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Sample records for assessing cumulative radon

  1. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  2. Assessment of radon equilibrium factor from distribution parameters of simultaneous radon and radon progeny measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Marro, Leonora

    2011-11-01

    In Canada, a radon and radon progeny survey was carried out in the 1970s in 19 cities. To the authors' knowledge, this is the only large survey of simultaneous radon and radon progeny measurements up to the present time. However, the survey was carried out for the purpose of establishing geographic variation of radon and radon progeny; therefore, radon equilibrium factors, F, were not assessed at that time. From the summary results of this large simultaneous radon and radon progeny survey, the characteristics of radon equilibrium factor were assessed. The average F factor assessed from this survey in 12,576 houses is 0.54. The current assessment may indicate that the typical F value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) could lead to a downward bias in the estimation of radon doses to the lung.

  3. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the

  4. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Medicine); Stark, A.; Ju, C. (New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology)

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210.

  5. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Measurement and Mitigation Professional Radon in Drinking Water Radon Hotlines and Resources ( En Español ) Radon Publications ( En Español ) En Español - Acerca del radón Home Buyers and Sellers Radon Protection: Buying a Home Radon Protection: Building a Home ...

  6. Radon Measurements in Ghana: Health Risk Assessment at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to assess the risk of exposure to radon and its daughters stems from the reality that radon is a potential carcinogenic. We report Radon-222 risk assessment, from measurements on soil and sediments taken from six towns along the Lake Bosomtwi basin at two levels of 10cm and 20 cm. The current and future ...

  7. Risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monchaux, G

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the risk due to inhalation of radon and its decay products using an horizontal approach across a large scale research programme. The central objective was the assessment of human risk which requires combination of several topics involving a multidisciplinary approach. In the Aerosol Studies Group, progress was achieved in improvement, calibration and automation of experimental techniques for continuous and integrated measurements of the unattached fraction f{sub p}- and equilibrium factor F- values. Measurements were performed to determine the variation of size distributions of unattached and aerosol-associated radon decay products under typical living conditions. All aerosol groups performed controlled chamber studies to understand the basic behaviour of airborne activity concentrations. Measurements were performed to determine neutralisation rates of {sup 218}Po, to understand the cluster growth with residence time and to understand the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. In the Modelling Group, the programme RADEP has been developed to calculate the weighted committed equivalent lung dose per unit exposure of radon progeny (H{sub w}/P{sub p}) which implements the ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). The stochastic deposition model (IDEAL) has been compared with the deposition model used by the HRTM, and the agreement between the two deposition models was excellent. A deterministic radon progeny dosimetry model (RADOS) has been developed. This model includes all bronchial airway generations compared with the HRTM that groups the 16 airway generations into three regions. Initial calculations with RADOS show that the basal and secretory cell doses are slightly smaller compared with that of the HRTM. A sensitivity analysis has been performed that has identified those HRTM model parameters that most affect the Hw/Pp. A stochastic rat deposition model (RALMO) and a clearance model for the rat based on the

  8. Assessment and management of residential radon health risks: a report from the health Canada radon workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Bliss L; Krewski, Daniel; Chen, Jing; Zielinski, Jan M; Brand, Kevin P; Meyerhof, Dorothy

    2006-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies of uranium miners and other underground miners have consistently shown miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at increased risk of lung cancer. More recently, concern has arisen about lung cancer risks among people exposed to lower levels of radon in homes. The current Canadian guideline for residential radon exposure was set in 1988 at 800 Bq/m(3). Because of the accumulation of a considerable body of new scientific evidence on radon lung cancer risks since that time, Health Canada sponsored a workshop to review the current state-of-the-science on radon health risks. The specific objectives of the workshop were (1) to collect and assess scientific information relevant to setting national radon policy in Canada, and (2) to gather information on social, political, and operational considerations in setting national policy. The workshop, held on 3-4 March 2004, was attended by 38 invited scientists, regulators, and other stakeholders from Canada and the United States. The presentations on the first day dealt primarily with scientific issues. The combined analysis of North American residential radon and lung cancer studies was reviewed. The analysis confirmed a small but detectable increase in lung cancer risk at residential exposure levels. Current estimates suggest that radon in homes is responsible for approximately 10% of all lung cancer deaths in Canada, making radon the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. This was followed by a perspective from an UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) working group on radon. There were two presentations on occupational exposures to radon and two presentations considered the possibility of radon as a causative factor for cardiovascular disease and for cancer in other organs besides the lung. The possible contribution of environmental tobacco smoke to lung cancers in nonsmokers was also considered. Areas for future research were identified

  9. Assessment of indoor radon gas concentration change of college

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Jeong, Eui Hwan; Kim, Hak Jae; Lyu, Kang Yeul [Dept. of of Radiological Technology, Shingu College, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact by comparing the concentration of indoor radon and look for ways to lower the concentration of indoor radon gas measurements of three variables, the year of completion, volume of the building and ventilation. Measurement target is six classrooms on the sixth floor of building that was constructed in 1973 and was extended in 2011. Selected classroom's volume is different. Four classrooms were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the year of completion, Classrooms that is same year of completion were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the volume, six classroom was performed closure and ventilation to compare radon concentration according to ventilation. Radon concentrations in accordance with the year of building completion showed a high concentration of radon in a building recently built. Also, Radon concentration in volume is high the smaller the volume. Radon concentration change according to ventilation showed a reduction of about 80% when the ventilation than during closing. Especially, The radon concentrations were high detected while the recently year of building completion and the smaller volume. Ventilation of the three variables is considered that can be expected to exposure reduction effect by radon affecting the greatest radon concentration reduction.

  10. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forming a different element with different radioactive properties. Radium and then radon are formed midway through these ... the main source of health concerns. The main isotope of health concern is radon-222 ( 222 Rn). ...

  11. The Radon Cumulative Distribution Transform and Its Application to Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Soheil; Park, Se Rim; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2016-02-01

    Invertible image representation methods (transforms) are routinely employed as low-level image processing operations based on which feature extraction and recognition algorithms are developed. Most transforms in current use (e.g., Fourier, wavelet, and so on) are linear transforms and, by themselves, are unable to substantially simplify the representation of image classes for classification. Here, we describe a nonlinear, invertible, low-level image processing transform based on combining the well-known Radon transform for image data, and the 1D cumulative distribution transform proposed earlier. We describe a few of the properties of this new transform, and with both theoretical and experimental results show that it can often render certain problems linearly separable in a transform space.

  12. Soil gas radon assessment and development of a radon risk map in Bolsena, Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, G; Tositti, L; Capaccioni, B; Brattich, E; Mostacci, D

    2015-04-01

    Vulsini Volcanic district in Northern Latium (Central Italy) is characterized by high natural radiation background resulting from the high concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium in the volcanic products. In order to estimate the radon radiation risk, a series of soil gas radon measurements were carried out in Bolsena, the principal urban settlement in this area NE of Rome. Soil gas radon concentration ranges between 7 and 176 kBq/m(3) indicating a large degree of variability in the NORM content and behavior of the parent soil material related in particular to the occurrence of two different lithologies. Soil gas radon mapping confirmed the existence of two different areas: one along the shoreline of the Bolsena lake, characterized by low soil radon level, due to a prevailing alluvial lithology; another close to the Bolsena village with high soil radon level due to the presence of the high radioactive volcanic rocks of the Vulsini volcanic district. Radon risk assessment, based on soil gas radon and permeability data, results in a map where the alluvial area is characterized by a probability to be an area with high Radon Index lower than 20 %, while probabilities higher than 30 % and also above 50 % are found close to the Bolsena village.

  13. Radon Assessment of Occupational Facilities, Homestead ARB, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) May 2013 – August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radon Assessment of Occupational Facilities...unlimited. Case Number: 88ABW-2013-4919, 21 Nov 2013 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT An assessment of indoor radon concentrations was...established in AFI 48-148 for long-term monitoring. Historical results indicate a radon risk characterization category of “medium,” requiring all

  14. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study. Final report, 1 March, 1990--May 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Medicine; Stark, A.; Ju, C. [New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to ``above-average`` radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject`s presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210.

  15. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Denton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can

  16. A screening method for assessing cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, George V; Faust, John B; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-02-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating "cumulative impacts." As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA: "Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available." The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community's cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening tool to help Cal

  17. Comparative risk assessment of residential radon exposures in two radon-prone areas, Stei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Carlos; Dinu, Alexandra; Dicu, Tiberius; Szacsvai, Kinga; Cosma, Constantin; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2009-07-15

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon-prone areas, Stei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Stei area was 2650 Bq m(-3) and 366 Bq m(-3) in the Spanish region. The results are computed with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bq m(-3). We used the EC Radon Software to calculate the lifetime lung cancer death risks for individuals groups in function of attained age, radon exposures and tobacco consumption. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were observed in the Stei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than expected from the national statistics. In addition, the number of deaths estimated for the year 2005 is 28, which is worth more than 2.21 times the amount expected by authorities. In comparison, for Torrelodones was rated a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer for a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number expected by authorities. For the year 2005 in the Spanish region were reported 32 deaths caused by pulmonary cancer, the number of deaths exceeding seen again with a factor of 2.10 statistical expectations. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  18. Comparative risk assessment of residential radon exposures in two radon-prone areas, Stei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos, E-mail: sainzc@unican.es [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Herrera Oria s/n. 39011, Santander (Spain); Dinu, Alexandra; Dicu, Tiberius; Szacsvai, Kinga; Cosma, Constantin [Faculty of Environmental Science, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, Fantanele, No. 3 Cluj Napoca 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Quindos, Luis Santiago [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, c/Herrera Oria s/n. 39011, Santander (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon-prone areas, Stei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Stei area was 2650 Bq m{sup -3} and 366 Bq m{sup -3} in the Spanish region. The results are computed with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bq m{sup -3}. We used the EC Radon Software to calculate the lifetime lung cancer death risks for individuals groups in function of attained age, radon exposures and tobacco consumption. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were observed in the Stei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than expected from the national statistics. In addition, the number of deaths estimated for the year 2005 is 28, which is worth more than 2.21 times the amount expected by authorities. In comparison, for Torrelodones was rated a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer for a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number expected by authorities. For the year 2005 in the Spanish region were reported 32 deaths caused by pulmonary cancer, the number of deaths exceeding seen again with a factor of 2.10 statistical expectations. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  19. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m–3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ∼10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log–normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m–3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. PMID:22874897

  20. Soil radon survey to assess NAPL contamination from an ancient spill. Do kerosene vapors affect radon partition ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Gabriele; Lucchetti, Carlo; Pompilj, Francesca; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola; Curatolo, Pierpaolo; Giorgi, Riccardo

    2017-05-01

    A soil radon-deficit survey was carried out in a site polluted with kerosene (Rome, Italy) in winter 2016 to assess the contamination due to the NAPL residual component in the vadose zone and to investigate the role of the vapor plume. Radon is indeed more soluble in the residual NAPL than in air or water, but laboratory experiments demonstrated that it is also preferentially partitioned in the NAPL vapors that transport it and may influence soil radon distribution patterns. Specific experimental configurations were designed and applied to a 31-station grid to test this hypothesis; two RAD7 radon monitors were placed in-series and connected to the top of a hollow probe driven up to 80-cm depth; the first instrument was directly attached to the probe and received humid soil gas, which was counted and then conveyed to the second monitor through a desiccant (drierite) cylinder capturing moisture and eventually the NAPL volatile component plus the radon dissolved in vapors. The values from the two instruments were cross-calibrated through specifically designed laboratory experiments and compared. The results are in agreement within the error range, so the presence of significant NAPL vapors, eventually absorbed by drierite, was ruled out. This is in agreement with low concentrations of soil VOCs. Accordingly, the radon-deficit is ascribed to the residual NAPL in the soil pores, as shown very well also by the obtained maps. Preferential areas of radon-deficit were recognised, as in previous surveys. An average estimate of 21 L (17 Kg) of residual NAPL per cubic meter of terrain is provided on the basis of original calculations, developed from published equations. A comparison with direct determination of total hydrocarbon concentration (23 kg per cubic meter of terrain) is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of radon exposure assessment results: {sup 210}Po surface activity on glass objects vs. contemporary air radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F. E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.it; McLaughlin, J.P.; Walsh, C

    2003-06-01

    Radon exposure assessment in case-control studies on radon and lung cancer is generally based on contemporary radon concentration measurements, which can be affected by significant changes in the building structures or in living habits. Another method to estimate the radon exposure of the subjects is the recently developed retrospective dosimetry technique based on the {sup 210}Po surface activity from glass objects. In order to compare the results obtained by the two methods, a study has been carried out in a sample of 26 dwellings in Rome, with radon concentration values ranging from 28 to 623 Bq m{sup -3}. Retrospective detectors based on CR-39 and LR 115 were exposed on 50 glass objects in bedrooms and living rooms. The correlation factor between the two sets of data, after removing six extreme values, is 0.67, which is similar to results obtained in other validation studies of similar sample size. The correlation increases to 0.83 if the 21 objects exposed in non-smoky dwellings are selected, while it vanishes to -0.01 for the 23 objects exposed in smoky dwellings, suggesting quite larger variations of plate-out in presence of environmental tobacco smoke.

  2. Radon contents in groundwater and the uncertainty related to risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Masami [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The United States has proposed 11 Bq/l (300 pCi/l) as the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of radon. Japan has not set up the standards for drinking water. The problems about evaluation of effects of radon on organism and MCLs of radon in groundwater and drinking water in 12 countries were reported. The local area content the high concentrations of radon, but generally it`s low levels were observed in Nigeria, China and Mexico. The countries which content high concentration of radon were Greek, Slovakia, Bornholm Island and Scotland. There are high and low concentration area in US and Japan. I proposed an uncertainty scheme on risk assessment for the exposure by radon. (S.Y.)

  3. Addressing cumulative effects in Strategic Environmental Assessment of spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Strategic environmental Assessment (SEA is a decision support instrument for predicting and evaluating the likely environmental effects of implementing a policy, plan or programme. SEA can consider the cumulative impacts of more than one project or activity on the same environmen- tal component. This paper discusses the analysis of cumulative effects in SEA, with reference to spatial planning by: providing a review of key concepts and methods related to cumulative effects literature; presenting a rationale for the inclusion of cumulative effects in SEA of spatial plans; advancing a proposal to address cumulative effects in different SEA stages. The paper concludes that SEA offers the opportunity to support a better management of cumulative effects arising from many local-level spatial planning decisions. Three aspects emerged as critical to ensure good practices: the selection of valued environmental components, the adoption of future-oriented approaches, and the use of spatially-explicit information.

  4. Cumulative risk assessment of chemical exposures in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragas, Ad M J; Oldenkamp, R; Preeker, N L; Wernicke, J; Schlink, U

    2011-07-01

    We performed a cumulative risk assessment for people living in a hypothetical urban environment, called Urbania. The main aims of the study were to demonstrate how a cumulative risk assessment for a middle-sized European city can be performed and to identify the bottlenecks in terms of data availability and knowledge gaps. The assessment focused on five air pollutants (i.e., PM₁₀, benzene, toluene, nonane and naphthalene) and six food pesticides (i.e., acetamiprid, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, imidacloprid and permethrin). Exposure predictions showed that PM₁₀, benzene and naphthalene exposure frequently exceeded the standards, and that the indoor environment contributed more than the outdoor environment. Effect predictions showed that mixture and interaction effects were generally limited. However, model calculations indicated potential synergistic effects between naphthalene and benzene and between chlorpyrifos, diazinon and toluene. PM₁₀ dominated the health impact expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We conclude that measures to reduce the health impact of environmental pollution should focus on the improvement of indoor air quality and the reduction of PM₁₀ emissions. Cumulative risk assessment can be improved by (1) the development of person-oriented exposure models that can simulate the cumulative exposure history of individuals, (2) a better mechanistic understanding of the effects of cumulative stressors, and (3) the development of instruments to prioritize stressors for inclusion in cumulative risk assessments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Capturing expert uncertainty in spatial cumulative impact assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice R; Doubleday, Zoë A; Prowse, Thomas A A; Wiltshire, Kathryn H; Deveney, Marty R; Ward, Tim; Scrivens, Sally L; Cassey, Phillip; O'Connell, Laura G; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2018-01-23

    Understanding the spatial distribution of human impacts on marine environments is necessary for maintaining healthy ecosystems and supporting 'blue economies'. Realistic assessments of impact must consider the cumulative impacts of multiple, coincident threats and the differing vulnerabilities of ecosystems to these threats. Expert knowledge is often used to assess impact in marine ecosystems because empirical data are lacking; however, this introduces uncertainty into the results. As part of a spatial cumulative impact assessment for Spencer Gulf, South Australia, we asked experts to estimate score ranges (best-case, most-likely and worst-case), which accounted for their uncertainty about the effect of 32 threats on eight ecosystems. Expert scores were combined with data on the spatial pattern and intensity of threats to generate cumulative impact maps based on each of the three scoring scenarios, as well as simulations and maps of uncertainty. We compared our method, which explicitly accounts for the experts' knowledge-based uncertainty, with other approaches and found that it provides smaller uncertainty bounds, leading to more constrained assessment results. Collecting these additional data on experts' knowledge-based uncertainty provides transparency and simplifies interpretation of the outputs from spatial cumulative impact assessments, facilitating their application for sustainable resource management and conservation.

  6. The ORNL Indoor Air Quality Study: Re-cap, Context, and Assessment on Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ternes, Mark P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As part of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program that was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an assessment of the impacts of weatherization on indoor air quality (IAQ) was conducted. This assessment included nearly 500 treatment and control homes across the country. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, temperature and humidity pre- and post-weatherization. This report focuses on the topic of radon and addresses issues not thoroughly discussed in the original IAQ report. The size, scope and rigor of the radon component of the IAQ study are compared to previous studies that assessed the impacts of weatherization on indoor radon levels. It is found that the ORNL study is by far the most extensive study conducted to date, though the ORNL results are consistent with the findings of the other studies. However, the study does have limitations related to its reliance on short-term measurements of radon and inability to attribute changes in radon levels in homes post-weatherization to specific weatherization measures individually or in combination.

  7. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Mease, Lindley A; Martone, Rebecca G; Prahler, Erin E; Morrison, Tiffany H; Clarke Murray, Cathryn; Wojcik, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  8. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  9. Are seasonal correction factors useful in assessing the health risk from domestic radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Gillmore, G.K. [Bradford Univ., School of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Following an intensive survey of domestic radon levels in the UK, the former National Radiological Protection Board (N.R.P.B.), now the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (H.P.A.-R.P.D.) established a measurement protocol and promulgated a set of Seasonal Correction Factors (S.C.F.) applicable to the United Kingdom as a whole. Radon levels are assumed to exhibit systematic repeatable annual variation, generally higher in winter than in summer, and the S.C.F. comprise numerical multipliers which convert a one-month oree-month radon measurement, commencing in any month of the year, to an effective annual mean radon concentration. In a recent project to assess the utility of short-term exposures in quantifying domestic radon levels, radon variability in a set of 34 houses on common radon-rich geology was found to depart significantly from that predicted by the H.P.A.-R.P.D. seasonal correction factors, with year-end discontinuities at both 1-month and 3- month measurement resolutions. Following this study, monitoring with electrets was continued in four properties, with weekly radon concentration data now available for a total duration of three years. Analysis of this data has permitted the derivation of reliable local seasonal correction factors. Overall, these are significantly lower than those recommended by H.P.A.-R.P.D., but are comparable with other results from the UK and from abroad, particularly those that recognise geological diversity and are consequently prepared on a regional rather than a national basis. The discussion calls into question the validity of using nationally aggregated factors, especially for shorter exposures. (authors)

  10. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radon concentration: A tool for assessing the fracture network at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2003-01-01

    Jan 1, 2003 ... geothermal systems. In: Ivanovich M and Harmon RS(eds.) Uranium. Series Disequilibrium: Applications to Earth, Marine and Environ- mental Sciences. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 631-668. LEVIN M (2000 ) The radon emanation technique as a tool in ground water exploration. Borehole Water J. 46 22-26.

  12. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  13. Framework for Multi-Pathway Cumulative Exposure for Comparative Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Tom; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    to global) environment with information about larger scale populations rather than specific individuals or vulnerable subgroups. Although there can be large uncertainties in this approach, it provides insight on how chemical properties and use patterns map onto population-scale metrics of exposure......-cycle impacts and chemical alternatives. We present a regional case study for pesticide alternatives in an agricultural valley of California to assess the opportunities and future prospects for the multi-pathway cumulative framework in LCA and CAA. This case reveals that the relative contributions to cumulative...... pollutant intake via different exposure pathways depend on (a) persistence of chemicals at different levels of integration (regional, urban-scale, food-web, indoors), (b) basic chemical properties, (c) the retention of chemicals in food webs, and (d) the retention of chemicals by indoor surfaces....

  14. Radon as a medicine. Therapeutic effectiveness, biological mechanism and comparative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, Peter; Falkenbach, Albrecht; Harder, Dietrich; Joeckel, Hans; Kaul, Alexander; Philipsborn, Henning von

    2014-07-01

    Proofs of the therapeutic efficiency of balneological radon applications administered to patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, investigations into the biological action mechanism associated with the alpha particles emitted by radon and its radioactive daughter products, and the comparative risk assessment of radon treatment and medicinal pain therapy have been the research projects whose results are summarized in this book. Controlled clinical studies, if possible performed as prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled double blind studies, have given evidence that the therapeutic effects of balneological radon applications - long-lasting pain reduction and reduced consumption of medicines compared with controls - are significantly persisting over many post-treatment months. The molecular and cellular mechanism of action underlying these long-lasting therapeutic effects has been identified as the down-regulation of cellular immune responses, initiated by cellular apoptosis sequential to low alpha particle doses and by the subsequent release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The unwanted side-effects of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drug treatments have to be compared with the absence of side effects from the balneological radon applications which merely involve radiation doses well below the mean value and the fluctuation width of the annual doses attributable to everybody's natural radiation exposure.

  15. Assessment of the dose from radon and its decay products in the Bozkov dolomite cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenská, K; Thinová, L; Zdímal, V

    2008-01-01

    The dose from radon and its progeny remains a frequently discussed problem. ICRP 65 provides a commonly used methodology to calculate the dose from radon. Our work focuses on a cave environment and on assessing the doses in public open caves. The differences in conditions (aerosol size distribution, humidity, radon and its progeny ratio, etc.) are described by the so-called cave factor j. The cave factor is used to correct the dose for workers which is calculated using the ICRP 65 recommendation. In this work, the authors have brought together measured data of aerosol size distribution, unattached and attached fraction activity, and have calculated the so-called cave factor for the Bozkov dolomite cave environment. The dose conversion factors based on measured data and used for evaluating the cave factor were calculated by LUDEP software, which implements HRTM ICRP66.

  16. A Topical Overview of Cumulative Risk Assessment Concepts ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. First, in assessing the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search by presenting a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications. This is a select literature review of topics in CRA. As a published article it will allow the citation of an analysis conducted on a rich and diverse set of CRA publications relevant to assessment methods

  17. Use of automated radon measurements for rapid assessment of groundwater flow into Florida streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, William C.; Peterson, Richard N.; Santos, Isaac R.; Hicks, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    SummaryNaturally occurring 222Rn (radon; t1/2 = 3.8 days) is a good natural tracer of groundwater discharge because it is conservative and typically 2-3 orders of magnitude higher in groundwater than surface waters. In addition, new technology has allowed rapid and inexpensive field measurements of radon-in-water. Results from the C-25 Canal, a man-made canal in east-central Florida thought to be dominated by groundwater inflows, display how one can quickly assess a water body for locations of groundwater inputs. Although only the eastern portion of the canal was surveyed, use of a few assumptions together with some continuous radon measurements allowed reasonable estimates of the groundwater inflows to be made. Groundwater discharge estimates of 327,000 m 3/day and 331,000 m 3/day were measured for two stations based on determining the groundwater fraction of the total stream flow. This fraction in each case was calculated by correcting radon concentrations for decay over transit times determined from concentration differences between the apparent focal point of groundwater discharge (with a concentration of 520 ± 80 dpm/L) estimated to be ˜17.7 km upstream from the downstream sample locations. During the same period, an average flow of 312,000 ± 70,000 m 3/day was determined from time-series measurements of radon at a fixed downstream location. Coincident current meter readings and a measured cross-section area allowed an independent assessment of the total stream discharge of 336,000 m 3/day. The radon-derived estimates thus indicate that >90% of the total flow is groundwater derived, consistent with the known characteristics of this waterway.

  18. A differentiated approach to the risk assessment from exposure to radon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kononenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methods of risk assessment from exposure to radon. Proposed methods implement a differentiated approach to the risk estimates calculation procedure which depends on the purpose of risk assessment. This approach is based on the analysis of the results of practical tests of different risk assessment models on arrays Russian medical and demographic data with and without consideration of the synergistic effect of smoking, in simple and complex exposure scenarios. All of these tests were performed in previous 5 years (results are available elsewhere. In this work the evaluation of effectiveness of radon mitigation actions in schools was used as a test task and results obtained using 4 models («EPA-2003», «Wismut-2006», «FCZ» and «Tomasek-2014» were compared. If it is important to evaluate the effect of reduction of radon concentration on the health of children and adolescents in terms of lifetimelung cancer risk, «Tomasek-2014» model will be the best choice. It is as sensitive as «FCZ» model and ERR is close to that from «Wismut-2006» model, which was earlier proposed by other authors for use with some modifications in Russia. If the data on radon concentration are limited (for example data from radiation-hygienic passports of territories and constant lifelong exposure scenario is considered, it seems reasonable to apply more simple «Darby-2005» model. Thus, the proposed methods could be used by specialists in various fields in a wide range of tasks, from the risk assessment for  the purposes of radiation-hygienic certification and comparative assessment of radiation safety of the population of different regions of Russia on the basis of the generalized statistical data, to the risk assessment in practical works where large amounts of measurement data on the radon concentration and complex exposure scenarios are used.

  19. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources

  20. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  1. The radon; Le radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings.

  2. Assessment of the exposure to and dose from radon decay products in normally occupied homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Li, C.S.; Montassier, N.; Wasiolek, P. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States); Cavallo, A.J.; Gatsby, K.; Socolow, R.H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); James, A.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The exposure to radon decay products has been assessed in seven homes in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. In two of the houses, there was a single individual who smoked cigarettes. There were a variety of heating and cooking appliances among these homes. These studies have provide 565 measurements of the activity-weighted size distributions in these houses. The median value for the equilibrium factor was 0.408 as compared with the previously employed value of 0.50. Using the recently adopted ICRP lung deposition and dosimetry model, the hourly equivalent lung dose rate per unit, radon exposure was estimated for each measured size distribution. Differences between houses with smokers present and absent were noted in the exposure conditions, but the resulting dose rate per unit of radon gas concentration was essentially the same for the two groups. Expressed in terms of ICRP`s unit of effective dose for members of the public, the mean dose rate conversion coefficient with respect to radon gas concentration found in this study was 3.8 nSv h{sup -} Bq{sup -} m{sup -3}. 26 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Potential impacts of radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays on childhood leukemia in France: a quantitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Olivier [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); University of California, Irvine, Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Irvine, CA (United States); Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Richardson, David B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hemon, Denis; Demoury, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline [Inserm, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer Team, Villejuif (France); Paris-Sud University, UMRS 1018, Villejuif (France); Ielsch, Geraldine [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Assessment Unit for Risks Related to Natural Radioactivity, IRSN, PRP-DGE, SEDRAN, BRN, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2013-05-15

    Previous epidemiological studies and quantitative risk assessments (QRA) have suggested that natural background radiation may be a cause of childhood leukemia. The present work uses a QRA approach to predict the excess risk of childhood leukemia in France related to three components of natural radiation: radon, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma rays, using excess relative and absolute risk models proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Both models were developed from the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Previous risk assessments were extended by considering uncertainties in radiation-related leukemia risk model parameters as part of this process, within a Bayesian framework. Estimated red bone marrow doses cumulated during childhood by the average French child due to radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays are 4.4, 7.5 and 4.3 mSv, respectively. The excess fractions of cases (expressed as percentages) associated with these sources of natural radiation are 20 % [95 % credible interval (CI) 0-68 %] and 4 % (95 % CI 0-11 %) under the excess relative and excess absolute risk models, respectively. The large CIs, as well as the different point estimates obtained under these two models, highlight the uncertainties in predictions of radiation-related childhood leukemia risks. These results are only valid provided that models developed from the LSS can be transferred to the population of French children and to chronic natural radiation exposures, and must be considered in view of the currently limited knowledge concerning other potential risk factors for childhood leukemia. Last, they emphasize the need for further epidemiological investigations of the effects of natural radiation on childhood leukemia to reduce uncertainties and help refine radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  4. A pebble count procedure for assessing watershed cumulative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory S. Bevenger; Rudy M. King

    1995-01-01

    Land mangement activities can result in the delivery of fine sediment to streams. Over time, such delivery can lead to cumulative impacts to the aquactic ecosystem. Because numerous laws require Federal land managers to analyze watershed cumulative effects, field personnel need simple monitoring procedures that can be used directly and consistently. One approach to...

  5. 25. Cumulative effects assessment impact thresholds: myths and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1994-01-01

    A cumulative impact has been commonly defined as: ""...the impact on the environment which results from the incremental impact of the action when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of what agency or person undertakes such other actions. Cumulative impacts can result from individually minor but collectively...

  6. Assessment of the health impact related to indoor exposure to radon in France;Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de l'exposition domestique au radon en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France); Rogel, A.; Laurier, D.; Billon, S.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Hemon, D. [Inserm IFR69, 94 - Villejuif (France); Verger, P. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante PACA, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2007-05-15

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which concentrates in deficiently ventilated habitations. Radon is a well-established human pulmonary carcinogen agent. The exposition of the overall French population to various radon concentrations led scientists to assess its public health impact. This study proposes a predictive assessment of health impact attributable to indoor radon exposure in metropolitan France. Using all available data on the exposure-response between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality risk and on the assessment of indoor radon exposure in France, this study is based on quantitative safety risk assessment method associated to an analysis of both variability and uncertainty, which allows to measure an uncertainty interval related to the prediction. The estimated annual number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon exposure ranges from 1 234 (90% uncertainty interval, 593-2 156) to 2 913 (90% UI, 2 763-3 221), depending on the model considered. This result shows that indoor radon exposure is a serious public health problem in France. (author)

  7. The use of SSNTDs in the retrospective assessment of radon exposure in high radon rural communities in Yugoslavia

    CERN Document Server

    Zunic, Z S; Walsh, C; Benderac, R

    1999-01-01

    A description is given of the field application of a technique using CR-39 and LR 115 detectors to determine alpha recoil implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po surface activity on domestic glass artefacts in dwellings. These investigations took place in two small stable rural communities in uraniferous areas of Yugoslavia where between 32% and 74% of contemporary indoor radon levels were found to be above the commonly used Action Level of 200 Bq m sup - sup 3 and individual levels as high as 8700 Bq m sup - sup 3 were measured. The sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po data is used to retrospectively estimate radon exposures in these communities. Comparisons between the retrospectively estimated radon exposures and those being received at present are made.

  8. Pesticide Cumulative Risk Assessment: Framework for Screening Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on how to screen groups of pesticides for cumulative evaluation using a two-step approach: begin with evaluation of available toxicological information and, if necessary, follow up with a risk-based screening approach.

  9. Cumulative rainfall collectors – A tool for assessing groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... This paper describes a simple, low-cost and low-maintenance tool, the cumulative rainfall ... tion of rain volume; however, analysis showed that this phase ..... timation – Suitability and reliability of three types of rain gauges.

  10. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  11. Generation of hazard indices for cumulative exposure to phthalates for use in cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista L Y; Makris, Susan L; Lorber, Matthew

    2014-08-01

    Exposures to multiple chemicals may contribute to increased risk of similar adverse effects. Cumulative risk may be estimated using a hazard index (HI), the sum of individual hazard quotients (HQ, ratio of exposure to the reference value). We demonstrate the HI approach for five phthalates: di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP). Phthalate exposure for the US general population is estimated using urine metabolite levels from NHANES, extrapolating to ingested 'dose' using the creatinine correction approach. We used two sets of reference values: European Union Tolerable Daily Intakes and Denmark Environmental Protection Agency Derived No Effect Levels. We also investigated the use of an alternate reference value for DEHP, derived from a recent study on male reproductive system development. HQs and HIs were calculated for the total population ages 6years and older, as well as for men and women of approximate reproductive age (18-39 years), and children (6-11 years). Median HQs ranged from 1.0), and were driven by DEHP and DBP exposures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Patients' exposure to electromagnetic fields and radon in radon spas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politański, Piotr; Olszewski, Jerzy; Mamrot, Paweł; Mariańska, Mlagda; Zmyślony, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many patients of physiotherapeutic facilities using therapeutic radon are also referred to other treatments involving the use of electromagnetic field (EMF). However, in the light of the theory of EMF influence on free radicals, it is still an open question whether, application of EMF shortly after the radon treatment may alter the biological effects of radon or EMF. The aim of the study was to determine how large is the group of patients exposed to radon and EMF in Poland, and how high is the exposure of these patients to analyzed factors. The results of the study are to be used in the future assessment of the combined effects of radon and EMF in radon spas. Based on the statistical data and interviews held in the major Polish radon spas, the analysis of treatment structure was performed and exposure to radon and EMF was assessed by measuring radon concentrations and characteristic values of exposure to EMF. More than 8000 people per year are subjected to combined exposure to radon and EMF. Significant differences were found between measured radon concentrations (they ranged from approximately 61 kBq/m3 for inhalations with inhaler to only 290 Bq/m3 for graduation towers, p = 0.049) and EMF intensities corresponded to those observed in hazardous and dangerous zones for occupational exposure. The results of the study showed significant differences between radon concentrations during various radon treatments. There is a need to develop clear and universal procedures for the application of radon or radon combined with EMF in radon spas. The effects of patients' exposure to radon, especially combined with EMF need to be further studied.

  13. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  14. Radon in land use planning; Radon i arealplanlegging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Radon poses a health risk. Therefore, it is important that the municipality takes into account radon, in land use planning. This Radiation Info provides an overview of what makes an additional radon prone area and what tools are available to assess this. The background is the Planning and Building Act provisions on risk analysis (ROS) and zones. (eb)

  15. A Review of Non-Chemical Stressors and Their Importance in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative exposure/risk assessments need to include non-chemical stressors as well as human activities and chemical data. Multiple stressor research can offer information on the interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors needed for cumulative risk assessment resea...

  16. Cumulative versus end-of-course assessment: effects on self-study time and test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Mulder, B Florentine; Muntinghe, Friso L H; Tio, René A

    2015-07-01

    Students tend to postpone preparation for a test until the test is imminent, which raises various risks associated with 'cramming' behaviours, including that for suboptimal learning. Cumulative assessment utilises spaced testing to stimulate students to study more frequently and to prevent procrastination. This randomised controlled study investigated how cumulative assessment affects time spent on self-study and test performance compared with end-of-course assessment. A total of 78 undergraduate medical students in a Year 2 pre-clinical course were randomly assigned to either of two conditions. Students in the cumulative assessment condition were assessed in weeks 4, 8 and 10. Students in the end-of-course assessment condition were assessed in week 10 only. Each week, students reported the number of hours they spent on self-study. Students in the cumulative assessment condition (n = 25) spent significantly more time on self-study than students in the end-of-course assessment condition (n = 37) in all weeks of the course except weeks 5, 9 and 10. Overall, the cumulative assessment group spent 69 hours more on self-study during the course than did the control group, although the control group spent 7 hours more in studying during the final week of the course than did the cumulative assessment group. Students in the cumulative assessment condition scored slightly higher on questions concerning the content of the last part of the course. Cumulative assessment encourages students to distribute their learning activities over a course, which leaves them more opportunity to study the content of the last part of the course prior to the final examination. There was no evidence for a short-term effect of cumulative assessment on overall knowledge gain. We hypothesise that larger positive effects might be found if retention were to be measured in the long term. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Assessment of the 2005-2008 action plan. For the management of the risk related to radon; Bilan du plan d'actions 2005-2008. Pour la gestion du risque lie au radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This report proposes a detailed assessment of 27 priority actions identified in 2005 to improve the management of the risk related to radon within the frame of a public health policy. These actions are grouped under three main orientations: to build up a new policy for the management of the radon-related risk in housing and new buildings, to support and control the implementation of the regulation for the management of this risk in premises open to the public, and to improve and diffuse knowledge about radon-related exposures and risk

  18. Allometric methodology for the assessment of radon exposures to terrestrial wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, J., E-mail: jordi.vives.i.batlle@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Copplestone, D. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling (United Kingdom); Jones, S.R. [SJ Scientific Ltd, 13 Fern Bank, Cockermouth, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    A practical approach to calculate {sup 222}Rn daughter dose rates to terrestrial wildlife is presented. The method scales allometrically the relevant parameters for respiration in different species of wildlife, allowing inter-species calculation of the dose per unit radon concentration in air as simple base-and-exponent power functions of the mass. For plants, passive gas exchange through the leaf surface is assumed, also leading to specific power relationships with mass. The model generates conservative predictions in which the main contributor to the dose rate of target tissues of the respiratory system is from {alpha} radiation arising from {sup 222}Rn daughters. Tabulated {sup 222}Rn DPURn values are given for 69 species used by the England and Wales Environment Agency for habitats assessments. The approach is then applied to assess the authorised discharges of {sup 222}Rn from sites in England, demonstrating that, from a whole-body dose perspective, the biota considered are protected from effects at the population level. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allometric method developed to calculate radon daughter doses to 69 species of terrestrial wildlife. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model satisfactorily compared with previous studies of lung dose rates for mammals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main contributor to the dose rate of the respiratory system is internal {alpha}-radiation from the {sup 222}Rn daughters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air immersion is the principal contributor to the external dose rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment for 7 authorised sites in England suggests that wildlife populations are adequately protected from the anthropogenic radon emissions considered in this study.

  19. The Assessment of the Integrated Antioxidant System of the Body in the Course of Radon Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Kuciel-Lewandowska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The sources of Reactive Oxidative Species (ROS in the organism are the respiratory processes occurring in cells catalyzed by different enzymes. Operation of ROS is balanced by antioxidants, the compounds; although present in low concentrations, they significantly inhibit the degree of oxidation of particular molecules. The Aim of the Study. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the integrated antioxidant system under the influence of radon therapy in osteoarthritis patients. Material and Methods. Observation included 35 patients suffering from degenerative joints and disc disease (mean age 56.5 years undergoing radon water therapy and control group that consisted of 15 osteoarthritis patients (mean age 54.2 without contact with radon water. Before therapy and after 18 days of treatment, serum total antioxidant status (TAS was assessed with the use of standard colorimetric assay. Results. In the study group, we observed trends to increase TAS concentration, whereas, in the control group, TAS concentration was decreasing. Conclusions. (1 Radon waters treatment influenced the level of TAS of osteoarthritis patients treated with the radon water. (2 The change in TAS concentrations in the study group may be the result of low doses of ionizing radiation, but further studies on larger patient’s groups are demanded. This study is registered with number NCT03274128.

  20. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  1. Capacity for watershed cumulative effects assessment and management: lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Stephanie; Noble, Bram F; Patrick, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

  2. Capacity for Watershed Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management: Lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Stephanie; Noble, Bram F.; Patrick, Robert J.

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

  3. Assessing the cumulative environmental effects of marine renewable energy developments: Establishing common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsteed, Edward; Gill, Andrew B; Birchenough, Silvana N R; Jude, Simon

    2017-01-15

    Assessing and managing the cumulative impacts of human activities on the environment remains a major challenge to sustainable development. This challenge is highlighted by the worldwide expansion of marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) in areas already subject to multiple activities and climate change. Cumulative effects assessments in theory provide decision makers with adequate information about how the environment will respond to the incremental effects of licensed activities and are a legal requirement in many nations. In practise, however, such assessments are beset by uncertainties resulting in substantial delays during the licensing process that reduce MRED investor confidence and limit progress towards meeting climate change targets. In light of these targets and ambitions to manage the marine environment sustainably, reducing the uncertainty surrounding MRED effects and cumulative effects assessment are timely and vital. This review investigates the origins and evolution of cumulative effects assessment to identify why the multitude of approaches and pertinent research have emerged, and discusses key considerations and challenges relevant to assessing the cumulative effects of MREDs and other activities on ecosystems. The review recommends a shift away from the current reliance on disparate environmental impact assessments and limited strategic environmental assessments, and a move towards establishing a common system of coordinated data and research relative to ecologically meaningful areas, focussed on the needs of decision makers tasked with protecting and conserving marine ecosystems and services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Willsteed, Edward; Jude, Simon; Gill, Andrew; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.

    2017-01-01

    Proponents of marine renewable energy worldwide highlight that regulatory and consenting procedures are a significant barrier to the upscaling of infrastructure required to transform the energy generation sector. Uncertainties about the cumulative effects of marine renewable energy developments cause substantial delays during the consenting process, which are exacerbated by the lack of clarity about how to assess cumulative effects. These obstacles have contributed to perceptions that this es...

  5. Radon concentration assessment in water sources of public drinking of Covilhã's county, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inácio

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentration measurements were performed on thirty three samples collected from water wells at different depths and types of aquifers, at Covilhã's County, Portugal with the radon gas analyser DURRIDGE RAD7. Twenty three, of the total of water samples collected, gave, values over 100 Bq/L, being that 1690 Bq/L was the highest measured value.

  6. CUMULATIVE SYSTEM OF STUDENTS’ COMPETENCIES ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir GUŢU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the problem of competencies assessment, which is a new reference framework of edu­cational outcomes. It proposes a systemic and contextual approach to this process focusing on the following issues: understanding the multifunctional phenomenon of competencies, gradual manifestation of competencies in different contexts, diversified range of assessment forms and techniques determined by the contexts and peculiarities of com­pe­tence’s manifestation, accumulation of points during learning-assessment process, determination of ranking concerning the level of competencies possession.SISTEMUL CUMULATIV DE EVALUARE A COMPETENŢELOR LA STUDENŢI ÎN CADRUL ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTULUI SUPERIORArticolul este dedicat problemei privind evaluarea competenţelor – un nou cadru de referinţă al finalităţilor educaţionale. Se propune o abordare sistemică şi contextuală a acestui proces axată pe: înţelegerea fenomenului polifuncţional al competenţelor, manifestarea graduală a competeneţelor în diferite contexte, ansamblu diversificat de forme şi tehnici de evaluare determinate de contexte şi particularităţile de manifestare a competenţei, acumularea de punctaj pe parcursul procesului de învăţare-evaluare, stabilirea clasamentului privind nivelul de posedare a competenţelor.

  7. Assessment of the radiological impact of gamma and radon dose rates at former U mining sites in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespukh, E; Stegnar, P; Usubalieva, A; Solomatina, A; Tolongutov, B; Beishenkulova, R

    2013-09-01

    An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to gamma radiation, radon and thoron was carried out at the former uranium mining and processing sites in Shekaftar, Minkush and Kadji Sai in Kyrgyzstan. Gamma dose rate measurements were made using various field instruments and radon/thoron measurements were carried out using discriminative radon ((222)Rn)/thoron ((220)Rn) solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time including at least three seasonal periods in a year, in different outdoor and indoor public and residential environments at the selected uranium legacy sites. The results showed that gamma, Rn and Tn doses were in general low, which consequently implies a low/relatively low radiological risk. The major radiation hazard is represented by abandoned radioactive filtration material that was being used as insulation by some Minkush residents for a longer period of time. Annual radiation doses of several hundred mSv could be received as a consequence of using this material in their houses. The radiation doses deriving from external radiation (gamma dose rate), indoor radon and thoron with their short-lived progenies in several cases exceeded national as well as international standards. Current doses of ionizing radiation do not represent any serious hazard to the health of the resident public, but this issue should be adequately addressed to further reduce needless exposure of resident public to ionizing radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter L. Defur; Gary W. Evans; Elaine A. Cohen Hubal; Amy D. Kyle; Rachel A. Morello-Frosch; David R. Williams

    2007-01-01

    ... assessment literature. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to examine the issue of vulnerability in cumulative risk assessment and present a conceptual framework rather than a comprehensive review of the literature. In this article we consider similarities between ecologic and human communities and the factors that make communities vulnerable to environmenta...

  9. 76 FR 69726 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... documents which are available in the docket. The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires the EPA... assessment uses a number of very conservative assumptions, EPA is providing an opportunity, through this... used to further refine the very conservative nature of this cumulative risk assessment. DATES: Comments...

  10. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three...

  11. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...

  12. U.S. EPA Authority to Use Cumulative Risk Assessments in Environmental Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Rosenbaum

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, in its decision-making, the U.S. EPA has evaluated the effects and risks associated with a single pollutant in a single exposure medium. In reality, people are exposed to mixtures of pollutants or to the same pollutant through a variety of media, including the air, water, and food. It is now more recognized than before that environmental exposure to pollutants occurs via multiple exposure routes and pathways, including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Moreover, chemical, biologic, radiologic, physical, and psychologic stressors are all acknowledged as affecting human health. Although many EPA offices attempt to consider cumulative risk assessment and cumulative effects in various ways, there is no Agency-wide policy for considering these risks and the effects of exposure to these risks when making environmental decisions. This article examines how U.S. courts might assess EPA’s general authority and discretion to use cumulative risk assessment as the basis for developing data in support of environmental decision-making, and how courts might assess the validity of a cumulative risk assessment methodology itself.

  13. Sensitivity to thoron of an SSNTD-based passive radon measuring device: Experimental evaluation and implications for radon concentration measurements and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F., E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.i [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health) (ISS), Viale Regina Elena, 299, I-00161, Roma (Italy); Ampollini, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health) (ISS), Viale Regina Elena, 299, I-00161, Roma (Italy); Tommasino, L. [THL, Via Cassia 1727, I-00123, Roma (Italy); Sorimachi, A.; Tokonami, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Passive devices based on SSNTDs (Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors) are widely used to measure radon concentration in indoor air. These devices often include a filter or other types of barrier to prevent the sampling of decay products. However, such filters and barriers have different degrees of effectiveness in preventing thoron from entering the sensitive volume of the passive device, with the result that in some cases the measured track density is affected by thoron concentration, especially if devices are placed very close to walls exhalating thoron. This can produce a bias in epidemiological studies aimed to evaluate the risk from radon. A radon measuring device with LR 115 detectors enclosed in a heat-sealed 35 mum low density (0.92 g/cm{sup 3}) polyethylene bag has been largely used in Italy and other countries. Moreover, it was used in an epidemiological study carried out in an Italian region where a large fraction of dwellings are built with materials containing high thorium concentration and exhalating a remarkable quantity of thoron. The sensitivity to thoron of this device was experimentally evaluated by exposing groups of 10 devices each in the NIRS (Japan) radon/thoron chamber to three different thoron exposures, i.e. 500, 1000 and 2000 kBq/m{sup 3} h. The sensitivity to thoron of these devices resulted to be about 0.4% of their sensitivity to radon. In conclusion, radon concentrations measured with the evaluated passive device are not significantly affected by the presence of thoron. Therefore both the distribution of radon concentration obtained in the national and regional surveys in Italy and the risk of lung cancer from radon exposure in dwellings, as estimated in an epidemiological study carried out in an Italian region with high radon and thoron, have not been biased by the presence of thoron.

  14. Vulnerability as a Function of Individual and Group Resources in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    deFur, Peter L.; Evans, Gary W.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Kyle, Amy D.; Rachel A Morello-Frosch; Williams, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the "Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment" [EPA/630/P02/001F. Washington DC: Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003)]. Simultaneously, several reports concluded that some individuals and gro...

  15. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de

  16. Radon-222 from different sources of water and the assessment of health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Janet A; Ojeniran, Oluwaferanmi R

    2017-02-01

    Water samples collected from different sources were analysed for radon concentrations in order to evaluate the health effect associated with radon in water. The radon concentrations were in the range of 3.56-98.57, 0.88-25.49, 0.73-1.35 and 0.24-1.03 Bq.L(-1) for borehole, well, packaged and utility water, respectively. Samples from boreholes had the highest radon concentrations with about 67% being higher than the threshold value of 11.1 Bq.L(-1) recommended by the USEPA. The mean annual effective dose (AED) due to ingestion for adult, child and infant ranged from 8.71 × 10(-3) to 0.831 mSv.y(-1) for the different sources. The mean AED calculated for consuming water from boreholes and wells for the three age groups were higher than the recommended reference dose level of 0.1 mSv.y(-1). The mean AED due to inhalation of radon in drinking water was negligible, ranging from 0.13 to 6.20 μSv.y(-1). The health burden associated with radon in water in the study is through ingestion of water directly from boreholes.

  17. Weak self-directed learning skills hamper performance in cumulative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tio, Rene A.; Stegmann, Mariken E.; Koerts, Janke; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-regulated learning is an important determinant of academic performance. Previous research has shown that cumulative assessment encourages students to work harder and improve their results. However, not all students seem to respond as intended. We investigated the influence of

  18. New approaches to uncertainty analysis for use in aggregate and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, M.C.; Voet, van der H.; Roelofs, V.J.; Roelofs, W.; Glass, C.R.; Boer, de W.J.; Kruisselbrink, J.W.; Hart, A.D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments for human exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) have traditionally focussed on single routes of exposure and single compounds. Extensions to estimate aggregate (multi-source) and cumulative (multi-compound) exposure from PPPs present many new challenges and additional

  19. Cumulative versus end-of-course assessment : effects on self-study time and test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Mulder, B. Florentine; Muntinghe, Friso L. H.; Tio, Rene A.

    ContextStudents tend to postpone preparation for a test until the test is imminent, which raises various risks associated with cramming' behaviours, including that for suboptimal learning. Cumulative assessment utilises spaced testing to stimulate students to study more frequently and to prevent

  20. The MCRA model for probabilistic single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; de Boer, Waldo J; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; Goedhart, Paul W; van der Heijden, Gerie W A M; Kennedy, Marc C; Boon, Polly E; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide risk assessment is hampered by worst-case assumptions leading to overly pessimistic assessments. On the other hand, cumulative health effects of similar pesticides are often not taken into account. This paper describes models and a web-based software system developed in the European research project ACROPOLIS. The models are appropriate for both acute and chronic exposure assessments of single compounds and of multiple compounds in cumulative assessment groups. The software system MCRA (Monte Carlo Risk Assessment) is available for stakeholders in pesticide risk assessment at mcra.rivm.nl. We describe the MCRA implementation of the methods as advised in the 2012 EFSA Guidance on probabilistic modelling, as well as more refined methods developed in the ACROPOLIS project. The emphasis is on cumulative assessments. Two approaches, sample-based and compound-based, are contrasted. It is shown that additional data on agricultural use of pesticides may give more realistic risk assessments. Examples are given of model and software validation of acute and chronic assessments, using both simulated data and comparisons against the previous release of MCRA and against the standard software DEEM-FCID used by the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA. It is shown that the EFSA Guidance pessimistic model may not always give an appropriate modelling of exposure. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cumulative effects in strategic environmental assessment: The influence of plan boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidstrup, Morten, E-mail: bidstrup@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University (Denmark); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [Aalborg University (Denmark); Partidário, Maria Rosário, E-mail: mariapartidario@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    Cumulative effects (CE) assessment is lacking quality in impact assessment (IA) worldwide. It has been argued that the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) provides a suitable IA framework for addressing CE because it is applied to developments with broad boundaries, but few have tested this claim. Through a case study on the Danish mining sector, this article explores how plan boundaries influence the analytical boundaries applied for assessing CE in SEA. The case was studied through document analysis in combination with semi-structured group interviews of the responsible planners, who also serve as SEA practitioners. It was found that CE are to some extent assessed and managed implicitly throughout the planning process. However, this is through a focus on lowering the cumulative stress of mining rather than the cumulative stress on and capacity of the receiving environment. Plan boundaries do influence CE assessment, though all boundaries are not equally influential. The geographical and time boundaries of the Danish mining plans are broad or flexible enough to accommodate a meaningful assessment of CE, but the topical boundary is restrictive. The study indicates that collaboration among planning authorities and legally appointed CE leadership may facilitate better practice on CE assessment in sector-specific SEA contexts. However, most pressing is the need for relating assessment to the receiving environment as opposed to solely the stress of a proposed plan.

  2. Exposure assessment of radon in the drinking water supplies: a descriptive study in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radon gas is considered as a main risk factor for lung cancer and found naturally in rock, soil, and water. The objective of this study was to determine the radon level in the drinking water sources in Nablus city in order to set up a sound policy on water management in Palestine. Methods This was a descriptive study carried out in two phases with a random sampling technique in the second phase. Primarily, samples were taken from 4 wells and 5 springs that supplied Nablus city residents. For each source, 3 samples were taken and each was analyzed in 4 cycles by RAD 7 device manufactured by Durridge Company. Secondly, from the seven regions of the Nablus city, three samples were taken from the residential tap water of each region. Regarding the old city, ten samples were taken. Finally, the mean radon concentration value for each source was calculated. Results The mean (range) concentration of radon in the main sources were 6.9 (1.5-23.4) Becquerel/liter (Bq/L). Separately, springs and wells' means were 4.6 Bq/L and 9.5 Bq/L; respectively. For the residential tap water in the 7 regions, the results of the mean (range) concentration values were found to be 1.0 (0.9-1.3) Bq/L. For the old city, the mean (range) concentration values were 2.3 (0.9-3.9) Bq/L. Conclusions Except for Al-Badan well, radon concentrations in the wells and springs were below the United State Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminated level (U.S EPA MCL). The level was much lower for tap water. Although the concentration of radon in the tap water of old city were below the MCL, it was higher than other regions in the city. Preventive measures and population awareness on radon's exposure are recommended. PMID:22243625

  3. Exposure assessment of radon in the drinking water supplies: a descriptive study in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Zabadi Hamzeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radon gas is considered as a main risk factor for lung cancer and found naturally in rock, soil, and water. The objective of this study was to determine the radon level in the drinking water sources in Nablus city in order to set up a sound policy on water management in Palestine. Methods This was a descriptive study carried out in two phases with a random sampling technique in the second phase. Primarily, samples were taken from 4 wells and 5 springs that supplied Nablus city residents. For each source, 3 samples were taken and each was analyzed in 4 cycles by RAD 7 device manufactured by Durridge Company. Secondly, from the seven regions of the Nablus city, three samples were taken from the residential tap water of each region. Regarding the old city, ten samples were taken. Finally, the mean radon concentration value for each source was calculated. Results The mean (range concentration of radon in the main sources were 6.9 (1.5-23.4 Becquerel/liter (Bq/L. Separately, springs and wells' means were 4.6 Bq/L and 9.5 Bq/L; respectively. For the residential tap water in the 7 regions, the results of the mean (range concentration values were found to be 1.0 (0.9-1.3 Bq/L. For the old city, the mean (range concentration values were 2.3 (0.9-3.9 Bq/L. Conclusions Except for Al-Badan well, radon concentrations in the wells and springs were below the United State Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminated level (U.S EPA MCL. The level was much lower for tap water. Although the concentration of radon in the tap water of old city were below the MCL, it was higher than other regions in the city. Preventive measures and population awareness on radon's exposure are recommended.

  4. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...... the models. Exposure scenarios were constructed based on findings of pesticide residues in food of ordinary consumers, and assessment of dermal exposure of professional workers. PBTK simulations were carried using these scenarios....

  5. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Quarto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated.

  6. Comparison of passive and active radon measurement methods for personal occupational dose assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanzadeh Elham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the performance of the active short-term and passive long-term radon measurement methods, a study was carried out in several closed spaces, including a uranium mine in Iran. For the passive method, solid-state nuclear track detectors based on Lexan polycarbonate were utilized, for the active method, AlphaGUARD. The study focused on the correlation between the results obtained for estimating the average indoor radon concentrations and consequent personal occupational doses in various working places. The repeatability of each method was investigated, too. In addition, it was shown that the radon concentrations in different stations of the continually ventilated uranium mine were comparable to the ground floor laboratories or storage rooms (without continual ventilation and lower than underground laboratories.

  7. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  8. The Role of Cumulative Risk Assessment in Decisions about Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is strong presumptive evidence that people living in poverty and certain racial and ethnic groups bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk. Many have argued that conducting formal assessments of the health risk experienced by affected communities is both unnecessary and counterproductive—that instead of analyzing the situation our efforts should be devoted to fixing obvious problems and rectifying observable wrongs. We contend that formal assessment of cumulative health risks from combined effects of chemical and nonchemical stressors is a valuable tool to aid decision makers in choosing risk management options that are effective, efficient, and equitable. If used properly, cumulative risk assessment need not impair decision makers’ discretion, nor should it be used as an excuse for doing nothing in the face of evident harm. Good policy decisions require more than good intentions; they necessitate analysis of risk-related information along with careful consideration of economic issues, ethical and moral principles, legal precedents, political realities, cultural beliefs, societal values, and bureaucratic impediments. Cumulative risk assessment can provide a systematic and impartial means for informing policy decisions about environmental justice.

  9. Phosphogypsum recycling in the building materials industry: assessment of the radon exhalation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, M P; Costa, L J P; Nisti, M B; Mazzilli, B P

    2017-06-01

    Phosphogypsum can be classified as a Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) residue of the phosphate fertilizer industry. One of the main environmental concerns of its use as building material is the radon exhalation. The aim of this study is to measure the radon exhalation rate from plates and bricks manufactured with phosphogypsum from three installations of the main Brazilian producer, Vale Fertilizantes, in order to evaluate the additional health risk to dwellers. A simple and reliable accumulator method involving a PVC pipe sealed with a PVC pipe cover commercially available with CR-39 radon detector into a diffusion chamber was used for measuring radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum made plates and bricks. The radon exhalation rate from plates varied from 0.19 ± 0.06 Bq m(-2) h(-1), for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, from 1.3 ± 0.3 Bq m(-2) h(-1), for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. As for the bricks, the results ranged from 0.11 ± 0.01 Bq m(-2) h(-1), for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, to 1.2 ± 0.3 Bq m(-2) h(-1), for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. The results obtained in this study for the radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum plates and bricks are of the same order of magnitude than those from ordinary building materials. So, it can be concluded that the recycling of phosphogypsum as building material is a safe practice, since no additional health risk is expected from the radiological point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction...... fruit, vegetables and cereals is for adults 0.8-2% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.03-11% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents; and for children 2-5% of the ADI in the chlorpyrifos equivalents, and 0.07-27% of the ADI in methamidophos equivalents. Neither Acute...... Reference Dose (ARfD) nor ADI was exceeded for any of the compounds studied. The results indicate that the Danish population is neither exposed to any cumulative chronic risk, nor at risk of acute exposure, from consumption of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from fruit, vegetables and cereals....

  11. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods......: We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...... and the cumulated exposure of each child were calculated as the product of exposure level and time, for each address occupied during childhood. Results: Cumulative radon exposure was associated with risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with rate ratios of 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0...

  12. Radon continuous monitoring in Altamira Cave (northern Spain) to assess user's annual effective dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, J; Sánchez-Moral, S; Cañaveras, J C; Cuezva, S; Soler, V

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present the values of radon concentration, measured by continuous monitoring during a complete annual cycle in the Polychromes Hall of Altamira Cave in order to undertake more precise calculations of annual effective dose for guides and visitors in tourist caves. The (222)Rn levels monitored inside the cave ranges from 186 Bq m(-3) to 7120 Bq m(-3), with an annual average of 3562 Bq m(-3). In order to more accurately estimate effective dose we use three scenarios with different equilibrium factors (F=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) together with different dose conversion factors proposed in the literature. Neither effective dose exceeds international recommendations. Moreover, with an automatic radon monitoring system the time remaining to reach the maximum annual dose recommended could be automatically updated.

  13. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects....... In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency...... factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  14. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, S.; Pérez, J.; Bandac, I.; Labarga, L.; Álvarez, V.; Barrado, A. I.; Bettini, A.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Conde, E.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Fernández, M.; Ferrario, P.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Morata, J. A. Hernando; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; de Solórzano, A. Ortiz; Aparicio, J. L. Pérez; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-08-01

    The "Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC" (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in 136Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has started in Canfranc; in-situ measurements of airborne radon levels were taken there to optimize the system for radon mitigation and will be shown too.

  15. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; González-Díaz, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzón, G.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Villar, J. A. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc, Paseo de los Ayerbe s/n, 22880 Canfranc Estación, Huesca (Spain); Pérez, J. [Instituto de Física Teórica, UAM/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bandac, I. [Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc, Paseo de los Ayerbe s/n, 22880 Canfranc Estación, Huesca (Spain); Labarga, L. [Dpto. de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Álvarez, V.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Díaz, J.; Ferrario, P.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC & Universitat de València, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); and others

    2015-08-17

    The ”Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC” (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in {sup 136}Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has started in Canfranc; in-situ measurements of airborne radon levels were taken there to optimize the system for radon mitigation and will be shown too.

  16. The cumulative effects assessment of a coastal ecological restoration project in China: An integrated perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deqiang; Zhang, Liyu; Fang, Qinhua; Jiang, Yuwu; Elliott, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Large scale coastal land-claim and sea-enclosing (CLASE) activities have caused habitat destruction, biodiversity losses and water deterioration, thus the local governments in China have recently undertaken seabed dredging and dyke opening (SDADO) as typical ecological restoration projects. However, some projects focus on a single impact on hydrodynamic conditions, water quality or marine organisms. In a case study in Xiamen, China, an integrated effects assessment framework centres on ecohydrology, using modeling of hydrodynamic conditions and statistical analysis of water quality, was developed to assess the effects of ecological restoration projects. The benefits of SDADO projects include improving hydrodynamic conditions and water quality, as a precursor to further marine biological improvements. This study highlights the need to comprehensively consider ecological effects of SDADO projects in the planning stage, and an integrative assessment method combining cumulative effects of hydrodynamic conditions, water quality and biological factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards a framework for assessment and management of cumulative human impacts on marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Michel, Loïc N; Gobert, Sylvie; Sini, Maria; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Gambi, Maria-Cristina; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Lejeune, Pierre; Montefalcone, Monica; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Velimirov, Branko; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Abadie, Arnaud; Coll, Marta; Guidetti, Paolo; Micheli, Fiorenza; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs. We produced a conceptual seagrass food web model, determined the main trophic relationships, identified the main threats to the food web components, and assessed the components' vulnerability to those threats. Some threats had high (e.g., coastal infrastructure) or low impacts (e.g., agricultural runoff) on all food web components, whereas others (e.g., introduced carnivores) had very different impacts on each component. Partitioning the ecosystem into its components enabled us to identify threats previously overlooked and to reevaluate the importance of threats commonly perceived as major. By incorporating this understanding of system vulnerability with data on changes in the state of each threat (e.g., decreasing domestic pollution and increasing fishing) into a food web model, managers may be better able to estimate and predict cumulative human impacts on ecosystems and to prioritize conservation actions. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. The use of track registration detectors to reconstruct contemporary and historical airborne radon ( sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn) and radon progeny concentrations for a radon-lung cancer epidemiologic study

    CERN Document Server

    Steck, D J

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies that investigate the relationship between radon and lung cancer require accurate estimates for the long-term average concentrations of radon progeny in dwellings. Year-to-year and home-to-home variations of radon in domestic environments pose serious difficulties for reconstructing an individual's long-term radon-related exposure. The use of contemporary radon gas concentrations as a surrogate for radon-related dose introduces additional uncertainty in dose assessment. Studies of glass exposed in radon chambers and in a home show that radon progeny deposited on, and implanted in, glass hold promise for reconstructing past radon concentrations in a variety of atmospheres. We developed an inexpensive track registration detector for the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study (IRLCS) that simultaneously measures contemporary airborne radon concentrations, surface deposited alpha activity density, and implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po activity density. The implanted activity is used to reconstruct the cum...

  19. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  20. Approaches for grouping of pesticides into cumulative assessment groups for risk assessment of pesticide residues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnot, Thomas; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is developing approaches to cumulative risk assessment of pesticides by assigning individual pesticides to cumulative assessment groups (CAGs). For assignment to CAGs, EFSA recommended to rely on adverse effects on the specific target system. Contractors to EFSA have proposed to allocate individual pesticides into CAGs relying on NOAELs for effects on target organs. This manuscript evaluates the assignments by applying EFSAs criteria to the CAGs "Toxicity to the nervous system" and "Toxicity to the thyroid hormone system (gland or hormones)". Assignment to the CAG "Toxicity to the nervous system" based, for example, on neurochemical effects like choline esterase inhibition is well supported, whereas assignment to the CAG "Toxicity to the thyroid hormone system (gland or hormones)" has been based in the examined case studies on non-reproducible effects seen in single studies or on observations that are not adverse. Therefore, a more detailed effects evaluation is required to assign a pesticide to a CAG for a target organ where many confounders regarding effects are present. Relative potency factors in cumulative risk assessment should be based on benchmark doses from studies in one species with identical study design and human relevance of effects on specific target organs should be analyzed to define minimal margins of exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactive Cumulative Burden Assessment: Engaging Stakeholders in an Adaptive, Participatory and Transdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rehana; Flacke, Johannes; Martinez, Javier; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2018-02-03

    Cumulative burden assessment (CuBA) has the potential to inform planning and decision-making on health disparities related to multiple environmental burdens. However, scholars have raised concerns about the social complexity to be dealt with while conducting CuBA, suggesting that it should be addressed in an adaptive, participatory and transdisciplinary (APT) approach. APT calls for deliberation among stakeholders by engaging them in a process of social learning and knowledge co-production. We propose an interactive stakeholder-based approach that facilitates a science-based stakeholder dialogue as an interface for combining different knowledge domains and engendering social learning in CuBA processes. Our approach allows participants to interact with each other using a flexible and auditable CuBA model implemented within a shared workspace. In two workshops we explored the usefulness and practicality of the approach. Results show that stakeholders were enabled to deliberate on cumulative burdens collaboratively, to learn about the technical uncertainties and social challenges associated with CuBA, and to co-produce knowledge in a realm of both technical and societal challenges. The paper identifies potential benefits relevant for responding to social complexity in the CuBA and further recommends exploration of how our approach can enable or constraint social learning and knowledge co-production in CuBA processes under various institutional, social and political contexts.

  2. Applications of measures of cumulative exposure to assessing air pollution health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D.E.; Euler, G.L.; Magie, A.R.; Hodgkin, J.E. (Loma Linda Univ., CA (USA))

    A method for assessing the health effects of long-term cumulative exposures to air pollutants or other environmental exposures is proposed and illustrated using self-reported symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for a population of 7,343 non-smokers. Using zip code by month, residence histories, and interpolated exposure estimates from the network of California air monitoring stations, two alternative exposure indices were calculated to estimate cumulative exposure over an 11-yr period above different threshold levels for each of four pollutants. The indices were used with multiple logistic regression models to form dose-response curves for relative risks adjusting for covariates. Statistically significant effects were noted for total suspended particulates, total oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and passive smoking. A description is also given of how the indices are currently being used in a 10-yr follow-up of the study population. This follow-up study is utilizing data collected by the National Cancer Institute-funded Adventist Health Study and has mortality, cancer incidence, heart disease incidence, and change in self-reported COPD symptoms as outcomes.

  3. First radon measurements and occupational exposure assessments in underground geodynamic laboratory the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ Castle (SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia; Przylibski, Tadeusz A

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the results of the first radon activity concentration measurements conducted continuously between 17th May 2014 and 16th May 2015 in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ. The data were registered with the use of three Polish semiconductor SRDN-3 detectors located the closest (SRDN-3 No. 6) to and the furthest (SRDN-3 No. 3) from the facility entrance, and in the fault zone (SRDN-3 No. 4). The study was conducted to characterize the radon behaviour and check it possibility to use with reference to long- and short-term variations of radon activity concentration observed in sedimentary rocks strongly fractured and intersected by systems of multiple faults, for integrated comparative assessments of changes in local orogen kinetics. The values of radon activity concentration in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) Space Research Centre in Książ undergo changes of a distinctly seasonal character. The highest values of radon activity concentration are recorded from late spring (May/June) to early autumn (October), and the lowest - from November to April. Radon activity concentrations varied depending on the location of measurement points. Between late spring and autumn they ranged from 800 Bq·m-3 to 1200 Bq·m-3, and even 3200 Bq·m-3 in the fault zone. Between November and April, values of radon activity concentration are lower, ranging from 500 Bq·m-3 to 1000 Bq·m-3 and 2700 Bq·m-3 in the fault zone. The values of radon activity concentration recorded in the studied facility did not undergo short-term changes in either the whole annual measuring cycle or any of its months. Effective doses received by people staying in the underground laboratory range from 0.001 mSv/h to 0.012 mSv/h. The mean annual effective dose, depending on the measurement site, equals 1 or is slightly higher than 10 mSv/year, while the maximum dose exceeds 20

  4. Cumulative risk assessment lessons learned: a review of case studies and issue papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah S; Rice, Glenn E; Scarano, Louis J; Teuschler, Linda K; Bollweg, George; Martin, Lawrence

    2015-02-01

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) examine potential risks posed by exposure to multiple and sometimes disparate environmental stressors. CRAs are more resource intensive than single chemical assessments, and pose additional challenges and sources of uncertainty. CRAs may examine the impact of several factors on risk, including exposure magnitude and timing, chemical mixture composition, as well as physical, biological, or psychosocial stressors. CRAs are meant to increase the relevance of risk assessments, providing decision makers with information based on real world exposure scenarios that improve the characterization of actual risks and hazards. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated a number of CRAs, performed by or commissioned for the Agency, to seek insight into CRA concepts, methods, and lessons learned. In this article, ten case studies and five issue papers on key CRA topics are examined and a set of lessons learned are identified for CRA implementation. The lessons address the iterative nature of CRAs, importance of considering vulnerability, need for stakeholder engagement, value of a tiered approach, new methods to assess multiroute exposures to chemical mixtures, and the impact of geographical scale on approach and purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of Water Environmental Cumulative Risk Assessment Based on Control Unit and Management Platform Application in Plain River Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the gradual deterioration of the environment, the method of environmental risk assessment has been developed from basing only on a single source to basing on a cumulative risk source. In accordance with the water environment features of the plain river network area, a cumulative risk assessment system of water environment in the plain river network area was established in this paper, the design process for which could be divided into three step: (1 Control unit divided reasonably was chosen as the basic unit for water quality management. (2 On that basis, according to the characteristics of the plain river network area, the cumulative risk indexes were selected. The index weight is calculated using entropy method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, which could determine the risk grade of each control unit. (3 The cumulative risk assessment method is coupled to the existing water environment management platform. The platform with a dynamic database can realize the dynamic calculation and visualization of the cumulative risk grade. In this paper, the Zhejiang area of Taihu Basin was selected to be the research target as the typical plain river network area. Thirty-five control units were divided with regional water environment and control section. Taking the data in the year 2011 as example, the proposed cumulative risk assessment method was used to identify the control units in different grades and the results demonstrated that the numbers of high-, medium-, low- and extremely low-risk control units are 13, 12, 5 and 5, respectively. It is necessary to give priority to the high-risk control unit. Therefore, the cumulative risk assessment method based on the control unit provides an essential theoretical basis for reducing the probability of water pollution and reducing the degree of water pollution damage.

  6. Preliminary assessment, by means of Radon exhalation rate measurements, of the bio-sustainability of microwave treatment to eliminate biodeteriogens infesting stone walls of monumental historical buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, S.; Caliendo, E.; Guida, M.; Bisceglia, B.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of the work described in this paper has been to establish the protocol for a new non-disruptive technique of intervention, based on microwave treatment, for cleaning operations on monumental historical buildings, to eliminate biodeteriogens infesting stones. Non-destructive methods in the cleaning operations, should not only preserve the physical integrity, the chemical-mineralogical and structural identity of materials, but, when the exhalation of pollutant agents (like for example Radon gas) from building materials is considered, also, make the indoor air quality (IAQ) levels healthy. Therefore, one of the main steps of the protocol proposed in this paper is concerned with the assessment of the Radon exhalation rate in order to verify that microwave treatments do not increase the Radon naturally exhalated by building materials. In this paper, the preliminary results of the Radon measurements performed on two different type of tuff samples (grey tuff and yellow tuff), typical of the Italian traditional construction heritage, with the E-PERM passive technique at the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (Amb.Ra.), University of Salerno, Italy, ISO 9001:2008 certified, are summarized.

  7. Community Engaged Cumulative Risk Assessment of Exposure to Inorganic Well Water Contaminants, Crow Reservation, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Margaret J; Doyle, John T; Lefthand, Myra J; Young, Sara L; Moore-Nall, Anita L; Kindness, Larry; Medicine, Roberta Other; Ford, Timothy E; Dietrich, Eric; Parker, Albert E; Hoover, Joseph H; Camper, Anne K

    2018-01-05

    An estimated 11 million people in the US have home wells with unsafe levels of hazardous metals and nitrate. The national scope of the health risk from consuming this water has not been assessed as home wells are largely unregulated and data on well water treatment and consumption are lacking. Here, we assessed health risks from consumption of contaminated well water on the Crow Reservation by conducting a community-engaged, cumulative risk assessment. Well water testing, surveys and interviews were used to collect data on contaminant concentrations, water treatment methods, well water consumption, and well and septic system protection and maintenance practices. Additive Hazard Index calculations show that the water in more than 39% of wells is unsafe due to uranium, manganese, nitrate, zinc and/or arsenic. Most families' financial resources are limited, and 95% of participants do not employ water treatment technologies. Despite widespread high total dissolved solids, poor taste and odor, 80% of families consume their well water. Lack of environmental health literacy about well water safety, pre-existing health conditions and limited environmental enforcement also contribute to vulnerability. Ensuring access to safe drinking water and providing accompanying education are urgent public health priorities for Crow and other rural US families with low environmental health literacy and limited financial resources.

  8. A framework for cumulative risk assessment in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Angelo; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Solomon, Keith R; Pastoor, Timothy P; Wilks, Martin F; Embry, Michelle R

    2017-02-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) has developed a framework to support a transition in the way in which information for chemical risk assessment is obtained and used (RISK21). The approach is based on detailed problem formulation, where exposure drives the data acquisition process in order to enable informed decision-making on human health safety as soon as sufficient evidence is available. Information is evaluated in a transparent and consistent way with the aim of optimizing available resources. In the context of risk assessment, cumulative risk assessment (CRA) poses additional problems and questions that can be addressed using the RISK21 approach. The focus in CRA to date has generally been on chemicals that have common mechanisms of action. Recently, concern has also been expressed about chemicals acting on multiple pathways that lead to a common health outcome, and non-chemical other conditions (non-chemical stressors) that can lead to or modify a common outcome. Acknowledging that CRAs, as described above, are more conceptually, methodologically and computationally complex than traditional single-stressor risk assessments, RISK21 further developed the framework for implementation of workable processes and procedures for conducting assessments of combined effects from exposure to multiple chemicals and non-chemical stressors. As part of the problem formulation process, this evidence-based framework allows the identification of the circumstances in which it is appropriate to conduct a CRA for a group of compounds. A tiered approach is then proposed, where additional chemical stressors and/or non-chemical modulating factors (ModFs) are considered sequentially. Criteria are provided to facilitate the decision on whether or not to include ModFs in the formal quantitative assessment, with the intention to help focus the use of available resources to have the greatest potential to protect public health.

  9. Addressing cumulative effects through strategic environmental assessment: a case study of small hydro development in Newfoundland, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnell, S. [Newfoundland (Canada); Storey, K. [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada). Department of Geography

    2000-12-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) is widely used as a means of incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making, primarily at the project level. The scope of EA has been expanded considerably in recent years to include earlier stages of the decision-making process, namely, policies, plans and programmes. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) facilitates a planning approach to addressing the overall, cumulative effects of the projects that occur as a result of these decisions. This paper demonstrates the potential benefits of SEA in the assessment and management of cumulative effects, using a case study of recent hydroelectric development planning in Newfoundland, Canada. It goes on to illustrate how SEA could be used to address potential cumulative effects at the various stages of such a decision-making process. Through the case study, the paper also explores a number of issues in the implementation of such a planning approach. (author)

  10. Radon estimation in water resources of Mandi - Dharamshala region of Himachal Pradesh, India for health risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumari, Punam; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Arvind; Prasher, Sangeeta; Dhar, Sunil

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with the radon estimation in 40 water samples collected from different natural resources and radium content in the soils of Mandi-Dharamshala Region. Radon concentration is determined by using RAD-7 detector and radium contents of the soil in vicinity of water resources is as well measured by using LR-115 type - II detector, which is further correlated with radon concentration in water samples. The potential health risks related with 222Rn have also been estimated. The results show that the radon concentrations within the range of 1.51 to 22.7Bq/l with an average value of 5.93 Bq/l for all type of water samples taken from study area. The radon concentration in water samples is found lower than 100Bq/l, the exposure limit of radon in water recommended by the World Health Organization. The calculated average effective dose of radon received by the people of study area is 0.022 mSv/y with maximum of 0.083 mSv/y and minimum 0.0056 mSv/y. The total effective dose in all sites of the studied area is found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv/year) recommended by World Health Organization. The average value of radium content in the soil of study area is 6.326 Bq/kg.

  11. Cumulative risk assessment of the exposure to pyrethroids through fruits consumption in China - Based on a 3-year investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixia; Nie, Jiyun; Lu, Zeqi; Xie, Hanzhong; Kang, Lu; Chen, Qiusheng; Li, An; Zhao, Xubo; Xu, Guofeng; Yan, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the long-term and short-term cumulative risks of pyrethroids exposured for the Chinese general population and children through fruits consumption were evaluated. A total of 1450 fruit samples and seven pyrethroids were included based on the pesticide residues monitoring programme of China from 2013 to 2015. The exposure was estimated using both deterministic approach and semi-probabilistic model for comparison. The hazard index approach was used to assess cumulative risk. 26% of samples contained pyrethroid residues with concentrations ranged from 0.0050 mg/kg to 1.2 mg/kg, of which 30% simultaneously with 2-4 mixture residues. Results demonstrated that the cumulative health risks were extremely low for both general population and children (1-6 years old) of China in the long term. Acute risk estimations calculated by deterministic method were several or many times overestimated than the results based on semi-probabilistic method. Acute cumulative exposure of children to pyrethroid compounds in 0.76% samples were exceeded 1 in worst case scenario. More detailed assessments with adequate data in the future use probabilistic method is expected to reduce the uncertainties of cumulative dietary exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breakdown and assessment of cumulative exergy losses for a turbojet over a flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, M. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented an exergy analysis conducted to evaluate the contribution of exhaust emissions from the engine of a turbojet to the craft's total exergy losses. The aim of the study was to understand the most significant exergy losses in aerospace engines in order to increase energy efficiency. The analysis was also conducted to further break down components of the exhaust's emissions as well as to assess the sensitivity of the results in relation to their reference environment. The exergy analysis formed part of a series of analyses conducted on a turbojet over a complete flight. Results of the study demonstrated that the use of a constant reference environment resulted in errors as high as 52 per cent when compared with results obtained using a reference environment that changed at the same time as the operating environment. The error was dependent on the distance flow. When the constant reference environment was set at the cruising altitude, the error was reduced as the flight distance increased. It was concluded that any constant reference environment produced false trends when cumulative exergy losses were examined over a flight cycle. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Health Impact Assessment: Linking Public Health to Community Decisions (Cumulative Impacts Community Vulnerability Symposium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substanc...

  14. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Cumulative Mass and NIOSH Variable Lifting Index Method for Risk Assessment: Possible Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi, Giulia; Battevi, Natale; Pandolfi, Monica; Galinotti, Luca; Iodice, Simona; Favero, Chiara

    2017-09-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore whether the Variable Lifting Index (VLI) can be corrected for cumulative mass and thus test its efficacy in predicting the risk of low-back pain (LBP). Background A validation study of the VLI method was published in this journal reporting promising results. Although several studies highlighted a positive correlation between cumulative load and LBP, cumulative mass has never been considered in any of the studies investigating the relationship between manual material handling and LBP. Method Both VLI and cumulative mass were calculated for 2,374 exposed subjects using a systematic approach. Due to high variability of cumulative mass values, a stratification within VLI categories was employed. Dummy variables (1-4) were assigned to each class and used as a multiplier factor for the VLI, resulting in a new index (VLI_CMM). Data on LBP were collected by occupational physicians at the study sites. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of acute LBP within levels of risk exposure when compared with a control group formed by 1,028 unexposed subjects. Results Data showed greatly variable values of cumulative mass across all VLI classes. The potential effect of cumulative mass on damage emerged as not significant ( p value = .6526). Conclusion When comparing VLI_CMM with raw VLI, the former failed to prove itself as a better predictor of LBP risk. Application To recognize cumulative mass as a modifier, especially for lumbar degenerative spine diseases, authors of future studies should investigate potential association between the VLI and other damage variables.

  16. ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS - DURABILITY OF PERFORMANCE OF A HOME RADON REDUCTION SYSTEM FOR SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZA- TION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This handbook contains protocols that compare the immediate performance of subslab depressurization (SSD) mitigation system with performance months or years later. These protocols provide a methodology to test SSD radon mitigation systems in situ to determine long-term performanc...

  17. Radon as an Anthropogenic Indoor Air Pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, including granite ornaments/artefacts, uranium glass and glazed objects as well radium dial watches. This presentation concerns an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, many of which were once viewed as everyday items, and the radon that emanates from them. Such objects were very popular in industrialised countries such as the USA, UK and European countries) particularly between and including the two World Wars but are still readily available. A watch collection examined gave rise to a hazardous radon concentration of 13.24 kBq•m-3 approximately 67 times the Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3.The results for an aircraft altimeter are comparable to those of the watches, indicating radon activity equivalent to several watches, and also indicate an equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room ca. 33 times the UK domestic Action Level. Results from a granite block indicate a radon emanation of 19.7 Bq•kg-1, but the indicated equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room is only ca. 1.7% of the UK domestic Action Level. Uranium-glazed crockery and green uranium glass were scoped for radon activity. The former yielded a radon concentration of ca. 44 Bq•m-3 in a small (7 L) sealed container. The latter yielded a lower radon concentration in a larger (125 L) sealed container of ca. 6 Bq•m-3. This is barely above the background radon concentration in the laboratory, which was typically ca. 1-2 Bq•m-3. Individual items then are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level in rooms in houses, particularly if poorly ventilated. We highlight the gap in the remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally

  18. Cumulative health risk assessment of 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in the Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Daniel; Lund, Bert-Ove; Lindquist, Nils-Gunnar; Håkansson, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Humans are simultaneously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. Human health risk assessment of chemicals is, however, normally performed on single substances, which may underestimate the total risk, thus bringing a need for reliable methods to assess the risk of combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) is a large group of chemicals that has emerged as global environmental contaminants. In the Swedish population, 17 PFASs have been measured, of which the vast majority lacks human health risk assessment information. The objective of this study was to for the first time perform a cumulative health risk assessment of the 17 PFASs measured in the Swedish population, individually and in combination, using the Hazard Index (HI) approach. Swedish biomonitoring data (blood/serum concentrations of PFASs) were used and two study populations identified: 1) the general population exposed indirectly via the environment and 2) occupationally exposed professional ski waxers. Hazard data used were publicly available toxicity data for hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity as well as other more sensitive toxic effects. The results showed that PFASs concentrations were in the low ng/ml serum range in the general population, reaching high ng/ml and low μg/ml serum concentrations in the occupationally exposed. For those congeners lacking toxicity data with regard to hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity read-across extrapolations was performed. Other effects at lower dose levels were observed for some well-studied congeners. The risk characterization showed no concern for hepatotoxicity or reproductive toxicity in the general population except in a subpopulation eating PFOS-contaminated fish, illustrating that high local exposure may be of concern. For the occupationally exposed there was concern for hepatotoxicity by PFOA and all congeners in combination as well as for reproductive toxicity by all congeners in combination, thus a

  19. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  20. The role of confounding factors in a radon epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Onishchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A simulation of a large-scale epidemiological case-control study to identify the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer in the presence of factors that distort the results of the assessment of exposure to radon in homes. Materials and Methods: Analysis of sources of uncertainties arising during radon epidemiologic case-control studies. Evaluation of the uncertainties caused by the errors of the measurements of the long-term variations in the radon concentration, exposure to radon in other places of the human habitat, except dwellings, etc. Simulation by Monte Carlo technique of radon epidemiologic study, comparable to the combined European radon study, and assessment of uncertainties, which affect the evaluation of dose-effect dependence. Results: The multiplicative error in the assessment of individual exposure based on the radon concentration is shown generally caused by the combined effect of long-term variations of the radon concentration and the differences in the levels of the radon concentration in living houses and other places of the human habitat. The logarithmic standard deviation of this errors σerr is from 0,70 to 0,90. The estimated value of this error is 2,0 times higher than the value used for correction of the results of the combined European radon study. It is shown that for the σerr <0,9 regression calibration technique, there is a possibility to make a full correction of uncertainty. Conclusion: Errors in the assessment of uncertainties of the radon exposure based on the radon concentration in the combine European radon case-control study has led to an underestimation of the relative risk of lung cancer incidence at least with a factor of 1,5.

  1. Radon Guide for Tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is for people who rent their apartments or houses. The guide explains what radon is, and how to find out if there is a radon problem in your home. The guide also talks about what you can do if there are high radon levels in your home.

  2. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for the province of Kymi, southeastern Finland; Huoneilman radonmittaukset Kymen laeaenissae: Tilannekatsaus ja radonennuste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennanen, M.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In this study about 5900 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurements and geological data were used to assess the radon risk from soil and bedrock in different areas. The building sites of the province of Kymi were divided into thirteen sub-areas. The radon prognosis are calculated for the most radon-prone foundation types including (1) houses with a slab-on-grade and (2) houses with a basement or hillside houses with open stairwells between basement and first floor. The radon levels are generally greater in the western part of the area. The radon risk is highest in gravel-dominated esker areas in southwestern, western (in Pyhtaa, Kotka, Anjalankoski, litti, Valkeala) and central (Taipalsaari) parts of the area. The radon risk is also high in some bedrock and till areas, also in southwestern and western parts of the area. In these areas the level of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} will be exceeded in 80 % of new houses. About half of the future houses in these areas will have indoor radon concentrations exceeding 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The radon risk is lowest in the eastern part of the province of Kymi in every soil type. In this area the level of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} will be exceeded in 30 % of new houses. Below 10 % will exceed 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. (orig.) (14 refs.).

  3. Linking turbine collision risks with population models to assess cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms on threatened birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smales, Ian; Muir, Stuart; Meredith, Charles; Baird, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Assessment of the effects on birds of wind turbine collisions has generally been focussed on the number of individuals that might be killed at a particular facility. However, this measure, of itself, may have little relevance to evaluating the potential or real effects on conservation status of threatened species. Determination of the overall effect any such mortality may have on the functioning of these populations will provide a better basis for decisions that have a strong foundation in ecology. For species with sufficient demographic information, we have developed and applied an approach combining collision risk modelling for all wind farms within the range of a threatened species with population modelling. This permits population-level evaluation of potential cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms. In Australia, regulatory authorities are increasingly interested in the cumulative risk to threatened species that may be posed by multiple wind energy facilities within a species. range. The approach outlined here has been applied in the pre-construction approval stage using collision risk modelling, and can be applied to operational facilities using data on actual mortalities. Cumulative modelling of risk posed by multiple wind farms requires different approaches for sedentary and migratory species. For sedentary species the cumulative effect will be the sum of the impact experienced by those parts of the population whose range intersects with wind farms. Cumulative impact is derived for migratory species by assessing the probability of birds surviving encounters with one wind farm after another on the migratory route and is thus the product of their survivorship rates for the relevant wind farms. The collision risk modelling used will be outlined along with the method in which it is integrated with a population model. Case studies for a crane (Brolga Grus rubicundus) and a parrot (orange- bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster) species will be

  4. Assessing environmental impacts on stream water quality: the use of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference approaches to deforestation of the Hafren Forest, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for examining the impacts of disturbance on stream water quality based on paired catchment “controlâ€? and “responseâ€? water quality time series is described in relation to diagrams of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference. The paper describes the equations used and illustrates the patterns expected for idealised flux changes followed by an application to stream water quality data for a spruce forested catchment, the Hore, subjected to clear fell. The water quality determinands examined are sodium, chloride, nitrate, calcium and acid neutralisation capacity. The anticipated effects of felling are shown in relation to reduction in mist capture and nitrate release with felling as well as to the influence of weathering and cation exchange mechanisms, but in a much clearer way than observed previously using other approaches. Keywords: Plynlimon, stream, Hore, acid neutralisation capacity, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sodium, cumulative flux, flux

  5. Assessment of some clinical and laboratory variables for early diagnosis of cumulative copper poisoning in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Enrico Lippi; Machado, Carlos Henrique; Sucupira, Maria Claudia Araripe

    2003-12-01

    Sixteen male Suffolk lambs fed a 8 ppm Cu basal diet were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 12 copper-loaded (CL) and 4 controls (C). The CL sheep were drenched initially with 3 mg Cu/kg bw daily for a week. Every week an additional dose of 3 mg Cu/kg bw was included in the drench until signs of copper poisoning appeared; the control sheep were drenched with saline solution. The onset of copper poisoning occurred between 42 and 55 d. Food intake and body weight were recorded daily. Blood samples were collected weekly to measure the activity of the liver enzymes gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitoll dehydrogenase (SDH) and acid phosphatase (AF). The following changes were significantly recorded in the CL sheep in the weeks or days previous to the hemolytic crisis: higher levels of gammaGT were found on the -28th d increasing slowly but continuously until the hemolytic crisis; SDH fluctuated during the period presenting higher levels on the -28th, -14th and -7th d; AST and AF activities increased from the -14th and -7th d respectively; sharp decreases in the activities of SDH and AF at the hemolytic crisis; lower feed intake and body weight gain from the -7th d; and sheep ceased eating concentrates from the -9th d and became anoretic the day before the hemolytic crisis. Plasma copper concentration increased only the day before the hemolytic crisis. There were no changes in respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature or rumen movements throughout the pre-hemolytic phase. The higher the amount of cumulative copper drenched, the higher was the gammaGT and AST activities. It was concluded that gammaGT followed by AST are the best enzymes to assess copper-load in sheep during the pre-hemolytic phase. Sheep fed copper-rich diets with high plasma activity of these enzymes, decreased feed consumption and subtle loss of body weight are most likely to present with a hemolytic crisis in a few days.

  6. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-07-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1-3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure.

  7. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, A. [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Atominstitut, Wien (Austria); Maringer, F.J.; Michai, P.; Kreuziger, M. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying, Wien (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  8. Application of a Novel Method for Assessing Cumulative Risk Burden by County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to apply the Human Security Index (HSI as a tool to detect social and economic cumulative risk burden at a county-level in the state of Texas. The HSI is an index comprising a network of three sub-components or “fabrics”; the Economic, Environmental, and Social Fabrics. We hypothesized that the HSI will be a useful instrument for identifying and analyzing socioeconomic conditions that contribute to cumulative risk burden in vulnerable counties. We expected to identify statistical associations between cumulative risk burden and (a ethnic concentration and (b geographic proximity to the Texas-Mexico border. Findings from this study indicate that the Texas-Mexico border region did not have consistently higher total or individual fabric scores as would be suggested by the high disease burden and low income in this region. While the Economic, Environmental, Social Fabrics (including the Health subfabric were highly associated with Hispanic ethnic concentration, the overall HSI and the Crime subfabric were not. In addition, the Education, Health and Crime subfabrics were associated with African American racial composition, while Environment, Economic and Social Fabrics were not. Application of the HSI to Texas counties provides a fuller and more nuanced understanding of socioeconomic and environmental conditions, and increases awareness of the role played by environmental, economic, and social factors in observed health disparities by race/ethnicity and geographic region.

  9. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification, demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

  10. Indoor radon; Le radon dans les batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies.

  11. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jaseem, Q.Kh., E-mail: qjassem@kacst.edu.sa [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Almasoud, Fahad I. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Ababneh, Anas M. [Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Islamic University in Madinah, Al-Madinah, P.O. Box 170 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hobaib, A.S. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23 Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185 Bq/L (5 pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750 Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000 Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2–18 Bq/m{sup 3} and 70–1000 nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3 mSv which is below the 1 mSv limit. - Highlights: • Radiological assessment of groundwater treatment plant was performed. • Radium Removal efficiency was calculated for different stages during water treatment. • Radium concentrations in sludge were measured and found to exceed the national limit for radioactive waste. • Air radon concentrations and dose rates were monitored in the water treatment plant. • The Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit was found to record the highest air radon concentrations and dose rates.

  12. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  13. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  14. Radon Optical Processing in Radon Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-15

    and have been considered at length elsewhere (Rowland, 1979) (3arrett and Swindell , 1981) . Rather, we wish to investigate the use of the Radon... Swindell :1977, 1981) or Larrett (1984). We can also express the inverse Radon transform in operator notation (Barrett, 1984), expanding the operator PR...similar signal processing capability over a wide range of input frequencies ( Roberts , 1977). fe Linear FM, or chirp, SAW filters are easily made and have

  15. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  16. Identification and Quantification of Cumulative Factors that ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the combined adverse effects of multiple stressors upon human health is an imperative component of cumulative risk assessment (CRA)1. In addition to chemical stressors, other non-chemical factors are also considered. For examples, smoking will elevate the risks of having lung cancer associated with radon exposure2; toluene and noise together will induce higher levels of hearing loss3; children exposed to violence will have higher risks of developing asthma in the presence of air pollution4. Environmental Justice (EJ) indicators, used as a tool to assess and quantify some of these non-chemical factors, include health, economic, and social indicators such as vulnerability and susceptibility5. Vulnerability factors encompass race, ethnicity, behavior, geographic location, etc., while susceptibility factors include life stage, genetic predisposition, pre-existing health condition and others6, although these two categories are not always mutually exclusive. Numerous findings regarding combined effects of EJ indicators and chemical stressors have been identified7-11. However, fewer studies have analyzed the interrelation between multiple stressors that exert combined harmful effects upon individual or population health in the context of exposure assessment within the risk assessment framework12. In this study, we connected EJ indicators to variables in the exposure assessment model, especially the Average Daily Dose (ADD) model13, in order to better underst

  17. YAPILARDA RADON FENOMENY

    OpenAIRE

    OZAN, Sadik Sezgin; EKİNCİ, Cevdet Emin

    2011-01-01

    Bu çaly?mada, yapylarda Radon konusu irdelenmi?tir. Radon, günlük hayatta sürekli maruz kaldy?ymyz radyasyonun yakla?yk %50'sini olu?turan ve topraktaki Uranyum'un bozunma zincirinin bir halkasy olan renksiz, kokusuz ve duyu organlaryyla algylanamayan radyoaktif bir gazdyr. Kayaçlardaki Uranyumun bozunmasy sonucu ortaya çykan Radon gazy, difüzyon yoluyla topra?a, oradan da atmosfere veya ortama yayylmaktadyr. Gazyn birikmesiyle, Radon yo?unlu?u kapaly mekânlarda veya iyi havalandyrylmayan yer...

  18. YAPILARDA RADON FENOMENY

    OpenAIRE

    OZAN, Sadik Sezgin; EKİNCİ, Cevdet Emin

    2011-01-01

    Bu çaly?mada, yapylarda Radon konusu irdelenmi?tir. Radon, günlük hayatta sürekli maruz kaldy?ymyz radyasyonun yakla?yk %50'sini olu?turan ve topraktaki Uranyum'un bozunma zincirinin bir halkasy olan renksiz, kokusuz ve duyu organlaryyla algylanamayan radyoaktif bir gazdyr. Kayaçlardaki Uranyumun bozunmasy sonucu ortaya çykan Radon gazy, difüzyon yoluyla topra?a, oradan da atmosfere veya ortama yayylmaktadyr. Gazyn birikmesiyle, Radon yo?unlu?u kapaly mekânlarda veya iyi havalandyry...

  19. Radon continuous monitoring in Altamira Cave (northern Spain) to assess user's annual effective dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, J. [Departamento Ingenieria Geologica y Minera, Facultad de Ciencias del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo (Spain)]. E-mail: javier.lario@uclm.es; Sanchez-Moral, S. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales - CSIC, c/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Canaveras, J.C. [Departamento CC. de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente. Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Cuezva, S. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales - CSIC, c/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Soler, V. [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologiaa, CSIC. Avda.Astrofisico Fco. Sanchez, 3, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    In this work, we present the values of radon concentration, measured by continuous monitoring during a complete annual cycle in the Polychromes Hall of Altamira Cave in order to undertake more precise calculations of annual effective dose for guides and visitors in tourist caves. The {sup 222}Rn levels monitored inside the cave ranges from 186 Bq m{sup -3} to 7120 Bq m{sup -3}, with an annual average of 3562 Bq m{sup -3}. In order to more accurately estimate effective dose we use three scenarios with different equilibrium factors (F=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) together with different dose conversion factors proposed in the literature. Neither effective dose exceeds international recommendations. Moreover, with an automatic radon monitoring system the time remaining to reach the maximum annual dose recommended could be automatically updated.

  20. Modeling cumulative effects in life cycle assessment: the case of fertilizer in wheat production contributing to the global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laratte, Bertrand; Guillaume, Bertrand; Kim, Junbeum; Birregah, Babiga

    2014-05-15

    This paper aims at presenting a dynamic indicator for life cycle assessment (LCA) measuring cumulative impacts over time of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fertilizers used for wheat cultivation and production. Our approach offers a dynamic indicator of global warming potential (GWP), one of the most used indicator of environmental impacts (e.g. in the Kyoto Protocol). For a case study, the wheat production in France was selected and considered by using data from official sources about fertilizer consumption and production of wheat. We propose to assess GWP environmental impact based on LCA method. The system boundary is limited to the fertilizer production for 1 ton of wheat produced (functional unit) from 1910 to 2010. As applied to wheat production in France, traditional LCA shows a maximum GWP impact of 500 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production, whereas the GWP impact of wheat production over time with our approach to dynamic LCA and its cumulative effects increases to 18,000 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production. In this paper, only one substance and one impact assessment indicator are presented. However, the methodology can be generalized and improved by using different substances and indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... characteristics: multi-stressor, multi-media, multi-receptor, including assessment of a vulnerable population... study data from epidemiology, toxicology, ecology, health economics, chemical mixtures risk assessment...

  2. Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Passive radon radiometers, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are very attractive for the assessment of radon exposure. The present review considers various devices used for measurement of the volume activity of radon isotopes and their daughters and determination of equilibrium coefficients. Such devices can be classified into 8 groups: (i) open or 'bare' detectors, (ii) open chambers, (iii) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn chambers with an inlet filter, (iv) advanced sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn radiometers, (v) multipurpose radiometers, (vi) radiometers based on a combination of etched track detectors and an electrostatic field, (vii) radiometers based on etched track detectors and activated charcoal and (viii) devices for the measurement of radon isotopes and/or radon daughters by means of track parameter measurements. Some of them such as the open detector and the chamber with an inlet filter have a variety of modifications and are applied widely both in geophysical research and radon dosimetric surveys. At the...

  3. Consideration of the FQPA Safety Factor and Other Uncertainty Factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment of Chemicals Sharing a Common Mechanism of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document provides OPP's current thinking on application of the provision in FFDCA about an additional safety factor for the protection of infants and children in the context of cumulative risk assessments.

  4. A Geographic Model to Assess and Limit Cumulative Ecological Degradation from Marcellus Shale Exploitation in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When natural resources are exploited, environmental costs and economic benefits are often asymmetric. An example is apparent in the environmental impacts from fossil fuel extraction by hydraulic fracturing. So far, most scrutiny has been focused on water quality in affected aquifers, with less attention paid to broader ecological impacts beyond individual drilling operations. Marcellus Shale methane exploitation in New York State, USA, has been delayed because of a regulatory moratorium, pending evaluation that has been directed primarily at localized impacts. We developed a GIS-based model, built on a hexagonal grid underlay nested within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's EMAP system, to examine potential cumulative ecological impacts. In a two-step process, we characterized > 19,000 hexagons, each sized to approximate the footprint of one drilling site (2.57 km², using ecological attributes; we then developed a method for apportioning resource access that includes assessments of cumulative ecological costs. Over one-quarter of the hexagons were excluded as off-limits on the basis of six criteria: slope suitability, regulated wetland cover, protected-land cover, length of high-quality streams, mapped road density, and open water cover. Three additional criteria were applied to assess the estimated conservation vulnerability of the remaining sites: density of grassland birds (North American Breeding Bird Survey, percent core forest (Coastal Change Analysis Program, and total density of all state-mapped streams; these were determined and used in combination to rank the 14,000 potentially accessible sites. In a second step, an iterative process was used to distribute potential site access among all towns (sub-county governments within the Marcellus Shale Formation. At each iteration, one site was selected per town, either randomly or in rank order of increasing vulnerability. Results were computed as percent cumulative impact versus the

  5. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2015-07-07

    The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A) may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota. Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP) of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3°C), alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced NCP and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP < 0) metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV × Temp) was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2−O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle.

  6. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara S. eGarcia-Corral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota.Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3ºC, alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced net community production and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP<0 metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV x Temp was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2-O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle

  7. Correction factors for determination of annual average radon concentration in dwellings of Poland resulting from seasonal variability of indoor radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, K., E-mail: Krzysztof.Kozak@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Mazur, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); KozLowska, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Karpinska, M. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Przylibski, T.A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Mamont-Ciesla, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Grzadziel, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stawarz, O. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warszawa (Poland); Wysocka, M. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Dorda, J. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zebrowski, A. [WrocLaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze S. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 WrocLaw (Poland); Olszewski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Hovhannisyan, H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Dohojda, M. [Institute of Building Technology (ITB), Filtrowa 1, 00-611 Warszawa (Poland); KapaLa, J. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); Chmielewska, I. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); KLos, B. [University of Silesia, Bankowa 12, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Sw.Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 lodz (Poland); Mnich, S. [Medical University of Bialystok, Jana Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 BiaLystok (Poland); KoLodziej, R. [Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    The method for the calculation of correction factors is presented, which can be used for the assessment of the mean annual radon concentration on the basis of 1-month or 3-month indoor measurements. Annual radon concentration is an essential value for the determination of the annual dose due to radon inhalation. The measurements have been carried out in 132 houses in Poland over a period of one year. The passive method of track detectors with CR-39 foil was applied. Four thermal-precipitation regions in Poland were established and correction factors were calculated for each region, separately for houses with and without basements. - Highlights: > Using radon concentration results in houses we calculated the correction factors. > Factors were calculated for each month, 2 house types in different regions in Poland. > They enable the evaluation of average annual radon concentration in the house. > Annual average radon concentration basing on 1 or 3 months detector exposure.

  8. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  9. Health Risk of Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... encouraged by WHO’s attention to this important public health issue. "Radon poses an easily reducible health risk to ... and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & ...

  10. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  11. Radon: Not so Noble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 7. Radon: Not so Noble-Radon in the Environment and Associated Health Problems. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 5 Issue 7 July 2000 pp 44-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  13. Radon: Not so Noble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electronic configuration. [ 5S25p65d106s26p6]. Deepanjan Majumdar. Radon is a radioactive noble gas that occurs naturally but becomes an environmental hazard when it remains con- centrated in enclosed places .... public water supplies. Rivers carry .... relationship between cancer incidence and radon exposure has.

  14. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  15. Radon control activities for lung cancer prevention in national comprehensive cancer control program plans, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L; Angell, William

    2013-08-08

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms "radon," "radiation," or "lung." Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program's most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n=21), remediation (n=11), support radon policy activities (n=13), and policy evaluation (n=1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n=21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs.

  16. Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs. PMID:23928457

  17. Management of radon: a review of ICRP recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Ludovic; Bataille, Céline

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes a review of past and current ICRP publications dealing with the management of radon exposures. Its main objective is to identify and discuss the driving factors that have been used by the Commission during the last 50 years so as to better appreciate current issues regarding radon exposure management. The analysis shows that major evolutions took place in very recent years. As far as the management of radon exposures is concerned, ICRP recommended, until ICRP Publication 103 (ICRP 2007 ICRP Publication 103; Ann. ICRP 37), to use action levels and to consider only exposures above these levels. The Commission has reviewed its approach and now proposes to manage any radon exposure through the application of the optimisation principle and associated reference levels. As far as the assessment of the radon risk is concerned, it appears that the successive changes made by ICRP did not have a strong impact on the values of radon gas concentration recommended as action levels either in dwellings or in workplaces. The major change occurred in late 2009 with the publication of the ICRP Statement on Radon, which acknowledged that the radon risk has been underestimated by a factor of 2, thus inducing a major revision of radon reference levels.

  18. An Overview of Literature Topics Related to Current Concepts, Methods, Tools, and Applications for Cumulative Risk Assessment (2007–2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A.; Brewer, L. Elizabeth; Martin, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address combined risks from exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and may focus on vulnerable communities or populations. Significant contributions have been made to the development of concepts, methods, and applications for CRA over the past decade. Work in both human health and ecological cumulative risk has advanced in two different contexts. The first context is the effects of chemical mixtures that share common modes of action, or that cause common adverse outcomes. In this context two primary models are used for predicting mixture effects, dose addition or response addition. The second context is evaluating the combined effects of chemical and nonchemical (e.g., radiation, biological, nutritional, economic, psychological, habitat alteration, land-use change, global climate change, and natural disasters) stressors. CRA can be adapted to address risk in many contexts, and this adaptability is reflected in the range in disciplinary perspectives in the published literature. This article presents the results of a literature search and discusses a range of selected work with the intention to give a broad overview of relevant topics and provide a starting point for researchers interested in CRA applications. PMID:28387705

  19. Reporting on Radon: The Role of Local Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, James F.; And Others

    Noting that past local media coverage of environmental topics, including those dealing with radiation topics, has often been superficial, a study assessed press coverage of the radon problem in the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania during the first nine months of 1985. The study explored whether local media coverage of radon--a colorless,…

  20. Cumulative effects of antiandrogenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by establishing the manner by which chemicals interact with one another to induce an effect. This paper reviews how antiandrogenic chemical mixtures can alter reproductive tract development in ...

  1. Metals in residential soils and cumulative risk assessment in Yaqui and Mayo agricultural valleys, northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Gandolfi, A Jay; Santana-Alcántar, María Ernestina; Klimecki, Walter T; Aguilar-Apodaca, María Guadalupe; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; De la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Mendivil-Quijada, Héctor; Valencia, Martín; Meza-Figueroa, Diana

    2012-09-01

    This investigation examines the extent of soil metal pollution associated with the Green Revolution, relative to agricultural activities and associated risks to health in the most important agricultural region of Mexico. Metal contents in bulk soil samples are commonly used to assess contamination, and metal accumulations in soils are usually assumed to increase with decreasing particle size. This study profiled the spatial distribution of metals (Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu, Fe, Cd, V, Hg, Co, P, Se, and Mn) in bulk soil and fine-grained fractions (soil-derived dust) from 22 towns and cities. The contamination of soil was assessed through the use of a geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution index (PI). The results of this study indicated that a number of towns and cities are moderately to highly polluted by soil containing Be, Co, Hg, P, S, V, Zn, Se, Cr, and Pb in both size fractions (coarse and fine). Hazard index in fine fraction (HI(children)=2.1) shows that risk assessment based on Co, Mn, V, and Ni spatially related to power plants, have the potential to pose health risks to local residents, especially children. This study shows that risk assessment based on metal content in bulk soil could be overestimated when compared to fine-grained fraction. Our results provide important information that could be valuable in establishing risk assessment associated with residential soils within agricultural areas, where children can ingest and inhale dust. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Bernard, Pamela L; Haas, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    (PCB)-exposed Faroe Islanders using an AhR-driven reporter cell line. To validate relationships between serum AhR agonist levels and biological outcomes, AhR agonist activity in mouse sera correlated with toxic end points. AhR agonist activity in unmanipulated ("neat") human sera was compared...... with these biologically relevant doses and with GC/MS-assayed PCB levels. RESULTS: Mouse serum AhR agonist activity correlated with injected dioxin dose, thymic atrophy, and heptomegaly, validating the use of neat serum to assess AhR agonist activity. AhR agonist activity in sera from Faroe Islanders varied widely......, was associated with the frequency of recent pilot whale dinners, but did not correlate with levels of PCBs quantified by GC/MS. Surprisingly, significant "baseline" AhR activity was found in commercial human sera. CONCLUSIONS: An AhR reporter assay revealed cumulative levels of AhR activation potential in neat...

  3. VULNERABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RESOURCES IN CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The field of risk assessment has focused on protecting the health of individual people or populations of wildlife from single risks, mostly from chemical exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently began to address multiple risks to communities in the ...

  4. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through study of asymmetric facial skin damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mac-Mary1

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Mac-Mary1, Jean-Marie Sainthillier1, Adeline Jeudy3, Christelle Sladen2, Cara Williams2, Mike Bell2, Philippe Humbert31Skinexigence SAS, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, Besançon, France; 2The Boots Company, Nottingham, United Kingdom; 3Research and Studies Center on the Integument, Department of Dermatology, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, FranceBackground: Published studies assessing whether asymmetric facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology are only observational. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA exposure through a window.Methods: Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetric signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer®, mechanical properties with a Cutometer®, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux®, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analyses.Results: Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance.Discussion: This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.Keywords: UVA, asymmetry, photodamage, face

  5. Estimated Daily Intake and Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates in the General Taiwanese after the 2011 DEHP Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chou, Wei-Chun; Huang, Han-Bin; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, Po-Chin

    2017-03-01

    A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan’s general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach. The creatinine-based model showed that the highest DI values in children 7-to 12- years-old were for DEHP (males: median: 4.79 μg/kg bw/d; females: median: 2.62 μg/kg bw/d). The 95th percentile (P95) of HQrep values were all >1 in the 7- to 12-year-old and 18- to 40-year-old male groups. The P95 of HQhep values were all >1 in the 7- to 18- year-old male groups. Most of the HQrep was attributable to the HQs of DnBP and DiBP (53.9-84.7%), and DEHP contributed most to HQhep (83.1-98.6%), which reveals that DnBP, DiBP and DEHP were the main risk of phthalate exposure for Taiwanese. Taiwan’s general population is widely exposed to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP, especially for young children.

  6. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue...... data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007–2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000–2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies...

  7. An overview of measurement method tools available to communities for conducting exposure and cumulative risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Vera, Myriam; Van Emon, Jeanette M; Melnyk, Lisa J; Bradham, Karen D; Harper, Sharon L; Morgan, Jeffrey N

    2010-06-01

    Community-based programs for assessing and mitigating environmental risks represent a challenge to participants because each brings a different level of understanding of the issues affecting the community. These programs often require the collaboration of several community sectors, such as community leaders, local governments and researchers. Once the primary concerns, community vulnerabilities and assets are identified, participants plan on how to address immediate actions, rank known risks, collect information to support decision making, set priorities and determine an evaluation process to assess the success of the actions taken. The evaluation process allows the community to develop new action plans based on the results obtained from earlier actions. Tracking the success of the community actions may be as simple as a visual/tangible result (e.g., cleaning a park) or as complex as the collection of specific measurements to track the reduction of toxic pollutants or to determine the presence of a specific contaminant. Recognizing that communities may need to perform measurements to meet their goals, this paper provides an overview of the available measurement methods for several chemicals and biologicals in relevant environmental samples to a community setting. The measurement methods are organized into several categories according to their level of complexity, estimated cost and sources. Community project technical advisors are encouraged to examine the objective(s) of the community to be addressed by a measurement collection effort and the level of confidence that needed for the data to make appropriate decisions. The tables provide a starting point for determining which measurement method may be appropriate for specific community needs.

  8. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radon i danske lejeboliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Skytte Clausen, Louise

    I denne undersøgelse kortlægges radonindholdet i indeluften og det undersøges, hvordan indholdet af radon i indeluften er fordelt og spredes i en ejendom, og om det er muligt at pege på en bygningsdel eller en bygningskomponent som en spredningsvej for radon i boliger. Boligerne er lejeboliger og...... ligger i etageejendomme, kæde- og rækkehuse tilhørende bygningstyper opført fra 1850 og frem. De udvalgte ejendomme ligger i områder af landet, hvor der ved tidligere undersøgelser har vist sig at være en stor andel af huse med et højt indhold af radon i indeluften. Koncentrationen af radon er målt over...

  10. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the problem can be solved. EPA's national survey of schools produced some alarming results about concentrations in our children's classrooms. Public awareness must be raised about the hazards of radon ...

  11. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  12. Sex and smoking sensitive model of radon induced lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovsky, M.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    estimations of such effect can be made on the specially prepared sets of initial data with detailed information about the relative weight of each subgroup. Exposure-age-concentration model BEIR VI is not quite suitable for indoor radon exposure risk assessment because it considerably overestimate the radiation risk value. (N.C.)

  13. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  14. UTILITY OF SHORT-TERM BASEMENT SCREENING RADON MEASUREMENTS TO PREDICT YEAR-LONG RESIDENTIAL RADON CONCENTRATIONS ON UPPER FLOORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Steck, Daniel J; William Field, R

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated temporal and spatial variability between basement radon concentrations (measured for ∼7 d using electret ion chambers) and basement and upper floor radon concentrations (measured for 1 y using alpha track detectors) in 158 residences in Iowa, USA. Utility of short-term measurements to approximate a person's residential radon exposure and effect of housing/occupant factors on predictive ability were evaluated. About 60 % of basement short-term, 60 % of basement year-long and 30 % of upper floor year-long radon measurements were equal to or above the United States Environmental Protection Agency's radon action level of 148 Bq m(-3) Predictive value of a positive short-term test was 44 % given the year-long living space concentration was equal to or above this action level. Findings from this study indicate that cumulative radon-related exposure was more closely approximated by upper floor year-long measurements than short-term or year-long measurements in the basement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The use of radon as tracer in environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindos Poncela, Luis; Sainz Fernandez, Carlos; Fuente Merino, Ismael; Gutierrez Villanueva, Jose; Gonzalez Diez, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Radon can be used as a naturally occurring tracer for environmental processes. By means of grab-sampling or continuous monitoring of radon concentration, it is possible to assess several types of dynamic phenomena in air and water. We present a review of the use of radon and its progeny at the University of Cantabria. Radon can be an atmospheric dynamics indicator related with air mass interchange near land-sea discontinuities as well as for the study of vertical variations of air parameters (average values of different types of stability: 131-580 Bq m-3). Concerning indoor gas, we present some results obtained at Altamira Cave (Spain): from 222 to 6549 Bq m-3 (Hall) and from 999 to 6697 Bq m-3 (Paintings Room). Finally, variations of radon concentration in soil (0.3 to 9.1 kBq m-3) and underground water (values up to 500 Bq l-1) provide relevant information about different geophysical phenomena.

  16. Radon in soil gas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikaj, Dafina; Jeran, Zvonka; Bahtijari, Meleq; Stegnar, Peter

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to radon and gamma emitting radionuclides was conducted in southern Kosovo. This study deals with sources of radon in soil gas. A long-term study of radon concentrations in the soil gas was carried out using the SSNTDs (CR-39) at 21 different locations in the Sharr-Korabi zone. The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year and the sampling locations were chosen with respect to lithology. In order to determine the concentration of the natural radioactive elements 238 U and 226 Ra, as a precursor of 222 Rn, soil samples were collected from each measuring point from a depth of 0.8 m, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The levels (Bq kg -1 ) of naturally occurring radionuclides and levels (kBq m -3 ) of radon in soil gas obtained at a depth 0.8 m of soil were: 21-53 for 226 Ra, 22-160 for 238 U and 0.295-32 for 222 Rn. With respect to lithology, the highest value for 238 U and 226 Ra were found in limestone and the highest value for 222 Rn was found in metamorphic rocks. In addition, the results showed seasonal variations of the measured soil gas radon concentrations with maximum concentration in the spring months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment (CEENE): a comprehensive life cycle impact assessment method for resource accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, J; Bösch, M E; De Meester, B; Van der Vorst, G; Van Langenhove, H; Hellweg, S; Huijbregts, M A J

    2007-12-15

    The objective of the paper is to establish a comprehensive resource-based life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method which is scientifically sound and that enables to assess all kinds of resources that are deprived from the natural ecosystem, all quantified on one single scale, free of weighting factors. The method is based on the exergy concept. Consistent exergy data on fossils, nuclear and metal ores, minerals, air, water, land occupation, and renewable energy sources were elaborated, with well defined system boundaries. Based on these data, the method quantifies the exergy "taken away" from natural ecosystems, and is thus called the cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment (CEENE). The acquired data set was coupled with a state-of-the art life cycle inventory database, ecoinvent. In this way, the method is able to quantitatively distinguish eight categories of resources withdrawn from the natural environment: renewable resources, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, metal ores, minerals, water resources, land resources, and atmospheric resources. Third, the CEENE method is illustrated for a number of products that are available in ecoinvent, and results are compared with common resource oriented LCIA methods. The application to the materials in the ecoinvent database showed that fossil resources and land use are of particular importance with regard to the total CEENE score, although the other resource categories may also be significant.

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality from exposure to radon progeny among Ontario uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaranjan, Garthika; Berriault, Colin; Do, Minh; Villeneuve, Paul J; Demers, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    The study objectives were to extend the follow-up of the Ontario uranium miners cohort, one of the largest cohorts of uranium miners with low cumulative exposures, to examine the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality and, for the first time incidence, and address gaps in the literature, including dose-response relationship between radon exposure and other cancer sites, and non-cancer mortality. The cohort of mine and mill workers was created using data from Canada's National Dose Registry and the Ontario Mining Master File. The follow-up for the cohort was recently extended for mortality (1954-2007) and for the first time includes cancer incidence (1969-2005). The Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and excess relative risks (ERR) and their 95% CIs with levels of cumulative radon exposure. The cohort consisted of 28 546 male miners with a mean cumulative radon exposure of 21.0 working level months (WLM). An increased risk of lung cancer and a dose-response relationship was observed with cumulative radon exposure. Miners exposed to >100 WLM demonstrated a twofold increase in the risk of lung cancer incidence (RR=1.89, CI 1.43 to 2.50) compared with the non-exposed group, and a linear ERR of 0.64/100 WLM (CI 0.43 to 0.85), with similar results observed for mortality. No association was observed for other cancer sites (stomach, leukaemia, kidney and extrathoracic airways) or non-cancer sites (cardiovascular diseases) with increasing cumulative exposure to radon. These findings suggest no increased risk of cancer sites other than lung or non-cancer mortality from relatively low cumulative exposure to radon. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Ground-Truthing Validation to Assess the Effect of Facility Locational Error on Cumulative Impacts Screening Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sadd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and government regulators have developed numerous tools to screen areas and populations for cumulative impacts and vulnerability to environmental hazards and risk. These tools all rely on secondary data maintained by government agencies as part of the regulatory and permitting process. Stakeholders interested in cumulative impacts screening results have consistently questioned the accuracy and completeness of some of these datasets. In this study, three cumulative impacts screening tools used in California were compared, and ground-truth validation was used to determine the effect database inaccuracy. Ground-truthing showed substantial locational inaccuracy and error in hazardous facility databases and statewide air toxics emission inventories of up to 10 kilometers. These errors resulted in significant differences in cumulative impact screening scores generated by one screening tool, the Environmental Justice Screening Method.

  20. The Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) and Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) frameworks facilitate the integration of human health and ecological endpoints for Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to apportion exposures and integrate risk from multiple stressors. While CSMs may encompass multiple species, evaluating end points across taxa can be challenging due to data availability an...

  1. A method for determining an indicator of effective dose calculation due to inhalation of Radon and its progeny from in vivo measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, J

    1994-01-01

    Direct measurement of the absolved dose to lung tissue from inhalation of radon and its progeny is not possible and must be calculated using dosimetric models, taking into consideration the several parameters upon which the dose calculation depends. To asses the dose due to inhalation of radon and its progeny, it is necessary to estimate the cumulative exposure. Historically, this has been done using WLM values estimated with measurements of radon concentration in air. The radon concentration in air varies significantly, however, in space with time, and the exposed individual is also constantly moving around. This makes it almost impossible to obtain a precise estimate of an individual's inhalation exposure. This work describes a pilot study to calculate lung dose from the deposition of radon progeny, via estimates of cumulative exposure derived from in vivo measurements of sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb, in subjects exposed to above-average radon and its progeny concentrations in their home environments. The measureme...

  2. Radon 10 x 10 project: Implantation of geographic information systems in studies of radon in homes and geology catalans; Proyecto radon 10x10: aplicacion de los sistemas de informacion geografica en estudios de radon y geologia en viviendas catalanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado Sanjuan, J. L.; Bach Plaza, J.; Baixeras divar, C.; Font Guiteras, L. L.; Moreno Balta, V.

    2013-07-01

    This methodology provides a useful tool to establish relationships between different data in order to identify areas in which to assess the radiological risk that represents radon in the Catalan population and gagging. (Author)

  3. Radon in indoor air of primary schools: a systematic survey to evaluate factors affecting radon concentration levels and their variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, F; Žunić, Z S; Carpentieri, C; Antignani, S; Venoso, G; Carelli, V; Cordedda, C; Veselinović, N; Tollefsen, T; Bossew, P

    2014-06-01

    In order to optimize the design of a national survey aimed to evaluate radon exposure of children in schools in Serbia, a pilot study was carried out in all the 334 primary schools of 13 municipalities of Southern Serbia. Based on data from passive measurements, rooms with annual radon concentration >300 Bq/m(3) were found in 5% of schools. The mean annual radon concentration weighted with the number of pupils is 73 Bq/m(3), 39% lower than the unweighted 119 Bq/m(3) average concentration. The actual average concentration when children are in classrooms could be substantially lower. Variability between schools (CV = 65%), between floors (CV = 24%) and between rooms at the same floor (CV = 21%) was analyzed. The impact of school location, floor, and room usage on radon concentration was also assessed (with similar results) by univariate and multivariate analyses. On average, radon concentration in schools within towns is a factor of 0.60 lower than in villages and at higher floors is a factor of 0.68 lower than ground floor. Results can be useful for other countries with similar soil and building characteristics. On average, radon concentrations are substantially higher in schools in villages than in schools located in towns (double,on average). Annual radon concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/m3 were found in 5% of primary schools (generally on ground floors of schools in villages). The considerable variability of radon concentration observed between and within floors indicates a need to monitor concentrations in several rooms for each floor. A single radon detector for each room can be used provided that the measurement error is considerable lower than variability of radon concentration between rooms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  5. Evaluating Progress in Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, Pascal; Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio

    2017-04-04

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) funds every state, seven tribes, seven territories and the District of Columbia to develop formal cancer plans that focus efforts in cancer control. A 2010 review of cancer plans identified radon-related activities in 27 (42%) plans. Since then, 37 coalitions have updated their plans with new or revised cancer control objectives. There has also been recent efforts to increase awareness about radon among cancer coalitions. This study assesses NCCCP grantees current radon activities and changes since the 2010 review. We reviewed all 65 NCCCP grantee cancer plans created from 2005 to 2015 for radon related search terms and categorized plans by radon activities. The program's most recent annual progress report to CDC was also reviewed. We then compared the results from the updated plans with the findings from the 2010 review to assess changes in radon activities among cancer coalitions. Changes in state radon laws between 2010 and 2015 were also assessed. While a number of cancer plans have added or expanded radon-specific activities since 2010, approximately one-third of NCCCP grantees still do not include radon in their cancer plans. Cancer programs can consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs to further reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially among non-smokers.

  6. Atmospheric radon: origin and transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Pena, P.; Gaso, I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Mireles, F.; Davila, I.; Quirino, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric indoor and outdoor radon surveys have been performed in several locations of Mexico. In order to estimate the radon transfer from different origins to the atmosphere, soil and ground water, together with the exhalation rate from bare and coated building materials have also been studied. The radon detection was performed with SSNTD, an automatic silicon-based radon monitor and the liquid scintillation technique. The results from several years of monitoring indicate that the atmospheric radon behaviour is different for the countryside as compared with more complex inhabited regions; transfer from soil being inhibited by the specific structures of the cities. The effect of wall coatings reduced from 50% to 90% the radon exhalation from bare building materials. A low radon content was observed in the ground water samples studied. (Author).

  7. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  8. Use of the cumulative sum method (CUSUM) to assess the learning curves of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann-Camaiora, A; Brogly, N; Alsina, E; Gilsanz, F

    2017-10-01

    Although ultrasound is a basic competence for anaesthesia residents (AR) there is few data available on the learning process. This prospective observational study aims to assess the learning process of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and to determine the number of procedures that a resident would need to perform in order to reach proficiency using the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method. We recruited 19 AR without previous experience. Learning curves were constructed using the CUSUM method for ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block considering 2 success criteria: a decrease of pain score>2 in a [0-10] scale after 15minutes, and time required to perform it. We analyse data from 17 AR for a total of 237 ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve blocks. 8/17 AR became proficient for pain relief, however all the AR who did more than 12 blocks (8/8) became proficient. As for time of performance 5/17 of AR achieved the objective of 12minutes, however all the AR who did more than 20 blocks (4/4) achieved it. The number of procedures needed to achieve proficiency seems to be 12, however it takes more procedures to reduce performance time. The CUSUM methodology could be useful in training programs to allow early interventions in case of repeated failures, and develop competence-based curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos, E-mail: sainzc@unican.es; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ({sup 226}Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  10. Lorenz Curve and Gini coefficient: novel tools for analysing seasonal variation of environmental radon gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Kirkby, C J; Denman, A R; Phillips, P S

    2009-06-01

    Using a methodology derived from Economics, the Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient are introduced as tools for investigating and quantifying seasonal variability in environmental radon gas concentration. While the Lorenz Curve presents a graphical view of the cumulative exposure during the course of the time-frame of interest, typically one year, the Gini Coefficient distils this data still further, to provide a single-parameter measure of temporal clustering. Using the assumption that domestic indoor radon concentrations show annual cyclic behaviour, generally higher in the winter months than in summer, published data on seasonal variability of domestic radon concentration levels, in various areas of the UK, Europe, Asia and North America, are analysed. The results demonstrate significantly different annual variation profiles between domestic radon concentrations in different countries and between regions within a country, highlighting the need for caution in ascribing seasonal correction factors to extended geographical areas. The underlying geography, geology and meteorology of a region have defining influences on the seasonal variability of domestic radon concentration, and some examples of potential associations between the Gini Coefficient and regional geological and geographical characteristics are proposed. Similar differences in annual variation profiles are found for soil-gas radon measured as a function of depth at a common site, and among the activity levels of certain radon progeny species, specifically (214)Bi deposited preferentially in human body-fat by decay of inhaled radon gas. Conclusions on the association between these observed measures of variation and potential underlying defining parameters are presented.

  11. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  12. Publications about Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  13. Correlation of cumulative corticosteroid treatment with magnetic resonance imaging assessment of avascular femoral head necrosis in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Kale

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased risk of osteoporosis, fractures, and avascular necrosis (AVN has been suggested in multiple sclerosis (MS. Patients with MS are often exposed to corticosteroid treatment (CST during the disease course and conflicting reports exist regarding complications of CST. Our study aims to investigate the association between cumulative doses of CST and radiographic evaluation of AVN of the femoral head in MS. Twenty-six MS patients (mean age, 38.4±10 yr were enrolled and prospectively evaluated for AVN by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The mean disease duration was 11.5±8.5 years and mean expanded disability status scale (EDSS score was 3±2. The cumulative dosage of CST varied between 20 g and 60 g; patients were grouped into two categories: 1 CST between 20-40 g, 17 (65% patients; 2 CST ≥40 g; 9 (35% patients. The relationship between cumulative CST dosage and MRI diagnosis of AVN was stat­istically insignificant (P>0.9. Clarification of the cumulative effect of CST in the development of AVN is of great importance for future long-term steroid treatment strategies.

  14. Correlation of cumulative corticosteroid treatment with magnetic resonance imaging assessment of avascular femoral head necrosis in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Nilufer; Agaoglu, Jale; Tanik, Osman

    2010-01-01

    Increased risk of osteoporosis, fractures, and avascular necrosis (AVN) has been suggested in multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients with MS are often exposed to corticosteroid treatment (CST) during the disease course and conflicting reports exist regarding complications of CST. Our study aims to investigate the association between cumulative doses of CST and radiographic evaluation of AVN of the femoral head in MS. Twenty-six MS patients (mean age, 38.4±10 yr) were enrolled and prospectively evaluated for AVN by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mean disease duration was 11.5±8.5 years and mean expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score was 3±2. The cumulative dosage of CST varied between 20 g and 60 g; patients were grouped into two categories: 1) CST between 20–40 g, 17 (65%) patients; 2) CST ≥40 g; 9 (35%) patients. The relationship between cumulative CST dosage and MRI diagnosis of AVN was statistically insignificant (P>0.9). Clarification of the cumulative effect of CST in the development of AVN is of great importance for future long-term steroid treatment strategies. PMID:21577331

  15. Radon Resources for Home Buyers and Sellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Home Radon-Resistant New Construction Radon and Real Estate Resources Home Buyer's/Seller's Guide to Radon Consumer's ... Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement Laws and Executive Orders ...

  16. Radon in Ingleborough / Clapham Cave, North Yorkshire, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric radon concentration was measured at Ingleborough Cave, North Yorkshire during the summer of 2004, and the autumn / winter of 2004/5. Significantly, Ingleborough Cave forms part of a larger system which includes the world famous Gaping Gill pothole. This plunges 105 m (334 ft), contains the tallest unbroken waterfall in England and one of the largest known underground chambers in the UK. Measurements were taken to assess the effects of seasonal and spatial variation, elevation and ventilation on radon concentration in Ingleborough. In this study personal dose exposures for three groups of cave user were identified, and the performance of a variety of radon detection systems evaluated. Summer radon concentrations inside the cave peaked at around 7,000 Bq m-3, although average concentrations were less than 5,000 Bq m-3. During the winter measurement period, average concentrations were around 100 Bq m-3, and a winter / summer ration therefore of 47,4. The average annual radon concentration exceeded the legislative limitations for the workplace of 400 Bq m-3 due in part to a failed fan in the ventilation system. When the fan was running we noted an 80% reduction in radon concentrations although reliability of the fan was problematic due to extensive but relatively rare flooding of the cave system. The radon dose experienced by cave workers and guides in this study exceeded the Ionisation Radiation Regulations limit of 5 mSv/annum, and highlighted that for health and safety reasons the ventilation system should be fully operational during the high radon concentration summer months. Keywords: Radon, Cave, Ingleborough, Detection methods

  17. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radon activity measurements around Bakreswar thermal springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Hirok [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Das, Nisith K., E-mail: nkdas@veccal.ernet.i [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Bhandari, Rakesh K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Sen, Prasanta [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Sinha, Bikash [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India)

    2010-01-15

    {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured in the bubble gases, spring waters, soil gases and in ambient air around the thermal springs at Bakreswar in West Bengal, India. This group of springs lies within a geothermal zone having exceptionally high heat flow about 230 mW/m{sup 2}, resembling young oceanic ridges. The spring gas has a high radon activity (approx885 kBq/m{sup 3}) and is rich in helium (approx1.4 vol. %) with appreciably large flow rate. The measured radon exhalation rates in the soils of the spring area show extensive variations from 831 to 4550/mBqm{sup 2} h while {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the different spring waters vary from 3.18 to 46.9 kBq/m{sup 3}. Surface air at a radius of 40 m around the springs, within which is situated the Bakreswar temple complex and a group of dwellings, has radon concentration between 450 and 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. In the present paper we assess the radon activity background in and around the spring area due to the different contributing sources and its possible effect on visiting pilgrims and the people who reside close to the springs.

  19. Cumulants, free cumulants and half-shuffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Patras, Frédéric

    2015-04-08

    Free cumulants were introduced as the proper analogue of classical cumulants in the theory of free probability. There is a mix of similarities and differences, when one considers the two families of cumulants. Whereas the combinatorics of classical cumulants is well expressed in terms of set partitions, that of free cumulants is described and often introduced in terms of non-crossing set partitions. The formal series approach to classical and free cumulants also largely differs. The purpose of this study is to put forward a different approach to these phenomena. Namely, we show that cumulants, whether classical or free, can be understood in terms of the algebra and combinatorics underlying commutative as well as non-commutative (half-)shuffles and (half-) unshuffles. As a corollary, cumulants and free cumulants can be characterized through linear fixed point equations. We study the exponential solutions of these linear fixed point equations, which display well the commutative, respectively non-commutative, character of classical and free cumulants.

  20. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaznik, Urška; Yngve, Agneta; Eržen, Ivan; Hlastan Ribič, Cirila

    2016-02-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health. Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied. Slovenia, primary schools. Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries. The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8.3 (95% CI 7.7, 10.6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99.9th percentile for daily intake and to 4.5 (95% CI 3.5, 4.7) % of the ARfD at the 99.9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake. The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  1. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, R.; Hutchinson, J. M. R.; Unterweger, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon (222Rn) against international and national radium (226Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon ...

  2. Uranium-238 and thorium-232 series concentrations in soil, radon-222 indoor and drinking water concentrations and dose assessment in the city of Alameda, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E. E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx; Villalba, L.; Renteria Villalobos, M.; Torres Moye, E.; Garcia Leon, M.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.; Sanchez Aroche, D

    2004-07-01

    High-resolution gamma spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in soil samples taken from areas surrounding the city of Aldama, in Chihuahua. Results of indoor air short-time sampling, with diffusion barrier charcoal detectors, revealed relatively high indoor radon levels, ranging from 29 to 422 Bq/m{sup 3}; the radon concentrations detected exceeded 148 Bq/m{sup 3} in 76% of the homes tested. Additionally, liquid scintillation counting showed concentrations of radon in drinking water ranging from 4.3 to 42 kBq/m{sup 3}. The high activity of {sup 238}U in soil found in some places may be a result of the uranium milling process performed 20 years ago in the area. High radon concentrations indoor and in water may be explained by assuming the presence of uranium-bearing rocks underneath of the city, similar to a felsic dike located near Aldama. The estimated annual effective dose of gamma radiation from the soil and radon inhalation was 3.83 mSv.

  3. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  4. Radon as a natural geochemical tracer for study of groundwater discharge into lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Axel

    2008-06-27

    In the presented work the suitability of the naturally occurring radioactive noble gas isotope radon-222 for qualitative and quantitative description of groundwater discharge into lakes was studied. Basis of these investigations was the development of two innovative techniques for the on-site determination of radon in water. In the ex-situ radon measurement procedure, water from the source concerned is taken up in an exchange cell used for this purpose. Inside this cell, the radon dissolved in water is transferred via diffusion into a closed counter-flow of air and subsequently detected by a radon-in-air monitor. Where the in-situ radon determination is concerned, a module composed of a semipermeable membrane is introduced into a water column. Subsequently, the radon dissolved in the water body diffuses through the membrane into the corresponding air flow, by means of which it is transferred into a radon-in-air monitor and is detected. Combination of the developed mobile radon extraction techniques with a suitable and portable radon monitor allow the detection of radon-222 with sufficient accuracy (smaller 20 %) in groundwater as well as in surface waters, i.e., within a broad range of concentrations. Radon-222 was subsequently used to characterize groundwater discharge into a meromictic and a dimictic lake, i.e. two types of lake basically distinct from each other with respect to their water circulation properties were investigated. The use of the noble gas isotope radon-222 as a geochemical tracer makes the application of on-site detection techniques possible and that this in turn permits a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective assessment of groundwater discharge rates into lake water bodies.

  5. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  6. Indoor radon distribution in Switzerland: lognormality and Extreme Value Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuia, Devis [Institute of Geomatics and Analysis of Risk (IGAR), University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: devis.tuia@unil.ch; Kanevski, Mikhail [Institute of Geomatics and Analysis of Risk (IGAR), University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    Analysis and modeling of statistical distributions of indoor radon concentration from data valorization to mapping and simulations are critical issues for real decision-making processes. The usual way to model indoor radon concentrations is to assume lognormal distributions of concentrations on a given territory. While these distributions usually model correctly the main body of the data density, they cannot model the extreme values, which are more important for risk assessment. In this paper, global and local indoor radon distributions are modeled using Extreme Value Theory (EVT). Emphasis is put on the tails of the distributions and their deviations from lognormality. The best fits of distributions to real data set density have been computed and goodness of fit with Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) is evaluated. The results show that EVT performs better than lognormal pdf for real data sets characterized by high indoor radon concentrations.

  7. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2013-01-01

    of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3...

  8. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to morefundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain ......, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  9. Environmental radon with RAD7 detector; Radon ambiental con detector RAD7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, A.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez G, I. M.; Capote F, E., E-mail: arturo.lopez@inin.gob.mx [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Carretera La Victoria II Km 2.5 e/ Monumental y Final, Guanabacoa, La Habana (Cuba)

    2016-09-15

    Experimental results of the radon detection with the equipment RAD7 are presented. The use of a solid state detector placed in a semi-spherical chamber with an electric field allows a high sensitivity of 0.4 cpm/P Ci/l. Radon detection is achieved by the spectroscopy of its decay products. In accordance with a table of errors for various ranges of counts and radon concentrations, reported by the manufacturer, an equation was obtained that allows establishing operation criteria of the equipment. For radon detection at ambient concentrations as low as 30 Bq m{sup -3}, is shown that short counts of 10 minutes are good enough to make decisions on radiation protection matter. In places where concentrations are close to 200 Bq m{sup -3}, counting intervals of the order of 0.5 hours will have an acceptable counting error of the order of 20%. The determination of radon in soil was, according to the expected, on the order of 10 kBq m{sup -3}, and was found that even with the recommended counting times of 5 minutes, there is a risk of increased humidity inside the detector above 20% Rh, with associated reduction of detection efficiency, if the desiccant is not used properly. The equipment was subjected to a radon exposure in air of 13, 373 Bq m{sup -3} ± 3.7%, contained within a controlled chamber, with a variation in temperature of (19-21) degrees Celsius and in the relative humidity of (5-7) %, the good stability of the chamber allows to propose calibration processes of these equipment s by assessing the concentration by means of a Ge (Hp) detector. (Author)

  10. Long term indoor radon measurements in the pelletron laboratory at the UNAM physics institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Lopez, K.; Rickards, J., E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.m [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    The results of six months of continuous measurement of the indoor radon concentration levels in the building where the Physics Institute 3 MV Pelletron particle accelerator is located are presented. This study has three major objectives: a) to know the actual values of the levels of indoor radon in this installation, where personnel spend many hours and sometimes days; b) assess the radiological risk from radon inhalation for personnel working permanently in the laboratory, as well as incidental users; and c) establish, if necessary, time limits for continuous permanence on the location for indoor radon exposure. Passive nuclear track detectors and dynamic systems were employed, covering six months (August, 2009 to January, 2010). For the calculation of internal dose the Radon Individual Dose Calculator was used. The results indicate that the indoor radon levels are below the US EPA recommended levels (400 Bq/m{sup 3}) in workplaces. The measurements help to establish levels for workplaces in Mexico. (Author)

  11. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  12. Infinite measure~preserving~transformations with Radon MSJ

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenko, Alexandre I.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce concepts of Radon MSJ and Radon disjointness for infinite Radon measure preserving homeomorphisms of the locally compact Cantor space. We construct an uncountable family of pairwise Radon disjoint infinite Chacon like transformations. Every such transformation is Radon strictly ergodic, totally ergodic, asymmetric (not isomorphic to its inverse), has Radon MSJ and possesses Radon joinings whose ergodic components are not joinings.

  13. Distribution of radon concentrations in child-care facilities in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Min; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kang, Dae-Ryong; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, Si-Hyun; Kwak, Jung-Eun

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to provide fundamental data on the distribution of radon concentrations in child day-care facilities in South Korea and to help establish radon mitigation strategies. For this study, 230 child-care centers were randomly chosen from all child-care centers nationwide, and alpha track detectors were used to examine cumulative radon exposure concentrations from January to May 2015. The mean radon concentration measured in Korean child-care centers is approximately 52 Bq m(-3), about one-third of the upper limit of 148 Bq m(-3), which is recommended by South Korea's Indoor Air Quality Control in Public Use Facilities, etc. Act and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Furthermore, this concentration is about 50% lower than 102 Bq m(-3), which is the measured concentration of radon in houses nationwide from December 2013 to February 2014. Our results indicate that the amount of ventilation, as a major determining factor for indoor radon concentrations, is strongly correlated with the fluctuation of indoor radon concentrations in Korean child-care centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...

  15. Radon - The management of the risk related to radon; Le radon la gestion du risque lie au radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This leaflet briefly explains what radon is, where it comes from, and what it becomes. It indicates and briefly comments its concentrations in French departments, describes how radon can affect our health (lung cancer), describes how the risk can be reduced in buildings, and indicates the existing regulatory provisions

  16. The NIST Primary Radon-222 Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collé, R; Hutchinson, J M R; Unterweger, M P

    1990-01-01

    Within the United States, the national standard for radon measurements is embodied in a primary radon measurement system that has been maintained for over 50 years to accurately measure radon ((222)Rn) against international and national radium ((226)Ra) standards. In turn, all of the radon measurements made at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the radon transfer calibration standards and calibration services provided by NIST are directly related to this national radon standard. This primary radon measurement system consists of pulse ionization chambers and ancillary gas handling and gas purification equipment. The system is currently undergoing a significant upgrading and expansion which will replace the extant outdated system.

  17. Radon concentration variations between and within buildings of a research institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antignani, S., E-mail: sara.antignani@iss.i [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina Elena, 299, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Bochicchio, F.; Ampollini, M.; Venoso, G.; Bruni, B.; Innamorati, S.; Malaguti, L.; Stefano, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina Elena, 299, I-00161 Roma (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Radon concentration in indoor air has been measured in many countries in a large number of buildings - mainly in houses but also in apartments and workplaces - mostly as a result of the application of radon policies and regulation requirements. However, few systematic analyses are available on radon concentration variations within buildings and between close buildings, especially as regards workplaces; such variations can have a significant impact on indoor radon exposure evaluation, and ultimately on the assessment of the dose from radon received by workers. Therefore, a project was started in 2006 aimed to study the spatial variation of radon concentration among and within about 40 buildings of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), a research institute of public health located in Rome over a small area of less than 1 km{sup 2}. Nuclear track detectors (CR-39) were used to measure radon concentration for two consecutive six-month periods, in more than 700 rooms of the surveyed buildings. The paper describes the project in detail and preliminary results regarding 558 rooms in 29 buildings. Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as a measure of relative variation of radon concentration between buildings, between floors, and between rooms on the same floor. The CV between buildings resulted quite high (88%), a lower CV (42%) was found for variation between floors, whereas room-to-room CV on the same floor ranged from 25% at first floor level to 48% at basement level. Floor mean ratios, with ground floor as the reference level, were calculated for each building in order to study the correlation between radon concentration and floor levels. Although no clear trend was observed, the average basement/ground floor ratio of radon concentrations resulted about 2.0, whereas the average sixth floor/ground floor ratio of radon concentrations was 0.5. Some discussion on the potential impact of the results of this study on policies and radon regulations are also included

  18. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Thierry; Poder, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  19. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the

  20. Mapping geogenic radon potential by regression kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pásztor, László [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna, E-mail: sz_k_zs@yahoo.de [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Science, Szent István University, Páter Károly u. 1, Gödöllő 2100 (Hungary); Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária [Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Environmental Informatics, Herman Ottó út 15, 1022 Budapest (Hungary); Horváth, Ákos [Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    , regression-kriging (RK) was tested for GRP mapping. • Usage of spatially exhaustive, auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. • Inherent accuracy assessment (both global and local). • Interval estimation for the spatial extension of the areas of GRP risk categories. • Significance of fluvial sedimentary rock, pyroclast and land use properties on radon risk.

  1. Some investigations and use of LR-115 track detectors for radon measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Amrani, D

    2001-01-01

    Closed passive integrating radon dosimeters based on the use of cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II) have been developed for assessment of long term radon exposure. This paper presents and comments the results of investigations, of registration efficiency, calibration factors, linearity tests and lower limit of detection for LR-115 detectors from different batches.

  2. Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazarı, north-western Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding author. e-mail: altinsoy@itu.edu.tr. The main objective of this study is to assess the health ... tre of Adapazarı, and to find the relationship of the radon concentrations between different types ..... radon problem in schools and public buildings in Belgium;. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 45(1/4) 499–501. Radosys 2000 ...

  3. Temporal Patterns of Lung Cancer Risk from Radon, Smoking and their Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, L.; Urban, S.; Kubik, A.; Zatloukal, P.

    2004-07-01

    Studies of uranium miners conducted since the late 1960s demonstrated that the risk depends on cumulated exposure in terms of working level months (WLM) integrating both duration of exposure and concentration of radon. It has been also demonstrated that the risk from radon decreases with time since exposure. The objective of the work is to study temporal patterns of lung cancer risk from occupational and residential radon and from smoking. The present analysis of temporal changes of relative risk is based on a model, where the total individual exposure is partitioned into components in dependence on time. Exposure to radon is studied in a cohort of 9411 Czech uranium miners with 766 cases of lung cancer and in a residential study of 1 803 inhabitants exposed to radon in houses with 218 cases. Temporal patterns of smoking are analyzed in a case-control study of patients from a major Prague hospital including 566 cases. for both carcinogens, the relative risk decreases with time since exposure. In comparison to period with exposure before 5-19 years, the risk from exposures before 20-34 years is 36% and 34% for smoking and randon, respectively. The effect of exposures from more distant periods 35-49 is only 5% for smoking and 14% for radon in comparison to 5-19 years. Combined effect of smoking and radon is studied by a nested case-control approach including 434 cases and 962 controls. Analyses of the joint effects of smoking and radon, conducted in the occupational and the residential studies, suggest a sub-multiplicative interaction. The relative risk from radon among non-smokers is higher by a factor of 2-3 in comparison to smokers, suggesting different patterns of lung deposition and clearance among smokers and non-smokers. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. Radon in Saudi houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 637 passive radon dosemeters (CR-39 nuclear track detectors in a closed chamber) were used in a survey in 400 houses in Saudi Arabia. The radon concentration was found to vary from 5 to 36 Bq.m/sup -3/ (0.13 to 0.98 pCi.l/sup -1/) with a mean of 16 Bq.m/sup -3/ (0.43 pCi.l/sup -1/). The unoccupied houses showed a concentration of 29+-7 Bq.m/sup -3/ (0.78+-0.19 pCi.l/sup -1/) double that of the occupied houses, 14+-1 Bq.m/sup -3/ (0.39+-0.02 pCi.l/sup -1/), in the same area. The radon daughter concentration measured with a Working Level monitor in 17 unoccupied houses was found to vary from 1.35x10/sup -3/ to 24x10/sup -3/ WL with an average of 6.9+-1.4x10/sup -3/ WL. The average exhalation rate measured in 37 houses by 95 passive detectors in cans sealed to the walls ranged from 0.013 to 0.044 Bq.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/(0.35 to 1.2 pCi.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/) with an average of 0.021+-0.003 Bq.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/(0.56+-0.09 pCi.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/). This survey is the first in Saudi Arabia (a hot climate) and can usefully be compared with similar surveys in countries with cold climates.

  5. Assessing the level of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in long-term resident children under conditions of high exposure to radon and its decay products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinin, Vladimir G; Sinitsky, Maxim Yu; Larionov, Aleksey V; Volobaev, Valentin P; Minina, Varvara I; Golovina, Tatiana A

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the frequency and spectrum of chromosomal aberrations were analysed in samples of peripheral blood from 372 (mean age = 12.24 ± 2.60 years old) long-term resident children in a boarding school (Tashtagol city, Kemerovo Region, Russian Federation) under conditions of high exposure to radon and its decay products. As a control group, we used blood samples from people living in Zarubino village (Kemerovo Region, Russian Federation). We discovered that the average frequencies of single and double fragments, chromosomal exchanges, total number of aberrations, chromatid type, chromosome type and all types of aberrations were significantly increased in the exposed group. This is evidence of considerable genotoxicity to children living under conditions of high exposure to radon compared to children living under ecological conditions without increased radon radiation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The cost effectiveness of radon reduction programmes in domestic housing in England and Wales: the impact of improved radon mapping and housing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, A R; Sinclair, J; Phillips, P S; Crockett, R G M; Groves-Kirkby, C J

    2013-09-01

    In the UK, excessive levels of radon gas have been detected in domestic housing. Areas where 1% of existing homes were found to be over the Action Level of 200Bq·m(-3) were declared to be Radon Affected Areas. Building Regulations have been introduced which require that, for areas where between 3% and 10% of existing houses are above the Action Level, new homes should be built with basic radon protection using a membrane, and that, where 10% or more of existing homes exceed this level, new homes should be built with full radon protection. Initially these affected areas followed administrative boundaries, known as Counties. However, with increasing numbers of measurements of radon levels in domestic homes recorded in the national database, these areas have been successively refined into smaller units - 5km grid squares in 1999, down to 1km grid squares in 2007. One result is the identification of small areas with raised radon levels within regions where previously no problem had been identified. In addition, some parts of areas that were previously considered radon affected are now considered low, or no, risk. Our analysis suggests that the net result of improved mapping is to increase the number of affected houses. Further, the process is more complex for local builders, and inspectors, who need to work out whether radon protection in new homes is appropriate. Our group has assessed the cost-effectiveness of radon remediation programmes, and has applied this analysis to consider the cost-effectiveness of providing radon protection in both new and existing homes. This includes modelling the potential failure rate of membranes, and whether testing radon levels in new homes is appropriate. The analysis concludes that it is more cost effective to provide targeted radon protection in high radon areas, although this introduces more complexity. The paper also considers the trend in housing to a greater proportion of apartments, the regional variations in types of housing

  7. Guidance on Radon Resistant Construction and Radon Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Unnumbered Letter regarding radon gas mitigation applies to all housing and community facilities, low-rise buildings and dwellings for the mentioned programs. Its intention is to guide staff to best serve our borrowers and protect their health.

  8. Development of a radon standard source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shigeyasu; Ishimori, Yuu; Maruo, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    The present paper describes the development of a radon standard source for use in establishing the traceability of radon concentration measurements in air. Previously, radon generated by bubbling air through a radium salt solution was widely used for calibration of radon measurement equipment; however, the handling of a solid-phase radon source is easier. In the present study, the radioactivity of radon released in a vapor phase was determined from the difference between the radioactivity of the radium and the residual radon progenies in the source. A germanium detector, calibrated using gamma reference sources, was used for these radioactivity measurements. Under equilibrium conditions the radioactivity of the radon released from the radium source was found to be 988 Bq. The source was sealed in a stainless-steel container having a nominal capacity of 6 l to produce a radon standard source of density of 167.5 [Bq/l].

  9. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  10. 30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section... Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator protection against radon gas shall be provided in addition to protection against radon daughters. Protection against radon...

  11. Cumulative proportion of responders analysis (CPRA) as a tool to assess treatment outcome in alcohol clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Daniel E; Litten, Raye Z; Anton, Raymond F; Kranzler, Henry R; Johnson, Bankole A

    2014-03-01

    Several definitions of treatment response have been proposed for alcohol clinical trials (e.g., abstinence and no heavy drinking). However, each of these outcomes allows only one definition of successful response. In contrast, the cumulative proportion of responders analysis (CPRA) includes all of the possible drinking response cutoff points, providing a more complete picture of the therapeutic effects of a treatment. CPRA has been used to examine the efficacy of analgesics but not alcohol pharmacotherapy. To demonstrate its potential utility, we conducted CPRA in two large alcohol treatment trials: the COMBINE (Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence) trial (naltrexone) and a multisite topiramate trial. CPRA was used to demonstrate the efficacy of naltrexone and topiramate on continuous measures of in-treatment drinking-heavy drinking days and drinks per day-and their reductions from pretreatment. All possible cutoff points were portrayed for each measure. We provide graphs to illustrate the effects of the active medications compared with placebo and examined them statistically over a number of salient drinking outcomes to evaluate their efficacy. Treatment group responder curves were not parallel across the entire range of cutoff points; rather, they separated only at lower levels of drinking. In general, effect sizes increased by 0.10-0.15 when going from the lowest drinking level cutoff (i.e., abstinence and no heavy drinking) to the cutoff associated with the maximal treatment effect. CPRA may be useful in designing subsequent trials and helping to illustrate for treatment providers the likelihood of treatment success given various definitions of a positive response.

  12. Radon exposure at a radioactive waste storage facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocchi, F H; Campos, M P; Dellamano, J C; Silva, G M

    2014-06-01

    The Waste Management Department of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is responsible for the safety management of the waste generated at all internal research centers and that of other waste producers such as industry, medical facilities, and universities in Brazil. These waste materials, after treatment, are placed in an interim storage facility. Among them are (226)Ra needles used in radiotherapy, siliceous cake arising from conversion processes, and several other classes of waste from the nuclear fuel cycle, which contain Ra-226 producing (222)Rn gas daughter.In order to estimate the effective dose for workers due to radon inhalation, the radon concentration at the storage facility has been assessed within this study. Radon measurements have been carried out through the passive method with solid-state nuclear track detectors (CR-39) over a period of nine months, changing detectors every month in order to determine the long-term average levels of indoor radon concentrations. The radon concentration results, covering the period from June 2012 to March 2013, varied from 0.55 ± 0.05 to 5.19 ± 0.45 kBq m(-3). The effective dose due to (222)Rn inhalation was further assessed following ICRP Publication 65.

  13. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  14. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for eastern Uusimaa. Askola, Lapinjaervi, Liljendal, Loviisa, Myrskylae, Maentsaelae, Maentsaelae, Pernaja, Pornainen, Porvoo, Porvoon mlk, Pukkila, Ruotsinpyhtaeae and Sipoo; Huoneilman radonmittaukset Itae-Uudenmaan alueella: Tilannekatsaus ja radonennuste. Askola, Lapinjaervi, Liljendal, Loviisa, Myrskylae, Maentsaelae, Pernaja, Pornainen, Porvoo, Porvoon mlk, Pukkila, Ruotsinpyhtaeae ja Sipoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In the study about 2400 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined form maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurement and geological data were used to assess the radon risk form soil and bedrock in different areas. (15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.).

  15. A cost-effect analysis of an intervention against radon in homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Stigum

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background  Key words  : Radon exposure, lung cancer, cost-effect analysis, attributable risk, models-mathematical: Radon is a radioactive gas that may leak into buildings from the ground. Radon exposure is a risk factor for lung cancer. An intervention against radon exposure in homes may consist of locating homes with high radon exposure (above 200 Bq m-3 and improving these, and of protecting future houses. The purpose of this paper is to calculate the costs and the effects of this intervention. Methods: We performed a cost-effect analysis from the perspective of the society, followed by an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The distribution of radon levels in Norwegian homes is lognormal with mean=74.5 Bq/m3, and 7.6% above 200 Bq/m3. Results: The preventable attributable fraction of radon on lung cancer was 3.8% (95% uncertainty interval: 0.6%, 8.3%. In cumulative present values the intervention would cost $238 (145, 310 million and save 892 (133, 1981 lives, each life saved costs $0.27 (0.09, 0.9 million. The cost-effect ratio was sensitive to the radon risk, the radon exposure distribution, and the latency period of lung cancer. Together these three parameters explained 90% of the variation in the cost-effect ratio. Conclusions: Reducing the radon concentration in present and future homes to below 200 Bq/m3 will cost $0.27 (0.09, 0.9 million per life saved. The uncertainty in the estimated cost per life is large, mainly due to uncertainty in the risk of lung cancer from radon. Based on estimates from road construction, the Norwegian society has been willing to pay $1 million to save a life. We therefore conclude that the intervention against radon in homes is justifiable. The willingness to pay is also larger that the upper uncertainty limit of the cost per life. Our conclusion is therefore robust against the uncertainties in the parameters.

  16. Evolution of radon dose evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kenzo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical change of radon dose evaluation is reviewed based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR reports. Since 1955, radon has been recognized as one of the important sources of exposure of the general public. However, it was not really understood that radon is the largest dose contributor until 1977 when a new concept of effective dose equivalent was introduced by International Commission on Radiological Protection. In 1982, the dose concept was also adapted by UNSCEAR and evaluated per caput dose from natural radiation. Many researches have been carried out since then. However, lots of questions have remained open in radon problems, such as the radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha rays and the large discrepancy of risk estimation among dosimetric and epidemiological approaches.

  17. A Physician's Guide to Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This booklet has been developed for physicians by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in consultation with the American Medical Association (AMA). Its purpose is to enlist physicians in the national effort to inform the American public about radon.

  18. Radon measurements in schools: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    The report provides school officials, groups such as Parent-Teacher Associations, and other interested person with interim information on how to measure radon in schools and what to do if elevated levels are found. The first sections of the document contain facts about radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure. The next sections summarize what is known about radon in schools and provide guidance for conducting radon measurements. The last sections describe how to interpret the measurement results and suggest techniques that can be used to reduce radon concentrations if elevated levels are found.

  19. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Nolty, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Overflow and underflow in sums prevented. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program, CUMPOIS, one of two computer programs that make calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines cumulative Poisson distribution, used to evaluate cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and cdf for X (sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Written in C.

  20. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  1. Occupational radon exposure and lung cancer mortality: estimating intervention effects using the parametric G formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessie K.; McGrath, Leah J.; Buckley, Jessie P.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Cole, Stephen R.; Richardson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional regression analysis techniques used to estimate associations between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer focus on estimating the effect of cumulative radon exposure on lung cancer, while public health interventions are typically based on regulating radon concentration rather than workers’ cumulative exposure. Moreover, estimating the direct effect of cumulative occupational exposure on lung cancer may be difficult in situations vulnerable to the healthy worker survivor bias. Methods Workers in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Miners cohort (N=4,134) entered the study between 1950 and 1964 and were followed for lung cancer mortality through 2005. We use the parametric g-formula to compare the observed lung cancer mortality to the potential lung cancer mortality had each of 3 policies to limit monthly radon exposure been in place throughout follow-up. Results There were 617 lung cancer deaths over 135,275 person-years of follow-up. With no intervention on radon exposure, estimated lung cancer mortality by age 90 was 16%. Lung cancer mortality was reduced for all interventions considered, and larger reductions in lung cancer mortality were seen for interventions with lower monthly radon exposure limits. The most stringent guideline, the Mine Safety and Health Administration standard of 0.33 working level months, reduced lung cancer mortality from 16% to 10% (risk ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.61, 0.73). Conclusions This work illustrates the utility of the parametric g-formula for estimating the effects of policies regarding occupational exposures, particularly in situations vulnerable to the healthy worker survivor bias. PMID:25192403

  2. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephanie; Everett Jones, Sherry

    2016-12-13

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counties with high predicted average indoor radon, 42.4% had policies for radon testing and 37.5% had policies for radon-resistant new construction practices. These findings suggest a critical need for improved awareness among policy makers regarding potential radon exposure for both students and school staff.

  3. Threshold for Radon-Induced Lung Cancer From Inhaled Plutonium Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M. Cuttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cohen’s lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m3. The US Environmental Protection Agency should consider raising its radon action level from 150 to at least 1000 Bq/m3.

  4. Indoor Radon and Its Decay Products: Concentrations, Causes, and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    This report is an introduction to the behavior of radon 222 and its decay products in indoor air. This includes review of basic characteristics of radon and its decay products and of features of the indoor environment itself, all of which factors affect behavior in indoor air. The experimental and theoretical evidence on behavior of radon and its decay products is examined, providing a basis for understanding the influence of geological, structural, and meteorological factors on indoor concentrations, as well as the effectiveness of control techniques. We go on to examine three important issues concerning indoor radon. We thus include (1) an appraisal of the concentration distribution in homes, (2) an examination of the utility and limitations of popular monitoring techniques and protocols, and (3) an assessment of the key elements of strategies for controlling radon levels in homes.

  5. PRINCIPLE OF ESTIMATION ANNUAL RADON EEC IN BUILDING BY RESULTS OF SHORT-TERM MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsapalov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reliable estimation of annual radon concentration in the new buildings by results of short-term measurements is still actual. The task is to determine the relevant real values of the coefficient of temporal variations of radon. To this end, analyzed two fundamentally different approach to research methodology and accounting regularities of variations of radon EEC in indoor buildings. Based on experimental data shows that in assessing the average radon EEC levels is the most effective and took into account the ratio of current and annual air temperature differences inside and outside the building. The proposed principle is recommended for use in the development of improved methods of radon control of buildings.

  6. The influence of multiple types of occupational exposure to radon, gamma rays and long-lived radionuclides on mortality risk in the French "post-55" sub-cohort of uranium miners: 1956-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquier, Blandine; Rage, Estelle; Leuraud, Klervi; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Houot, Jennifer; Acker, Alain; Laurier, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    The adverse health effects of radon on uranium miners, especially on their lungs, are well documented, but few studies have considered the effects of other radiation exposures. This study examined the mortality risks associated with exposure to radon, external γ rays and long-lived radionuclides (LLR) in the French "post-55" sub-cohort, which includes uranium miners first employed between 1956 and 1990 for whom all three types of exposure were assessed individually. Exposure-risk relationships were estimated with linear excess relative risk models and a 5-year lag time. The post-55 sub-cohort includes 3377 miners, contributing 89,405 person-years, followed up through the end of 1999 with a mean follow-up of 26.5 years. Mean cumulative exposure was 17.8 WLM for radon, 54.7 mSv for γ rays, and 1,632 Bq.m(-3).h for LLR. Among the 611 deaths observed, 66 were due to lung cancer. Annual individual exposures were significantly correlated. Increased mortality was observed for lung cancer (SMR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.65) and for brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancer (SMR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.35). Cumulative exposure to radon, γ rays and LLR was associated only with a significant risk of lung cancer. These new results could suggest an association between lung cancer and exposure to γ rays and LLR. They must nonetheless be interpreted with caution because of the correlation between the types of exposure. The calculation of organ doses received by each of these exposures would reduce the collinearity.

  7. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  8. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  9. Lung Cancer Risk from Radon in Marcellus Shale Gas in Northeast U.S. Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Austin L; Griffin, W Michael; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    The amount of radon in natural gas varies with its source. Little has been published about the radon from shale gas to date, making estimates of its impact on radon-induced lung cancer speculative. We measured radon in natural gas pipelines carrying gas from the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Radon concentrations ranged from 1,520 to 2,750 Bq/m3 (41-74 pCi/L), and the throughput-weighted average was 1,983 Bq/m3 (54 pCi/L). Potential radon exposure due to the use of Marcellus Shale gas for cooking and space heating using vent-free heaters or gas ranges in northeastern U.S. homes and apartments was assessed. Though the measured radon concentrations are higher than what has been previously reported, it is unlikely that exposure from natural gas cooking would exceed 1.2 Bq/m3 (gas appliances is similar. Individuals using unvented gas appliances to provide primary heating may face lifetime risks as high as 3.9×10-3 . Under current housing stock and gas consumption assumptions, expected levels of residential radon exposure due to unvented combustion of Marcellus Shale natural gas in the Northeast United States do not result in a detectable change in the lung cancer death rates. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  11. Successes and Challenges in Implementation of Radon Control Activities in Iowa, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Allison A; Abbott, Anne L; Miller, Laura L

    2016-04-14

    Radon gas has recently become more prominent in discussions of lung cancer prevention nationally and in Iowa. A review in 2013 of cancer plans in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program found that 42% of cancer plans, including Iowa's, had terminology on radon. Plans included awareness activities, home testing, remediation, policy, and policy evaluation. Iowa has the highest average radon concentrations in the United States; 70% of homes have radon concentrations above the Environmental Protection Agency's action levels. Radon control activities in Iowa are led by the Iowa Cancer Consortium, the Iowa Department of Public Health, and the Iowa Radon Coalition. A collaborative approach was used to increase levels of awareness, testing, and (if necessary) mitigation, and to introduce a comprehensive radon control policy in Iowa by engaging partners and stakeholders across the state. The multipronged approach and collaborative work in Iowa appears to have been successful in increasing awareness: the number of radon tests completed in Iowa increased by 20% from 19,600 in 2009 to 23,500 in 2014, and the number of mitigations completed by certified mitigators increased by 108% from 2,600 to more than 5,400. Through collaboration, Iowa communities are engaged in activities that led to increases in awareness, testing, mitigation, and policy. States interested in establishing a similar program should consider a multipronged approach involving multiple entities and stakeholders with different interests and abilities. Improvements in data collection and analysis are necessary to assess impact.

  12. Evaluation of Radon Pollution in Underground Parking Lots by Discomfort Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Bu-Olayan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent studies of public underground parking lots showed the influence of radon concentration and the probable discomfort caused by parking cars. Materials and Methods Radon concentration was measured in semi-closed public parking lots in the six governorates of Kuwait, using Durridge RAD7radon detector (USA. Results The peak radon concentration in the parking lots of Kuwait governorates was relatively higher during winter (63.15Bq/m3 compared to summer (41.73 Bq/m3. Radon in the evaluated parking lots revealed a mean annual absorbed dose (DRn: 0.02mSv/y and annual effective dose (HE: 0.06mSv/y.  Conclusion This study validated the influence of relative humidity and temperature as the major components of discomfort index (DI. The mean annual absorbed and effective dose  of radon in the evaluated parking lots were found below the permissible limits. However, high radon DRn and HE were reported when the assessment included the parking lots, the surrounding residential apartments, and office premises. Furthermore, the time-series analysis indicated significant variations of the seasonal and site-wise distribution of radon concentrations in the indoor evaluated parking lots of the six Kuwait governorates

  13. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  15. Radon epidemiology and nuclear track detectors: Methods, results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F. [Unit of Radioactivity and Related Health Effects, Technology and Health Department, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.it

    2005-11-15

    An important achievement of nuclear track detectors is that they render it possible to measure a large number of radon concentrations. These are necessary for epidemiological studies aimed to estimate the lung cancer risk due to exposure to radon and its decay products in dwellings. Many case-control studies were conducted in the last 15 years in Europe, North America and China, in order to avoid the uncertainties associated with the risk extrapolation from epidemiological studies on miners exposed in underground mines. In this review paper, the main methodological issues of these studies are introduced: confounding factors, the impact of radon exposure uncertainties on the estimated risk, the retrospective assessment of radon exposure through the measurement of Po210 surface concentration on glass objects, the interaction between radon and smoking, statistical methods to analyze data and combine studies, etc. As regards the estimated risk of lung cancer, the main characteristics and results of each study are reported and discussed, together with the results of meta-analyses and, most importantly, of the three recently published analyses that pool 2 Chinese, 7 North American, and 13 European studies. Finally, some conclusions are given and a brief reference is made to ongoing studies.

  16. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Foster; Sherry Everett Jones

    2016-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counti...

  17. The use of volunteer radon measurements for radon mapping purposes: an examination of sampling bias issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Orlaith; Murphy, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    National and regional radon surveys are used in many nations to produce maps detailing the spatial variation of indoor radon concentrations. National surveys which are designed to be representative use either a geographically-weighted or a population-weighted sampling scheme. Additionally, many countries collect a large number of data on indoor radon concentrations from volunteers who have chosen to have the indoor radon concentration measured in their own dwellings. This work examines the representativeness of volunteer-based samples in radon measurement and explores the effect of potential volunteer bias on radon mapping results. We also investigate the influence that media attention has on volunteer sampling of indoor radon concentrations. The result of our work indicates that volunteer measurements are biased due to over-sampling of high radon areas. Consequently such volunteer radon measurements should not be used for radon mapping purposes.

  18. Indoor radon, geogenic radon surrogates and geology - Investigations on their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, H; Baumgartner, A; Bernreiter, M; Gräser, J; Gruber, V; Kabrt, F; Kaineder, H; Maringer, F J; Ringer, W; Seidel, C; Wurm, G

    2017-01-01

    The indoor radon concentration was measured in most houses in a couple of municipalities in Austria. At the same time the activity concentration of radium in soil, the soil gas radon concentration, the permeability of the ground and the ambient dose equivalent rate were also measured and the geological situations (geological units) were recorded too. From the indoor radon concentration and different house and living parameters a radon potential (Austrian radon potential) was derived which should represent the radon concentration in a standard room. Another radon potential (Neznal radon potential) was calculated from the soil gas radon concentration and the permeability. The aim of the investigation was to correlate all the different variables and to test if the use of surrogate data (e.g. geological information, ambient dose equivalent rate, etc.) can be used to judge the radon risk for an area without performing numerous indoor measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGLUND,J.W.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N.; ANDERSON,R.P.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  20. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied......Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...... in planning the use of marine resources....

  1. The Italian national survey of indoor radon exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciocchetti, G; Scacco, F; Baldassini, P G; Battella, C; Bovi, M; Monte, L

    1985-10-01

    An investigation is being developed by the Comitato Nazionale per la Ricerca e per lo Sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative, ENEA, to assess the indoor exposure of the Italian population. The programme, which started in 1982, includes regional and local surveys in all the administrative districts and intensive investigations of factors which influence indoor radon levels. The survey is organized by statistical areas of sampling to obtain representative samples of houses. The definition of the areas takes into account basic parameters e.g. geolithological environments, radon soil gas from underlying soils and rocks, specific activities of local building materials, climatic and seasonal variations, building technology, types of houses and town planning. The collected data may also be used for the compilation of radon risk maps to plan special monitoring and remedial actions if needed. Preliminary results concerning the above items are discussed.

  2. Estimate of radon exposure in geothermal spas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Olszewski, Jerzy; Zmyślony, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal waters may contain soluble, radioactive radon gas. Spa facilities that use geothermal water may be a source of an increased radiation dose to people who stay there. It has been necessary to assess the exposure to radon among people: workers and visitors of spa centers that use geothermal waters. In 2013, workers of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine measured concentrations of radon over the geothermal water surfaces in 9 selected Polish spa centers which use geothermal water for recreational and medicinal purposes. The measurements were performed by active dosimetry using Lucas scintillation cells. According to our research, the doses received by the personnel in Polish geothermal spas are geothermal spas, neither the workers nor the visitors are at risk of receiving doses that exceed the safe limits. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Recent topics on radon. Radiation dose estimation using radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Michikuni [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Today, as exposure of radon was collected a large interest in resident environment, it was brought by a fact that yearly radiation dose of radon was determined 1.0 mSv in the report of UN science committee in 1982. Since then, as this value was received generally and widely, this value was found some differences due to thereafter UN science committee reports and to some countings. As not only concentration of radon but also some factors relate to its cause, it is important to know its cause and variation width. In this paper, by using the newest data in Japan on radon concentration, balance factor, presence time, respiration volume, and so forth as much as possible, an effective radiation dose of an adult per year was estimated. As a result, it was found to be about 0.45 mSv, which was more than a half less than the value of the UN science committee and so on. And, this was nearly equal to that of workers at 3 prefectures of that Tokai District and counted by using radon concentration, respiration volume and presence coefficient for variants. On counting the whole variation width under considering width of each coefficient, it can be estimated to be ranged from -70 to +80%. (G.K.)

  4. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  5. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  6. Modelling of radon transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport

  7. Combining radon, short-lived radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle

    2015-06-01

    In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and short-lived radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ṡ 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ṡ 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ṡ 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.

  8. Update of Ireland's national average indoor radon concentration - Application of a new survey protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, A; Murphy, P; Pollard, D; Fenton, D

    2017-04-01

    In 2002, a National Radon Survey (NRS) in Ireland established that the geographically weighted national average indoor radon concentration was 89 Bq m(-3). Since then a number of developments have taken place which are likely to have impacted on the national average radon level. Key among these was the introduction of amending Building Regulations in 1998 requiring radon preventive measures in new buildings in High Radon Areas (HRAs). In 2014, the Irish Government adopted the National Radon Control Strategy (NRCS) for Ireland. A knowledge gap identified in the NRCS was to update the national average for Ireland given the developments since 2002. The updated national average would also be used as a baseline metric to assess the effectiveness of the NRCS over time. A new national survey protocol was required that would measure radon in a sample of homes representative of radon risk and geographical location. The design of the survey protocol took into account that it is not feasible to repeat the 11,319 measurements carried out for the 2002 NRS due to time and resource constraints. However, the existence of that comprehensive survey allowed for a new protocol to be developed, involving measurements carried out in unbiased randomly selected volunteer homes. This paper sets out the development and application of that survey protocol. The results of the 2015 survey showed that the current national average indoor radon concentration for homes in Ireland is 77 Bq m(-3), a decrease from the 89 Bq m(-3) reported in the 2002 NRS. Analysis of the results by build date demonstrate that the introduction of the amending Building Regulations in 1998 have led to a reduction in the average indoor radon level in Ireland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of radon doses based on different radon monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupotič, Janja; Smrekar, Nataša; Žunić, Zora S

    2017-04-01

    In 43 places (23 schools, 3 kindergartens, 16 offices and one dwelling), indoor radon has been monitored as an intercomparison experiment, using α-scintillation cells (SC - Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia), various kinds of solid state nuclear track detectors (KfK - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany; UFO - National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan; RET - University College Dublin, Ireland) and active electronic devices (EQF, Sarad, Germany). At the same place, the radon levels and, consequently, the effective doses obtained with different radon devices differed substantially (by a factor of 2 or more), and no regularity was observed as regards which detector would show a higher or lower dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-04-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  11. Activation of Antioxidative Functions by Radon Inhalation Enhances the Mitigation Effects of Pregabalin on Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kataoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon inhalation brings pain relief for chronic constriction injury- (CCI- induced neuropathic pain in mice due to the activation of antioxidative functions, which is different from the mechanism of the pregabalin effect. In this study, we assessed whether a combination of radon inhalation and pregabalin administration is more effective against neuropathic pain than radon or pregabalin only. Mice were treated with inhaled radon at a concentration of 1,000 Bq/m3 for 24 hours and pregabalin administration after CCI surgery. In mice treated with pregabalin at a dose of 3 mg/kg weight, the 50% paw withdrawal threshold of mice treated with pregabalin or radon and pregabalin was significantly increased, suggesting pain relief. The therapeutic effects of radon inhalation or the combined effects of radon and pregabalin (3 mg/kg weight were almost equivalent to treatment with pregabalin at a dose of 1.4 mg/kg weight or 4.1 mg/kg weight, respectively. Radon inhalation and the combination of radon and pregabalin increased antioxidant associated substances in the paw. The antioxidant substances increased much more in radon inhalation than in pregabalin administration. These findings suggested that the activation of antioxidative functions by radon inhalation enhances the pain relief of pregabalin and that this combined effect is probably an additive effect.

  12. The radon 222 transport in soils. The case of the storage of residues coming from uranium ores processing; La migration du radon 222 dans un sol. Application aux stockages de residus issus du traitement des minerais d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, C

    2000-07-01

    Uranium Mill Tailings (UMT) contain comparatively large quantities of radium-226. This radionuclide yields, by radioactive decay, the radioactive gas radon-222. Tailing piles are routinely covered to reduce the radon release-rate into the atmosphere. In order to assess the long term environmental impact of a UMT repository, mechanisms governing radon exhalation at the soil surface must be deciphered and understood. A model of radon transport in the unsaturated zone is developed for this purpose: water- and air-flow in the porous material are determined, as well as radon transport by diffusion in the pore space and advection by the gas phase. The radon transport model in the unsaturated zone - TRACI (which stands, in French, for Radon Transport within the Unsaturated Layer) - calculates moisture contents in the soil, Darcy's velocities of the liquid and gas phases, radon concentrations in the gas phase and radon flux at the soil surface. TRACI's results are compared with observations carried out on a UMT and a cover layer. Input parameters are derived from the textural analysis of the material under study, whereas upper boundary conditions are given by meteorological data. If we consider measurement errors and uncertainties on the porous medium characterisation, model's results are generally in good agreement with observations, at least on the long run. Moreover, data analysis shows hat transient phenomena are understood as well, in most situations. (author)

  13. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  14. Residential Radon Exposure and Incidence of Childhood Lymphoma in Texas, 1995–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin C. Peckham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is warranted interest in assessing the association between residential radon exposure and the risk of childhood cancer. We sought to evaluate the association between residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas. The Texas Cancer Registry (n = 2147 provided case information for the period 1995–2011. Denominator data were obtained from the United States Census. Regional arithmetic mean radon concentrations were obtained from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey and linked to residence at diagnosis. Exposure was assessed categorically: ≤25th percentile (reference, >25th to ≤50th percentile, >50th to ≤75th percentile, and >75th percentile. Negative binomial regression generated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. We evaluated lymphoma overall and by subtype: Hodgkin (HL; n = 1248, Non-Hodgkin excluding Burkitt (non-BL NHL; n = 658, Burkitt (BL; n = 241, and Diffuse Large B-cell (DLBCL; n = 315. There was no evidence that residential radon exposure was positively associated with lymphoma overall, HL, or BL. Areas with radon concentrations >75th percentile had a marginal increase in DLBCL incidence (aIRR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03–2.91. In one of the largest studies of residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma, we found little evidence to suggest a positive or negative association; an observation consistent with previous studies.

  15. Residential Radon Exposure and Incidence of Childhood Lymphoma in Texas, 1995–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Erin C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Danysh, Heather E.; Lubega, Joseph; Langlois, Peter H.; Lupo, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    There is warranted interest in assessing the association between residential radon exposure and the risk of childhood cancer. We sought to evaluate the association between residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas. The Texas Cancer Registry (n = 2147) provided case information for the period 1995–2011. Denominator data were obtained from the United States Census. Regional arithmetic mean radon concentrations were obtained from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey and linked to residence at diagnosis. Exposure was assessed categorically: ≤25th percentile (reference), >25th to ≤50th percentile, >50th to ≤75th percentile, and >75th percentile. Negative binomial regression generated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We evaluated lymphoma overall and by subtype: Hodgkin (HL; n = 1248), Non-Hodgkin excluding Burkitt (non-BL NHL; n = 658), Burkitt (BL; n = 241), and Diffuse Large B-cell (DLBCL; n = 315). There was no evidence that residential radon exposure was positively associated with lymphoma overall, HL, or BL. Areas with radon concentrations >75th percentile had a marginal increase in DLBCL incidence (aIRR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03–2.91). In one of the largest studies of residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma, we found little evidence to suggest a positive or negative association; an observation consistent with previous studies. PMID:26404336

  16. Lung cancer in never-smokers: a case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Durán, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abal-Arca, José; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Pena-Álvarez, Carolina; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of residential radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers and to ascertain if environmental tobacco smoke modifies the effect of residential radon. We designed a multicentre hospital-based case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain). All participants were never-smokers. Cases had an anatomopathologically confirmed primary lung cancer and controls were recruited from individuals undergoing minor, non-oncological surgery. Residential radon was measured using alpha track detectors. We included 521 individuals, 192 cases and 329 controls, 21% were males. We observed an odds ratio of 2.42 (95% CI 1.45-4.06) for individuals exposed to ≥200 Bq·m(-3) compared with those exposed to radon exposure>200 Bq·m(-3). Individuals exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and to radon concentrations>200 Bq·m(-3) had higher lung cancer risk than those exposed to lower radon concentrations and exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Residential radon increases lung cancer risk in never-smokers. An association between residential radon exposure and environmental tobacco smoke on the risk of lung cancer might exist. ©ERS 2014.

  17. CONSEQUENCES OF USING HOME-MADE RADON SOURCES FOR MEASURING THE RADON DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolný, T; Jiránek, M

    2017-11-01

    The applicability of home-made radon sources for determining the radon diffusion coefficient of waterproofing materials was studied for three representatives of materials with a high radium content: uraninite, slag concrete and filter sand. The results of our investigation confirmed that the radon production rate of home-made radon sources is significantly lower than the radon production rate of artificial sources. Consequently, home-made sources are usually unable to generate concentrations higher than 100 kBq/m3 in the source container. Therefore, they cannot be used for determining radon diffusion coefficients lower than 1 × 10-12 m2/s. In addition, when home-made radon sources are used, only time-dependent mathematical solutions of the non-stationary radon diffusion can be used for determining the radon diffusion coefficient from the measured data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Radon activity in Saudi houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physics)

    1984-01-01

    Long term measurements of radon's concentrations inside Saudi houses being studied using CR-39 Plastic Track Detectors fixed inside sealed plastic cups. The cups were left for about 7 months in the houses. The measurements were done in different cities of different provinces in the country. The analysis of 636 cups showed that the radon concentration in different cities was ranging from 0.27 pCi/l (in Khobar) to 0.98 pCi/l (in Taif). In exceptional places in Eastern Province, it is found that the lowest concentration was in the University offices (0.13 pCi/l) and the highest was in the University unoccupied houses (0.81 pCi/l). It is found that the ventilation is the main factor affecting the radon concentration in houses.

  19. Thermo-diffusional radon waves in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkin, Leonid, E-mail: lminkin@pcc.edu [Portland Community College, 12000 SW 49th Ave, Portland, OR 97219 (United States); Shapovalov, Alexander S. [Saratov State University, 83 Astrakhanskay Street, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A new theoretical framework for diurnal and seasonal oscillations of the concentration of radon in soil and open air is proposed. The theory is based on the existing temperature waves in soils and thermo-diffusional gas flux in porous media. As soil is a non-isothermal porous medium, usually possessing a large fraction of microscopic pores belonging to Knudsen's free molecular field, a thermo-diffusional gas flow in soil has to arise. The radon mass transfer equation in soil for sinusoidal temperature oscillations at the soil–atmosphere boundary is solved, which reveals that radon concentration behaves as a damped harmonic wave. The amplitude of radon concentration oscillations and phase shift between radon concentration oscillations and soil temperature depend on the radon diffusion coefficient in soil, rate of radon production, soil thermal conductivity, average soil temperature, decay constant, and heat of radon transfer. Primarily numerical calculations are presented and comparisons with experimental data are shown. - Highlights: • Temperature oscillations in atmosphere generate radon waves in soil. • Radon flux in atmosphere is a harmonic function of time. • Radon concentration waves in soil have the same frequency as the temperature waves.

  20. Radon og lungekreft i Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Enger, Ingvild-M.A

    2011-01-01

    Sammendrag Denne masteroppgaven ”Radon og lungekreft i Norge” inneholder to deler; den første delen inneholder en introduksjon til studien med utdypende empiri og teori i en større sammenheng. Den andre delen er artikkelen ” Sammenhengen mellom forekomst av lungekreft og radon målt i bolig hus – en økologisk studie”. Siste del skal sendes til Tidsskriftet for Den norske legeforening for publisering. Formålet med denne studien var å undersøke om det var høyere forekomst av lungekreft bla...

  1. An assessment of cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology in part of the Powder River structural basin, Wyoming; a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P.R.; Bloyd, R.M.; Daddow, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality are involved in a cooperative effort to assess the probable cumulative impacts of coal mining on the hydrology of a part of the Powder River Structural Basin in Wyoming. It was assumed that the principal impacts on the ground-water system due to mining will occur in the relatively shallow aquifers which can be grouped into three homogeneous aquifers, namely, the Wyodak coal, the overburden, and the under burden. Emphasis of this report is on the results of analysis of surface-water resources in the Caballo Creek drainage. A surface-water model of the Caballo Creek drainage was developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model to help assess the impacts of mining activities on streamflow. The Caballo Creek drainage was divided into 10 land segments and 6 stream reaches in the modeling process. Three simulation runs show little, if any, change in streamflow between pre- and post-mining conditions and very little change between pre-mining and during-mining conditions. The principal reason for the absence of change is the high infiltration rate used in the model for all three conditions. (USGS)

  2. A novel detection of radon based on its decay product inducing conformational changes of an aptamer probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Minzhi; Deng, Han; Tian, Gang; Song, Chunli; Liu, Hongwen; Shen, Yi; Lv, Changyin, E-mail: Lchy1955@163.com

    2016-09-14

    This study proposes a novel method for the detection of inert gas radon using a label-free, specific, fluorescence-sensing aptamer in the context of PW17-OG system. This method utilizes the cyanine dye OliGreen (OG) as a signal reactor and the aptamer PW17 as a fluorescent identification probe. When OG integrates into the free curling PW17, a strong fluorescence signal is generated. After radon decays, the long lived naturally occurring radon progeny Pb being disposed and introduced to the system. Lead ions induce PW17 to form a stable G-quadruplex, thereby inhibiting the interaction between OG and PW17 and resulting in a reduction of the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity show a good linear relationship with lead ion and the radon concentration (D), thereinto, We fitted linear regression of radon concentration in the range of 0.92–4.22 (×10{sup 4} Bqhm{sup −3}) to receive a good relationship between ΔF and the concentration of radon with the detection limit of 1963 Bqhm{sup −3}. This method has been successfully applied for detecting standard cumulative concentration of radon and the detection limit reached the national standard of China. This sensitive method can exclude radiation damage in field testing, furthermore, it explores a new field in biological analysis using an aptamer to detected inorganic, gaseous, and radioactive materials. - Highlights: • The label-free fluorescence sensor for detection of radon. • This microscale experiment without radiation damage to experimenters and with less harm to environment. • It provides a sensitive, low cost and simple strategy for radon accumulated concentration and lead ion detection.

  3. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to

  4. Residential radon and COPD. An ecological study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Lorenzo, Raquel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Ramis, Rebeca; Aragonés, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T; Carballeira-Roca, Consuelo; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2017-02-01

    Radon is a human lung carcinogen but it might be linked with other respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the relationship between residential radon exposure and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) prevalence and hospital admissions at a municipal level. We designed an ecological study where we included those municipalities with at least three radon measurements. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we calculated the relative risk (RR) for COPD for each 100 Bq/m 3 of increase in radon concentration and also the relative risk for COPD using a cut-off point of 50 Bq/m 3 . We did not have individual data on cigarette smoking and therefore we used a proxy (bladder cancer standardized mortality rate) that has proved to account for tobacco consumption. We performed separate analyses for sex and also sensitivity analysis considering age and rurality. A total of 3040 radon measurements and 49,393 COPD cases were included. The relative risk for COPD prevalence was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.97) while for hospital admissions the RR was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.10) for each 100 Bq/m 3 . Relative risks were higher for women compared to men. Using a categorical analysis with a cut-off point of 50 Bq/m 3 , the RR for COPD prevalence was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and for hospital admissions it was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00-1.17) for women living in municipalities with more than 50 Bq/m 3 . All risks were also higher for women. No relevant differences were observed for age, rurality or other categories for radon exposure. While the influence of radon on COPD prevalence is unclear depending on the approach used, it seems that residential radon might increase the risk of hospital admissions in COPD patients. Women have a higher risk than men in all situations. Since this is an ecological study, results should be interpreted cautiously.

  5. Radon monitoring and hazard prediction in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elio, Javier; Crowley, Quentin; Scanlon, Ray; Hodgson, Jim; Cooper, Mark; Long, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which forms as a decay product from uranium. It is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation affecting the global population. When radon is inhaled, its short-lived decay products can interact with lung tissue leading to DNA damage and development of lung cancer. Ireland has among the highest levels of radon in Europe and eighth highest of an OECD survey of 29 countries. Every year some two hundred and fifty cases of lung cancer in Ireland are linked to radon exposure. This new research project will build upon previous efforts of radon monitoring in Ireland to construct a high-resolution radon hazard map. This will be achieved using recently available high-resolution airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (radiometric) and soil geochemistry data (http://www.tellus.ie/), indoor radon concentrations (http://www.epa.ie/radiation), and new direct measurement of soil radon. In this regard, legacy indoor radon concentrations will be correlated with soil U and Th concentrations and other geogenic data. This is a new approach since the vast majority of countries with a national radon monitoring programme rely on indoor radon measurements, or have a spatially limited dataset of soil radon measurements. Careful attention will be given to areas where an indicative high radon hazard based on geogenic factors does not match high indoor radon concentrations. Where such areas exist, it may imply that some parameter(s) in the predictive model does not match that of the environment. These areas will be subjected to measurement of radon soil gas using a combination of time averaged (passive) and time dependant (active) measurements in order to better understand factors affecting production, transport and accumulation of radon in the natural environment. Such mapping of radon-prone areas will ultimately help to inform when prevention and remediation measures are necessary, reducing the radon exposure of the population. Therefore, given

  6. Oil and gas program: cumulative effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Horn, W; Melancon, A; Sun, J

    1985-01-01

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA) requires the Secretary of the Department of the Interior to submit an annual report to Congress assessing the cumulative environmental effects of mineral leasing and operations under the OCSLA...

  7. Assessing the safety of co-exposure to food packaging migrants in food and water using the maximum cumulative ratio and an established decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul; Zaleski, Rosemary; Hollnagel, Heli; Ketelslegers, Hans; Han, Xianglu

    2014-01-01

    Food contact materials can release low levels of multiple chemicals (migrants) into foods and beverages, to which individuals can be exposed through food consumption. This paper investigates the potential for non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple migrants using the Cefic Mixtures Ad hoc Team (MIAT) decision tree. The purpose of the assessment is to demonstrate how the decision tree can be applied to concurrent exposures to multiple migrants using either hazard or structural data on the specific components, i.e. based on the acceptable daily intake (ADI) or the threshold of toxicological concern. The tree was used to assess risks from co-exposure to migrants reported in a study on non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) eluting from food contact-grade plastic and two studies of water bottles: one on organic compounds and the other on ionic forms of various elements. The MIAT decision tree assigns co-exposures to different risk management groups (I, II, IIIA and IIIB) based on the hazard index, and the maximum cumulative ratio (MCR). The predicted co-exposures for all examples fell into Group II (low toxicological concern) and had MCR values of 1.3 and 2.4 (indicating that one or two components drove the majority of the mixture's toxicity). MCR values from the study of inorganic ions (126 mixtures) ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 for glass and from 1.1 to 5.0 for plastic containers. The MCR values indicated that a single compound drove toxicity in 58% of the mixtures. MCR values also declined with increases in the hazard index for the screening assessments of exposure (suggesting fewer substances contributed as risk potential increased). Overall, it can be concluded that the data on co-exposure to migrants evaluated in these case studies are of low toxicological concern and the safety assessment approach described in this paper was shown to be a helpful screening tool.

  8. The Challenge of Planning Conservation Strategies in Threatened Seascapes: Understanding the Role of Fine Scale Assessments of Community Response to Cumulative Human Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; De Leo, Francesco; Farella, Giulio; Maffia, Anna; Terlizzi, Antonio; Fraschetti, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the distribution and intensity of human threats to biodiversity is a prerequisite for effective spatial planning, harmonizing conservation purposes with sustainable development. In the Mediterranean Sea, the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is rarely based on explicit consideration of the distribution of multiple stressors, with direct assessment of their effects on ecosystems. This gap limits the effectiveness of protection and is conducive to conflicts among stakeholders. Here, a fine scale assessment of the potential effects of different combinations of stressors (both land- and marine-based) on vulnerable rocky habitats (i.e. lower midlittoral and shallow infralittoral) along 40 km of coast in the western Mediterranean (Ionian Sea) has been carried out. The study area is a paradigmatic example of socio-ecological interactions, where several human uses and conservation measures collide. Significant differences in the structure of assemblages according to different combinations of threats were observed, indicating distinct responses of marine habitats to different sets of human pressures. A more complex three-dimensional structure, higher taxon richness and β-diversity characterized assemblages subject to low versus high levels of human pressure, consistently across habitats. In addition, the main drivers of change were: closeness to the harbour, water quality, and the relative extension of beaches. Our findings suggest that, although efforts to assess cumulative impacts at large scale may help in individuating priority areas for conservation purposes, the fact that such evaluations are often based on expert opinions and not on actual studies limits their ability to represent real environmental conditions at local scale. Systematic evaluations of local scale effects of anthropogenic drivers of change on biological communities should complement broad scale management strategies to achieve effective sustainability of human exploitation of

  9. The Challenge of Planning Conservation Strategies in Threatened Seascapes: Understanding the Role of Fine Scale Assessments of Community Response to Cumulative Human Pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Guarnieri

    Full Text Available Assessing the distribution and intensity of human threats to biodiversity is a prerequisite for effective spatial planning, harmonizing conservation purposes with sustainable development. In the Mediterranean Sea, the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs is rarely based on explicit consideration of the distribution of multiple stressors, with direct assessment of their effects on ecosystems. This gap limits the effectiveness of protection and is conducive to conflicts among stakeholders. Here, a fine scale assessment of the potential effects of different combinations of stressors (both land- and marine-based on vulnerable rocky habitats (i.e. lower midlittoral and shallow infralittoral along 40 km of coast in the western Mediterranean (Ionian Sea has been carried out. The study area is a paradigmatic example of socio-ecological interactions, where several human uses and conservation measures collide. Significant differences in the structure of assemblages according to different combinations of threats were observed, indicating distinct responses of marine habitats to different sets of human pressures. A more complex three-dimensional structure, higher taxon richness and β-diversity characterized assemblages subject to low versus high levels of human pressure, consistently across habitats. In addition, the main drivers of change were: closeness to the harbour, water quality, and the relative extension of beaches. Our findings suggest that, although efforts to assess cumulative impacts at large scale may help in individuating priority areas for conservation purposes, the fact that such evaluations are often based on expert opinions and not on actual studies limits their ability to represent real environmental conditions at local scale. Systematic evaluations of local scale effects of anthropogenic drivers of change on biological communities should complement broad scale management strategies to achieve effective sustainability of human

  10. 76 FR 72006 - Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... COMMISSION Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon... Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of Compliance with 10 CFR 20... that existing guidance does not sufficiently detail how the NRC staff reviews surveys of radon and...

  11. Residential radon in Galicia: a cross-sectional study in a radon-prone area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-González, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Peón, Joaquín; Piñeiro, María; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Residential radon exposure is a major public health problem. It is the second greatest cause of lung cancer, after smoking, and the greatest in never-smokers. This study shows the indoor radon exposure distribution in Galicia and estimates the percentage of dwellings exceeding reference levels. It is based on 3245 residential radon measurements obtained from the Galician Radon Map project and from controls of two previous case-control studies on residential radon and lung cancer. Results show a high median residential radon concentration in Galicia (99 Bq m -3 ), with 49.3% of dwellings having a radon concentration above 100 Bq m -3 and 11.1% having a concentration above 300 Bq m -3 . Ourense and Pontevedra, located in South Galicia, are the provinces with the highest median indoor radon concentrations (137 Bq m -3 and 123.5 Bq m -3 , respectively). Results also show lower radon levels in progressively higher building storeys. These high residential radon concentrations confirm Galicia as a radon-prone area. A policy on radon should be developed and implemented in Galicia to minimize the residential radon exposure of the population.

  12. Radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,JAY DEAN; SHINTA,A.; SMITH,L.N.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to radionuclide transport in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented (1) mathematical description of models, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that no releases to the accessible environment take place due to radionuclide movement through the anhydrite marker beds, through the Dewey Lake Red Beds or directly to the surface, and also that the releases to the Culebra Dolomite are small. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for release to the Culebra Dolomite fall to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  13. Evaluation of the uniformity of concentration of radon in a radon chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongjie, Zhang; Ye, Zhang; Yang, Liu; Bin, Tang

    2016-04-01

    In order to solve the problem that the evaluation results of the uniformity of concentration of radon in a radon chamber via various methods were difficult to compare, according to its statistical properties, a mathematical model was built to analyze the uniformity of concentration of radon; an evaluation method for the overall uniformity of concentration of radon was proposed on the basis of single-factor multi-group ANOVA, and a detection method for nonuniform points in a radon chamber was proposed on the basis of single-factor two-group t-test; an evaluation process of the uniformity of concentration of radon in a radon chamber was established. The proposed method was applied to evaluate the HD-6 small and medium-sized radon chambers and achieved good results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. General Services Administration Childcare Radon Results in the Federal Radon Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    GSA made a commitment to support the FRAP’s radon risk goal by sampling for radon in its childcare centers. Over the past two years, the sampling has been performed by independent consultants using recommended standard methods and protocols.

  15. Residential radon exposure, histologic types, and lung cancer risk. A case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Castro-Bernárdez, Margarita; Abal-Arca, Jose; Tojo-Castro, Marta

    2012-06-01

    Lung cancer is an important public health problem, and tobacco is the main risk factor followed by residential radon exposure. Recommended exposure levels have been progressively lowered. Galicia, the study area, has high residential radon concentrations. We aim (i) to assess the risk of lung cancer linked to airborne residential radon exposure, (ii) to ascertain whether tobacco modifies radon risk, and (iii) to know whether there is a lung cancer histologic type more susceptible to radon. A hospital-based case-control design was conducted in two Spanish hospitals. Consecutive cases with histologic diagnosis of lung cancer and controls undergoing trivial surgery not tobacco-related were included. Residential radon was measured using standard procedures. Results were obtained using logistic regression. Three hundred and forty-nine cases and 513 controls were included. Radon exposure posed a risk even with a low exposure, with those exposed to 50 to 100 Bq/m(3) having an OR of 1.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-2.88] and of 2.21 (95% CI, 1.33-3.69) for those exposed to 148 Bq/m(3) or more. Tobacco increased appreciably the risk posed by radon, with an OR of 73 (95% CI, 19.88-268.14) for heavy smokers exposed to more than 147 Bq/m(3). Less frequent histologic types (including large cell carcinomas), followed by small cell lung cancer, had the highest risk associated with radon exposure. The presence of airborne radon even at low concentrations poses a risk of developing lung cancer, with tobacco habit increasing considerably this risk. Public health initiatives should address the higher risk of lung cancer for smokers exposed to radon.

  16. Effective dose and concentration of radon and thoron gases at hospitals of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad Pirsaheb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the health care importance of indoor radon, especially in the case of lung cancer, this study was aimed to evaluate indoor radon and thoron levels in three hospitals of Kermanshah city with high recourse. Methods: Measurements of indoor radon and thoron levels in Imam Reza, Imam Khomaini and Taleghani hospital buildings in Kermanshah city in different parts, including ICU, inpatient wards, operating rooms and offices were done using RTM 1688-2 radon meter. Measurements were performed in three months of fall season in 2012 (once per month, and totally 102 measurements were done. The annual effective dose was assessed using the equation for annual effective dose calculation introduced by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Results: Average indoor radon and thoron levels were 11.44±4.9 Bq/m3 and 4±3.9 Bq/m3, respectively. Maximum radon concentration was measured in Imam Raza hospital (13.7±4.3 Bq/m3 and minimum radon concentration was observed in Imam khomaini hospital (6.8±4.4 Bq/m3. The average annual effective dose due to radon and thoron was estimated to be 0.13 mSv/y. Conclusion: Based on the results, radon and thoron levels and their average effective dose in all hospital buildings were below the proposed limits. The concentrations of radon and thoron were influenced by natural and artificial ventilation of the rooms and building materials used for walls and floors. Radon and thoron concentration level was reported high in ICU.

  17. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Time variation of radon daughters concentration in snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T; Aoki, M; Okabe, S

    1984-05-01

    Time variation of radon daughters concentration in snowfall was measured continuously. The relations of radon daughters concentration in snowfall to the precipitation and to atmospheric radon daughters concentration were investigated. It has become clear that when precipitation is small, radon daughters concentration in snowfall is distributed in a wide range, and that the quantity of radon daughters brought to ground surface by snowfall is proportional to precipitation. Washout effect of the snowfall on atmospheric radon daughters was also investigated.

  19. Residential radon and cancer mortality in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abente, Gonzalo; Núñez, Olivier; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Barros-Dios, Juan M; Martín-Méndez, Iván; Bel-Lan, Alejandro; Locutura, Juan; Quindós, Luis; Sainz, Carlos; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Residential radon exposure is a serious public health concern, and as such appears in the recommendations of European Code Against Cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the association between residential radon levels and mortality due to different types of cancer, using misaligned data analysis techniques. Mortality data (observed cases) for each of the 313 Galician municipalities were drawn from the records of the National Statistics Institute for the study period (1999-2008). Expected cases were computed using Galician mortality rates for 14 types of malignant tumors as reference, with a total of 56,385 deaths due to the tumors analyzed. The effect estimates of indoor radon (3371 sampling points) were adjusted for sociodemographic variables, altitude, and arsenic topsoil levels (1069 sampling points), using spatial/geostatistical models fitted with stochastic partial differential equations and integrated nested Laplace approximations. These models are capable of processing misaligned data. The results showed a statistical association between indoor radon and lung, stomach and brain cancer in women in Galicia. Apart from lung cancer (relative risk (RR)=1.09), in which a twofold increase in radon exposure led to a 9% rise in mortality, the association was particularly relevant in stomach (RR=1.17) and brain cancer (RR=1.28). Further analytical epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm these results, and an assessment should be made of the advisability of implementing interventions targeting such exposure in higher-risk areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 9th Saxonian radon day. 11th meeting on radon safe structural engineering; 9. Saechsischer Radontag. 11. Tagung radonsicheres Bauen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting in radon-safe structural engineering covers contributions on the following issues: implementation of the EU standards, radon protection in underground cavities, radon protection at working places, reports on experiences.

  1. Search for radon sources in buildings--kindergartens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupotic, J

    2002-01-01

    In ten high radon level kindergartens, radon sources were sought by applying a combination of several radon measuring techniques: etched track detectors to obtain average indoor air radon concentration, continuous devices to record radon concentration and see its diurnal variation, and alpha scintillation cells to determine radon concentration in the air entering a room from cracks, holes and sinks in the floor and from under-floor channels. In three cases, a strong local radon source was identified while, in the others, the bad quality of the basic concrete slab was responsible for the high indoor radon concentration.

  2. The radon: evaluation and risk management; Le radon: evaluation et gestion du risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Masse, R. [Academie des Technologies, 75 - Paris (France); Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Erich Wichmann, H. [Neuberberg Munich Univ. (Germany); Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Robe, M.Ch. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Baubron, J.C.; Bonijoly, D. [BRGM, 75 - Paris (France); Collignan, B. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Berrier, H. [Direction Gle de l' Urbanisme de l' Habitat et de la Construction, 75 - Paris (France); Jaouen, J. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de la Haute-Vienne (France); Caamano, D. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de l' Essonne, 91 (France); Guiot, F. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de la Haute-Marne (France); Grall, B. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de Bretagne (France); Frutos Vasquez, B.; Olaya Adan, M. [Istituto de Ciencias de la Construction (Italy); Garcia Cadierno, J.P.; Martin Matarranz, J.L.; Serrano Renedo, J.; Suarez Mahou, E. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, J.A. [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas (Spain); Mjones, L.; Pirard, P. [Institut de veille sanitaire, 94415 - Saint-Maurice (France); Godet, J.L.; Rougy, Ch. [Direction Gle de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-06-15

    The radon exposure constitutes for the French population the first cause of natural irradiation among the different natural sources of irradiation. It is possible to have a significant action on it, either by making draught proof in order to avoid to radon to get inside houses, either by ventilating in order to dispel the radon and improve air quality. (N.C.)

  3. A perspective on risks from radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, D. J., E-mail: higsond@bigpond.net.a [Australasian Radiation Protection Society, PO Box 7108, Upper Ferntree Gully, Victoria 3156 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m{sup -3}. The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. A risk coefficient of 8 x 10{sup -10} per Bq h m{sup -3} is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures: 1) The estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. 2) The estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m{sup -3}. Evidence available from other countries shows that: 1) The effects of radon in the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at levels less then about 50-100 Bq m{sup -3}. 2) The estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m{sup -3} depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels. 3) Risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. Its concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon. (Author)

  4. FIRST STEP TOWARDS THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF INDOOR RADON IN DWELLINGS IN ALBANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushe, K Bode; Bylyku, E; Xhixha, G; Dhoqina, P; Daci, B; Cfarku, F; Xhixha, M Kaçeli; Strati, V

    2016-12-01

    The realisation of the geographical distribution of the indoor radon concentrations in dwellings represents a valuable tool necessary for assessing the public exposure. In this work are reported the results of the indoor radon obtained in the first stage of the survey involving 247 measurements. From the preliminary information on ∼10 % of the territory, covering the biggest cities in Albania results on indoor radon concentrations ranging from 14 to 1238 Bq m(-3) with an arithmetic mean of 120±67 Bq m(-3) The population-weighted average indoor radon concentration was calculated to be 101 Bq m(-3) The adopted survey strategy highlighted the necessity for the future stages to spread the measurements in order to cover the entire territory of Albania, instead of remaining focused only on the demographic criteria. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Radon in water of Shu river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Kuyanova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The values of radon and its daughter products in water of Shu River valley have been received, using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The radon concentration naturally increases in investigated water samples downstream the Shu River, reaching the maximum value in the Tashutkolsky basin. The radon and its daughter products in a human body of 15 % are in soft tissues have been calculated by a mathematical modeling method. The annual dose from radon and its daughter products calculated by a mathematical modeling method received by the residents living in Shu river valley is 0,03 mSv/year.

  6. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  7. Radon barrier: Method of testing airtightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2017-01-01

    The test method NBI 167/02 Radon membrane: Test of airtightness can be used for determining the airtightness of a radon barrier as a system solution. The test determines the air infiltration through the radon barrier for a number of levels of air pressure differences. The airflow through versus...... of the barrier with the low air pressure, through a well-defined opening, as a modification of the test method in general. Results, obtained using the improved test method, are shown for a number of radon barriers tested....

  8. Interpreting the radon transform using Prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-03-01

    The Radon transform is an important method for identifying linear features in a digital image. However, the images which the Radon transform generates are complex and require intelligent interpretation, to identify lines in the input image correctly. This article describes how the images can be pre-processed to make the spots in the Radon transform image more easily identified and describes Prolog programs which can recognize constellations of points in the Radon transform image and thereby identify geometric figures within the input image.

  9. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  10. On the interaction between radon progeny and particles generated by electronic and traditional cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Trassierra, C.; Cardellini, F.; Buonanno, G.; De Felice, P.

    2015-04-01

    During their entire lives, people are exposed to the pollutants present in indoor air. Recently, Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, mainly known as electronic cigarettes, have been widely commercialized: they deliver particles into the lungs of the users but a "second-hand smoke" has yet to be associated to this indoor source. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring radioactive gas, i.e. radon, represents a significant risk for lung cancer, and the cumulative action of these two agents could be worse than the agents separately would. In order to deepen the interaction between radon progeny and second-hand aerosol from different types of cigarettes, a designed experimental study was carried out by generating aerosol from e-cigarette vaping as well as from second-hand traditional smoke inside a walk-in radon chamber at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (INMRI) of Italy. In this chamber, the radon present in air comes naturally from the floor and ambient conditions are controlled. To characterize the sidestream smoke emitted by cigarettes, condensation particle counters and scanning mobility particle sizer were used. Radon concentration in the air was measured through an Alphaguard ionization chamber, whereas the measurement of radon decay product in the air was performed with the Tracelab BWLM Plus-2S Radon daughter Monitor. It was found an increase of the Potential Alpha-Energy Concentration (PAEC) due to the radon decay products attached to aerosol for higher particle number concentrations. This varied from 7.47 ± 0.34 MeV L-1 to 12.6 ± 0.26 MeV L-1 (69%) for the e-cigarette. In the case of traditional cigarette and at the same radon concentration, the increase was from 14.1 ± 0.43 MeV L-1 to 18.6 ± 0.19 MeV L-1 (31%). The equilibrium factor increases, varying from 23.4% ± 1.11% to 29.5% ± 0.26% and from 30.9% ± 1.0% to 38.1 ± 0.88 for the e-cigarette and traditional cigarette, respectively. These growths still continue for long

  11. Assessment of Mobility in Older People Hospitalized for Medical Illness Using de Morton Mobility Index and Cumulated Ambulation Score-Validity and Minimal Clinical Important Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trøstrup, Jeanette; Andersen, Helle; Kam, Charlotte Agger Meiner; Magnusson, S Peter; Beyer, Nina

    2017-12-15

    Older adults acutely hospitalized for medical illness typically have comorbidity and disability, and inhospital physical inactivity greatly increases the likelihood of developing new disability. Thus, assessment of the patients' mobility status is crucial for planning and carrying out targeted interventions that ensure mobilization during hospital admission. The aim of this study was to determine convergent validity, known group validity, floor and ceiling effects, and anchor-based minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the more time-consuming de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) and the less time-consuming Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) in older adults acutely hospitalized for medical illness. In this multicenter cohort study, 235 older hospitalized adults, with a mean (standard deviation) age of 84.8 (7.1) years, were consecutively included. Assessments of mobility using the DEMMI (score range 0-100), the CAS (score range 0-6), and the Barthel Index (BI, score range 0-100) were performed by physical or occupational therapists at hospital admission and discharge. In addition, at discharge patients and therapists were independently asked to assess the patients' current mobility status compared with their mobility status at hospital admission using the Global Rating of Change scale. Complete data sets were obtained for 155 patients. Baseline characteristics of those with complete data sets did not differ from those with incomplete data sets, except for the number of secondary diagnoses, which was lower in the latter. Significant and moderate relationships existed both at admission and at discharge between scores in the DEMMI and the BI (rs = 0.68, P mobility and can be considered to have the required properties for measuring mobility in older adults who are hospitalized in medical and geriatric wards. In contrast, the CAS appears to be appropriate to identify whether a patient is independently mobile or needs assistance, while the measure is less suitable

  12. Radon tower measurements in a Spanish coastal site for Lagrangian particle dispersion model inter-comparison and performance assessment at the mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Arturo; Arnold, Delia; Ángel Hernández-Ceballos, Miguel; Adame, José Antonio; Morton, Don; Grossi, Claudia; Schicker, Irene; de la Morena, Benito; Bolivar, Juan Pedro; Gil, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the spanish research project "Development and validation of advanced atmospheric dispersion models for their application in radiological emergency systems" (ref:CGL2008-00473) /CLI, the "El Arenosillo" tower, belonging to the National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA) was equiped with radon monitors and, since 2011, is providing reliable and high quality measurements of Rn-222 air concentrations on an hourly basis at two elevations, namely 10 and 100 m above ground level. This radionuclide data is accompanied by continuous meteorological data including temperature, humidity, pressure and wind speed / direction. The location of the station, at the very edge of the Southern Europe, exposed to continental (rural, industrial and urban), marine and Saharan air masses, together with the Rn-222 and meteorological measurements, make it particularly attractive to study the transport phenomena and the performance of meteorological and transport models at all scales, as well as to carry out studies on the vertical structure of the atmosphere in a coastal site. In this context, two intensive measurement campaigns, including radio soundings, were performed during October 2011 and May 2012, allowing the comparison and a better understanding of the Rn-222 measurements under different meteorological conditions. This work will present a first evaluation of the two campaigns at the INTA station, analyzing the evolution of Rn-222 concentration data and the results of the meteorological numerical modelling of those episodes using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with different parameterizations. Finally, the atmospheric dispersion model inter-comparison (HYSPLIT-WRF and FLEXPART-WRF) with Rn-222 as a tracer is performed.

  13. Result of alpha track detection of radon in soil gas in the Khlong Marui Fault Zone, Southern Thailand: A possible earthquake precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripob Bhongsuwan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of radon concentration in soil gas were conducted at ten stations (ST1-ST10, located mainly in theKhlong Marui Fault Zone, Thap Put District, Phang Nga Province over a period from 28 January to 25 April, 2007. The resultsof the radon concentration were presented as the variation of cumulative alpha track over a week period. At Station ST10 theradon concentrations are in general higher than those at other stations for every week. Two significant radon anomalies werefound to have the concentration above the mean value plus one standard deviation. During the period of monitoring thelocal and regional earthquake activities were observed showing patterns consistent with the occurrence of the radon anomalies.The maximum radon concentration is interpreted to be related to a possible influence of the pressure and stress increasedin the subsurface. An increase in the number of earthquakes is observed correlating to a lower radon concentration when thesubsurface pressure dropped due to tectonic stress release by seismic activities. Therefore, it would be possible to use thevariation of soil gas radon concentration as an earthquake precursor in the Khlong Marui Fault Zone.

  14. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Allan; Andersen, Claus Erik; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Tjønneland, Anne; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993–1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect modification was assessed. Results Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m3 increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.37) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.50), respectively. The association between radon exposure and BCC was stronger among those with higher socio-economic status and those living in apartments at enrollment. Conclusion and Impact Long-term residential radon exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and non-existent amongst those living in single detached homes. PMID:26274607

  15. Residential radon, EGFR mutations and ALK alterations in never-smoking lung cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Torres-Durán, María; Kelsey, Karl T; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abdulkader, Ihab; Abal-Arca, José; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Vidal-García, Iria; Amenedo, Margarita; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; González-Barcala, Javier; Martínez, Cristina; Guzmán-Taveras, Rosirys; Provencio, Mariano; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if residential radon exposure might cause EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements in never-smokers.We designed a multicentre case-control study in a radon-prone area (Galicia, Spain); only lung cancer cases were included in the study. We obtained residential radon measurements and clinical information for all the participants. We compared the median values of residential radon between patients with EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements versus those without them.323 patients were included. Median age was 70 years and 19.5% were males. 42 and 15% of patients were EGFR- and ALK-positive, respectively. The most frequent EGFR alterations were exon 19 deletions and exon 21 (L858R) single-point substitution mutations. ALK-positive patients were 10 years younger than ALK-negative patients. Residential radon levels were two-fold higher in patients with exon 19 deletions compared with patients with exon 21 (L858R) single-point substitution mutations (216 versus 118 Bq·m(-3); p=0.057). There were no differences in residential radon levels by EGFR mutation status. ALK-positive patients (n=12) essentially had two-fold residential radon levels compared with ALK-negative patients (290 versus 164 Bq·m(-3), respectively).Residential radon may have a role in the molecular signature of lung cancer in never-smokers, although more studies with larger sample sizes are needed to support this hypothesis. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  16. Indoor Radon in Micro-geological Setting of an Indigenous Community in Canada: A Pilot Study for Hazard Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Sarkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. Objective: To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol. Methods: We surveyed a remote Inuit community in Labrador, located in the midst of uranium belt. We selected 25 houses by convenience sampling and placed electret-ion-chamber radon monitoring devices in the lowest levels of the house (basement/crawl space. The standard radon study questionnaire developed and used by Health Canada was used. Results: 7 (28% houses had radon levels above the guideline value (range 249 to 574 Bq/m3. Housing characteristics, such as floors, sump holes, ventilation, and heating systems were suspected for high indoor radon levels and health consequences. Conclusion: There is a possibility of the existence of high-risk community in a low-risk region. The regional and provincial health authorities would be benefited by consulting geologists to identify potentially high-risk communities across the country. Placing testing devices in the lowest levels provides more accurate assessment of indoor radon level. The proposed protocol, based on synchronized testing of radon (at the lowest level of houses and in rooms of normal occupancy and thorough inspection of the houses will be a more effective lung cancer prevention strategy.

  17. Radon surveys and monitoring at active volcanoes: an open window on deep hydrothermal systems and their dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigolini, Corrado; Laiolo, Marco; Coppola, Diego

    2017-04-01

    The behavior of fluids in hydrothermal systems is critical in volcano monitoring and geothermal prospecting. Analyzing the time series of radon emissions on active volcanoes is strategic for detecting and interpreting precursory signals of changes in volcanic activity, eventually leading to eruptions. Radon is a radioactive gas generated from the decay of U bearing rocks, soils and magmas. Although radon has been regarded as a potential precursor of earthquakes, radon anomalies appear to be better suited to forecast volcanic eruptions since we know where paroxysms may occur and we can follow the evolution of volcanic activity. Radon mapping at active volcanoes is also a reliable tool to assess diffuse and concentrated degassing as well as efficiently detecting earthquake-volcano interactions. Systematic radon monitoring has been shown to be a key factor for evaluating the rise of volcanic and hydrothermal fluids. In fact, the decay properties of radon, the duration of radon anomalies together with sampling rates may be cross-checked with the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids (and their transport properties) to constrain fluids ascent rates and to infer the permeability and porosity of rocks in sectors surrounding the active conduits. We hereby further discuss the data of radon surveys and monitoring at Somma-Vesuvius, Stromboli and La Soufrière (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). The integrated analysis of seismic and geochemical data, including radon emissions, may be successfully used in testing temperature distributions and variations of porosity and permeability in volcanic hydrothermal systems and can be used as a proxy to analyze geothermal reservoirs.

  18. Indoor Radon in Micro-geological Setting of an Indigenous Community in Canada: A Pilot Study for Hazard Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Wilton, Derek Hc; Fitzgerald, Erica

    2017-04-01

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol. We surveyed a remote Inuit community in Labrador, located in the midst of uranium belt. We selected 25 houses by convenience sampling and placed electret-ion-chamber radon monitoring devices in the lowest levels of the house (basement/crawl space). The standard radon study questionnaire developed and used by Health Canada was used. 7 (28%) houses had radon levels above the guideline value (range 249 to 574 Bq/m 3 ). Housing characteristics, such as floors, sump holes, ventilation, and heating systems were suspected for high indoor radon levels and health consequences. There is a possibility of the existence of high-risk community in a low-risk region. The regional and provincial health authorities would be benefited by consulting geologists to identify potentially high-risk communities across the country. Placing testing devices in the lowest levels provides more accurate assessment of indoor radon level. The proposed protocol, based on synchronized testing of radon (at the lowest level of houses and in rooms of normal occupancy) and thorough inspection of the houses will be a more effective lung cancer prevention strategy.

  19. Radon Sources and Associated Risk in terms of Exposure and Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstratios Gregory Vogiannis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon concern the international scientific community from early 20th century. Initially as radium emanation, almost the second half of the century as severe harmful to human health. Initial brilliant period of use as medicine, followed by a period of intense concern for its health effects. Primary target groups surveyed were miners early in Europe later in U.S. There is now compelling evidence that radon and its progeny can cause lung cancer. Human activities may create or modify pathways increasing indoor radon concentration compared to outdoor background. These pathways can be controlled by preventive and corrective actions. Indoor Radon and its short-lived progeny attached on aerosol particles or free compose an air mixture that carry a significant energy amount (PAEC. Exposure on PAEC and dose delivered reviewed in detail. Special attention was paid to the case of water workers because lack of adequate data. Radon risk assessment and current legislation regulates dose from radon and its progeny, also were reviewed.

  20. Systematic radon survey over active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Garcia Vindas, J.R. [Centre National de la Recherche Cientifique, Montpellier (France). Lab. GBE; Ricard, L.P.; Staudacher, T. [Observatoire Volcanologique Du Pitou de la Fournaise, La Plaine des Cafres (France)

    1999-08-01

    Data obtained since 1993 on Costa Rica volcanos are presented and radon anomalies recorded before the eruption of the Irazu volcano (December 8, 1994) are discussed. The Piton de la Fournaise volcano is inactive since mid 1992. The influence of the external parameters on the radon behaviour is studied and the type of perturbations induced on short-term measurements are individuate.

  1. Removal of Radon from Household Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    By far, the greatest risk to health from radon occurs when the gas enters the house from underlying soil and is inhaled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying ways to reduce radon in houses, including methods to remove the gas from water to prevent its release in houses when the water is used. While this research has not…

  2. Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

    Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many…

  3. Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and…

  4. Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other…

  5. Decadal radon cycles in a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Woith, Heiko; Wang, Rongjiang; Wang, Guangcai

    2017-09-21

    A high-fidelity record covering nearly 40 years of water-dissolved radon from the hot spring site of BangLazhang (BLZ), Southwestern China is presented to study multi-year periodicities of radon. Ancillary observational data, i.e., water temperature, spring discharge rate, barometric pressure, combined with regional rainfall, galactic cosmic rays (GCR flux is modulated by solar wind and thus a proxy for solar activity) and regional seismicity from the same period are considered to identify potentially influencing factors controlling the changes in radon. Variations in radon concentration and ancillary observational data are studied using continuous Wavelet Power Spectrum (WPS), Wavelet Coherence (WTC), and Partial Wavelet Coherence (PWC). The results show that the long-period radon concentration is characterized by a quasi-decadal (8-11 years) cycle, matching well with the concurrent periodicity in water temperature, spring discharge rates and GCR. PWCs of radon, discharge rate and water temperature suggest that water temperature variations explain most of the coherent variability of radon and the discharge rate. We tentatively conclude that radon variations are mainly explained by variations in water temperature and spring discharge, which are modified and modulated by earthquakes and quasi-decadal variations of an unidentified process. The influence of solar activity on the decadal periodicity is discussed.

  6. Estimation of Indoor Radon from Concrete Blocks Used In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radon gas is the most important source of natural radiation. Indoor radon concentration is the main path of human exposure to high radon concentration. Radon contribution from concrete block walls of typical Nigerian dwellings has been estimated from gamma ray spectroscopy measurements of radium concentration ...

  7. Find a Radon Test Kit or Measurement and Mitigation Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a qualified radon service professional to fix or mitigate your home. If you have questions about a radon, you should contact your state radon contact and/or contact one or both of the two privately-run National Radon Proficiency Programs

  8. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  9. Radon exposure and mortality among the French cohort of uranium miners: 1946-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacquier, B.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Caer, S.; Quesne, B. [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires, 78 - Velizy (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The French cohort of uranium miners aims at evaluating the mortality risk of miners exposed to low levels of radon and its decay products and to other occupational hazards. Its primary aim is the quantification of the relationship between cumulated radon exposure and the risk of lung cancer death. However this study also allows to analyse risks for causes of death other than lung cancer. We present a new analysis of the mortality based on an extended follow-up of the cohort to end of 1999. Materials and methods: The French cohort of uranium miners has been followed by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (I.R.S.N.) since the 1980's, in collaboration with the Occupational Medical Service of Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (Cogema). The cohort was recently enlarged and the follow-up extended up to 1999. It includes men employed as miners for at least 1 year since 1946 at the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique (Cea) or at the Cogema. Individual vital status was ascertained through a national database and causes of death were determined according to death certificates. For each miner, yearly radon exposures was reconstructed and expressed in working level month (W.L.M.). Risk of death was estimated relatively to external reference rates from the general French male population. The classical method of standardized mortality ratios (S.M.R.s) was used to adjust for age and calendar year. Exposure-risk relationships have been estimated by Poisson regression, using a linear excess relative risk (E.R.R.) model with a lag time of 5 years. Results: The cohort comprises 5,098 miners. The mean duration of follow -up is 30.1 years (total of 153,272 person-years). The number of radon exposed miners is 4,134 with an average cumulative radon exposure of 36.5 W.L.M.. Miners lost to follow-up represent 1.4% of the cohort. A total of 1,471 deaths before age 85 is observed up to 1999. The analysis shows no excess for all

  10. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Impact of Exhaust-Only Ventilation on Radon and Indoor Humidity - A Field Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The study described here sought to assess the impact of exhaust-only ventilation on indoor radon and humidity in single-family homes that had been treated by the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

  11. Assesment of the response of the meteorological/hydrological parameters on the soil gas radon emission at Hsinchu, northern Taiwan: A prerequisite to identify earthquake precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Baldev R.; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Fu, Ching-Chou; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2017-11-01

    The present study is an attempt to assess and quantify the influence of the meteorological (atmospheric temperature and pressure) and hydrological (rainfall and ground water head-GWH) parameters on the soil gas radon emission at Hsinchu, northern Taiwan. The quasi-periodic variations corresponding to diurnal and semi diurnal periods were estimated and eliminated by decomposing the time series for the period of September 16, 2009 to March 5, 2010 to singular spectrum analysis. The reconstructed non-periodic variations, which reproduce the salient feature of recorded time series, were searched for meteorological/hydrological influences in radon emission. The combined response of barometric pressure and atmosphere temperature are found to be small when compared to the total variability in radon. The influence of rainfall on radon is found to be strongest. At the onset of rainfall, radon shows a step-jump that attains peak with a time lag of 12-15 h. This enhancement is attributed to entrapment of soil gas in the top soil cover as increased soil moisture prevents escape of radon into the atmosphere (capping effect). The decay of radon after the recession of rainfall is approximated by double exponential decay terms, one corresponding to the natural decay of radon with half life of 3.84 days and second representing slow weakening of capping effect. The third effect related to internal loading due to rise and fall of groundwater modulates the propagation of radon in overlying strata, accounting for the long term variations in radon. The rainfall inflicted changes in radon look strikingly similar to earthquake related precursory or co-seismic perturbations, inferred by long term synotopic observations. It is surmised that unless radon variations are corrected for meteorological/hydrological contamination, some precursory signals are masked on one hand while on the other hand some anomalies are falsely viewed as earthquake precursors.

  12. Novel method of measurement of radon exhalation from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awhida, A; Ujić, P; Vukanac, I; Đurašević, M; Kandić, A; Čeliković, I; Lončar, B; Kolarž, P

    2016-11-01

    In the era of the energy saving policy (i.e. more air tight doors and windows), the radon exhaled from building materials tends to increase its concentration in indoor air, which increases the importance of the measurement of radon exhalation from building materials. This manuscript presents a novel method of the radon exhalation measurement using only a HPGe detector or any other gamma spectrometer. Comparing it with the already used methods of radon exhalation measurements, this method provides the measurement of the emanation coefficient, the radon diffusion length and the radon exhalation rate, all within the same measurement, which additionally defines material's radon protective properties. Furthermore it does not necessitate additional equipment for radon or radon exhalation measurement, which simplifies measurement technique, and thus potentially facilitates introduction of legal obligation for radon exhalation determination in building materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radon and the system of radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J F

    2012-01-01

    At its meeting in Porto, Portugal, in November 2009, the Main Commission of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) approved the formation of a new Task Group, reporting to Committee 4, to develop guidance on radiological protection against radon exposure. This article describes the Task Group's draft report entitled "Radiological Protection against Radon Exposure" which has been posted on the ICRP website for public consultation between January and June 2012. In this report, the Commission provides updated guidance on radiological protection against radon exposure. The report was developed considering the recently consolidated ICRP general recommendations, the new scientific knowledge about radon risk, and the experience gained by many organisations and countries in the control of radon exposure. The report describes the characteristics of radon exposure, covering sources and transfer mechanisms, nature of the risk, exposure conditions, similarities with other existing exposure situations, and challenges to manage radon exposure. In order to control radon exposure, the Commission recommends an integrated approach that is focused as much as possible on the management of the building or location in which radon exposure occurs, regardless of the purpose of the building and the category of the occupants. This approach is based on the optimisation principle, and a graded approach according to the degree of responsibilities at stake, notably in workplaces, and the level of ambition of the national authorities. The report emphasises the importance of preventive actions, and provides recommendations on how to control radon exposure in workplaces when workers' exposure can reasonably be regarded as being the responsibility of the operating management. In such a case, workers' exposures are considered to be occupational, and are controlled using the corresponding requirements on the basis of the optimisation principle, and application, as appropriate

  14. Diffusion of radon through concrete block walls: A significant source of indoor radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, R.S.; Goldberg, L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Basement modules located in southern Minnesota have been the site of continuous radon and environmental measurements during heating seasons since 1993. Concentrations of radon within the basement modules ranged from 70 Bq.m-3 to over 4000 Bq.m-3 between November to April during the three measurement periods. In the soil gas for the same times, concentrations of radon ranged between 25,000 and 70,000 Bq.m-3. Levels of radon within the basement modules changed by factors of five or more within 24 h, in concert with pressure gradients of 4 to 20 Pa that developed between the basement modules and their surroundings. Diffusion is identified as the principal method by which radon is transferred into and out of the basement modules, and appears to be relatively independent of insulating materials and vapour retarders. The variability of radon and correlations with differential pressure gradients may be related to air currents in the block walls and soil that interrupt radon diffusing inward. This yields a net decrease of radon in the basement modules by decay and outward diffusion. Levels of radon within the basement modules increase when the pressure differential is zero and air flow ceases, allowing diffusion gradients to be re-established. Radon levels in both the soil and the basement modules then increase until an equilibrium is achieved.

  15. Assessment of the cumulative impacts within the Kromdraai catchment area with a specific focus on the point source discharges / Alta van Dyk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyk, Anna Aletta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to determine if the cumulative impacts from point source discharges in the Kromdraai Catchment area sigdicantly impacting on the fitness of use of the surface water resource. The Kromdraai catchment area is located within the Upper Vaal Water Management Area and includes the Upper and Lower Wonderfonteinspruit, the Mooi River and the Loopspruit. The catchment area stretches from Krugersdorp to the confluence with the Vaal River and includ...

  16. Results of the 2001 NRPB intercomparison of passive radon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Howarth, C B

    2002-01-01

    As in previous years, an intercomparison of passive radon detectors was held at NRPB in 2001. Forty-seven laboratories submitted 62 sets of passive detectors to this intercomparison. The exercise included three exposures to radon and its decay products at different equilibrium factors. An additional exposure at the CERN - EU high Energy Reference Facility (CERF) to a simulated cosmic ray spectrum was also offered to participants. After exposure, the detectors were returned to their originating laboratories for assessment. Participants reported the estimated exposure for each detector before they were notified of the exposures given to the detectors. The results obtained by participating laboratories were classified according to the spread of results from detectors exposed together and by the difference between the mean result of each group and the actual exposure given. Thirty-five percent of the laboratories achieved the highest classification for accuracy, while 9% were in the lowest category. The proportio...

  17. Indoor radon seasonal variability at different floors of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Francesco, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Tommasone, F. Pascale [Office of Civil Protection, Meteorology, Climatology and Natural Hazards, Piazza Municipio, 81051 Pietramelara, Caserta (Italy); Cuoco, E. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Tedesco, D., E-mail: dtedesco@unina.i [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); C.N.R. (Italian Council for Research), Institute of Environmental Geology and Geological Engineering, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 00100 Roma (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Indoor radon concentrations have been measured with the {alpha} track etch integrated method in public buildings in the town of Pietramelara, north-western Campania, Southern Italy. In particular, our measurements were part of an environmental monitoring program originally aimed at assessing the range of seasonal fluctuations in indoor radon concentrations, at various floors of the studied buildings. However, subsequent analysis of the data and its comparison with the meteorological data recorded in the same period has shown an unexpected pattern at the different floors. In this report we present data suggesting that, besides the well-known medium and longterm periodicity, there could also be a differentiation in major meteorological controlling factors at the different floors of the buildings, a fact that does not appear to have been reported previously. While the lower floors proved to be markedly affected by rainfall, for the upper floors, instead, a different behaviour has been detected, which could possibly be related to global solar radiation.

  18. Radon in the soil air of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersell, Valter; Täht-Kok, Krista; Karimov, Mark; Milvek, Heli; Nirgi, Siim; Raha, Margus; Saarik, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Several investigations in Estonia during 1996¬-1999 have shown that permissible level (200 Bq/m3) of radon (222Rn) in indoor air is exceeded in 33% of the inspected dwellings. This makes Estonia one of the five countries with highest radon risk in Europe (Fig 1). Due to correlation between the soil radon risk level and radon concentration in houses, small scale radon risk mapping of soil air was carried out (one study point per 70-100 km2). It turned out that one-third of Estonian mainland has high radon risk potential, where radon concentration in soil air exceeds safe limit of 50 kBq/m3. In order to estimate radon content in soil air, two different methods developed in Sweden were used simultaneously. Besides measuring radon content from soil air at the depth of 80 cm with an emanometer (RnM), maximum potential content of radon in soil (RnG) was estimated based on the rate of eU (226Ra) concentration in soil, which was acquired by using gamma-ray spectrometer. Mapping and following studies revealed that simultaneously measured RnG and RnM in study points may often differ. To inspect the cause, several monitoring points were set up in places with different geological conditions. It appeared that unlike the RnG content, which remains close to average level in repeated measurements, the RnM content may differ more than three times periodically. After continuous observations it turned out that concentration of directly measured radon depended on various factors being mostly controlled by mineral composition of soil, properties of topsoil as well as different factors influencing aeration of soil. The results of Rn monitoring show that reliable level of radon risk in Estonian soils can only be acquired by using calculated Rn-concentration in soil air based on eU content and directly measured radon content of soil air in combination with interpreting specific geological and geochemical situations in the study points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Surface-water radon-222 distribution along the west-central Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.G.; Robbins, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009 and August 2009, the spatial distribution of radon-222 in surface water was mapped along the west-central Florida shelf as collaboration between the Response of Florida Shelf Ecosystems to Climate Change project and a U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Research Fellowship project. This report summarizes the surface distribution of radon-222 from two cruises and evaluates potential physical controls on radon-222 fluxes. Radon-222 is an inert gas produced overwhelmingly in sediment and has a short half-life of 3.8 days; activities in surface water ranged between 30 and 170 becquerels per cubic meter. Overall, radon-222 activities were enriched in nearshore surface waters relative to offshore waters. Dilution in offshore waters is expected to be the cause of the low offshore activities. While thermal stratification of the water column during the August survey may explain higher radon-222 activities relative to the February survey, radon-222 activity and integrated surface-water inventories decreased exponentially from the shoreline during both cruises. By estimating radon-222 evasion by wind from nearby buoy data and accounting for internal production from dissolved radium-226, its radiogenic long-lived parent, a simple one-dimensional model was implemented to determine the role that offshore mixing, benthic influx, and decay have on the distribution of excess radon-222 inventories along the west Florida shelf. For multiple statistically based boundary condition scenarios (first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum radon-222 inshore of 5 kilometers), the cross-shelf mixing rates and average nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates varied from 100.38 to 10-3.4 square kilometers per day and 0.00 to 1.70 centimeters per day, respectively. This dataset and modeling provide the first attempt to assess cross-shelf mixing and SGD on such a large spatial scale. Such estimates help scale up SGD rates that are often made at 1- to 10-meter

  20. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Monchaux, G.; Fritsch, P.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection Technique; Pineau, J.F. [ALGADE, Bessines (France); Chameaud, J. [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 87 - Razes (France)

    1994-12-31

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 10{sup 6} J.m{sup -3} (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author).

  1. Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposures in Two Radon—Prone Areas, Ştei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin; Sainz, Carlos; Poncela, Luis Santiago Quindós; Vasiliniuc, Ştefan

    2009-05-01

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. For medium and low concentrations which are the typical residential radon levels, recent researches have also demonstrated increased risks of lung cancer for people exposed. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon—prone areas, Ştei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). One important difference between the two studied areas is related to the houses built using uranium waste as construction material in Ştei area. Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Ştei area was 2650 Bqṡm-3. and 366 Bqṡm-3 in the Spanish region. The results are compute with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bqṡm-3. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were calculated in the Ştei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than observed from the national statistics. In comparison, in Torrelodones area, a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer were estimated along a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number observed by authorities. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  2. Radon, Smoking, and Lung Cancer: The Need to Refocus Radon Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, David; Philbert, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, and the risk is significantly higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. More than 85% of radon-induced lung cancer deaths are among smokers. The most powerful approach for reducing the public health burden of radon is shaped by 2 overarching principles: public communication efforts that promote residential radon testing and remediation will be the most cost effective if they are primarily directed at current and former smokers; and focusing on smoking prevention and cessation is the optimal strategy for reducing radon-induced lung cancer in terms of both public health gains and economic efficiency. Tobacco control policy is the most promising route to the public health goals of radon control policy. PMID:23327258

  3. Radon, smoking, and lung cancer: the need to refocus radon control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Mendez, David; Philbert, Martin A

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, and the risk is significantly higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. More than 85% of radon-induced lung cancer deaths are among smokers. The most powerful approach for reducing the public health burden of radon is shaped by 2 overarching principles: public communication efforts that promote residential radon testing and remediation will be the most cost effective if they are primarily directed at current and former smokers; and focusing on smoking prevention and cessation is the optimal strategy for reducing radon-induced lung cancer in terms of both public health gains and economic efficiency. Tobacco control policy is the most promising route to the public health goals of radon control policy.

  4. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano; Mediciones de radon y elementos quimicos: Volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. [UMR 5569 CNRS Hydrosciences, Montpellier (France)

    2002-07-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  5. Uncertainties about health effects of radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-10-19

    The validity of the studies and the interpretation of these studies that are the basis of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s recommended action level of 4 pCi/liter of radon in residences are strongly questioned. The many assumptions that were made to arrive at this figure and the large amount of money necessary to attain this level in some residences are highlighted. The synergistic effect of smoking and radon exposure on human health is noted. One epidemiological study carried out by Bernard L. Cohn at the University of Pittsburgh has stored relevant data for about a third of the counties of the US, and multivariant analysis of the data led to the conclusion that at low doses of radon found in the average home, radon does not have an adverse effect on health. The author suggests that EPA should give priority to identifying rare circumstances, high permeability and radon content, where high levels of radon prevail and encourage remediation there rather than wholesale action where levels of radon are low.

  6. A study on the correlation between soil radon potential and average indoor radon potential in Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ford, Ken L

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon is identified as the main source of natural radiation exposure to the population. Since radon in homes originates mainly from soil gas radon, it is of public interest to study the correlation between radon in soil and radon indoors in different geographic locations. From 2007 to 2010, a total of 1070 sites were surveyed for soil gas radon and soil permeability. Among the sites surveyed, 430 sites were in 14 cities where indoor radon information is available from residential radon and thoron surveys conducted in recent years. It is observed that indoor radon potential (percentage of homes above 200 Bq m(-3); range from 1.5% to 42%) correlates reasonably well with soil radon potential (SRP: an index proportional to soil gas radon concentration and soil permeability; average SRP ranged from 8 to 26). In five cities where in-situ soil permeability was measured at more than 20 sites, a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.68 for linear regression and R(2) = 0.81 for non-linear regression) was observed between indoor radon potential and soil radon potential. This summary report shows that soil gas radon measurement is a practical and useful predictor of indoor radon potential in a geographic area, and may be useful for making decisions around prioritizing activities to manage population exposure and future land-use planning. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Residential radon exposure and brain cancer: an ecological study in a radon prone area (Galicia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragon?s, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T.; P?rez-R?os, M?nica; Pi?eiro-Lamas, Mar?a; L?pez-Abente, Gonzalo; Juan M. Barros-Dios

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to know if radon concentration is associated with municipal mortality due to brain cancer in Galicia, Spain. We designed an ecological study taking as study unit Galician municipalities. To be included, municipalities had to have at least three radon measurements. We correlated radon concentrations with municipal mortality due to these malignant tumors during the period 1999?2008. We calculated the relative risk of dying of brain cancers for each municipality and correlated this valu...

  8. Nanomaterial containing wall paints can increase radon concentration in houses located in radon prone areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Faghihi, R; Mehdizadeh, S; Moradgholi, J; Darvish, L; Fathi-Pour, E; Ansari, L; Ghanbar-Pour, M R

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, extensive technological advancements have made it possible to use nanopaints which show exciting properties. In IR Iran excessive radon levels (up to 3700 Bq m-3) have been reported in homes located in radon prone areas. Over the past decades, concerns have been raised about the risk posed by residential radon exposure. This study aims at investigating the effect of using nanomaterial containing wall paints on radon concentration in homes. Two wooden model houses were used in this study. Soil samples from Ramsar high background radiation areas were used for simulating the situation of a typical house in radon-prone areas. Conventional water-soluble wall paint was used for painting the walls of the 1st house model; while the 2nd house model was painted with the same wall paint with montmorillonitenanoclay. Three days after sealing the house models, radon level was measured by using a portable radon survey meter. The mean radon level inside the 1st house model (conventional paint) was 515.3 ± 17.8 Bq/m(3) while the mean radon concentration in the 2nd house model (nano-painted house model) was 570.8 ± 18.5 Bq/m(3). The difference between these means was statistically significant (P<0.001). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation on the effect of nano-material containing wall paints on indoor radon concentrations.  It can be concluded that nano-material-containing wall paints should not be used in houses with wooden walls located in radon prone areas. Although the mechanism of this effect is not clearly known, decreased porosity in nano-paints might be a key factor in increasing the radon concentration in homes.

  9. Balance letter on information days on radon. The radon in question. To fight against radon; Lettre bilan des journees d'information sur le radon. Le radon en question. Lutter contre le radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelon, Th. [Ministere de la sante et des solidarites, Dir. Generale de la Sante, 75 - Paris (France); Queniart, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2002-05-15

    Since 1999 actions to detect radon in public building have been implemented, after three years, more than 13 000 establishments have been verified. These actions are going to be reinforced by the publication of a new regulatory frame that will give obligation to householder or operator of a place open to the public to carry out measures of exposure surveillance on geographic areas with a strong exhalation potential of radon. (N.C.)

  10. Comparison of four types of passive and integrated and sensitive radon monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Gui Zhi

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity of radon measurement method, Fast and Multi-functional Radon Monitor with Electret, Sensitive Miner Radon Monitor, fast and Multifunctional Radon Monitor with High Voltage and PCMR-1 Passive and Continuous Radon Monitor were developed. Except Sensitive Miner Radon Monitor suits for radon concentration measurement only, the others can be used to measure both radon concentration and radon flux rate. Their measurement principles. specifications, quality assurance system, advantages and disadvantages are introduced. The simultaneous measurement results indicate that the errors among them are less than 5% and 10%, respectively, for the average radon concentration measurement and for the average radon flux rate measurement

  11. Review of high-sensitivity Radon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.

    2017-10-01

    A challenge in many present cutting-edge particle physics experiments is the stringent requirements in terms of radioactive background. In peculiar, the prevention of Radon, a radioactive noble gas, which occurs from ambient air and it is also released by emanation from the omnipresent progenitor Radium. In this paper we review various high-sensitivity Radon detection techniques and approaches, applied in the experiments looking for rare nuclear processes happening at low energies. They allow to identify, quantitatively measure and finally suppress the numerous sources of Radon in the detectors’ components and plants.

  12. Additional contamination when radon is in excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2013-11-01

    A study of the behavior of the (222)Rn progeny on clothes, skin and hair has been performed in a place with very high radon concentration. In the past, radon concentration was established to be about 32 kBq/m(3) in a very high humidity environment inside a tourist cave in Extremadura (Spain). The results show that (222)Rn daughters are adhered on clothes, skin and hair, adding some radioactive concentration to that due to radon and its progeny existing in the breathable air. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radon - kilder og måling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    Når man skal vurdere en bygnings indeklima er det vigtigt at have viden om radonindholdet. Denne viden får man ved måling, da radon hverken kan ses, lugtes, høres, smages eller føles. Denne anvisning redegør for radons oprindelse og indvirkning på menneskers sundhed. Anvisningen beskriver metoder...... til måling og analyse af radonindholdet i en bygnings indeluft. Læseren får indsigt i, hvordan man relativt let med standardiserede metoder kan eftervise, om en bygning opfylder bygningsreglementets krav til radon i indeluften. Anvisningen henvender sig til bygningsejere, bygherrer, projekterende og...

  14. Soil radon levels across the Amer fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Ll. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: lluis.font@uab.cat; Baixeras, C.; Moreno, V. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Edifici Cc, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bach, J. [Unitat de Geodinamica externa, Departament de Geologia, Edifici Cs, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    Soil radon levels have been measured across the Amer fault, which is located near the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain. Both passive (LR-115, time-integrating) and active (Clipperton II, time-resolved) detectors have been used in a survey in which 27 measurement points were selected in five lines perpendicular to the Amer fault in the village area of Amer. The averaged results show an influence of the distance to the fault on the mean soil radon values. The dynamic results show a very clear seasonal effect on the soil radon levels. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the fault is still active.

  15. Indoor radon concentration forecasting in South Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, L; Weber, A; Stoppa, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a modern statistical technique of multivariate analysis is applied to an indoor radon concentration data base. Several parameters are more or less significant in determining the radon concentration inside a building. The elaboration of the information available on South Tyrol makes it possible both to identify the statistically significant variables and to build up a statistical model that allows us to forecast the radon concentration in dwellings, when the values of the same variables involved are given. The results confirm the complexity of the phenomenon.

  16. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Musazay, M S; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-01-01

    A passive "can technique" and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bqm(-2)h(-1) with an average of 1.35+/-1.40 Bqm(-2)h(-1). The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  17. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Musazay, M.S.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-12-01

    A passive 'can technique' and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1} with an average of 1.35{+-}1.40 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  18. Residential radon exposure and brain cancer: an ecological study in a radon prone area (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragonés, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Piñeiro-Lamas, María; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to know if radon concentration is associated with municipal mortality due to brain cancer in Galicia, Spain. We designed an ecological study taking as study unit Galician municipalities. To be included, municipalities had to have at least three radon measurements. We correlated radon concentrations with municipal mortality due to these malignant tumors during the period 1999-2008. We calculated the relative risk of dying of brain cancers for each municipality and correlated this value with municipal radon concentration using Spearman's Rho. 251 municipalities were included, with close to 3,500 radon measurements and an average of 14 radon measurements at each municipality. We observed a significant correlation between residential radon with brain cancer mortality for males and females and the intensity of the correlation was higher for females. These results were reinforced when the analysis was restricted to municipalities with more than 5 radon measurements: Spearman's Rho 0.286 (p-value < 0.001) and Spearman's Rho 0.509 (p-value < 0.001) for males and females, respectively. These results suggest an association between residential radon and brain cancer mortality. More research using more robust epidemiological designs is needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Radon in harvested rainwater at the household level, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Saffarini, Ghassan

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess Radon concentration in the harvested rainwater (HRW) at the household level in Yatta area, Palestine. HRW is mainly used for drinking as it is the major source of water for domestic uses due to water scarcity. Ninety HRW samples from the household cisterns were collected from six localities (a town and five villages) and Radon concentrations were measured. The samples were randomly collected from different households to represent the Yatta area. Fifteen samples were collected from each locality at the same day. RAD7 device was used for analysis and each sample was measured in duplicate. Radon concentrations ranged from 0.037 to 0.26 Bq/L with a mean ± standard deviation of 0.14 ± 0.06 Bq/L. The estimated annual effective radiation doses for babies, children and adults were all far below the maximum limit of 5 mSvy-1 set by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attenuated radon transform: theory and application in medicine and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1979-06-01

    A detailed analysis is given of the properties of the attenuated Radon transform and of how increases in photon attenuation influence the numerical accuracy and computation efficiency of iterative and convolution algorithms used to determine its inversion. The practical applications for this work involve quantitative assessment of the distribution of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides in man and animals for basic physiological and biochemical studies as well as clinical studies in nuclear medicine. A mathematical structure is developed using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces which lends itself to better understanding the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform reduces to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For the situation of variable attenuation coefficient frequently found in nuclear medicine applications of imaging the heart and chest, the procedure developed in this thesis involves iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. For constant attenuation coefficient less than 0.15 cm/sup -1/, convolution methods can reliably reconstruct a 30 cm object with 0.5 cm resolution. However, for high attenuation coefficients or for the situation where there is variable attenuation such as reconstruction of distribution of isotopes in the heart, iterative techniques developed in this thesis give the best results. (ERB)

  1. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Regressionanalysis of radon measurements; Regressionsanalysen von Radonmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buermeyer, J.; Neugebauer, T.; Hingmann, H.; Grimm, V.; Breckow, J. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS); Gundlach, M. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany). Fachbereich fuer Mathematik, Naturwissenschaften und Informatik

    2016-07-01

    In the course of the renewal of the Radiation Protection Guidelines for Germany, radon becomes a more prominent concern. Thus, it is important to gain more information on the temporal behaviour of radon and its measureable parameters. This work focuses on the determination on possible influencing factors using regression-analysis methods. So far the radon concentration has been analysed and it was revealed, that the most important impact comes from the gradient of the temperature and pressure as the difference of the values in and outside the building. The carbon dioxide, which was logged as an indicator for the influences of the inhabitant does not show the high influence on the Radon levels as expected.

  3. Novel Radon Sub-Slab Suctioning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    A new principle for radon protection is currently presented which makes use of a system of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground-floor slab. The function of this system is based on the principles of pressure reduction within...... the zone below the ground-floor construction. For this purpose a new system of prefabricated lightweight elements is introduced. The effectiveness of the system is demonstrated for the case of a ground-floor reinforced concrete slab situated on top of a rigid insulation layer (consisting of a thermal...... a grid of horizontal air ducts with low pressure which are able to remove air and radon from the ground. Results showed the system to be effective in preventing radon infiltrating from the ground through the ground-floor slab, avoiding high concentrations of radon being accumulated inside houses...

  4. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  5. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Yarmoshenko, I.V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ivy@ecko.uran.ru; Kelleher, K. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Paridaens, J. [SCK.CEN Mol (Belgium); Mc Laughlin, J.P. [School of Physics, University College Dublin (Ireland); Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Onischenko, A.D. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Jovanovic, S.; Demajo, A. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Birovljev, A. [Radonlab Ltd., Oslo (Norway); Bochicchio, F. [Italian National Institute of Health, Rome (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped {sup 210}Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted {sup 210}Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test > 0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m{sup -3}, whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods.

  6. Measurements of size distributions of radon progeny for improved quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products; Messungen der Groessenverteilungen von Radon-Folgeprodukten zur Verbesserung der Quantifizierung des durch Radonexposition verursachten Lungenkrebsrisikos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haninger, T.

    1997-12-31

    A major issue in radiation protection is to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to radon and radon progeny. Quantification of the lung cancer risk emanating from exposure to radon decay products in residential and working environments poses problems, as epidemiologic studies yield information deviating from the results obtained by the indirect method of assessment based on dosimetric respiratory tract models. One important task of the publication here was to characterize the various exposure conditions and to quantify uncertainties that may result from application of the ``dose conversion convention``. A special aerosol spectrometer was therefore designed and built in order to measure the size distributions of the short-lived radon decay products in the range between 0.5 nm and 10 000 nm. The aerosol spectrometer consists of a three-step diffusion battery with wire nets, an 11-step BERNER impactor, and a detector system with twelve large-surface proportional detectors. From the measured size distributions, dose conversion coefficients, E/P{sup eq}, were calculated using the PC software RADEP; the RADEP program was developed by BIRCHALL and JAMES and is based on the respiratory tract model of the ICRP. The E/P{sup eq} coefficients indicate the effective dose E per unit exposure P{sup eq} to radon decay products. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Eines der groessten Probleme des Strahlenschutzes ist der Schutz der Bevoelkerung vor einer Strahlenexposition durch Radon und seine Folgeprodukte. Die Quantifizierung des Lungenkrebsrisikos, das durch Radonexpositionen in Wohnungen und an Arbeitsplaetzen verursacht wird, ist ein grosses Problem, weil epidemiologische Studien ein anderes Ergebnis liefern, als die indirekte Methode der Abschaetzung mit dosimetrischen Atemtrakt-Modellen. Eine wichtige Aufgabe der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, unterschiedliche Expositionsbedingungen zu charakterisieren und die Unsicherheiten zu quantifizieren, die sich aus der

  7. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  8. SURVEY IN KRASNOKAMENSK CITY ON THE CONTENT OF INDOOR RADON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Marennyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey of dwellings and enterprises of the Krasnokamensk city on the indoor radon content were performed. The radon volume activity measurements were carried out by integral method with the help of track chambers. Chambers were exhibited in the heating and the warm periods of the year for the 3-4 months in the same premises. The values of equivalent equilibrium volume activity of radon and doses from radon were obtained. It is shown, that the situation with the radon irradiation of the population of Krasnokamensk city in general meets the requirements of the radiation safety standards. Seasonal relations of volume radon activity in the premises are presented.

  9. Assessing the factor structure of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and cumulative effect of abuse and neglect on mental health among adolescents in conflict-affected Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Ruby; de Jong, J T V M; Berckmoes, Lidewyde H; Ndayisaba, Herman; Reis, Ria

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), highlight rates of abuse and neglect among Burundian adolescents, compare these rates with those found in high-income nations, and examine the cumulative effect of multiple types of abuse and neglect on depression and PTSD symptoms. Participants were 231 adolescents and youth (M=14.9, SD=1.99, 58.4% female) from five provinces of Burundi, a country in Central Africa affected by war and political violence. Translation and back-translation of the CTQ was carried out to obtain an adaptation of CTQ in Kirundi, the native language of Burundi. With the exception of one item on 'molestation' in the factor of sexual abuse, the five-factor structure of CTQ was obtained comprising latent factors, namely emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect. The rate of abuse and neglect ranged from 14.7-93.5% with more than 37% reporting 4 or more types of abuse and neglect experiences. Emotional abuse and neglect, and physical neglect were 2-3 times higher among Burundian adolescents when compared with studies from high-income countries using the CTQ. A cumulative effect of multiple types of abuse and neglect was found, such that, those with 4 or more types of maltreatment were higher on symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Findings highlight the need for culturally sensitive, standardized, and validated measures and norms for gauging childhood maltreatment in Burundi and related need for preventative interventions on childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational doses from radon in Spanish spas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, J; Gómez, J

    1999-04-01

    Recent international recommendations have included exposure to natural radiation as one of the sources to monitor in certain occupationally exposed groups. Among those mentioned are workers in thermal spas, who may be exposed to high radiation doses due to the high concentration of radon in the indoor air of the spa. This paper presents the methodology and the results of an evaluation of radiation doses to the staff in different thermal spas in Spain. Different series of samples were collected and measurements made for the radon concentrations in water in 54 spas and in air in 20 spas. In six of the latter group, the air radon concentration was studied in different working areas occupied by the employees. The radon concentrations in water were between radon concentrations in air were between radon concentration in their main working area. By means of an exposure-dose conversion factor of 1.43 Sv per J h m(-3), the estimated effective doses were found to lie between 1 and 44 mSv y(-1). This upper limit is higher than the recommended annual limit of 20 mSv y(-1) for an occupational dose.

  11. Development of high sensitivity radon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kajita, T; Tasaka, S; Hori, H; Nemoto, M; Okazawa, H

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity detectors for radon in air and in water have been developed. We use electrostatic collection and a PIN photodiode for these detectors. Calibration systems have been also constructed to obtain collection factors. As a result of the calibration study, the absolute humidity dependence of the radon detector for air is clearly observed in the region less than about 1.6 g/m sup 3. The calibration factors of the radon detector for air are 2.2+-0.2 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 0.08 g/m sup 3 and 0.86+-0.06 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 11 g/m sup 3. The calibration factor of the radon detector for water is 3.6+-0.5 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3). The background level of the radon detector for air is 2.4+-1.3 counts/day. As a result, one standard deviation excess of the signal above the background of the radon detector for air should be possible for 1.4 mBq/m sup 3 in a one-day measurement at 0.08 g/m sup 3.

  12. Radon capture with silver exchanged zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstroem, H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry; Foreman, M.; Ekberg, C. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Industrial Materials Recycling; Ramebaeck, H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Industrial Materials Recycling; Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    To enable laboratory work with larger amounts of {sup 226}Ra and its decay products, e.g., {sup 222}Rn and its daughters, these need to be captured in order to avoid unnecessary alpha contamination of the laboratory work space and ventilation systems. In this study, radon gas was pumped through a column filled with the silver exchanged zeolite called 'silver exchanged molecular sieves 13X' (Ag{sub 84}Na{sub 2}[(AlO{sub 2}){sub 86}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 106}].xH{sub 2}O). After exposure to radon, the radioactivity of the zeolite was measured repeatedly using high resolution gamma spectrometry. It was shown that radon was captured and retained in the silver exchanged zeolite. The zeolites' ability to retain radon was decreased by formation of metallic silver, caused by ionizing radiation. However, the zeolite was regenerated by heating and its radon capture ability was restored. The daughters of radon are not in gas phase and will hence stay on the column. (orig.)

  13. Algorithm Calculates Cumulative Poisson Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Nolty, Robert C.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithm calculates accurate values of cumulative Poisson distribution under conditions where other algorithms fail because numbers are so small (underflow) or so large (overflow) that computer cannot process them. Factors inserted temporarily to prevent underflow and overflow. Implemented in CUMPOIS computer program described in "Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program" (NPO-17714).

  14. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    CERN Document Server

    Font, L; Jönsson, G; Enge, W; Ghose, R

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75+-30 and 200+-80 Bq m sup - sup 3...

  15. Seasonal variation of radon level and radon effective doses in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inhalation of radon has been recognized as a health hazard. In the present work radon concentration was measured, in the atmosphere of the archaeological place, namely Catacomb of Kom El-Shuqafa, in Alexandria, Egypt, which is open to the public, using time-integrated passiveradon dosimeters containing LR-115 ...

  16. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  17. Extended application of radon as a natural tracer in oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 80's it was a common practice in the study of contamination by NAPL to incorporate a tracer to the medium to be studied. At that time the first applications focused on the use of 222Rn, a naturally occurring radioactive isotope as a natural tracer, appropriate for thermodynamics studies, geology and transport properties in thermal reservoirs. In 1993 the deficit of radon was used to spot and quantify the contamination by DNAPL under the surface. For the first time these studies showed that radon could be used as a partitioning tracer. A methodology that provides alternatives to quantify the oil volume stored in the porous space of oil reservoirs is under development at CDTN. The methodology here applied, widens up and adapts the knowledge acquired from the use of radon as a tracer to the studies aimed at assessing SOR. It is a postulation of this work that once the radon partition coefficient between oil and water is known, SOR will be determined considering the increased amount of radon in the water phase as compared to the amount initially existent as the reservoir is flooded with water. This paper will present a description of the apparatus used and some preliminary results of the experiments.

  18. Ecological association between indoor radon concentration and childhood leukaemia incidence in France, 1990-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, A S; Hémon, D; Billon, S; Laurier, D; Jougla, E; Tirmarche, M; Clavel, J

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecological association between indoor radon concentration and acute leukaemia incidence among children under 15 years of age in the 348 geographical units (zones d'emploi, ZE) of France between 1990 and 1998. During that period, 4015 cases were registered by the French National Registry of Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma. Exposure assessment was based on a campaign of 13 240 measurements covering the whole country. The arithmetic mean radon concentration was 85 Bq/m (range, 15-387 Bq/m) and the geometric mean, 59 Bq/m (range: 13-228 Bq/m). A positive ecological association, on the borderline of statistical significance (P=0.053), was observed between indoor radon concentration and childhood leukaemia incidence. The association was highly significant for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (P=0.004) but not for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) (P=0.49). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) increased by 7, 3 and 24% for all acute leukaemia, ALL and AML, respectively, when radon concentration increased by 100 Bq/m. In conclusion, the present ecological study supports the hypothesis of a moderate association between indoor radon concentration and childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. It is consistent with most previous ecological studies. Since the association is moderate, this result does not appear inconsistent with the five published case-control studies, most of which found no significant association.

  19. Radon exposure in uranium mining industry vs. exposure in tourist caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindós Poncela, L; Fernández Navarro, P; Sainz Fernández, C; Gómez Arozamena, J; Bordonoba Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    There is a fairly general consensus among health physicists and radiation professionals that exposure to radon progeny is the largest and most variable contribution to the population's exposure to natural sources of radiation. However, this exposure is the subject of continuing debate concerning the validity of risk assessment and recommendations on how to act in radon-prone areas. The purpose of this contribution is to situate the radon issue in Spain in two very different settings. The first is a uranium mining industry located in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca), which is under strict control of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). We have measured radon concentrations in different workplaces in this mine over a five-year period. The second setting comprises four tourist caves, three of which are located in the province of Cantabria and the fourth on the Canary Island of Lanzarote. These caves are not subject to any administrative control of radiation exposure. Measured air 222Rn concentrations were used to estimate annual effective doses due to radon inhalation in the two settings, and dose values were found to be from 2 to 10 times lower in the uranium mine than in the tourist caves. These results were analysed in the context of the new European Basic Safety Standards Directive (EU-BSS, 1996).

  20. Evaluation of radon in hot spring waters in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favila R, E.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    It is well know that radon is a potent human carcinogen. Because of the health concern of radon exposure, concentrations of {sup 222}Rn were determined in ten hot spring water samples from the Mexican state of Zacatecas. The thermal water is collected in pools and used mainly for recreational purposes. In addition to radon level, the water samples were characterized for temperature, conductivity, and ph. Liquid scintillation spectrometry was used to measure {sup 222}Rn and its decay products by mixing directly an aliquot of water with a commercial liquid scintillation. All measurements were carried out using a liquid scintillation counter (Wallac 1411). The water temperature ranged from 28 to 59 C, while the ph varied from 7.2 to 9.0, and the water conductivity was between 202.4 and 1072 {mu}S/cm. The {sup 222}Rn concentration varied in the range 3.9-32.6 Bq/L. In addition, the risk to radon exposure was assessed by considering three -real and possible- radon exposure scenarios: 1) ingestion of bottled thermal water, 2) direct ingestion of thermal water; and 3) vapor inhalation. The annual effective dose calculated for ingestion of bottled thermal water was 0.010-0.083 mSv/yr; for ingestion of water was 0.65-5.47 mSv/yr; and for inhalation was 0.28-2.81 mSv/yr. (Author)

  1. Radon in Soil Gas Above Bedrock Fracture Sets at the Shepley’s Hill Superfund Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Giles; T.L. McLing; M.V. Carpenter; C.J. Smith; W. Brandon

    2012-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently provided technical support for ongoing environmental remediation activities at the Shepley’s Hill remediation site near Devens, MA (Figure 1). The technical support was requested as follow-on work to an initial screening level radiation survey conducted in 2008. The purpose of the original study was to assess the efficacy of the INL-developed Backpack Sodium Iodide System (BaSIS) for detecting elevated areas of natural radioactivity due to the decay of radon-222 gases emanating from the underlying fracture sets. Although the results from the initial study were mixed, the BaSIS radiation surveys did confirm that exposed bedrock outcrops have higher natural radioactivity than the surficial soils, thus a high potential for detecting elevated levels of radon and/or radon daughter products. (INL 2009) The short count times associated with the BaSIS measurements limited the ability of the system to respond to elevated levels of radioactivity from a subsurface source, in this instance radon gas emanating from fracture sets. Thus, it was postulated that a different methodology be employed to directly detect the radon in the soil gases. The CR-39 particle track detectors were investigated through an extensive literature and technology search. The relatively long deployment or “detection” time of several days, as well as the sensitivity of the measurement and robustness of the detectors made the CR-39 technology promising for deployment at the Shepley’s Hill site.

  2. Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment for a Selected Group of Pesticides from the Triazole Group to Test Possible Methodologies to Assess Cumulative Effects from Exposure through Food from these Pesticides on Human Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2009-01-01

    Regulation EC No. 396/2005 from the European Parliament and the Council has required since September 2008 that cumulative and synergistic effects of pesticides be considered when Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) are adopted...

  3. Radon-safe new buildings, documentation and technology development. Main report; Radonsikring i nybyggeri, dokumentation og teknologiudvikling. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breddam Overgaard, L.; Bruun Petersen, J.; Neerup Jeppesen, M.

    2011-07-01

    The project is carried out as three separate subprojects, with subproject 1 as the principal project. Subproject 1A (field tests of radon penetration). In subproject 1, the resilience to radon of six different house designs has been investigated (totalling 23 houses). The study includes both practical experiences (what happens on site) and radon measurements in the completed houses. The practical study of the subproject points out, a high risk of errors in implementing radon mitigation actions in the construction phase, and of subsequent disregard by various contractors. For instance the documentary radon measurements surprisingly show the greatest radon infiltration in the full floor membrane house design. Furthermore the investigations indicate that a radon cavity barrier placed above the concrete slab (house design 3 and 5) does not provide the same impermeability as a barrier placed below the slab. Moreover, it appears that leakages at service installations are of critical importance. In 8 of all 16 dwellings the annual average radon concentration was found above 100 Bq/m3 which represents the recommended maximum concentration for new constructions in the Danish Building Code 2010. Subproject 1B (sub slab ventilation). The effect of passive ventilation in the sub slab capillary break layer has been studied in three houses. The investigations demonstrate an indoor radon concentration reduction of 20-42 %. Furthermore a sub slab radon concentration reduction of 40-99.6 % is demonstrated. Overall it is assessed that considerable radon exposure reductions can be achieved by establishing passive ventilation of the sub slab capillary break layer. Subproject 2 (laboratory tests of material and design permeability). An experimental setup has been developed to measure the amount of gas penetrating a given structural detail, at a known differential pressure and gas concentration. In the study it is concluded that the relatively inexpensive method of sealing service

  4. Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France using different risk models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O.C.; Laurier, D.L.; Rogel, A.R.; Billon, S.B.; Tirmarche, M.T. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Hemon, Dh. [INSERM -U170-IFR69, 94 - Villejuif (France); Verger, P.V. [Regional Health Observatory Provence Alpes Cote d' Azur, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon exposure is omnipresent for the general public, but at variable levels, because radon mainly comes from granitic and volcanic subs oils as well as from certain construction materials. Inhalation of radon is the main source of exposure to radioactivity in the general population of most countries. In 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared radon to be carcinogenic for humans (lung cancer): radon is classed in the group 1. The exposure of the overall general population to a carcinogenic component led scientists to assess the lung cancer risk associated to indoor radon. The aim of this work is to provide the first lung cancer risk assessment associated with indoor radon exposure in France, using all available epidemiological results and performing an uncertainty analysis. The number of lung cancer deaths potentially associated with radon in houses is estimated for the year 1999 according to several dose-response relationships which come from either cohorts of miners or joint analysis of residential case-controls studies. The variability of indoor radon exposure in France and uncertainties related to each of the dose-response relationships are considered. The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miners cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interaction between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980's by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the INSERM. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions and b y 96 departments for the year

  5. Radon exhalation rates of some granites used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address concern about radon exhalation in building material, radon exhalation rate was determined for different granites available on Serbian market. Radon exhalation rate, along with mass exhalation rate and effective radium content were determined by closed chamber method and active continuous radon measurement technique. For this research, special chambers were made and tested for back diffusion and leakage, and the radon concentrations measured were included in the calculation of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.161 Bq/m2h to 0.576 Bq/m2h, the mass exhalation rate from 0.167 Bq/kgh to 0.678 Bq/kgh, while the effective radium content was found to be from 12.37 Bq/kg to 50.23 Bq/kg. The results indicate that the granites used in Serbia have a low level of radon exhalation.

  6. How to Ensure Low Radon Concentrations in Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on methods for measuring radon levels in the indoor air in buildings as well as on concrete solutions that can be carried out in the building to prevent radon leakage and to lower the radon concentration in the indoor air of new buildings. The radon provision in the new Danish...... Building Regulations from 2010 has been tightened as a result of new recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for its harmfulness. It is therefore important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in new...... buildings. The airtightness is a major factor when dealing with radon in buildings. Above the ground it is important to build airtight in compliance with energy requirements and against the ground it is important to prevent radon from seeping into the building. There is a direct connection between...

  7. Measurement of radon diffusion length in thin membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, A; Lavi, N; Moinester, M; Nassar, H; Neeman, E; Piasetzky, E; Steiner, V

    2012-07-01

    Building regulations in Israel require the insulating of buildings against radon (222)Rn penetration from soil. In radon-prone areas membranes stretched between the soil and the building foundation are used, together with sealing other possible penetration routes. Designing the radon mitigation procedure requires checking that all sealing materials are practically, radon tight, having a thickness of at least three times the radon diffusion length. In this work, a very simple technique to evaluate the radon diffusion length in thin membranes, using a radon source of known activity and an activated charcoal canister as radon detector is presented. The theoretical formalism and measurement results for polyethylene membranes of different densities obtained in a recent comparison exercise are presented.

  8. Modelling radiation exposure in homes from siporex blocks by using exhalation rates of radon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Building materials are the second major source of indoor radon, after soil. The contribution of building materials to indoor radon amount depends upon the radium content and exhalation rates, which can be used as a primary index for radon levels in the dwellings. This paper presents the results of using the experimentally determined exhalation rates of siporex blocks and concrete plates, to assess the radiation exposure in dwellings built of siporex blocks. The annual doses in rooms have been estimated depending on the established modes of ventilation. Realistic scenario was created to predict an annual effective dose for an old person, a housewife, a student, and an employed tenant, who live in the same apartment, spending different periods of time in it. The results indicate the crucial importance of good ventilation of the living space.

  9. Radon Spectrum and Its Application for Small Moving Target Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Radon Spectrum and Its Application for Small Moving Target Detection Yunhan Dong National Security...coherent processing, the concept of a Radon spectrum that is a kind of normalised Radon transform is proposed and used for radar non-coherent detection...One advantage of using the Radon transform for non-coherent processing is that integration in all directions is considered, and hence range migration

  10. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2008-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia....... The area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial (CS)-C-137 ground deposition level of similar to 1.1 MBq m(-2). The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL...... depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a gamma-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative gamma-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period...

  11. Radon in the groundwater of Muehlviertel (Upper Austria); Radon im Grundwasser des Muehlviertels (Oberoesterreich)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Gerhard [Geologische Bundesanstalt, Wien (Austria). Abteilung Hydrogeologie; Alletsgruber, Irene [Triassic Geological Services, Northgate, Qld (Australia); Finger, Friedrich; Lettner, Herbert [Universitaet Salzburg (Austria). Fachbereich Materialforschung und Physik; Gasser, Veronika [Hydrogeologie Bohrwesen GmbH, Ferlach (Austria); Hobiger, Gerhard [Geologische Bundesanstalt, Wien (Austria). Abteilung Geochemie

    2010-03-15

    In the occurrence areas of selected crystalline rocks - mainly granites - the Radon-222 content of groundwater has been investigated. The results show a significant correlation with the Uranium concentrations in the rocks. The Uranium concentrations were between 1 and 15 ppm, while the Radon-222 concentrations were between 0.2 and 719.5 Bq/l. To identify Radon-decreasing effects like degasification and admixture of surface water, CO{sub 2} partial pressures and Oxygen-18 in water samples were determined and the local hydrological situation has been taken under consideration. Samples which showed clear evidence of Radon-decreasing effects were excluded from further evaluation because they would not represent the full empiric potential of Radon emanation in the aquifer. In combination with geological maps, petrologic information and airborne radiometry, Radon-222 analyses in groundwater can provide important data for Radon potential mapping. The significance of the groundwater Radon analyses can be improved by supplementary hydrochemical and hydrological isotope investigations. (orig.) [German] Im Muehlviertel wurde im Verbreitungsgebiet ausgewaehlter, gut definierter kristalliner Gesteine - vorwiegend Granite - das lokale Grundwasser gezielt auf Radon-222 beprobt. Das Ergebnis zeigt einen signifikanten Zusammenhang zwischen dem Urangehalt der Gesteine und dem Radongehalt der Grundwaesser auf. Die Messwerte lagen zwischen 1 und 15 ppm Uran im Gestein und zwischen 0,2 und 719,5 Bq/l Radon-222 im Grundwasser. Um im beprobten Grundwasser einen moeglichen Oberflaecheneinfluss, der den Radon-222-Gehalt herabsetzen wuerde, weitgehend ausschliessen zu koennen, wurde auch der CO{sub 2}-Partialdruck und der Sauerstoff-18-Gehalt bestimmt und die waehrend der Beprobung herrschende hydrologische Situation beruecksichtigt. Jene Proben, bei denen sich ein deutlicher Oberflaecheneinfluss abzeichnete, wurden nicht in die Auswertung mit einbezogen, da sie nicht das volle empirische

  12. Radon measures in the campus University of Alicante; Medidas de radon en el Campus de la Universidad de Alicante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedecausa Garcia, B.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis and measurement the concentration of radon in underground spaces inside various buildings of the Campus of the University of Alicante, in order to determine the concentration of radon in existing facilities. (Author)

  13. Moisture dependence of radon transport in concrete : Measurements and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER; de Meijer, RJ

    2003-01-01

    The moisture dependence of the radon-release rate of concrete was measured under well controlled conditions. It was found that the radon-release rate almost linearly increases up to moisture contents of 50 to 60%. At 70 to 80% a maximum was found and for higher moisture contents the radon-release

  14. The latest trend of the research on radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Hiroshi [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    In June, 1995, the international conference of sixth Natural Radiation Environment was held in Montreal. More than 80% of more than 200 published researches were concerned with radon and thoron. The participants came from 32 countries. The classification of the research on radon and the number of the publication are shown. The contents of the researches in respective items of measuring method, concentration level and dose evaluation, indoor model and indoor and outdoor radon balance, the countermeasures for reducing indoor radon, radon potential, dose evaluation model, the particle size distribution of aerosol including the particle size distribution of free daughter nuclides and radon in the atmosphere are described. The research on the radon in water is excluded. The most remarkable trend is the theme of radon potential. The trend of connecting the research on radon in soil and the research on dissipation rate to radon potential and the forecast of indoor and outdoor radon concentration seems to become stronger. As to the research on concentration level, the detection of hot spots and the supplementary measurement for clarifying cause are carried out in the advanced countries concerning radon based on the results of survey in whole country. The researches in schools are conspicuous. (K.I.)

  15. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon.

  16. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and ...

  17. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpurdistricts of ...

  18. Determination of radon gas and respirable ore dust concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has estimated the concentrations of radon gas and respirable ore dust in the Merelani underground tanzanite mines. Two different portable monitors were used to measure the radon gas and respirable ore dust concentrations respectively. The mean radon gas concentration (disintegrations per second per cubic ...

  19. RESOLVING THE RADON PROBLEM IN CLINTON, NEW JERSEY HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the resolution of a radon problem in Clinton, New Jersey, where significantly elevated radon concentrations were found in several adjacent houses. The U.S. EPA screened 56 of the houses and selected 10 for demonstration of radon reduction techniques. Each of t...

  20. Measurment of radon, thoron and their progeny in indoor environment of Mohali, Punjab, Northern India, using pinhole dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vimal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health hazards of radon and its decay products above certain levels are well known. However, for any preventive measures to be taken, we have to be aware of radon levels of that particular area. Measurement of radon and its decay products in indoor environments is an important aspect of assessing indoor air quality and health conditions associated with it. Keeping this in mind, measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were carried out in Mohali, Northern India, using pinhole-based twin cup dosimeters. Radon exhalation rates of soil samples in the dwellings/areas were measured via an active technique of a continuous radon monitor. The indoor radon concentration in Mohali varied from 15.03 ± 0.61 Bq/m3 to 39.21 ± 1.46 Bq/m3 with an average of 26.95 Bq/m3 ,while thoron concentration in the same dwellings varied from 9.62 ± 0.54 Bq/m3 to 52.84 ± 2.77 Bq/m3 with an average of 31.09 Bq/m3. Radon progeny levels in dwellings under study varied from 1.63 to 4.24 mWL, with an average of 2.94 mWL, while thoron progeny levels varied from 0.26 to 1.43 mWL , with an average of 0.84 mWL. The annual dose received by the inhabitants of dwellings under study varied from 0.78 to 2.36 mSv, with an average of 1.61 mSv. The in situ gamma dose rate varied from 0.12 to 0.32 mSv/h.

  1. Results of the first 5 years of a study on year-to-year variations of radon concentration in Italian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F., E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.i [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina Elena, 299, I-00161, Roma (Italy); Ampollini, M.; Antignani, S.; Bruni, B.; Quarto, M.; Venoso, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina Elena, 299, I-00161, Roma (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Radon concentration in air is subject to significant variations at different time scales, owing to several factors. In general, the shorter the time period considered, the larger the variations in radon concentration, e.g., day-to-day variations are usually higher than month-to-month variations. An average over 12 consecutive months is generally considered the best estimate of the long-term average radon concentration. Due to practical reasons, however, very few data are available on year-to-year variations. Year-to-year variations can have quite a relevant impact on radon policies and on the assessment of health risks from exposures to radon. Therefore, a project was started in 1996 aimed to evaluate year-to-year variations in a sample of dwellings. Systematic radon measurements have been made with LR 115 based radon detectors (closed type) in the living room and one bedroom of a sample of dwellings in Rome (Italy). The analysis of the results of the first five consecutive years of measurements, regarding the 76 dwellings included in the final analysis, showed relatively low year-to-year variations, with a median coefficient of variation of 14% (range 3%-42%), smaller than that observed in studies from other European countries. Therefore, in the analyzed sample, 12-month measurements can be considered a good estimate of the average radon concentration, at least within a 5-year period. This is quite important for radon regulations and policies, e.g. annual measurements could be recommended and repetition of radon measurements could not be necessary within periods of 5 years. Moreover, the impact of the observed year-to-year variations on the lung cancer risk estimated in the Italian epidemiological study is expected to be not high, if variations on periods up to about 30 years can be assumed similar to those observed in this study.

  2. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-15

    Radon concentrations were measured in different water types in Forsmark and Laxemar during the site investigation and within this study. From these measurements it can be concluded that large differences between surface water, near surface groundwater and deep groundwater can be found in both Laxemar and Forsmark. The differences in radon concentrations between different water types are used in this study to detect interactions between surface water, near surface water and deep groundwater. From the radon measurements it can also be concluded that radon concentration in deep groundwater varies largely with depth. These variations with depth are probably caused by groundwater flow in conductive fracture zones in the bedrock. The focus of this study has been the radon concentration of near surface groundwater and the interaction between near surface groundwater and deep groundwater. Radon measurements have been done using the RAD-7 radon detector within this study. It could be concluded that RAD-7 is a good technique for radon measurements and also easy to use in field. The radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in Laxemar within this study were low and homogenous. The variation in radon concentration has been analyses and compared to other parameters. Since the hypothesis of this study has been that there are differences in radon concentrations between recharging and discharging groundwater, the most important parameter to consider is the recharge/discharge field classification of the wells. No correlation between the recharge/discharge classifications of wells and the radon concentrations were found. The lack of correlation between groundwater flow patterns and radon concentration means that it is not possible to detect flow patterns in near surface groundwater using radon as a tracer in the Laxemar area. The lack of correlation can be caused by the fact that there are just a few wells located in areas classified as recharge area. It can also be

  3. Radon background study in Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yuuki; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Super-Kamiokande (SK), a 50 kton water Cherenkov detector in Japan, observes 8B solar neutrinos with neutrino-electron elastic scattering. SK searches for distortions of the solar neutrino energy spectrum caused by the edge of the MSW resonance in the core of the Sun. The installation of new front-end electronics in 2008 marks the beginning of the 4th phase of SK (SK-IV). With the improvement of the water circulation system, calibration methods, reduction cuts, this phase achieved the lowest energy threshold thus far (3.5 MeV kinetic energy). To improve the sensitivity to the MSW effect, it is required to achieve lower energy threshold. For this purpose, understanding the origin of background events and reducing them are important. Currently, the main background is known as a beta decay of 214Bi in a Radon decay chain. So far, SK collaboration has developed several techniques for studying Radon contamination in the SK water. In this proceedings, a measurement system which can measure Radon concentration in the SK water with the accuracy of 0.1 mBq/m3 level is presented. In addition, an evaluation of Radon background events in SK injecting Radon rich water into the SK tank, as well as future prospects are also presented.

  4. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  5. Radon exhalation rates corrected for leakage and back diffusion – Evaluation of radon chambers and radon sources with application to ceramic tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural radon decay, leakage and back diffusion are the main removal processes of radon from its container. Ignoring these processes leads to underestimate the measured value of radon related parameters like exhalation rate and radium content. This work is aimed to evaluate two different radon chambers through determining their leakage rate λv and evaluation of radon source by determine its back diffusion rate λb inside the evaluated radon chambers as well as a small sealed cup. Two different methods are adapted for measuring both the leakage rate and the back diffusion rate. The leakage rate can be determined from the initial slope of the radon decay curve or from the exponential fitting of the whole decay curve. This can be achieved if a continuous monitoring of radon concentration inside the chamber is available. Also, the back diffusion rate is measured by sealing the radon source in the chamber and used the initial slope of the buildup curve to determine λb and therefore the exhalation rate of the source. This method was compared with simple equation for λb based on the ratio of the source to the chamber volume. The obtained results are applied to ceramic tile as an important radon source in homes. The measurement is targeted the ceramic glaze before and after firing as well as the obtained tile after adhere the glaze on the tile main body. Also, six different tile brands from Egyptian market are subjected to the study for comparison.

  6. Fuzzy set theory for cumulative trauma prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Daniel J.; Merritt, Thomas W.; Moynihan, Gary P.

    2001-01-01

    A widely used fuzzy reasoning algorithm was modified and implemented via an expert system to assess the potential risk of employee repetitive strain injury in the workplace. This fuzzy relational model, known as the Priority First Cover Algorithm (PFC), was adapted to describe the relationship between 12 cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) of the upper extremity, and 29 identified risk factors. The algorithm, which finds a suboptimal subset from a group of variables based on the criterion of...

  7. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  8. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  10. Radon atlas of England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.; Bradley, E.J.; Rees, D.M

    2002-07-01

    This new report brings together and updates the information in three earlier reports on radon levels in English and Welsh homes. In particular, data from measurements in over 400,000 homes in England and Wales are presented in tabular format. The tables give the data by various administrative divisions, down to electoral wards for Cornwall, Devon and Somerset and council areas elsewhere and to sector level of the postcode system. The radon probability maps are based on the national grid system and show significantly more locational detail than the previous publications, an extra division in the probability banding to coincide with current Government initiatives on radon in England and, in southwest England, more detailed probability mapping than before - by 1 km grid squares in place of the 5 km grid squares used in Wales and the rest of England. (author)

  11. The Radon cumulative distribution transform and its application to image classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kolouri, Soheil; Park, Se Rim; Rohde, Gustavo K.

    2015-01-01

    Invertible image representation methods (transforms) are routinely employed as low-level image processing operations based on which feature extraction and recognition algorithms are developed. Most transforms in current use (e.g. Fourier, Wavelet, etc.) are linear transforms, and, by themselves, are unable to substantially simplify the representation of image classes for classification. Here we describe a nonlinear, invertible, low-level image processing transform based on c...

  12. Radon release from granites in south-west England

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, J

    2001-01-01

    accessory minerals. The enhancement of surface area was attributed to the alteration of feldspar to sericite. This has implications for the release of radon. It is thought that the large surface area provides a sink for the adsorption of radon, retaining it in the rock structure. This radon retention explains the paradoxical decline in radon release at small particle size/large specific surface area. Various mechanisms for radon emanation are discussed with reference to the Cornubian granites. It is shown that, based on the measured specific surface areas, inter-crystalline diffusion is a slow process and not a significant contributor to overall radon release (0.01%). Approximately 1% of the total radon produced can be attributed to direct recoil processes, based on the calculated recoil ranges (36 nm). The remainder was attributed to diffusion processes through crystal imperfections and dislocations. The microscopic scale model developed here is extended to the macroscopic scale through examination of the la...

  13. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  14. Assessment of Mobility in Older People Hospitalized for Medical Illness Using de Morton Mobility Index and Cumulated Ambulation Score-Validity and Minimal Clinical Important Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøstrup, Jeanette; Andersen, Helle; Kam, Charlotte Agger Meiner

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Older adults acutely hospitalized for medical illness typically have comorbidity and disability, and inhospital physical inactivity greatly increases the likelihood of developing new disability. Thus, assessment of the patients' mobility status is crucial for planning and ...

  15. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A Martín; Pérez, J de la Torre; Sánchez, A B Ruano; Correa, F L Naranjo

    2012-05-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect......A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...

  17. Development of a quality assured calibration method for the PSI radon chamber reference atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, C.; Butterweck-Dempewolf, G.; Vezzu, G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    Radon detectors and measuring instruments are calibrated at the PSI Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Concentration Measurements by exposing them to a calibrated radon reference atmosphere in the PSI radon chamber. A sophisticated and quality assured calibration technique was developed which guarantees the traceability of this radon chamber reference atmosphere to standards of internationally acknowledged primary laboratories. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  18. RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzer, Lev; Ruzer, Lev S.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-02-25

    The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry ?-- nanotechnology. Nanoproduct commerce is predicted to top $1 trillion by 2015. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a description of its calibration and method for measurement of the unattached fraction.

  19. Variations of radon concentration in the atmosphere. Gamma dose rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, D. E.; Solecki, A. T.

    2018-02-01

    The purposes of research were following: observation and interpretation of variations of radon concentration in the atmosphere - vertical, seasonal, spatial and analysis of relation between average annual radon concentration and ground natural radiation and gamma dose rate. Moreover we wanted to check the occurrence of radon density currents and the possibility of radon accumulation at the foot of the spoil tip. The surveys were carried out in Okrzeszyn (SW Poland) in the area of the spoil tip formed during uranium mining that took place in 60's of 20th century. The measurements were carried out in 20 measurements points at three heights: 0.2 m, 1 m and 2 m a.g.l. using SSNTD LR-115. The survey lasted one year and detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season. Uranium eU (ppm), thorium eTh (ppm) and potassium K (%) contents were measured using gamma ray spectrometer Exploranium RS-230, ambient gamma dose rate using radiometer RK-100. The average radon concentration on this area was 52.8 Bq m-3. The highest radon concentrations were noted during autumn and the lowest during winter. We observed vertical variations of radon concentration. Radon concentrations decreased with increase of height above ground level. The decrease of radon with increase of height a.g.l. had logarithmic character. Spatial variations of radon concentrations did not indicate the occurrence of radon density currents and accumulation of radon at the foot of the spoil tip. The analysis of relation between average radon concentrations and ground natural radiation (uranium and thorium content) or gamma dose rate revealed positive relation between those parameters. On the base of results mentioned above we suggested that gamma spectrometry measurements or even cheaper and simpler ambient gamma dose rate measurements can be a useful tool in determining radon prone areas. This should be confirmed by additional research.

  20. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R. [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R.G. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J.M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Residential radon exposure and esophageal cancer. An ecological study from an area with high indoor radon concentration (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the correlation between municipal esophageal cancer relative risk and municipal residential radon concentration in a high radon emission Spanish area. We performed an ecological study at municipal level in Galicia, Spain. For each municipality we estimated the median radon concentration and the relative risk (RR) for esophageal cancer mortality for males and females. The relative risk was calculated using a Bayesian approach. Homes with data on radon concentration were selected through stratified random sampling. To be included, each municipality had to have at least five radon measurements. We obtained Spearman's correlations for median residential radon concentration and esophageal cancer mortality RR for males and females, separately. We included 129 municipalities, covering the 79% of Galician population. 14% of municipalities had radon concentrations above the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level. We found a statistically significant correlation among residential radon and esophageal cancer mortality RR for males (p radon measurements the correlation pattern remained. This is the first study analyzing the association between residential radon and esophageal cancer. The results suggesting a possible effect of residential radon on esophageal cancer mortality should be explored through more robust epidemiological designs such as case-control studies.

  2. Seasonal variation of radon level and radon effective doses in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-10-01

    Oct 1, 2011 ... sion factor (effective dose received by adults per unit 222Rn activity per unit of air volume),. F is the equilibrium factor of radon indoors and T is the resident time in the tomb. Hence, the annual effective dose rate E (mSv y. −1) to the public from radon and its progeny in the different sits in the Catacomb is ...

  3. Summarizing differences in cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-Jie; Fine, Jason

    2008-10-30

    The cumulative incidence function is widely reported in competing risks studies, with group differences assessed by an extension of the log-rank test. However, simple, interpretable summaries of group differences are not available. An adaptation of the proportional hazards model to the cumulative incidence function is often employed, but the interpretation of the hazard ratio may be somewhat awkward, unlike the usual survival set-up. We propose nonparametric inferences for general summary measures, which may be time-varying, and for time-averaged versions of the measures. Theoretical justification is provided using counting process techniques. A real data example illustrates the practical utility of the methods. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. CUMPOIS- CUMULATIVE POISSON DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The Cumulative Poisson distribution program, CUMPOIS, is one of two programs which make calculations involving cumulative poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), can be used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines the approximate cumulative binomial distribution, evaluates the cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters, and evaluates the cdf for chi-square distributions with even degrees of freedom. It can be used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. CUMPOIS calculates the probability that n or less events (ie. cumulative) will occur within any unit when the expected number of events is given as lambda. Normally, this probability is calculated by a direct summation, from i=0 to n, of terms involving the exponential function, lambda, and inverse factorials. This approach, however, eventually fails due to underflow for sufficiently large values of n. Additionally, when the exponential term is moved outside of the summation for simplification purposes, there is a risk that the terms remaining within the summation, and the summation itself, will overflow for certain values of i and lambda. CUMPOIS eliminates these possibilities by multiplying an additional exponential factor into the summation terms and the partial sum whenever overflow/underflow situations threaten. The reciprocal of this term is then multiplied into the completed sum giving the cumulative probability. The CUMPOIS program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly on most C compilers. The program format is interactive, accepting lambda and n as inputs. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CUMPOIS was

  5. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes studies on the chemical and physical behavior of the [sup 218]Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity in the sub-10 nm size range result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and its dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. The specific tasks of the controlled laboratory studies are to determine the formation rates of [center dot]OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay, to examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO[sub 2] ethylene, and H[sub 2]S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H[sub 2]O and NH[sub 3] in determining the particle size, to measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and to measure the neutralization rate of [sup 218]Po[sub x][sup +] in O[sub 2] at low radon concentrations. Tasks of the exposure studies in occupied indoor spaces are to initiate measurements of the activity size distributions in actual homes with occupants present so that the variability of the indoor activity size distributions can be assessed with respect to indoor aerosol sources and general lifestyle variations of the occupants, to initiate a prospective study of the utility of measurement of deposited [sup 210]Pb embedded in glass surfaces as a measure of the long-term, integrated exposure of the population to radon, and to develop the methodology to determine the hygroscopicity of the indoor aerosol so that the changes in deposition efficiency of the radioactive indoor aerosol with hygroscopic growth in the respiratory tract can be assessed.

  6. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  7. Protect Your Home and Family from Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (Jan. 11, 2016) Radon-the silent killer-is responsible for about 21,000 lung cancer deaths every year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency encourages Americans around the country to test their homes for this naturally occurring radioac

  8. Radon concentrations in a spa in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manic, G; Petrovic, S; Vesna, Manic; Popovic, Dragana; Todorovic, Dragana

    2006-05-01

    The paper presents the results of indoor radon concentration survey in 201 homes and offices in Niska Banja (the Spa of Nis), a well-known health resort and a spa in the South-East of Serbia. Radon indoor concentrations were determined by active charcoal method, according to standard EPA procedure. The indoor radon concentrations were in the range of up to 200 Bq/m(3) (47%), from 200-600 Bq/m(3) (26%) and over 600 Bq/m(3) (27%). Three areas of extremely high average radon concentrations were found (1,340-4,340 Bq/m(3)), with a maximum above 13,000 Bq/m(3). The content of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (235)U, (228)Ac, (212)Pb, (212)Bi, (208)Tl, (40)K) and (137)Cs, as well as the content of total uranium, thorium and potassium in mud used in peloidotherapy in the Health Institute "Niska Banja" was determined, too. The activities of the radionuclides were determined on an HPGe detector, by standard gamma spectroscopy. The results indicated considerably high amounts of total uranium and thorium (0.021 g/kg mud and 0.003 g/kg mud, respectively), due to the karsts origin of the soil.

  9. RADON REDUCTION IN A CRAWL SPACE HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is drawn from the soil into a house when low air pressure exists in the house. This is a commonplace environmental hazard in the United States, Canada, and northern Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing ...

  10. Inferring coastal processes from regional-scale mapping of {sup 222}Radon and salinity: examples from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, Thomas C., E-mail: thomas.stieglitz@jcu.edu.a [AIMS-JCU, Townsville (Australia); Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB NO 3, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); Cook, Peter G., E-mail: peter.g.cook@csiro.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Burnett, William C., E-mail: wburnett@mailer.fsu.ed [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The radon isotope {sup 222}Rn and salinity in coastal surface water were mapped on regional scales, to improve the understanding of coastal processes and their spatial variability. Radon was measured with a surface-towed, continuously recording multi-detector setup on a moving vessel. Numerous processes and locations of land-ocean interaction along the Central Great Barrier Reef coastline were identified and interpreted based on the data collected. These included riverine fluxes, terrestrially-derived fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the tidal pumping of seawater through mangrove forests. Based on variations in the relationship of the tracers radon and salinity, some aspects of regional freshwater inputs to the coastal zone and to estuaries could be assessed. Concurrent mapping of radon and salinity allowed an efficient qualitative assessment of land-ocean interaction on various spatial and temporal scales, indicating that such surveys on coastal scales can be a useful tool to obtain an overview of SGD locations and processes.

  11. Optimizing laboratory-based radon flux measurements for sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyotha, Supitcha; Kranrod, Chutima; Kritsananuwat, Rawiwan; Lane-Smith, Derek; Burnett, William C

    2016-07-01

    Radon flux via diffusion from sediments and other materials may be determined in the laboratory by circulating air through the sample and a radon detector in a closed loop. However, this approach is complicated by the necessity of having to determine the total air volume in the system and accounting for any small air leaks that can arise if using extended measurement periods. We designed a simple open-loop configuration that includes a measured mass of wet sediment and water inside a gas-tight reaction flask connected to a drying system and a radon-in-air analyzer. Ambient air flows through two charcoal columns before entering the reaction vessel to eliminate incoming radon. After traveling through the reaction flask, the air passes the drier and the radon analyzer and is then vented. After some time, the radon activity will reach a steady state depending upon the airflow rate. With this approach, the radon flux via diffusion is simply the product of the steady-state radon activity (Bq/m(3)) multiplied by the airflow rate (mL/min). We demonstrated that this setup could produce good results for materials that produce relatively high radon fluxes. We also show that a modified closed system approach, including radon removal of the incoming air by charcoal filtration in a bypass, can produce very good results including samples with very low emission rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Energy Resources Div.)

    1988-01-01

    The application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurements is discussed. The ''Can Technique'', used for measuring radon emanation from building materials, walls and soil; the ''Working Level Monitor'', used for measuring short period working levels of radon daughters in houses; and ''Passive Radon Dosimeters'', used to measure radon levels in houses for long term (few months) periods are described. Application of nuclear track detectors for measuring the radon daughters plate-out on the surface of mixing fan blades and walls are discussed. The uranium content of some wall papers was found to be 6 ppm. The variation of radon progeny concentration in the same room was measured and supported by another study through Gas Chromatograph measurements. The independence of radon concentration on room level in high-rise buildings was established. The effect of sub-floor radon emanation on radon concentration in houses is dependent on whether there is sub-floor ventilation or not. (author).

  13. On the influence of faulting on small-scale soil-gas radon variability: a case study in the Iberian Uranium Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.J.S.C., E-mail: apereira@dct.uc.p [IMAR, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-272 Coimbra (Portugal); Godinho, M.M. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-272 Coimbra (Portugal); Neves, L.J.P.F. [IMAR, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-272 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    In order to evaluate the influence of faulting on the variability of geogenic radon at detailed scale (1:2000), data on gamma ray fluxes, U and Th concentrations in rocks, radon in soil-gas and radon in groundwater were collected in three target areas on the Oliveira do Hospital region (Central Portugal). This region stands on the Iberian Uranium Province, and is dominantly composed of Hercynian granites and metasedimentary rocks of pre-Ordovician age, crosscut by faults with dominant strike N35{sup o}E, N55{sup o}E and N75{sup o}E. Radiometric anomalies are frequent, associated with faults of the referred systems and metasedimentary enclaves; the analytical data confirms that these anomalies are produced by local high uranium contents in rocks and fault-filling materials (n = 34, range 13-724 ppm), while other radiogenic elements are relatively constant (e.g. Th 4-30 ppm). Radon concentration in soil can be extremely high, up to 12,850 kBq m{sup -3} (n = 215), with a large proportion of results above 100 kBq m{sup -3}. Unsurprisingly, groundwater also shows high radon concentrations, with observed values in the range 150-4850 Bq.L{sup -1} (n = 17). From the results it is concluded that metasedimentary enclaves, as well as faults, can accumulate uranium from circulating fluids, and as a consequence, strongly locally enhance geogenic radon potential. Due to this fact, for the purpose of land use planning in such uranium-enriched regions, very detailed geological mapping is needed to precisely recognize radon high risk areas. A correlation between radon concentration in soil or in groundwater and gamma ray fluxes was established pointing to the possible use of these fluxes as a first step in assessing geogenic radon potential, at least to geological setting similar to the study area.

  14. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in the dwellings of district Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajwa, B.J.S.; Singh, P.; Singh, S. [Guru Nanak Dev University (India); Sahoo, B.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center - BARC (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been measured in the wide range of dwellings from 12 different villages situated in the uranium mineralized zones of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India by using LR-115 type-?? based Pin-hole Radon-Thoron discriminating Twin-Cup dosimeters, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). As inhalation doses are predominantly due to daughter products of radon and thoron and not due to gases, it is important to measure the decay products directly for health risk assessments. In the study region different types of houses were selected randomly according to methodologies described by Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RPAD), BARC, Mumbai. The indoor radon concentrations in these dwellings have been found vary from 22 to 573 Bq/m{sup 3} with average value of 113.48 Bq/m{sup 3} and for thoron vary from 10 to 739 Bq/m{sup 3} with average value of 116.17 Bq/m{sup 3}. The progeny concentrations of radon and thoron are found within the limits of 8 to 141 Bq/m{sup 3} and 0.53 to 15.26 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively, with average values 36.97 Bq/m{sup 3} and 3.19 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively. The radon, thoron and their progeny concentration variations and the corresponding inhalation dose received by the inhabitants in this region will also be discussed in the light of the recommendations given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. A study of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny measurement in Tosham region Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjot Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study indoor radon, thoron and their decay products concentrations have been measured using the newly developed LR-115 type-ІІ based Radon-Thoron discriminating twin-cup dosimeters with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS respectively. The annual annihilation dose has been assessed from measured radionuclide concentration to find out major contributor of lung cancer in the study area. The measurements have been carried out in NINETY dwellings of THIRTEEN different villages situated in and around the Tosham region. This region is known to be composed of acidic volcanic and associated granites. Dwellings were selected mainly targeting different type building material used in construction of houses like concrete–brick, mud-brick, and mud-thatches along with an idea of different ventilation conditions which affects the equilibrium factor (EF. The EF in this region has been varying from 0.20 to 0.72 and 0.03–0.13 for indoor radon and thoron respectively. The average inhalation dose observed in dwellings of different villages varies from 1.33 ± 0.31–3.36 ± 0.72 mSv/y that lies within the safe limits recommended by ICRP (2011.

  17. Analysis of radon and thoron progeny measurements based on air filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajic, J M; Nikezic, D

    2015-02-01

    Measuring of radon and thoron progeny concentrations in air, based on air filtration, was analysed in order to assess the reliability of the method. Changes of radon and thoron progeny activities on the filter during and after air sampling were investigated. Simulation experiments were performed involving realistic measuring parameters. The sensitivity of results (radon and thoron concentrations in air) to the variations of alpha counting in three and five intervals was studied. The concentration of (218)Po showed up to be the most sensitive to these changes, as was expected because of its short half-life. The well-known method for measuring of progeny concentrations based on air filtration is rather unreliable and obtaining unrealistic or incorrect results appears to be quite possible. A simple method for quick estimation of radon potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), based on measurements of alpha activity in a saturation regime, was proposed. Thoron PAEC can be determined from the saturation activity on the filter, through beta or alpha measurements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Radon-222 signatures of natural ventilation regimes in an underground quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Crouzeix, Catherine; Morat, Pierre; Le Mouël, Jean Louis

    2004-01-01

    Radon-222 activity concentration has been monitored since 1999 in an underground limestone quarry located in Vincennes, near Paris, France. It is homogeneous in summer, with an average value of 1700 Bq m(-3), and varies from 730 to 1450 Bq m(-3) in winter, indicating natural ventilation with a rate ranging from 0.5 to 2.4 x 10(-6) s(-1) (0.04-0.22 day(-1)). This hypothesis is supported by measurements in the vertical access pit where, in winter, a turbulent air current produces a stable radon profile, smoothly decreasing from 700 Bq m(-3) at 20 m depth to 300 Bq m(-3) at surface. In summer, a thermal stratification is maintained in the pit, but the radon-222 concentration jumps repeatedly between 100 and 2000 Bq m(-3). These jumps are due to atmospheric pressure pumping, which induces ventilation in the quarry at a rate of about 0.1 x 10(-6) s(-1) (0.009 day(-1)). Radon-222 monitoring thus provides a dynamical characterisation of ventilation regimes, which is important for the assessment of the long-term evolution of underground systems.

  19. Radon entry rate analyses using in situ tracer gas method application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froňka, A; Jílek, K

    2014-07-01

    Recently, the role of energy savings in indoor air quality deterioration has been extensively emphasised, predominantly in the context of significant air exchange rate reduction as a result of home energy retrofits. In case of refurbishment of existing buildings, the effect of energy-efficient technologies on indoor radon concentration is considerably complex and has to be carefully evaluated with respect to radon entry rate (RER) and air exchange rate alteration. For the purpose of detailed analysis of radon entry pathways, the unique infiltration experiment has been carried out using the tracer gas (N2O) method application in field conditions. Significant amount of experimental works has been done to provide an independent assessment of RER and air-exchange rate facilitating the analysis of fundamental factors influencing the indoor radon variations (e.g. indoor-outdoor pressure difference induced by wind, stack effect, heating, ventilation and operation of air-conditioning systems). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part I - Influence from Bystander Effects - A Microdose Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of the BEIR VI report in 1999 on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, at low domestic and workplace radon levels, in particular the Bystander Effect (BE) and the Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). We analyzed the microbeam and broadbeam alpha particle data of Miller et al. (1995, 1999), Zhou et al. (2001, 2003, 2004), Nagasawa and Little (1999, 2002), Hei et al. (1999), Sawant et al. (2001a) and found that the shape of the cellular response to alphas is relatively independent of cell species and LET of the alphas. The same alpha particle traversal dose response behavior should be true for human lung tissue exposure to radon progeny alpha particles. In the Bystander Damage Region of the alpha particle response, there is a variation of RBE from about 10 to 35. There is a transition region between the Bystander Damage Region and Direct Damage Region of between one and two microdose alpha particle traversals indicating that perhaps two alpha particle “hits” are necessary to produce the direct damage. Extrapolation of underground miners lung cancer risks to human risks at domestic and workplace levels may not be valid. PMID:21731539

  1. Study of radon concentration and toxic elements in drinking and irrigated water and its implications in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nisar; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhaimi; Alsaffar, Mohammed Saad

    2015-01-01

    The radon activity concentration and toxic elements have been assessed in drinking and irrigated water samples collected from different locations of Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from wells, streams and taps. A calibrated alpha spectrometer RAD-7 (Model 2890) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometers (Perkin–Elmer, Model AAnalyst 200, Shimadzu, Model AA-700) were used to estimate radon activity concentration and toxic elements, respectively. Maximum average value ...

  2. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  3. Identification of sources of high radon levels in Slovenian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupotic, J

    2002-01-01

    The sources of radon were investigated in twenty selected schools with high room levels of radiation. A combination of radon measuring techniques was applied: etched track and electret detectors to obtain average indoor air radon concentration. devices to record radon concentration continuously and thus characterise its diurnal variation, and alpha scintillation cells to analyse air from potential sources of radon entry. In some cases, a single strong source was identified (e.g. sinks, sub-floor channels), while in others the poor quality of the basic concrete slab was responsible for high indoor radon concentrations. The combination of etched track and electret detectors and alpha scintillation cells was essential for locating these sources.

  4. Measuring radon in soil gas and groundwaters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Papastefanou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Instruments for the measurements of radon and its decay products in earthquake research are based mostly on the detection of alpha particles. The devices and methods used depend on whether the techniques measure radon or radon decay products, and the duration of the measurements, of which there are three types: i grab or instantaneous, ii integrating and iii continuous. Other criteria used in the design of these instruments are field measurements applicability, portability, convenience and reliability. With the recent increased demand for radon and radon decay products measurements, instruments development has focused on the design of appropriate devices for short-term measurements, as well as on more complex and sophisticated instruments for long-term measurements used in radon research for geophysical, geochemical and hydrological studies.

  5. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  6. Design Criteria for Achieving Low Radon Concentration Indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Design criteria for achieving low radon concentration indoors are presented in this paper. The paper suggests three design criteria. These criteria have to be considered at the early stage of the building design phase to meet the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization in most...... the radon concentration in the indoor air. In addition, a cheap and reliable method for measuring the radon concentration in the air indoors is described. The provision on radon in the Danish Building Regulations complies with the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause...... lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for when it is not harmful to human beings. Therefore, it is important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible indoors in buildings. Airtightness is an important factor when dealing with buildings. For the building envelope...

  7. The transfer of radon from potable water into house air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, C.T.; Vietti, M.A.; Lachapelle, E.B.; Guillemette, J.F. (Univ. of Maine, Orono (USA))

    1988-09-01

    There have been very few comparisons of the radon in air due to use of potable water containing radon. To better determine the health risk due to radon in water in homes, 40 houses in southern and central Maine were measured for house characteristics such as building materials, volume and air exchange rate and for radon in water and air. The houses were all wood with basements and have wood, oil and solar heat. To increase the radon due to water use, a two hour water burst was used to simulate 24 hours of water use for the occupants. The water use was monitored along with the radon concentration in air for ten minute intervals.

  8. The Barthel Index and the Cumulated Ambulation Score are superior to the de Morton Mobility Index for the early assessment of outcome in patients with a hip fracture admitted to an acute geriatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsbæk, Signe; Larsen, Rikke Faebo; Rosthøj, Susanne; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2018-01-15

    To examine clinimetric properties of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in patients with hip fracture in comparison with the modified Barthel Index (BI), Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS), and 30-s Chair Stand Test (30-s CST). Two hundred and twenty two patients with a hip fracture admitted to a geriatric ward following surgery were assessed on day 1 and at discharge (mean of 9 [SD 5.1] post-surgery days). Ninety eight percent and 89% of patients were not able to perform the 30-s CST at baseline and at discharge (large floor effect), respectively. Corresponding floor effects were 39% and 31% for DEMMI, 12% and 5% for BI, and 22% and 6%, respectively, for CAS. Convergent validity was strong between DEMMI and CAS (r = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69-0.81), and moderate between DEMMI and BI (r = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.48-0.66) and CAS and BI (r = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.39-0.59). Responsiveness, as indicated by the effect size was 0.76 for DEMMI, 1.78 for BI and 1.04 for CAS. Baseline scores of DEMMI, BI, and CAS showed similar properties in predicting discharge destination of patients from own home. The value of using DEMMI and 30-s CST in patients with hip fracture during the acute hospitalization seems limited in comparison with BI and CAS. DEMMI and CAS seem to assess similar constructs. Implications for Rehabilitation Outcome measures used for the evaluation of patients with hip fracture should be validated in the specific time-line and rehabilitation setting following surgery, before being implemented in daily clinical practice. We suggest the Cumulated Ambulation Score for monitoring basic mobility during the acute hospitalization for the entire group of patients recovering from a hip fracture, while DEMMI seems more feasible for the subgroup of patients with higher functional levels. The modified Barthel Index seems useful for the assessment of activities of daily living in the acute care setting of patients with hip fracture. We cannot recommend the original 30-s Chair

  9. Indoor radon measurements in the city of Valencia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, F; Ródenas, J; Querol, A; Ortiz, J; Juste, B

    2011-08-01

    The indoor radon risk in Valencia (Spain) was studied more than twenty years ago in two surveys using different methodologies and leading to contradictory results. We report here on new indoor radon measurements with the charcoal canister technique, which confirm the low average level of indoor radon in the city, with a geometrical mean of 24 Bq/m(3) and an arithmetic mean of 27 Bq/m(3). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A self-calibrating radon monitor with statistical discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Valcov, N

    2002-01-01

    A radon monitor, able to perform the measurement of the radon and its progeny volumic activity, in a gamma-ray or natural radiation background field, was developed. The instrument consists of a 10 l ionization chamber, a high voltage source, an integrating preamplifier, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. A new method for self-calibration of Radon volumic activity measurements, based on the alpha counting with an ionization chamber is also presented.

  11. Application of pylon radon daughter standard for calibration of radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruścielewski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Jerzy; Bogusz, Malgorzata

    2002-01-01

    Radiometers for measurements of radon daughter potential energy used in the surveillance of the work environment need a systematic calibration. This paper presents how a commercially available device produced by the Pylon Company can be applied. This device allows to produce, simply and directly, standard sources of radon daughters, corresponding with the energy, geometry and properties of radiation originated from an air sample. The calibration yielded the results that proved to be in agreement with those obtained previously by means of radon chamber.

  12. Radon mapping in south Tyrol: comparison between two different procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, L; Caldognetto, E; Trotti, F

    2004-01-01

    In this paper two different procedures for radon mapping have been compared on the same database referring to indoor radon records of South Tyrol. The first procedure is based on descriptive statistics applied to administrative units while the second one implies a more complicated statistical analysis applied to a regular grid: it involves floor level normalization of radon data, filling and smoothing algorithms for the territory cells.

  13. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  14. Evolutionary neuroscience of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin E

    2017-07-24

    Culture suffuses all aspects of human life. It shapes our minds and bodies and has provided a cumulative inheritance of knowledge, skills, institutions, and artifacts that allows us to truly stand on the shoulders of giants. No other species approaches the extent, diversity, and complexity of human culture, but we remain unsure how this came to be. The very uniqueness of human culture is both a puzzle and a problem. It is puzzling as to why more species have not adopted this manifestly beneficial strategy and problematic because the comparative methods of evolutionary biology are ill suited to explain unique events. Here, we develop a more particularistic and mechanistic evolutionary neuroscience approach to cumulative culture, taking into account experimental, developmental, comparative, and archaeological evidence. This approach reconciles currently competing accounts of the origins of human culture and develops the concept of a uniquely human technological niche rooted in a shared primate heritage of visuomotor coordination and dexterous manipulation.

  15. Traceability of radon-222 activity concentration in the radon chamber at the technical university of Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Ortega, X.; Martín Matarranz, J. L.

    2004-07-01

    In order to provide reference 222Rn activity concentration, a device based on the alpha spectrometric measurement of 218Po collected electrostatically on a PIPS detector, has been developed and characterised. Traceability is achieved by the use of primary 222Rn standard activity inside a glass bulb obtained from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Radon standard activity is then transferred to the instrument that measures the reference radon activity concentration. The instrument is used in the walk-in radon chamber of the Institute of Energy Technology at the Technical University of Catalonia in order to provide a reference atmosphere for the calibration of radon concentration detectors. Under typical environmental calibration conditions within the radon chamber, an expanded uncertainty of roughly 4% ( k=2) for radon concentration is usually estimated.

  16. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  17. Current international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Keizo [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-01

    The international intercomparison measurement on radon and its progeny was held between the EML of USDOE and several Japanese organisations, using the radon test chamber installed in EML. Japanese results of radon concentration by the active method using the ionization chamber or scintillation cell and the passive method using the solid track detector were about 5% small compared to that of EML. On the results of radon progeny, there were not any large systematic differences between EML and Japanese participants in spite of wide range of deviation except for the results at the condition of low aerosol density. (author)

  18. Effect of internal wall covers on radon emanation inside houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fremlin, J.H.

    1983-03-01

    Most types of paint for the internal walls of houses will reduce radon emanation from building materials. At the same time, the effect of paint will increase the concentration of radon inside the material itself and will increase the radon emanation from unpainted areas. One type of wall paper contains 6 and 0.3 ppm of uranium in its decorated and undecorated surfaces, respectively, the colouring being the main source of uranium. Other wallpapers appear to be free from uranium. Wallpaper, gypsum and plaster may increase the radon activity inside houses depending on their radium contents.

  19. Nonlinear Radon Transform Using Zernike Moment for Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziping Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the linear Radon transform to a nonlinear space and propose a method by applying the nonlinear Radon transform to Zernike moments to extract shape descriptors. These descriptors are obtained by computing Zernike moment on the radial and angular coordinates of the pattern image's nonlinear Radon matrix. Theoretical and experimental results validate the effectiveness and the robustness of the method. The experimental results show the performance of the proposed method in the case of nonlinear space equals or outperforms that in the case of linear Radon.

  20. Radon control systems in existing and new construction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Naureen Mahbub; Tracy, Bliss L

    2009-08-01

    In support of the implementation of the new Canadian radon guideline, a comprehensive review of radon mitigation techniques used in countries around the world was undertaken, with particular emphasis on North America and Europe that have climates and construction techniques similar to Canada. The results of this review are presented here as an aid to administrators of radon control programmes, companies offering radon testing and mitigation services and other concerned parties, both in Canada and elsewhere, who are facing issues of implementing a radon control strategy. A wide variety of radon mitigation strategies have been employed worldwide and all have achieved some success in reducing radon concentrations. Generally, active mitigation techniques involving physical alterations to a house (e.g. sub-slab depressurisation) are more effective in achieving a sustained and substantial radon reduction than passive techniques (e.g. improved ventilation or sealing of cracks). To a large extent, the choice of an optimal mitigation strategy will depend on the building type, soil conditions and climate. Radon levels should be measured at periodic intervals after remediation, perhaps once every 5 y, to ensure that concentrations continue to remain at acceptable levels.

  1. A theoretical investigation of the distribution of indoor radon concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, R.; Oufni, L.

    2017-05-01

    Inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its decay products are a major source of natural radiation exposure. It is known from recent surveys in many countries that radon and its progeny contribute significantly to total inhalation dose and it is fairly established that radon when inhaled in large quantity causes lung disorder. In recent times, numerical modelling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement the Finite Volume Method (FVM) for studying the radon distribution indoor. The findings show that the radon concentration which is distributed in a non-homogeneous way in the room is due to the difference in the radon concentration of different sources (wall, floor and ceiling). Moreover, the radon concentration is much larger near walls, and decreases in the middle of the room because of the effect of air velocity. We notice that the simulation results of radon concentration are in agreement with the results of other experimental studies. The annual effective dose of radon in the model room has been also investigated.

  2. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gautam Kumar; Das, Projit Kumar

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m - 3.

  3. The effect of laterite density on radon diffusion behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongmei; Tan, Wanyu; Tan, Kaixuan; Liu, Zehua; Fang, Qi; Lv, Junwen; Duan, Xianzhe; Liu, Zhenzhong; Guo, Yueyue

    2018-02-01

    Radon generated in porous media such as soils and rocks migrates into indoor and outdoor air mainly by diffusion, possessing significant hazards to human health. In order to reduce these hazards of radon, it is of great importance to study the diffusion behavior of radon. In this study, we systematically measured the radon diffusion coefficient of laterite with the density ranging from 0.917gcm -3 to 2.238gcm -3 , and studied the effect of laterite density on the radon diffusion. The results show that the radon diffusion coefficient of the laterite generally decreases with the increasing laterite density. In addition, three possible relationships between the radon diffusion coefficient and the laterite density are found out as follows: (1) the linear correlation with a slope of -4.48 × 10 -6 for laterite with density ranging from 0.917 to 1.095gcm -3 , (2) the exponential correlation for laterite with density from 1.095 to 1.63gcm -3 , (3) linear correlation with a slope of -3.1 × 10 -7 for laterite with density from 1.63 to 2.238gcm -3 . The complex relationship between the radon diffusion coefficient and density is caused by the change of porosity and tortuosity of the laterite. Therefore, we suggest that a suitable density should be adopted while using the laterite to effectively cover uranium tailings or economically produce building materials that can curb the radon exhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radon exhalation from building materials used in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, A. F.; Al-Awami, Hend H.; Hussein, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    Radon exhalation rates have been determined for various different samples of domestic and imported building materials available in the Libyan market for home construction and interior decoration. Radon exhalation rates were measured by the sealed-can technique based on CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The results show that radon exhalation rates from some imported building materials used as foundations and for decoration are extremely high, and these samples are the main sources of indoor radon emanation. Radium contents and annual effective doses have also been estimated.

  5. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer

  6. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M

    1991-09-15

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of {sup 222} Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  7. Behavior of radon and its decay products in physical media; Comportamiento de radon y sus productos en medios fisicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A

    1990-06-15

    This study was carried out to know the radon behavior, it shows some of its decay products of short life, the same as the equations that describe the growth of the activity of each decay product in a source that initially is radon. The study threw results that they are applicable in geology, uranium prospecting, as well as in radiological safety. The use of membranes to filter the decay products of radon and the use of these for protection of the detector, it has opened a new line in the study of the radon. (Author)

  8. Design, construction and testing of a radon experimental chamber; Diseno, construccion y pruebas de una camara experimental de radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A.; Balcazar G, M

    1991-10-15

    To carry out studies on the radon behavior under controlled and stable conditions it was designed and constructed a system that consists of two parts: a container of mineral rich in Uranium and an experimentation chamber with radon united one to the other one by a step valve. The container of uranium mineral approximately contains 800 gr of uranium with a law of 0.28%; the radon gas emanated by the mineral is contained tightly by the container. When the valve opens up the radon gas it spreads to the radon experimental chamber; this contains 3 accesses that allow to install different types of detectors. The versatility of the system is exemplified with two experiments: 1. With the radon experimental chamber and an associated spectroscopic system, the radon and two of its decay products are identified. 2. The design of the system allows to couple the mineral container to other experimental geometries to demonstrate this fact it was coupled and proved a new automatic exchanger system of passive detectors of radon. The results of the new automatic exchanger system when it leave to flow the radon freely among the container and the automatic exchanger through a plastic membrane of 15 m. are shown. (Author)

  9. A study of radon indoor concentration; Un estudio de concentracion de radon intramuros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Ruiz, W.; Segovia, N.; Ponciano, G. [ININ, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    It was realized a study of radon concentration in houses of Mexico City and in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre of Salazar, State of Mexico. The radon determination in air was realized with solid nuclear track detectors and with Honeywell and Alpha guard automatic equipment. The results show that the majority of houses have values under 148 Bq/m{sup 3} obtaining some housings with upper values located in the Lomas zone. A study in smokers houses and another of controls showed very similar distributions. It was studied the day time fluctuations finding that radon increases considerably during the dawn. Some upper values obtained in a laboratory of the Nuclear Centre were remedied with ventilation. (Author)

  10. Impact of ventilation systems and energy savings in a building on the mechanisms governing the indoor radon activity concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignan, Bernard; Powaga, Emilie

    2017-11-23

    For a given radon potential in the ground and a given building, the parameters affecting the indoor radon activity concentration (IRnAC) are indoor depressurization of a building and its air change rate. These parameters depend mainly on the building characteristics, such as airtightness, and on the nature and performances of the ventilation system. This study involves a numerical sensitivity assessment of the indoor environmental conditions on the IRnAC in buildings. A numerical ventilation model has been adapted to take into account the effects of variations in the indoor environmental conditions (depressurization and air change rate) on the radon entry rate and on the IRnAC. In the context of the development of a policy to reduce energy consumption in a building, the results obtained showed that IRnAC could be strongly affected by variations in the air permeability of the building associated with the ventilation regime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual average and seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations in Piedmont (Italy) using three different detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, via Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: gervino@to.infn.it; Barca, D. [Liceo Scientifico Tecnologico ' J.C. Maxwell' di Nichelino (Italy); Bruno, S. [Liceo Scientifico Tecnologico ' J.C. Maxwell' di Nichelino (Italy); Bonetti, R. [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, IFGA, Universita di Milan (Italy); Manzoni, A. [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, IFGA, Universita di Milan (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    One year survey of indoor radon concentrations was carried out in public buildings, schools and dwellings of the neighbouring small towns of Nichelino and Castagnole Piemonte, nearby Turin, Piedmont (Italy), as part of a long term assessment of local radon levels. Three kinds of detectors have been deployed for nearly 500 exposures: electrects, solid state nuclear track detectors and a continuous on-line monitor. A log-normal model was applied to estimate the fraction of dwellings with high radon concentration. The resulting effective dose-equivalent for the inhabitants of Castagnole Piemonte and Nichelino, calculated from the geometric means, is 0.7 and 0.5mSvy{sup -1}, respectively.

  12. Identification of Cumulative Assessment Groups of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Nørhede, Pia; Boberg, Julie

    The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority ...

  13. Estimation of human dose to radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimo, Michikuni [Gifu Coll. of Medical Technology, Sekiichi, Gifu (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the paper is the estimation of the effective dose due to radon progeny for Japanese population. The estimation was performed by a modified UNSCEAR equation. The equation was needed the radon concentration annual occupancy time and the tidal volume on Japanese people and the dose conversion coefficient are needed. Furthermore, not only these figures but also unattached fraction and aerosol distribution data obtained in Japan and the factor related to the Japanese living style were used in the calculation. We used following figures as representative value in Japan; radon concentration: 13(6 - 25) Bq/m{sup 3} indoors and 6.7(3.5 - 13) Bq/m{sup 3} outdoors; the equilibrium factor: 0.45(0.35 - 0.57) indoors and 0.70(0.50 - 0.90) outdoors; the occupancy factor: 0.87 indoors, 0.09 outdoors and 0.04 in vehicle for male and 0.91 indoors, 0.06 outdoors and 0.03 in vehicle for female; the tidal volume: 7,000 (4,000 - 8,000) m{sup 3} for male, 6,200 (3,500 - 7,500) m{sup 3} for female. The effective doses due to radon progeny were estimated to be 0.45 mSv/y for male and 0.40 mSv/y for female, and the variance was -80 - +130%. These values were 1/2 - 1/3 as small as values shown by UNSCEAR 1993 Report and estimated by ICRP Publication 65. (author)

  14. Radon assay and radioactivity database in Kamioka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Shigeki; Nakano, Yuuki

    2017-09-01

    A new cooperative program among underground experiments, theorists, and low-background researchers was started in 2014 in Japan. The purpose of this program is to achieve technical and scientific synergies among underground researchers. In this report, the R&D of radon assay technique as an activity in this program is shown. The current status of the radioactivity database system in Kamioka is also shown.

  15. Radon-Nikodym derivatives of quantum instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    1998-03-01

    A convenient representation for Radon-Nikodym derivatives of completely positive (c.p.) instruments on B(H) with respect to a scalar measure is suggested, similar to the Stinespring-Kraus representation for c.p. maps, but involving possibly nonclosable unbounded operators. The structure of covariant c.p. instruments is studied in detail. In particular, an exhaustive description is given to instruments covariant with respect to shifts or rotations, corresponding to "position" or "angle" measurements.

  16. Influence of architectural style on indoor radon concentration in a radon prone area: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; García-Paniagua, J; Guillén, J; Montalbán, B

    2018-01-01

    Indoor radon is a major health concern as it is a known carcinogenic. Nowadays there is a trend towards a greater energy conservation in buildings, which is reflected in an increasing number of regulations. But, can this trend increase the indoor radon concentration? In this paper, we selected a radon prone area in Spain and focused on single-family dwellings constructed in a variety of architectural styles. These styles ranged from 1729 up to 2014, with varying construction techniques (from local resources to almost universally standard building materials) and regulations in force (from none to the Spanish regulation in force). The (226)Ra concentrations in soil and surface radon exhalation rates were rather similar in this area, mean values ranging 70-126Bq/kg and 49-100mBq/m(2)·s, respectively. Indoor radon concentration was generally greater than the contribution from soil exhalation (surface exhalation rates), especially in New dwellings (1980-2014). Its concentration in dwellings built in the Traditional style (1729-1940) was significantly lower than in the new houses. This can be consequence of the air tightness of the dwellings as a consequence of the different regulations in force. In the period covered by the Traditional style, there was no regulation in force, and dwelling had loose air tight. Whereas in recent times, there are mandatory regulations assuring a better air tightness of the buildings. Refurbishment of Traditional dwellings also seems to increase the indoor radon concentration, as they must also comply with the regulations in force. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residential radon remediation: performance over 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Naomi H; Chittaporn, Passaporn; Marsicano, Anthony

    2011-05-01

    An exploratory radon measurement in 1990 identified 190 Bq m(-3) in the basement of a newly built home in Central New Jersey. Subsequently, the owner had a sub-slab remediation system installed in the basement, i.e. PVC duct through the basement floor connecting to an exhaust fan venting to the house roof. Sequential radon measurements began in 1992 using the NYU alpha-track detector. The homeowner wanted to insure the long-term durability of this remedial system. Seventeen years of measurements show the system functioned properly and reduced an established baseline concentration of 370 ± 8, 56 ± 1 and 67 ± 1 Bq m(-3) for the basement, first and second floors, respectively, to an average of 19 ± 4, 13 ± 3 and 10 ± 0.1 Bq m(-3). The last measurement, 2007-2008, with a newer NYU detector measured both (222)Rn (radon) and (220)Rn (thoron). The basement thoron concentration was 1.5 ± 0.9 Bq m(-3) or about 8 % of the (222)Rn value.

  18. Assessment of Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Risk for 3 Different Tasks Constructing and Repairing Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) Blankets, Preparing the Dough for a Pizza, and Operating the Becton-Dickinson FACSAria Flow Cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Marc; Kline, Martin; Palmer, Andrew; Terrone, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) risks for three different tasks using McCauley-Bell and Badiru's (1993) formula based on task, personal, and organizational factors were examined. For the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket task, the results showed that the task, personal, and organizational risks were at about the same level. The personal risk factors for this task were evaluated using a hypothetical female employee age 52. For the pizza dough task, it was shown that the organizational risk was particularly high, with task related factors also at quite dangerous levels. On the other hand, there was a very low level of personal risk factors, based on a female age 17. The flow cytometer task was assessed with three different participants, a11 of whom had quite disparate levels of personal risk, which slightly affected the overall CTD risk. This reveals how individual difference variables certainly need to be considered. The task and organizational risks for this task were rated at about the same moderate level. The overall CTD risk averaged across the three participants was .335, indicating some risk. Compruing across the tasks revealed that the pizza dough task created the greatest overall CTD risk by far (.568), with the MLI (.325) and flow cytometer task (.335) having some risk associated with them. Future research should look into different tasks for more of a comparison

  19. Pesticide residues in cashew apple, guava, kaki and peach: GC-μECD, GC-FPD and LC-MS/MS multiresidue method validation, analysis and cumulative acute risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Andréia Nunes Oliveira; Mello, Denise Carvalho; Goes, Fernanda Caroline Silva; Frota Junior, Elcio Ferreira; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2014-12-01

    A multiresidue method for the determination of 46 pesticides in fruits was validated. Samples were extracted with acidified ethyl acetate, MgSO4 and CH3COONa and cleaned up by dispersive SPE with PSA. The compounds were analysed by GC-FPD, GC-μECD or LC-MS/MS, with LOQs from 1 to 8 μg/kg. The method was used to analyse 238 kaki, cashew apple, guava, and peach fruit and pulp samples, which were also analysed for dithiocarbamates (DTCs) using a spectrophotometric method. Over 70% of the samples were positive, with DTC present in 46.5%, λ-cyhalothrin in 37.1%, and omethoate in 21.8% of the positive samples. GC-MS/MS confirmed the identities of the compounds detected by GC. None of the pesticides found in kaki, cashew apple and guava was authorised for these crops in Brazil. The risk assessment has shown that the cumulative acute intake of organophosphorus or pyrethroid compounds from the consumption of these fruits is unlikely to pose a health risk to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A COMPARISON OF WINTER SHORT-TERM AND ANNUAL AVERAGE RADON MEASUREMENTS IN BASEMENTS OF A RADON-PRONE REGION AND EVALUATION OF FURTHER RADON TESTING INDICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nirmalla G.; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the temporal variability between basement winter short-term (7 to 10 days) and basement annual radon measurements. Other objectives were to test the short-term measurement’s diagnostic performance at two reference levels and to evaluate its ability to predict annual average basement radon concentrations. Electret ion chamber (short-term) and alpha track (annual) radon measurements were obtained by trained personnel in Iowa residences. Overall, the geometric mean of the short-term radon concentrations (199 Bq m−3) was slightly greater than the geometric mean of the annual radon concentrations (181 Bq m−3). Short-term tests incorrectly predicted that the basement annual radon concentrations would be below 148 Bq m−3 12% of the time and 2% of the time at 74 Bq m−3. The short-term and annual radon concentrations were strongly correlated (r=0.87, pradon potential when the reference level is lowered to 74 Bq m−3. PMID:24670901

  1. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolutionary neuroscience of cumulative culture

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    Culture suffuses all aspects of human life. It shapes our minds and bodies and has provided a cumulative inheritance of knowledge, skills, institutions, and artifacts that allows us to truly stand on the shoulders of giants. No other species approaches the extent, diversity, and complexity of human culture, but we remain unsure how this came to be. The very uniqueness of human culture is both a puzzle and a problem. It is puzzling as to why more species have not adopted this manifestly benefi...

  3. Geographically weighted regression and geostatistical techniques to construct the geogenic radon potential map of the Lazio region: A methodological proposal for the European Atlas of Natural Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotoli, G; Voltaggio, M; Tuccimei, P; Soligo, M; Pasculli, A; Beaubien, S E; Bigi, S

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, assessment programmes are carried out to identify areas where people may be exposed to high radon levels. These programmes often involve detailed mapping, followed by spatial interpolation and extrapolation of the results based on the correlation of indoor radon values with other parameters (e.g., lithology, permeability and airborne total gamma radiation) to optimise the radon hazard maps at the municipal and/or regional scale. In the present work, Geographical Weighted Regression and geostatistics are used to estimate the Geogenic Radon Potential (GRP) of the Lazio Region, assuming that the radon risk only depends on the geological and environmental characteristics of the study area. A wide geodatabase has been organised including about 8000 samples of soil-gas radon, as well as other proxy variables, such as radium and uranium content of homogeneous geological units, rock permeability, and faults and topography often associated with radon production/migration in the shallow environment. All these data have been processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) using geospatial analysis and geostatistics to produce base thematic maps in a 1000 m × 1000 m grid format. Global Ordinary Least Squared (OLS) regression and local Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) have been applied and compared assuming that the relationships between radon activities and the environmental variables are not spatially stationary, but vary locally according to the GRP. The spatial regression model has been elaborated considering soil-gas radon concentrations as the response variable and developing proxy variables as predictors through the use of a training dataset. Then a validation procedure was used to predict soil-gas radon values using a test dataset. Finally, the predicted values were interpolated using the kriging algorithm to obtain the GRP map of the Lazio region. The map shows some high GRP areas corresponding to the volcanic terrains (central

  4. Study of radon concentration and toxic elements in drinking and irrigated water and its implications in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The radon activity concentration and toxic elements have been assessed in drinking and irrigated water samples collected from different locations of Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from wells, streams and taps. A calibrated alpha spectrometer RAD-7 (Model 2890 and Atomic Absorption Spectrometers (Perkin–Elmer, Model AAnalyst 200, Shimadzu, Model AA-700 were used to estimate radon activity concentration and toxic elements, respectively. Maximum average value of radon concentration among the various types of water sources was found 14.7 ± 1.44 Bq/l in well water used for drinking and irrigation and minimum was found 5.37 ± 0.58 Bq/l in tap water used for drinking. Contribution of radon in drinking water to indoor air and age dependent associated annual effective doses were calculated from the measured radon concentration and were found less than lower limit of recommended action level. The activity concentrations of Ni > Pb > Cd > As > Cr were found higher for streams water as compared to wells and tap water. Values of radon concentration in well water were found higher than EPA recommended level and lower than WHO action level while the annual effective doses and level of toxic elements in water reported in this study were found lower than recommended level.

  5. Design Criteria for Achieving Acceptable Indoor Radon Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2016-01-01

    in most countries. The three design criteria are; first, establishing a radon barrier facing the ground; second, lowering the air pressure in the lower zone of the slab on ground facing downwards; third, diluting the indoor air with outdoor air. The first two criteria can prevent radon from infiltrating...

  6. Anomalous soil radon fluctuations – signal of earthquakes in Nepal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . (2005a) and Yang et al. (2005) carried out a study on the variation of radon-222 in sub-soil ... (1995) in Central America and. Mexico, Planinic et al. (2000) in Croatia studied the temporal variation of soil radon-222 concentra- tion in search of ...

  7. Radon in Rented Accommodation and Variables Determining Its Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Bq/m3 in 5.9% of the homes. Of the investigated variables, only homes in single-family terraced houses, were statistically significant. Approx. 75% of homes exceeding 100 Bq/m3 indoor radon level had levels between 100 and 200 Bq/m3 and 25% had indoor radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. Significant...

  8. National Radon Awareness Month - Event Planning Kit Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals, groups, and organizations are the driving force in getting the message out to the public about the dangers of indoor radon. You will find information and materials in this Kit that you can use to get the word out about radon.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of radon accumulation in water and oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafong, Elvira; Drossel, Barbara [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas that can enter the human body from air or from ground water. Radon can accumulate to levels that considerably rise the risk of lung cancer while it is also known as a a treatment of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis. The accumulation of radon differs between tissues, with particularly high concentrations in fatty cells. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the different solubility of radon in water and fat, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radon gas at ambient conditions in contact with a bulk material consisting either of water or oil. We evaluate the diffusion coefficient of radon in both media as well as the equilibrium concentration. The crucial point here is to understand the hydrophobic interaction between water and radon as compared to the dispersive interaction between radon and oil. Therefore, we artificially vary the water charges (i.e., the hydrophobicity) as well as the parameters of the van-der-Waals interaction.

  10. Rotation-invariant fingerprint matching using radon and DCT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new set of promising rotation-invariant features based on radon and discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed for fingerprint matching. The radon and DCT of a tiny area in the region of core point of fingerprint image is computed. In the proposed method only 34% DCT coefficients are used for feature extraction.

  11. Environmental Radon Gas and Degenerative Conditions An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom)]|[School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Denman, A.R. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)]|[School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.S. [School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Phillips, C. [School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, has variable distribution in the environment as a decay product of uranium occurring in a wide range of rocks, soils and building materials. Although radon dissipates rapidly in outdoor air, it concentrates in the built environment, and inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po is believed to provide the majority of the radioactive dose to the respiratory system. While the connection between radon and lung cancer has long been recognised and investigated, recent studies have highlighted potential links between radon and other conditions, among them Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases, and Paget Disease of Bone. A strong case exists for clarifying the relationship between radon and these other conditions, not least since radon remediation to reduce lung cancer may conceivably have additional benefits hitherto unrecognized. The present status of the postulated links between environmental radon gas and degenerative conditions is reviewed, and recommendations for further research into levering current anti-radon campaigns are made. (authors)

  12. A national survey on radon remediation in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazza, Fabio Daniel; Murith, Christophe; Palacios, Martha; Gfeller, Walther; Christen, Emanuel

    2017-11-02

    We present and discuss the results of a national survey on radon remediation. The main purpose of the survey was the evaluation of the rate of radon remediation in Switzerland and to identify the main reasons for not taking action in cases of high radon levels. Switzerland is strongly affected by the radon problem and extensive efforts have been made to map the radon potential and to investigate the most effective methods to reduce radon levels in different buildings. However, since the radon remediation of buildings has been given over to experts in the private sector and since there is no obligation to report a finished remediation to the authorities, it is difficult for the Federal Office for Public Health (FOPH) to track the activities in this field. In order to improve this situation, the FOPH has launched a survey. We find a rate of radon remediation of 46%. The most often applied method is the aeration of the cellar and the improvement of the tightness of the floor slab. The respondents indicate that the most important reason for not taking action is the concern about the financial and/or invasive magnitude of the work. We discuss the different outcomes of the survey in the three linguistic regions in Switzerland and identify aspects of our communication with the public, which should be improved in view of our findings. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Soil Radon In The Nigerian Younger Granites | Dewu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not had enough time to attain equilibrium with its daughters. In general, the results suggest that with proper control, soil radon measurements over the Younger Granite can be used for uranium exploration in the region. Keywords: Radon, younger granite, soil uranium, half-lifeand thorium. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  14. Measurements of radon activity concentration in mouse tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m(3) of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m(3) of radon activity concentration in air. In addition, average partition coefficients obtained were 0.74 ± 0.19 for liver, 0.46 ± 0.13 for muscle, 9.09 ± 0.49 for adipose tissue, and 0.22 ± 0.04 for other organs. With these results, a value of 0.414 for the blood-to-air partition coefficient was calculated by means of our physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The time variation of radon activity concentration in mouse blood during exposure to radon was also calculated. All results are compared in detail with those found in the literature.

  15. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  16. Methods for measuring diffusion coefficients of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER

    2001-01-01

    Two methods for determining the Rn-222 diffusion coefficient in concrete are presented. Experimentally, the flush and adsorption technique to measure radon release rates underlines both methods. Theoretically, the first method was developed fur samples of cubical geometry. The radon diffusion

  17. Demonstration of radon removal from SF6 using molecular sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeribe, A. C.; Lynch, W.; Gregorio, R. R. Marcelo; Mckeand, J.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.

    2017-09-01

    The gas SF6 has become of interest as a negative ion drift gas for use in directional dark matter searches. However, as for other targets in such searches, it is important that radon contamination can be removed as this provides a source of unwanted background events. In this work we demonstrate for the first time filtration of radon from SF6 gas by using a molecular sieve. Four types of sieves from Sigma-Aldrich were investigated, namely 3Å, 4Å, 5Å and 13X. A manufactured radon source was used for the tests. This was attached to a closed loop system in which gas was flowed through the filters and a specially adapted Durridge RAD7 radon detector. In these measurements, it was found that only the 5Å type was able to significantly reduce the radon concentration without absorbing the SF6 gas. The sieve was able to reduce the initial radon concentration of 3875 ± 13 Bqm-3 in SF6 gas by 87% when cooled with dry ice. The ability of the cooled 5Å molecular sieve filter to significantly reduce radon concentration from SF6 provides a promising foundation for the construction of a radon filtration setup for future ultra-sensitive SF6 gas rare-event physics experiments.

  18. Effect of environmental conditions on radon concentration-track ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, the effect of environmental conditions viz., temperature (Т) and relative humidity (RH) on the track density-radon concentrations calibration factor (K) has been studied for CR-39 and LR-115 track detectors. The factor K was determined using a reference radon chamber in the National Institute for ...

  19. Intercomparison 2003 for Radon measurement services at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Butterweck, G

    2003-01-01

    Twelve radon measurement services participated in the 2003 Radon Intercomparison Exercise performed at the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) during March 13th to 24th, 2003. Ten of these laboratories were approved by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and their participation in the intercomparison exercise was a requirement to warrant quality of measurement. Radon gas detectors (etched-track and electret ionisation chambers) and instruments (ionisation chambers and electrostatic precipitation) were exposed in the PSI Radon Chamber in a reference atmosphere with an average radon gas concentration of 1950 Bqm sup - sup 3 leading to a radon gas exposure of 517 kBqhm sup - sup 3. Additional five electret-detectors of an approved measuring service were purchased by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health for a spot check. Two of these were exposed as described above, two had an exposure of 247 kBqhm sup - sup 3 at an average radon concen...

  20. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings; Asuntojen radonkorjauksen menetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-12-01

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m{sup 3}, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.).