at the UNAM physics institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of six months of continuous measurement of the indoor radon concentration levels in the building where the Physics Institute 3 MV Pelletron particle accelerator is located are presented. This study has three major objectives: a) to know the actual values of the levels of indoor radon in this installation, where personnel spend many hours and sometimes days; b) assess the radiological risk from radon inhalation for personnel working permanently in the laboratory, as well as incidental users; and c) establish, if necessary, time limits for continuous permanence on the location for indoor radon exposure. Passive nuclear track detectors and dynamic systems were employed, covering six months (August, 2009 to January, 2010). For the calculation of internal dose the Radon Individual Dose Calculator was used. The results indicate that the indoor radon levels are below the US EPA recommended levels (400 Bq/m3) in workplaces. The measurements help to establish levels for workplaces in Mexico. (Author)

  9. Sources and Measurements of Radon and Radon Progeny Applied to Climate and Air Quality Studies. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The naturally occurring radionuclide radon (222Rn), together with its radioactive progeny (in particular 210Pb), have been widely used to study a variety of atmospheric processes and to test and validate comprehensive global chemical transport models. In recent years, a particularly important application has been found in estimating regional scale greenhouse gas emissions. Several time series datasets have been collected of 222Rn and 210Pb concentrations in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) for a variety of purposes related to climate and air quality. An example of such a data collection is the use of radon monitors as a part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) network. Unfortunately, the effective use of radionuclide observations is presently limited by the accuracy of source functions used by models, and by a globally uncoordinated approach to measurements, data archiving and data quality assurance, especially in relation to radon exhalation. In June 2009 a Technical Meeting on Sources and Measurements of Radon and Radon Progeny Applied to Climate and Air Quality Studies was held in Vienna, Austria. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The meeting brought together scientists and engineers who are involved in one or more of the following: measurements and modeling of radon exhalation flux densities from the Earth's surface, measurement of atmospheric radon and radon progeny concentrations, and/or development and use of atmospheric transport models. A major focus of the meeting was on moving towards agreed approaches to estimating radon exhalation flux densities, and to improving quality assurance of measurements both of radon exhalation flux densities and of concentrations of radon and radon progeny in the atmosphere. This is in the frame of the IAEA programme 'Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments' in which

  10. Compact anti-radon facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajt, L.; Kouba, P.; Mamedov, F.; Smolek, K.; Štekl, I., E-mail: ivan.stekl@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horská 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Fojtík, P.; Hýža, M.; Hůlka, J.; Jílek, K. [SÚRO (NRPI) National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 1450/28, 140 00 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Stoček, P.; Veselý, J. [ATEKO a.s., Resslova 956/13, 501 01Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. (Czech Republic); Busto, J. [CPPM, Universite de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, F-13288 Marseille (France)

    2015-08-17

    Suppression of radon background is one of main tasks in ultra-low background experiments. The most promising technique for suppression of radon is its adsorption on charcoal. Within the frame of the NEMO-3 experiment, radon trapping facility (RTF) was installed in Modane underground laboratory in 2004. Based on long-term experience with this facility a new compact transportable anti-radon facility was constructed in cooperation among IEAP CTU, SÚRO and ATEKO company. The device provides 20m{sup 3}/h of purified air (air radon activity at the output ∼10mBq/m{sup 3}). The basic features and preliminary results of anti-radon device testing are presented.

  11. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  12. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  13. Radon In BATAN Housing Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon in Batan Housing Complex. Indoor measurement of radon concentration in Batan housing complex in Pasar Minggu, Pasar Jumat and Batan Indah, Indonesia has been carried out using passive radon dosimeter with CR-39 (Baryotrack) nuclear track detector. Result of measurement shows that, radon concentration was between 5,5 - 55,5 Bq/m3 in Batan Indah, between 8,8 - 54,0 Bq/m3 in Pasar Jumat and Pasar Minggu complex, between 10,3 - 52,5 Bq/m3. The highest Radon concentration was found in the room with uncemented and floor from tegel with highest porosity, so that radon from the wall and can easily duffuse into the room. Also the effective dose which was received by the people who lived in the complex has been discussed

  14. Monitoring the radon flux from gold-mine dumps by γ-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exhalation of radon from the large mine dumps at the gold mines in South Africa is a potential health hazard. Determination of radon fluxes from these dumpsites is problematic due to the scatter in the data in time and place and the cost involved in getting a representative sample. γ-ray spectroscopic analysis of soil samples from a dumpsite indicates that as much as 30% of the formed radon may escape, resulting in a disturbance to the secular equilibrium of the 238U decay series. A method is proposed to quantitatively assess the radon flux from such dumpsites by using a mobile γ-ray detector system

  15. Radon, thoron and their progeny levels in some dwellings of northern Haryana, India using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon pollution is an important global problem of radiation hygiene. Radon and its progeny are the major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Keeping this in my mind the environmental monitoring of radon, thoron and their progeny in some dwellings of northern part of Haryana state of India, has been carried out. The radon-thoron twin dosimeter cups were used for the study. The aim of the study is the possible health risk assessment in the dwellings under construction. (author)

  16. Radon and the environment - 222Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having presented some physical and chemical characteristics of radon 222, this report describes the presence of radon in the environment (in the atmosphere and in soft waters), discusses the radio-toxic effect of radon on human health (exposure, epidemiology, dose calculation, share of radon in population exposure to ionizing radiations), comments the presence of radon in buildings, briefly describes actions aimed at reducing radon concentration within buildings, briefly addresses the issue of professional exposure to radon, evokes regulatory aspects (at the international level, in France, in Switzerland), and comments principles and practices of radon measurement in buildings, water, and underground cavities

  17. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  18. An evaluation paradigm for cumulative impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1988-09-01

    Cumulative impact analysis is examined from a conceptual decision-making perspective, focusing on its implicit and explicit purposes as suggested within the policy and procedures for environmental impact analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and its implementing regulations. In this article it is also linked to different evaluation and decision-making conventions, contrasting a regulatory context with a comprehensive planning framework. The specific problems that make the application of cumulative impact analysis a virtually intractable evaluation requirement are discussed in connection with the federal regulation of wetlands uses. The relatively familiar US Army Corps of Engineers' (the Corps) permit program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) responsibilities in managing its share of the Section 404 regulatory program requirements, is used throughout as the realistic context for highlighting certain pragmatic evaluation aspects of cumulative impact assessment. To understand the purposes of cumulative impact analysis (CIA), a key distinction must be made between the implied comprehensive and multiobjective evaluation purposes of CIA, promoted through the principles and policies contained in NEPA, and the more commonly conducted and limited assessment of cumulative effects (ACE), which focuses largely on the ecological effects of human actions. Based on current evaluation practices within the Corps' and EPA's permit programs, it is shown that the commonly used screening approach to regulating wetlands uses is not compatible with the purposes of CIA, nor is the environmental impact statement (EIS) an appropriate vehicle for evaluating the variety of objectives and trade-offs needed as part of CIA. A heuristic model that incorporates the basic elements of CIA is developed, including the idea of trade-offs among social, economic, and environmental protection goals carried out within the context of environmental

  19. Contribution of 222Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the contribution of radon (222Rn)-bearing water to indoor 222Rn in thermal baths. The 222Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM10 and PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m-3 of 222Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which 222Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average 222Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor 222Rn levels were influenced by the 222Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average 222Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 x 10-4-4.1 x 10-3. The 24-h average levels of CO2 and PM10 in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM2.5. Radon and PM10 levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants. - Highlights: → 222Rn-bearing water is the main contributor to indoor radon in hot spring hotel. → The PM2.5 and CO2 are also the main indoor pollutants in the hotel rooms. → Higher radon and PM levels might have significant negative health effects to human. → The radon transfer coefficients are consistent with the published data.

  20. The therapeutic use of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spas with a somewhat elevated concentration of Radon222 (between 300 and 3000 Bq/l) are described to achieve good clinical results in the treatment of chronic rheumatic diseases. Recently a prospective randomized doubel-blind-study proved the pain reducing efficacy of Radon therapy in patients with cervical pain. Studies in experimental animal models have accumulated remarkable data in tissues and organs that provide a rationale to explain the observed effects of Radon therapy in patients. (orig.)

  1. Radon activities in natural gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon activities have been measured in gas samples used for residential heading, in Venezuela and in Hungary. Gas bottles were selected randomly in different regions, and radon activities were monitored with ionization clambers and solid stoke track detections. Radon concentrations in household natural gas are presented for regions in Venezuela and in Budapest, Hungary. The latter was found to be in the range of 88-135 Bq/m3. (R.P.)

  2. Radon exposure in Slovenia spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and gamma dose rates were surveyed in five Slovenian spas, at Rogaska Slatina, Radenci, Moravci, Podcetrtek, and Catez. Due to effective ventilation systems, the indoor air radon concentration rarely exceeds 200 Bq.m-3 and is usually lower. Under the present operational conditions and working regimes of the spas, there is no basis for concern about elevated exposure of personnel to radon. (author)

  3. “Deposition-flux to lung dose” – a new approach in radon inhalation dosimetry using wire-mesh capped direct radon progeny sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assigning indoor radon doses to populations based on the widely used, cumulative radon concentration monitoring techniques is beset with errors arising due to uncertain equilibrium factors and unattached fractions. Moreover, the dose conversion factor (DCF) of radon decay products may vary by a factor of ∼40 within the particle size range from ∼0.5 nm to tens of micrometers. An ideal detector should have a response, which closely mimics the strong dependence of the DCF on the particle size. In this context, we propose a new approach in which the doses are computed directly from the time integrated progeny deposition fluxes on a suitably tailored surrogate surface. The deposition on this wire-mesh capped detector system closely mimics the deposition rate in human respiratory tract. The detection unit consists of an optimally designed wire-mesh capped Direct Radon Progeny Sensor (DRPS) system. Of the different wire-mesh types, 100 mesh types were found to be suitable considering the fine and coarse fraction penetration efficiencies. The calibration factor was theoretically derived as 0.0077 {mSv (Tracks cm−2)−1}, for converting the measured atom flux in the 100-mesh capped DRPS system to inhalation dose attributed to radon progeny. - Highlights: • A new approach to compute the doses directly from the progeny deposition fluxes. • The detection unit consists of wire-mesh capped Direct Radon Progeny Sensor (DRPS). • Calibration Factor derived as 0.0077 {mSv (Tracks cm−2)−1}

  4. Radon Research Program, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) is the principal federal agency conducting basic research related to indoor radon. The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. There still remains a significant number of uncertainties in the currently available knowledge that is used to estimate lung cancer risk from exposure to environmental levels of radon and its progeny. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny and to identify and understand biological mechanisms of lung cancer development and required copollutants at low levels of exposure. Information useful in radon control strategies is also provided by the basic science undertaken in this program

  5. Radon Research Program, FY-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has established a Radon Research Program with the primary objectives of acquiring knowledge necessary to improve estimates of health risks associated with radon exposure and also to improve radon control. Through the Radon Research Program, OHER supports and coordinates the research activities of investigators at facilities all across the nation. From this research, significant advances are being made in our understanding of the health effects of radon. OHER publishes this annual report to provide information to interested researchers and the public about its research activities. This edition of the report summarizes the activities of program researchers during FY90. Chapter 2 of this report describes how risks associated with radon exposure are estimated, what assumptions are made in estimating radon risks for the general public, and how the uncertainties in these assumptions affect the risk estimates. Chapter 3 examines how OHER, through the Radon Research Program, is working to gather information for reducing the uncertainties and improving the risk estimates. Chapter 4 highlights some of the major findings of investigators participating in the Radon Research Program in the past year. And, finally, Chapter 5 discusses the direction in which the program is headed in the future. 20 figs

  6. Radon and geophysics: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of radon data obtained before and after the M6.9 earthquake in the Reventador, Ecuador, area shows beyond doubt that both positive and negative radon anomalies were generated even at rather large distances from the epicenter. The influence of groundwater and fault networks is strongly suggested by the findings. Investigations using an additional radon source implanted at the experimental sites show that near surface radon anomalies are primarily due, if not exclusively, to deeper fluid motion acting as transport vectors. Such behaviour is likely to support the idea that pore collapse generates an upward motion of pore fluids acting as radon carriers. Considering only depth related radon concentration curves, moderately sized radon anomalies would be expected, contrary to observation. A theoretical model devised on the basis of the analysis of transient states shows that large amounts of radon are expected to show during a short duration prior to an earthquake or an eruption. It has been shown particularly that short term variations are induced in direct correlation with temperature variation and large term variations are induced in counter correlation with temperature variation. In addition, laboratory experiments and deep-well experiments have been carried out to investigate radon transport in groundwater as a function of depth. (author)

  7. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  8. Radon in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the investigation, a passive integrating radon dose meter developed at the KfK Karlsruhe was used. This institute also carried out the evaluation of all dose meters. The inquiry data were collected and statistically evaluated centrally by the Radiation Hygiene Institute of the German Health Authorities. Results obtained from almost 6.000 appartments show a distinct regional distribution of the measured values closely related to the geological conditions of the respected area. Surprisingly, there was little dependency on the building materials, with the exception of natural stone houses. The analysis showed that the structural characteristics of a building likely to influence the penetration of radon from the soil have a great effect on the Rn level. Generally, the frequency distribution of the measured values follows a logarithmic Gaussian distribution. Based on a median of 40 Bg/m3, the annual effective dose equivalent is about 1 mSv. (orig./HP)

  9. Analysis of the joint effects of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk in three nested case-control studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objectives: Three case-control studies nested in the French (Fr), German (Ge) and Czech (Cz) cohorts of uranium miners were conducted in the frame of a European research Project, named Alpha-Risk, on the quantification of risks associated with multiple radiation exposures. These case-control studies aimed at assessing the effect of protracted radon exposure on lung cancer risk taking into account individual tobacco consumption. Material and methods: In the three case-control studies, cases were miners of the corresponding cohort who died of lung cancer (100, 704, 672 cases for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively). For each case, controls were randomly matched on birth period and attained age at the time of death of the corresponding case (500, 1398 and 1491 controls for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively). Cumulated radon exposure during employment was obtained from ambient and individual measurements for the Fr and Cz studies, and from a job exposure matrix for the Ge study. Smoking habits were retrospectively determined from medical archives and questionnaires applied in face-to-face interviews, phone calls or mailings. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A multiplicative model was fitted to assess the joint effect of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk. Results: Smoking status was established for 62, 421, and 672 cases and 320, 620, and 1491 controls for the Fr, Ge, and Cz study, respectively. Two categories ('ever smokers' vs. 'never smokers') were defined. The percentages of 'ever-smokers' were 90%, 95%, and 92% for the cases and 73%, 75%, and 73% for the controls, for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively. Mean five-year lagged cumulated radon exposures were 115, 717 and 174 working level months (WLM) for the cases, and 71, 505 and 118 WLM for the controls, for the Fr, Ge and Cz study, respectively. The excess relative risk per WLM (ERR/WLM) was 0.98% with a 95

  10. Residential radon exposure in some areas of Bangalore city, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to natural airborne radon, indoors, has been identified as the primary mode of radiation exposure. Hence, numerous measurements at various parts of the world along with epidemiological studies regarding the indoor radon and risk o flung cancer have been published in recent years. In India, many researchers have measured the indoor radon levels in dwellings at different regions for health risk assessment and its control. Though, Bangalore (12°152 and 13°132 N latitude and 77°32 and 77°562 E longitude) is one of the major cities of India with a population of about 8 million, only a few radon measurements were reported till date. As a result of ever increasing demand for living places, closely packed high rise residential buildings and apartments are found everywhere and seems to prevent the normal dispersion of radon due to poor ventilation. In view of the above, indoor radon and thoron measurements were carried out using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) in about 50 dwellings of residential areas of Bangalore city namely, K.S. Town, Kengeri, RR Nagar, Nayandanahalli, RPC Layout, Nagarabhavi, Mudalapalya, Malagala, Sunkadakatte, etc. The results obtained were systematically analyzed and discussed

  11. Some investigations and use of LR-115 track detectors for radon measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Amrani, D

    2001-01-01

    Closed passive integrating radon dosimeters based on the use of cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II) have been developed for assessment of long term radon exposure. This paper presents and comments the results of investigations, of registration efficiency, calibration factors, linearity tests and lower limit of detection for LR-115 detectors from different batches.

  12. Radon - The management of the risk related to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This leaflet briefly explains what radon is, where it comes from, and what it becomes. It indicates and briefly comments its concentrations in French departments, describes how radon can affect our health (lung cancer), describes how the risk can be reduced in buildings, and indicates the existing regulatory provisions

  13. Exposure to radon and radon progeny in the indoor environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the work done by the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies at Princeton University as part of the radon research program. It involves radon measurements in various buildings, as well as the use of natural ventilation to mitigate radon levels. The report is divided into four chapters: The use of radon entry rate measurements to understand radon concentration in buildings; Use of natural basement ventilation to control radon in single family dwellings; The effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses; and Comparison of natural and forced ventilation for radon mitigation in houses

  14. Temporal Patterns of Lung Cancer Risk from Radon, Smoking and their Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of uranium miners conducted since the late 1960s demonstrated that the risk depends on cumulated exposure in terms of working level months (WLM) integrating both duration of exposure and concentration of radon. It has been also demonstrated that the risk from radon decreases with time since exposure. The objective of the work is to study temporal patterns of lung cancer risk from occupational and residential radon and from smoking. The present analysis of temporal changes of relative risk is based on a model, where the total individual exposure is partitioned into components in dependence on time. Exposure to radon is studied in a cohort of 9411 Czech uranium miners with 766 cases of lung cancer and in a residential study of 1 803 inhabitants exposed to radon in houses with 218 cases. Temporal patterns of smoking are analyzed in a case-control study of patients from a major Prague hospital including 566 cases. for both carcinogens, the relative risk decreases with time since exposure. In comparison to period with exposure before 5-19 years, the risk from exposures before 20-34 years is 36% and 34% for smoking and randon, respectively. The effect of exposures from more distant periods 35-49 is only 5% for smoking and 14% for radon in comparison to 5-19 years. Combined effect of smoking and radon is studied by a nested case-control approach including 434 cases and 962 controls. Analyses of the joint effects of smoking and radon, conducted in the occupational and the residential studies, suggest a sub-multiplicative interaction. The relative risk from radon among non-smokers is higher by a factor of 2-3 in comparison to smokers, suggesting different patterns of lung deposition and clearance among smokers and non-smokers. (Author) 13 refs

  15. Temporal patterns of lung cancer risk from radon and smoking - consequences to remediation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of uranium miners conducted since the late 1960s demonstrated that the risk depends on cumulated exposure in terms of working level months (WLM) integrating both duration of exposure and concentration of radon. It has been also demonstrated that the risk from radon decreases with time since exposure. The present analysis of temporal changes of relative risk is based on a model where the total individual exposure is partitioned into components in dependence on time. Exposure to radon is studied in a cohort of 9411 Czech uranium miners with 766 cases of lung cancer and in a residential study of 11 803 inhabitants exposed to radon in houses with 218 cases. In addition, temporal patterns of the risk from smoking are analyzed in a case-control study of patients from a major Prague hospital including 566 cases. For both carcinogens, the relative risk decreases with time since exposure. The risk from exposures before 20-34 years is 36% and 34% in comparison to period 5-19 for smoking and radon, respectively. The effect of exposures from more distant periods 35-49 is only 5% for smoking and 14% for radon in comparison to 5-19 years. This substantial decrease of relative risk with time may contribute to a better evaluation of remediation measures taken in houses and in the cost effectiveness of remediation. Combined effect of smoking and radon is studied by a nested case-control approach including 434 cases and 962 controls. Analyses of the joint effects of smoking and radon, conducted in the occupational and the residential studies, suggest a sub-multiplicative interaction. The relative risk from radon among non-smokers is higher by a factor of 2-3 in comparison to smokers, suggesting different patterns of lung deposition and clearance among smokers and non-smokers. (author)

  16. The significance of radon in radioactive pollution of environment. Pt. 2. Radon effect on living organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors review the history of radon monitoring. Epidemiological studies of lung cancer and its correlation to radon concentration in mines and buildings are described. The influence of radon on animals living in the buildings built from waste materials is described. Authors review plans concerning creation of radon monitoring system in Poland. The necessity of monitoring influence of radon on animals is described

  17. Radon measurement studies with indigenously developed continuous radon monitor (CRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of radon concentration measurements carried out with an indigenously developed microcontroller based Continuous Radon Monitor. The system uses a ZnS(Ag) detector and passive sampling method for estimation of radon concentration. A comparative study of the results recorded by present system with Genitron make Alphaguard was conducted at uranium mine environment at Jaduguda. The studies show that the continuous radon monitor can be very comprehensively and effectively used for radon concentration measurements with a minimum detectable concentration of ∼ 30 Bq/m3. The inter comparison of the system with the more standard Alphaguard system also indicate that the results recorded by the CRM yield a sensitivity of 0.3 counts per hour per Becquerel activity per unit volume. (author)

  18. Chemical methods for removing radon and radon daughters from air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L

    1972-03-31

    Liquid bromine trifluoride and the solid complexes ClF(2)SbF(6), BrF(2)SbF(6), BrF(4)Sb(2)F(11), IF(4)(SbF(6))(3) and BrF(2)BiF(6) react spontaneously with radon and radon daughters at 25 degrees C, converting the radioelements to nonvolatile ions and compounds. The reagents can be used in gas-scrubbing units to remove radon and radon daughters from air. The halogen fluoride-antimony pentafluoride complexes may be suitable for purifying air in uranium mines and analyzing radon in air, since they have low dissociation pressures at 25 degrees C and are less hazardous to handle than liquid halogen fluorides. PMID:5013675

  19. Evaluation of the intake of radon through skin from thermal water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2016-07-01

    The biokinetics of radon in the body has previously been studied with the assumption that its absorption through the skin is negligibly small. This assumption would be acceptable except in specific situations, such as bathing in a radon hot spring where the radon concentration in thermal water is far higher than that in air. The present study focused on such a situation in order to better understand the biokinetics of radon. To mathematically express the entry of radon through the skin into the body, we first modified the latest sophisticated biokinetic model for noble gases. Values of an important parameter for the model-the skin permeability coefficient K (m s(-1))-were derived using data from previous human studies. The analysis of such empirical data, which corresponded to radon concentrations in the air exhaled by subjects during and following bathing in radon-rich thermal water, revealed that the estimated K values had a log-normal distribution. The validity of the K values and the characteristics of the present model are then discussed. Furthermore, the impact of the intake of radon or its progeny via inhalation or skin absorption on radiation dose was also assessed for possible exposure scenarios in a radon hot spring. It was concluded that, depending on the radon concentration in thermal water, there might be situations in which the dose contribution resulting from skin absorption of radon is comparable to that resulting from inhalation of radon and its progeny. This conclusion can also apply to other therapeutic situations (e.g. staying in the pool for a longer period). PMID:26983980

  20. Surface-deposition and distribution of the radon-decay products indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure to radon-decay products is of great concern both in dwellings and workplaces. The model to estimate the lung dose refers to the deposition mechanisms and particle sizes. Unfortunately, most of the dose data available are based on the measurement of radon concentration and the concentration of radon decay products. These combined measurements are widely used in spite of the fact that accurate dose assessments require information on the particle deposition mechanisms and the spatial distribution of radon decay products indoors. Most of the airborne particles and/or radon decay products are deposited onto indoor surfaces, which deposition makes the radon decay products unavailable for inhalation. These deposition processes, if properly known, could be successfully exploited to reduce the exposure to radon decay products. In spite of the importance of the surface deposition of the radon decay products, both for the correct evaluation of the dose and for reducing the exposure; little or no efforts have been made to investigate these deposition processes. Recently, two parallel investigations have been carried out in Rome and at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City respectively, which address the issue of the surface-deposited radon decay products. Even though these investigations have been carried independently, they complement one another. It is with these considerations in mind that it was decided to report both investigations in the same paper. - Highlights: • Distribution of Radon and Thoron decay indoor products. • Indoor radon measurements complexity. • Short and long term measurements of surface deposit of Radon and Thoron decay products. • Microclimate controlled conditions room. • Nuclear Tracks Detectors